[llvm-dev] [DebugInfo] Bugs when emitting debug info with inlined functions

David Blaikie via llvm-dev llvm-dev at lists.llvm.org
Wed Oct 13 20:29:36 PDT 2021

On Wed, Oct 13, 2021 at 4:20 PM Ellis Hoag via llvm-dev <
llvm-dev at lists.llvm.org> wrote:

> Hi all,
> In recent weeks I've been looking into fixing a few bugs in the Dwarf
> emitted by LLVM related to when functions are inlined.
> * https://bugs.llvm.org/show_bug.cgi?id=30637 (static variables)
>   * Fixed in https://reviews.llvm.org/D108492 (in review)
> * https://bugs.llvm.org/show_bug.cgi?id=52159 (imported declaration)
>   * Fixed in https://reviews.llvm.org/D110294 (in review)
> In these bugs `getOrCreateSubprogramDIE()` is used to find the SP DIE that
> will become the parent of a GV DIE or the reference of an imported
> declaration DIE. The problem is if the function is inlined and removed, the
> concrete SP DIE will not be created and `getOrCreateSubprogramDIE()` will
> return an empty DIE. Instead, I think we should be using the abstract
> origin DIE of the SP which is created after processing an inlined scope.
> Here is a concrete example from
> https://bugs.llvm.org/show_bug.cgi?id=52159
> ```
> namespace ns {
> inline __attribute__((always_inline))
> void foo() { int a = 4; }
> }
> void goo() {
>   using ns::foo;
>   foo();
> }
> ```
> This produces an imported declaration DIE that references an empty SP DIE
> even though there already exists one for foo.
> ```
> // Abstract origin
> 0x0000002f:     DW_TAG_subprogram
>                   DW_AT_linkage_name ("_ZN2ns3fooEv")
>                   DW_AT_name ("foo")
> // Empty concrete
> 0x00000047:     DW_TAG_subprogram
> 0x00000048:     NULL
> // Import declaration
> 0x00000069:     DW_TAG_imported_declaration
>                   DW_AT_import (0x00000047)
> ```
> One fix is to reference the abstract origin DIE.
> ```
> 0x00000069:     DW_TAG_imported_declaration
>                   DW_AT_import (0x0000002f)
> ```
> Another fix is to do what gcc does and fill out a specification DIE that
> the import references.
> ```
> // Import declaration
> 0x0000004f:     DW_TAG_imported_declaration
>                   DW_AT_import (0x00000063)
> // Specification
> 0x00000063:     DW_TAG_subprogram
>                   DW_AT_name ("foo")
>                   DW_AT_declaration (true)
> // Abstract origin
> 0x00000070:   DW_TAG_subprogram
>                 DW_AT_specification (0x00000063 "_ZN2ns3fooEv")
> ```
> Since I'm relatively new to debug info, I thought I'd ask some questions
> on the mailing list.
> 1. A simple solution to this class of bugs is to reference the abstract
> origin SP DIE where appropriate. Do we have any rules for when to reference
> the abstract origin if it exists?

That's the difficult problem here - the abstract origin only exists if
there's at least one instance of the function being inlined - and we don't
know that until we've processed all the functions. The way this was/is
currently implemented is to create the concrete definition subprogram when
we see the concrete function definition, but not fill out the attributes
that would be inherited from an abstract origin if there was one - then
wait until we get to the end of the module and if we've created an abstract
origin (because an inlined instance was found/produced), then we add the
abstract_origin attribute to the concrete definition subprogram, and if we
haven't created an abstract origin (because there were no inlined
instances) then we put the attributes (name, decl file/line/etc) on the
concrete definition without creating an abstract origin.

For these other cases (variables, imported declarations, maybe function
local types too?) - I think, at least consistent with the current design,
we have to defer producing them until we get to the end - the same as for
the name/decl file/line attributes, etc.

Though deferring them presents other challenges - we can't reference them
if they're deferred, so if some other debug info like the type of a
function parameter has to be produced, how do we produce that if we have
deferred the type production?

We can't/shouldn't/it's difficult to create the DIEs but to defer attaching
those DIEs to the DIE tree - because there's some logic that uses the DIE
parent chain/which CU a DIE is in to determine certain issues of encoding
(whether CU-local references can be used or the like). Maybe we can get rid
of that constraint (at which point we could create DIEs but defer adding
them to the DIE tree) but if I recall correctly it's pretty deeply

> 2. Would it be better to follow gcc's solution and fill out specifications
> in these cases?

I guess that doesn't address the function-local static variable case, or
the case of an imported declaration being inside a subprogram? (we could in
theory put those in a declaration DIE, but it'd probably be extra confusing
to consumers)

> 3. Are they more known cases/bugs to consider?

Function local types /probably/ have a similar problem. Maybe call_site
tags too? (since they reference function declarations to say which function
the call_site is calling) Perhaps some other stuff - but those are ones
that come to my mind at least.

Thanks for looking into this - sorry it's all a bit thorny, though.

- Dave
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