[libcxx-commits] [PATCH] D98983: [libcxx] adds concepts `std::totally_ordered` and `std::totally_ordered_with`
Arthur O'Dwyer via Phabricator via libcxx-commits
libcxx-commits at lists.llvm.org
Wed Mar 24 10:50:29 PDT 2021
Quuxplusone added inline comments.
================
Comment at: libcxx/test/std/concepts/comparison/concepts.totallyordered/totally_ordered.compile.pass.cpp:45
+static_assert(models_totally_ordered<int>());
+static_assert(models_totally_ordered<double>());
+static_assert(models_totally_ordered<void*>());
----------------
Mordante wrote:
> Quuxplusone wrote:
> > cjdb wrote:
> > > Mordante wrote:
> > > > This feels wrong, when a double has a NaN value there's no total order. I wonder whether this is a bug in the Standard.
> > > It's a common misconception that floating-point numbers can't model `totally_ordered` because of NaN.
> > >
> > > From [[ http://eel.is/c++draft/cmp.concept#1.1 | cmp.concept ]]:
> > >
> > > > `t < u`, `t <= u`, `t > u`, `t >= u`, `u < t`, `u <= t`, `u > t`, and `u >= t` have the same domain.
> > >
> > > NaN is outside this domain, which I believe is documented by floating-point specifications.
> > >
> > > Andrew Sutton sums this up in his [[ https://youtu.be/ZeU6OPaGxwM?t=1980 | CppCon 2019 talk ]]. Specifically:
> > >
> > > > Concepts do not hide preconditions. Syntactic operations are not total operations. Floating point types are totally ordered even though NaN exists.... because there's a precondition on the algorithms that use the operation.... Random-access iterators are totally ordered, even though the relation is really sparse.
> > +1 @cjdb. A Concept like `totally_ordered` is ultimately just a way of organizing source code, like saying "does it make sense to have a `std::set` of these things." You can make a `std::set<double>` just fine. It does misbehave badly if you try to put NaN into it; but, you just have to remember not to do that.
> >
> > Andrew Sutton wrote:
> > > > Random-access iterators are totally ordered, even though the relation is really sparse
> >
> > Now //that's// stretching the philosophy to the breaking point, I think ;) but sure, it can make sense to have a `std::set<std::deque<T>::iterator>`, as long as you're careful to put into it only iterators from a single container and never let them become invalidated.
> >
> > Or come at it from the other side: Concepts describe the requirements of algorithms, i.e. what cases the algorithm needs to worry about. If the places-where-the-natural-ordering-fails also happen to be places-where-our-algorithms-don't-care-about-the-result (maybe because they're UB), then the concept remains useful in practice.
> > It's a common misconception that floating-point numbers can't model `totally_ordered` because of NaN.
> >
> > From [[ http://eel.is/c++draft/cmp.concept#1.1 | cmp.concept ]]:
> >
> > > `t < u`, `t <= u`, `t > u`, `t >= u`, `u < t`, `u <= t`, `u > t`, and `u >= t` have the same domain.
> >
> > NaN is outside this domain, which I believe is documented by floating-point specifications.
>
> I hadn't read that part, but http://eel.is/c++draft/concepts#concept.totallyordered-1
> ```
> Given a type T, let a, b, and c be lvalues of type const remove_reference_t<T>.
> T models totally_ordered only if
>
> Exactly one of bool(a < b), bool(a > b), or bool(a == b) is true.
> ```
>
> > Andrew Sutton sums this up in his [[ https://youtu.be/ZeU6OPaGxwM?t=1980 | CppCon 2019 talk ]]. Specifically:
>
> Thanks for the link. I haven't seen this talk yet and Andrew's talks are usually very informative.
>
> As said I think the code is good, just wonder about the Standard.
>
> Exactly one of bool(a < b), bool(a > b), or bool(a == b) is true
This gets into the ongoing philosophical discussion about the //provenance// of values inside an algorithm (Howard Hinnant was talking about this a year or two ago). An algorithm might ask for permission to use a certain operation, but the caller still might put restrictions on //where and how// the algorithm gets to use that operation. Consider: We'd really like `int` to model both `default_constructible` and `totally_ordered`, right? Yet consider this template:
```
template<class T> requires default_constructible<T> && totally_ordered<T>
bool example() {
T a, b;
return bool(a < b) || bool(a > b) || bool(a == b);
}
```
Yet `example<int>()` may return `false` — https://godbolt.org/z/b83665obM — because actually it has undefined behavior. Concepts don't close every wild-west loophole in C++.
Repository:
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https://reviews.llvm.org/D98983/new/
https://reviews.llvm.org/D98983
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