[llvm-dev] Improving the split heuristics for the Greedy Register Allocator

Philip Reames via llvm-dev llvm-dev at lists.llvm.org
Fri Jan 13 21:33:54 PST 2017

This doesn't directly address your question, but the context might be 

At the moment, we have two distinct ways of handling callee saved 
register spill/restore.

The first one is the one used by most calling conventions/targets and 
uses the PrologEpilogIinserter logic to insert spills in the prolog and 
epilog if the live range needs to be spilled.  The reasoning is that 
some exception propagation mechanisms and debuggers expect to be able to 
find the value of the CSR and this is the convention that arose.  Within 
this mechanism, an optimization was added to reduce spill range to just 
include callees, but I believe it still uses the globally assigned spill 
slots.  The key point here is that the register allocator doesn't see 
vregs for these and thus never really gets a chance to split them 

The second one is called "split CSR".  If you search for that term in 
the code you'll find it's rarely used.  The basic idea here is that CSRs 
are just vregs with assigned physical constraints on entry and exit.  
This version goes through the normal register allocation logic.  (But, 
good luck getting it to work with dwarf, etc...)  This implementation is 
also just generally less mature, so there might be more bugs to be 
found/fixed.  Here's one cleanup I started, but haven't gotten around to 
completing yet which might help you understand the code 

Personally, I'm of the belief that the second mechanism should be our 
default, but today, it is not.


On 01/13/2017 06:28 AM, Nemanja Ivanovic via llvm-dev wrote:
> I have an issue that I've been wrestling with for quite some time and 
> I'm hoping that someone with a deeper understanding of the register 
> allocator can help me with.
> Namely, I am trying to teach RA to split a live range rather than 
> allocating a CSR. I've attempted a very large number of tweaks to the 
> costs (both existing and experimental ones that I've added). However, 
> despite all of that, I can't seem to get RA to split the following:
>   1 BB#0: derived from LLVM BB %entry
>   2     Live Ins: %X3
>   3         %vreg15<def> = COPY %X3; G8RC:%vreg15
>   4         %vreg4<def> = CMPLDI %vreg15, 0; CRRC:%vreg4 G8RC:%vreg15
>   5         %vreg11:sub_32<def,read-undef> = LI 0; G8RC:%vreg11
>   6         BCC 68, %vreg4, <BB#1>; CRRC:%vreg4
>   7     Successors according to CFG: BB#4(0x30000000 / 0x80000000 = 
> 37.50%) BB#1(0x50000000 / 0x80000000 = 62.50%)
>   8
>   9 BB#4:
>  10     Predecessors according to CFG: BB#0
>  11         B <BB#3>
>  12     Successors according to CFG: BB#3(?%)
>  13
>  14 BB#1: derived from LLVM BB %if.end
>  15     Predecessors according to CFG: BB#0
>  16         %vreg6<def> = ADDIStocHA %X2, <ga:@a>; 
> G8RC_and_G8RC_NOX0:%vreg6
>  17         %vreg7<def> = LDtocL <ga:@a>, %vreg6, %X2<imp-use>; 
> mem:LD8[GOT] G8RC_and_G8RC_NOX0:%vreg7,%vreg6
>  18         %vreg8<def> = LWA 0, %vreg7; 
> mem:LD4[@a](tbaa=!3)(dereferenceable) G8RC:%vreg8 
> G8RC_and_G8RC_NOX0:%vreg7
>  19         %vreg9<def> = CMPLD %vreg8, %vreg15; CRRC:%vreg9 
> G8RC:%vreg8,%vreg15
>  20         BCC 68, %vreg9, <BB#3>; CRRC:%vreg9
>  21         B <BB#2>
>  22     Successors according to CFG: BB#2(0x30000000 / 0x80000000 = 
> 37.50%) BB#3(0x50000000 / 0x80000000 = 62.50%)
>  23
>  24 BB#2: derived from LLVM BB %if.then2
>  25     Predecessors according to CFG: BB#1
>  26         ADJCALLSTACKDOWN 96, %R1<imp-def,dead>, %R1<imp-use>
>  27         %vreg16<def> = COPY %vreg15; G8RC:%vreg16,%vreg15
>  28         BL8_NOP <ga:@callVoid>, <regmask **LONG LIST**>, 
> %X3<imp-def,dead>
>  29         ADJCALLSTACKUP 96, 0, %R1<imp-def,dead>, %R1<imp-use>
>  30         ADJCALLSTACKDOWN 96, %R1<imp-def,dead>, %R1<imp-use> 
> 31         %X3<def> = COPY %vreg16; G8RC:%vreg16
>  32         BL8_NOP <ga:@callNonVoid>, <regmask **LONG LIST**>, 
> %X3<imp-use>, %X2<imp-use>, %R1<imp-def>, %X3<imp-def>
>  33         ADJCALLSTACKUP 96, 0, %R1<imp-def,dead>, %R1<imp-use>
>  34         %vreg11<def> = COPY %X3; G8RC:%vreg11 35     Successors 
> according to CFG: BB#3(?%)
>  36
>  37 BB#3: derived from LLVM BB %return
>  38     Predecessors according to CFG: BB#1 BB#2 BB#4
>  39         %vreg12<def> = EXTSW_32_64 %vreg11:sub_32; 
> G8RC:%vreg12,%vreg11
>  40         %X3<def> = COPY %vreg12; G8RC:%vreg12
>  41         BLR8 %LR8<imp-use>, %RM<imp-use>, %X3<imp-use>
> No matter what I do, vreg15 will get a Callee-Saved Register assigned 
> to it. However, this is suboptimal. So what I am trying to accomplish 
> is to split the live range of vreg15 into the paths without the call 
> and the path with the call (BL8_NOP is a call). Then the physical 
> register X3 can be used in the paths BB#0 -> BB#1 -> BB#3 and BB#0 -> 
> BB#4 -> BB#3 and it can be copied to a Callee-Saved Register in BB#2.
> Without such a split, vreg15 is assigned a CSR for the entire live 
> range and there is no way to avoid having to save/restore the CSR in 
> the prologue/epilogue. If one of the two paths that did not actually 
> have the call turn out to be the hottest path through the function, 
> there is a lot of wasted cycles in the save/restore because we weren't 
> able to shrink-wrap this function due to the choice RA made.
> If anyone can offer some ideas on what I should do here, I would truly 
> appreciate it.
> Nemanja
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> llvm-dev at lists.llvm.org
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