[llvm-branch-commits] [clang] 1ab37a2 - [analyzer] Remove unjustified assert from EquivalenceClass::simplify

Tobias Hieta via llvm-branch-commits llvm-branch-commits at lists.llvm.org
Mon Feb 20 00:34:36 PST 2023

Author: Balazs Benics
Date: 2023-02-20T09:32:59+01:00
New Revision: 1ab37a25e463ea144289a1cbcf32a7659b2d60bb

URL: https://github.com/llvm/llvm-project/commit/1ab37a25e463ea144289a1cbcf32a7659b2d60bb
DIFF: https://github.com/llvm/llvm-project/commit/1ab37a25e463ea144289a1cbcf32a7659b2d60bb.diff

LOG: [analyzer] Remove unjustified assert from EquivalenceClass::simplify

One might think that by merging the equivalence classes (eqclasses) of
`Sym1` and `Sym2` symbols we would end up with a `State` in which the
eqclass of `Sym1` and `Sym2` should now be the same. Surprisingly, it's
not //always// true.

Such an example triggered the assertion enforcing this _unjustified_
invariant in https://github.com/llvm/llvm-project/issues/58677.
unsigned a, b;
#define assert(cond) if (!(cond)) return

void f(unsigned c) {
    /*(1)*/ assert(c == b);
    /*(2)*/ assert((c | a) != a);
    /*(3)*/ assert(a);
    // a = 0  =>  c | 0 != 0  =>  c != 0  =>  b != 0

I believe, that this assertion hold for reasonable cases - where both
`MemberSym` and `SimplifiedMemberSym` refer to live symbols.
It can only fail if `SimplifiedMemberSym` refers to an already dead
symbol. See the reasoning at the very end.
In this context, I don't know any way of determining if a symbol is
alive/dead, so I cannot refine the assertion in that way.
So, I'm proposing to drop this unjustified assertion.


Let me elaborate on why I think the assertion is wrong in its current

Here is a quick reminder about equivalence classes in CSA.
We have 4 mappings:
1) `ClassMap`: map, associating `Symbols` with an `EquivalenceClass`.
2) `ClassMembers`: map, associating `EquivalenceClasses` with its
   members - basically an enumeration of the `Symbols` which are known
   to be equal.
3) `ConstraintRange`: map, associating `EquivalenceClasses` with the
   range constraint which should hold for all the members of the
4) `DisequalityMap`: I'm omitting this, as it's irrelevant for our
   purposes now.

Whenever we encounter/assume that two `SymbolRefs` are equal, we update
the `ClassMap` so that now both `SymbolRefs` are referring to the same
eqclass. This operation is known as `merge` or `union`.
Each eqclass is uniquely identified by the `representative` symbol, but
it could have been just a unique number or anything else - the point
is that an eqclass is identified by something unique.
Initially, all Symbols form - by itself - a trivial eqclass, as there
are no other Symbols to which it is assumed to be equal. A trivial
eqclass has //notionally// exactly one member, the representative symbol.
I'm emphasizing that //notionally// because for such cases we don't store
an entry in the `ClassMap` nor in the `ClassMembers` map, because it
could be deduced.

By `merging` two eqclasses, we essentially do what you would think it
does. An important thing to highlight is that the representative symbol
of the resulting eqclass will be the same as one of the two eqclasses.
This operation should be commutative, so that `merge(eq1,eq2)` and
`merge(eq2,eq1)` should result in the same eqclass - except for the
representative symbol, which is just a unique identifier of the class,
a name if you will. Using the representative symbol of `eq1` or `eq2`
should have no visible effect on the analysis overall.

When merging `eq1` into `eq2`, we take each of the `ClassMembers` of
`eq1` and add them to the `ClassMembers` of `eq2` while we also redirect
all the `Symbol` members of `eq1` to map to the `eq2` eqclass in the
`ClassMap`. This way all members of `eq1` will refer to the correct
eqclass. After these, `eq1` key is unreachable in the `ClassMembers`,
hence we can drop it.


Let's get back to the example.
Note that when I refer to symbols `a`, `b`, `c`, I'm referring to the
`SymbolRegionValue{VarRegion{.}}` - the value of that variable.

After `(1)`, we will have a constraint `c == b : [1,1]` and an eqclass
`c,b` with the `c` representative symbol.
After `(2)`, we will have an additional constraint `c|b != a : [1,1]`
with the same eqclass. We will also have disequality info about that
`c|a` is disequal to `a` - and the other way around.
However, after the full-expression, `c` will become dead. This kicks in
the garbage collection, which transforms the state into this:
 - We no longer have any constraints, because only `a` is alive, for
   which we don't have any constraints.
 - We have a single (non-trivial) eqclass with a single element `b` and
   representative symbol `c`. (Dead symbols can be representative
 - We have the same disequality info as before.

At `(3)` within the false branch, `a` get perfectly constrained to zero.
This kicks in the simplification, so we try to substitute (simplify) the
variable in each SymExpr-tree. In our case, it means that the
`c|a != a : [1,1]` constraint gets re-evaluated as `c|0 != 0 : [1,1]`,
which is `c != 0 : [1,1]`.
Under the hood, it means that we will call `merge(c|a, c)`. where `c` is
the result of `simplifyToSVal(State, MemberSym).getAsSymbol()` inside
Note that the result of `simplifyToSVal()` was a dead symbol. We
shouldn't have acquired an already dead symbol. AFAIK, this is the only
way we can get one at this point.
Since `c` is dead, we no longer have a mapping in `ClassMap` for it;
hence when we try to `find()` the eqclass of `c`, it will report that
it's a trivial eqclass with the representative symbol `c`.

After `merge(c|a, c)`, we will have a single (non-trivial) eqclass of
`b, c|a` with the representative symbol `c|a` - because we merged the
eqclass of `c` into the eqclass of `c|a`.

This means that `find(c|a)` will result in the eqclass with the
representative symbol `c|a`. So, we ended up having different eqclasses
for `find(c|a)` and `find(c)` after `merge(c|a, c)`, firing the

I believe, that this assertion hold for reasonable cases - where both
`MemberSym` and `SimplifiedMemberSym` refer to live symbols.
`MemberSym` should be live in all cases here, because it is from
`ClassMembers` which is pruned in `removeDeadBindings()` so these must
be alive. In this context, I don't know any way of determining if a
symbol is alive/dead, so I cannot refine the assertion in that way.
So, I'm proposing to drop this unjustified assertion.

I'd like to thank @martong for helping me to conclude the investigation.
It was really difficult to track down.

PS: I mentioned that `merge(eq1, eq2)` should be commutative. We
actually exploit this for merging the smaller eqclass into the bigger
one within `EquivalenceClass::merge()`.
Yea, for some reason, if you swap the operands, 3 tests break (only
failures, no crashes) aside from the test which checks the state dumps.
But I believe, that is a different bug and orthogonal to this one. I
just wanted to mention that.
- `Analysis/solver-sym-simplification-adjustment.c`
- `Analysis/symbol-simplification-fixpoint-iteration-unreachable-code.cpp`
- `Analysis/symbol-simplification-reassume.cpp`

Fixes #58677

Reviewed By: vabridgers

Differential Revision: https://reviews.llvm.org/D138037

(cherry picked from commit afcf70aa6de77a0e99f6cb2d3e3824049203d6e2)




diff  --git a/clang/lib/StaticAnalyzer/Core/RangeConstraintManager.cpp b/clang/lib/StaticAnalyzer/Core/RangeConstraintManager.cpp
index 1017dff2b0f34..a275d36286d3b 100644
--- a/clang/lib/StaticAnalyzer/Core/RangeConstraintManager.cpp
+++ b/clang/lib/StaticAnalyzer/Core/RangeConstraintManager.cpp
@@ -2678,7 +2678,18 @@ EquivalenceClass::simplify(SValBuilder &SVB, RangeSet::Factory &F,
       if (OldState == State)
-      assert(find(State, MemberSym) == find(State, SimplifiedMemberSym));
+      // Be aware that `SimplifiedMemberSym` might refer to an already dead
+      // symbol. In that case, the eqclass of that might not be the same as the
+      // eqclass of `MemberSym`. This is because the dead symbols are not
+      // preserved in the `ClassMap`, hence
+      // `find(State, SimplifiedMemberSym)` will result in a trivial eqclass
+      // compared to the eqclass of `MemberSym`.
+      // These eqclasses should be the same if `SimplifiedMemberSym` is alive.
+      // --> assert(find(State, MemberSym) == find(State, SimplifiedMemberSym))
+      //
+      // Note that `MemberSym` must be alive here since that is from the
+      // `ClassMembers` where all the symbols are alive.
       // Remove the old and more complex symbol.
       State = find(State, MemberSym).removeMember(State, MemberSym);

diff  --git a/clang/test/Analysis/symbol-simplification-symplify-results-in-dead-symbol.cpp b/clang/test/Analysis/symbol-simplification-symplify-results-in-dead-symbol.cpp
new file mode 100644
index 0000000000000..d768e52302969
--- /dev/null
+++ b/clang/test/Analysis/symbol-simplification-symplify-results-in-dead-symbol.cpp
@@ -0,0 +1,11 @@
+// RUN: %clang_analyze_cc1 -analyzer-checker=core -verify %s
+// expected-no-diagnostics
+#define assert(cond) if (!(cond)) return
+unsigned a, b;
+void f(unsigned c) {
+  assert(c == b);
+  assert((c | a) != a);
+  assert(a); // no-crash


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