[cfe-dev] Intrinsic llvm::isnan

Sanjay Patel via cfe-dev cfe-dev at lists.llvm.org
Mon Aug 23 07:13:13 PDT 2021

If the FP state is not made invisible/irrelevant by "fpexcept.ignore", then
why is that argument on this intrinsic call at all?
Ie, why is that argument not used by the backend to decide to lower to a
CMP instruction or special isnan instruction or library call?

An example would be helpful - in what case would these two lower
differently given that SNAN always raises a visible exception?
call i1 @llvm.experimental.constrained.fcmp.f64(double %x, double %x,
metadata !"uno", metadata !"fpexcept.ignore") ; "floating-point exceptions
will be masked"
call i1 @llvm.experimental.constrained.fcmp.f64(double %x, double %x,
metadata !"uno", metadata !"fpexcept.strict")  ; "this mode can also be
used with code that unmasks FP exceptions"

On Mon, Aug 23, 2021 at 9:50 AM Serge Pavlov <sepavloff at gmail.com> wrote:

> When codegen lowers this call, it does not know if this is a regular
> compare and it may create CMP instruction, as for default environment, or
> this is 'isnan' for which it should generate different code, which does not
> influence FP state.
> On most architectures compare instructions change FP state, in default
> environment it is just ignored, but actually hardware registers can be
> modified, For 'isnan' instructions must actually leave FP state intact.
> Thanks,
> --Serge
> On Mon, Aug 23, 2021 at 8:43 PM Sanjay Patel <spatel at rotateright.com>
> wrote:
>> You're saying that the function definition text overrides the argument
>> definition text. Why are we choosing that interpretation rather than the
>> inverse (and documenting it one way or the other)?
>> On Mon, Aug 23, 2021 at 9:38 AM Serge Pavlov <sepavloff at gmail.com> wrote:
>>> > How is this call in LLVM different than the semantics of "isnan(x)"
>>> that is required by IEEE-754 or the C standard?
>>> If either of the arguments of `llvm.experimental.constrained.fcmp` is
>>> signaling NaN, this function should raise an 'Invalid' exception. 'isnan'
>>> never raises exceptions.
>>> Thanks,
>>> --Serge
>>> On Mon, Aug 23, 2021 at 8:10 PM Sanjay Patel <spatel at rotateright.com>
>>> wrote:
>>>> I'm confused about the definition of:
>>>> https://llvm.org/docs/LangRef.html#llvm-experimental-constrained-fcmp-and-llvm-experimental-constrained-fcmps-intrinsics
>>>> These intrinsics require an "exception behavior" argument. That
>>>> argument can take the value “fpexcept.ignore” which is defined as:
>>>> "optimization passes may assume that the exception status flags will
>>>> not be read and that floating-point exceptions will be masked"
>>>> i1 @llvm.experimental.constrained.fcmp.f64(double %x, double %x,
>>>> metadata !"uno", metadata !"fpexcept.ignore")
>>>> How is this call in LLVM different than the semantics of "isnan(x)"
>>>> that is required by IEEE-754 or the C standard?
>>>> On Mon, Aug 23, 2021 at 9:00 AM Serge Pavlov via cfe-dev <
>>>> cfe-dev at lists.llvm.org> wrote:
>>>>> On Mon, Aug 23, 2021 at 6:12 PM Roman Lebedev <lebedev.ri at gmail.com>
>>>>> wrote:
>>>>>> Thank you for posting the RFC!
>>>>>> I do not believe we should conflate StrictFP support, and
>>>>>> `-ffast-math` handling, these are two separate/separatable concerns.
>>>>> You are right, they are separate, but they originate from the
>>>>> implementation of the same function and can be solved with the same
>>>>> solution.
>>>>>> As for the latter, right now i'm not convinced that we should
>>>>>> second-guess/override explicit user request.
>>>>>> This is inconsistent, and does not match how at least the GCC deals
>>>>>> with it.
>>>>>> I think changing the status-quo (before said patch) should be a
>>>>>> separate RFC,
>>>>>> and that change should be undone until after that RFC is accepted.
>>>>> Actually we have two explicit user requests, a call of 'isnan' and an
>>>>> option '-ffast-math'. IMHO they do not contradict each other as 'isnan' is
>>>>> not an arithmetic operation. There is a discussion in
>>>>> https://reviews.llvm.org/D18513#387418, which also expresses the
>>>>> opinion that limitations imposed by '-ffast-math' should be applied only to
>>>>> 'math' functions but not to 'tests'. As for GCC behavior, they agree that
>>>>> this behavior is a bag:
>>>>> https://gcc.gnu.org/bugzilla/show_bug.cgi?id=84949. Intel and
>>>>> Microsoft compilers do not replace 'isnan' with assumed value.
>>>>>> As for the latter, the main point of confusion is,
>>>>>> why is `@llvm.isnan` still used in non-StrictFP code?
>>>>> We have to introduce an intrinsic to represent `isnan` in strictfp
>>>>> environment. It is natural to use it for the default environment as
>>>>> well. Besides, a target may have a more efficient way to represent `isnan`
>>>>> than unordered comparison.
>>>>> The argument that we need `@llvm.isnan` because we *might* transition
>>>>>> in and out of StrictFP section does not seem to hold for me, because
>>>>>> https://llvm.org/docs/LangRef.html#constrainedfp says:
>>>>>> > If any FP operation in a function is constrained then they all must
>>>>>> be constrained. This is required for correct LLVM IR.
>>>>> There was no such intention. The primary motivation was strict fp
>>>>> exceptions.
>>>>>> So presumably when codegen'ing a function, we already know that we
>>>>>> will use StrictFP ops, and that should be the knob to use
>>>>>> `@llvm.isnan`,
>>>>>> i think.
>>>>>> Roman
>>>>>> On Mon, Aug 23, 2021 at 1:57 PM Serge Pavlov via cfe-dev
>>>>>> <cfe-dev at lists.llvm.org> wrote:
>>>>>> >
>>>>>> > Hi all,
>>>>>> >
>>>>>> > Some time ago a new intrinsic `llvm.isnan` was introduced, which is
>>>>>> intended to represent IEEE-754 operation `isNaN` as well as a family of C
>>>>>> library functions `isnan*`. Recently during post-commit review concern was
>>>>>> raised (see  https://reviews.llvm.org/D104854) that this
>>>>>> functionality must have had RFC to make sure there is consensus on
>>>>>> semantics.
>>>>>> >
>>>>>> > Previously the frontend intrinsic `__builtin_isnan` was converted
>>>>>> into `cmp uno` during IR generation in clang codegen. There are two main
>>>>>> reasons why this solution is not satisfactory.
>>>>>> >
>>>>>> > 1.  Strict floating-point semantics.
>>>>>> >
>>>>>> > If FP exceptions are not ignored, `cmp uno` must be replaced with
>>>>>> its constrained counterpart, namely `llvm.experimental.constrained.fcmp` or
>>>>>> `llvm.experimental.constrained.fcmps`. None of them is compatible with the
>>>>>> semantics of `isnan`. Both IEEE-754 (5.7.2) an C standard  (
>>>>>> http://www.open-std.org/jtc1/sc22/wg14/www/docs/n2596.pdf, F.3p6)
>>>>>> demand that this function does not raise floating point exceptions. Both
>>>>>> the constrained compare intrinsics raise an exception if either operand is
>>>>>> a SNAN (https://llvm.org/docs/LangRef.html#id1131). So there was no
>>>>>> target-independent IR construct that could express `isnan`.
>>>>>> >
>>>>>> > This drawback was significant enough and some attempts to alleviate
>>>>>> it were undertaken. In https://reviews.llvm.org/D95948 `isnan` was
>>>>>> implemented using integer operations in strictfp functions. It however is
>>>>>> not suitable for targets where a more efficient way exists, like dedicated
>>>>>> instruction. Another solution was implemented in
>>>>>> https://reviews.llvm.org/D96568, where a hook
>>>>>> 'clang::TargetCodeGenInfo::testFPKind' was introduced, which injects target
>>>>>> specific code into IR. Such a solution makes IR more target-dependent and
>>>>>> prevents some IR-level optimizations.
>>>>>> >
>>>>>> > 2. Compilation with -ffast-math
>>>>>> >
>>>>>> > The option '-ffast-math' is often used for performance critical
>>>>>> code, as it can produce faster code. In this case the user must ensure that
>>>>>> NaNs are not used as operand values. `isnan` is just proposed for such
>>>>>> checks, but it was unusable when `isnan` was represented by compare
>>>>>> instruction, because the latter may be optimized out. One of use cases is
>>>>>> data in memory, which is processed by a function compiled with
>>>>>> `-ffast-math`. Some items in the data are NaNs to denote absence of values.
>>>>>> >
>>>>>> > This point requires some remarks about using NaNs when a function
>>>>>> is compiled with `-ffast-math`. GCC manual does not specify how this option
>>>>>> works, it only states about `-ffinite-math-only` (
>>>>>> https://gcc.gnu.org/onlinedocs/gcc-11.2.0/gcc/Optimize-Options.html#Optimize-Options
>>>>>> ):
>>>>>> >
>>>>>> > `Allow optimizations for floating-point arithmetic that assume that
>>>>>> arguments and results are not NaNs or +-Infs.`
>>>>>> >
>>>>>> > `isnan` does not do any arithmetic, only check, so this statement
>>>>>> apparently does not apply to it. There is a GCC bug report
>>>>>> https://gcc.gnu.org/bugzilla/show_bug.cgi?id=84949, where
>>>>>> investigation conforms that std::isnan() and std::fpclassify() should works
>>>>>> with NaNs as specified even in -ffast-math mode.
>>>>>> >
>>>>>> > Extending NaN restrictions in -ffast-math mode to functions like
>>>>>> `isnan` does not make code faster, but is a source of broken user
>>>>>> expectations. If a user writes `isnan` they usually expect an actual check.
>>>>>> Silently removing the check is a stronger action than assuming that float
>>>>>> value contains only real numbers.
>>>>>> >
>>>>>> > Intrinsic `llvm.isnan` solves these problems. It
>>>>>> > - represents the check throughout the IR pipeline and saves it from
>>>>>> undesired optimizations,
>>>>>> > - is lowered in selector, which can choose the most suitable
>>>>>> implementation for particular target,
>>>>>> > - helps keeping IR target-independent,
>>>>>> > - facilitates program analysis as the operation is presented
>>>>>> explicitly and is not hidden behind general nodes.
>>>>>> >
>>>>>> > Note that `llvm.isnan` is optimized out if its argument is an
>>>>>> operation with `nnan` flag, this behavior agrees with the definition of
>>>>>> this flag in LLVM documentation.
>>>>>> >
>>>>>> > Any feedback is welcome.
>>>>>> >
>>>>>> > Thanks,
>>>>>> > --Serge
>>>>>> > _______________________________________________
>>>>>> > cfe-dev mailing list
>>>>>> > cfe-dev at lists.llvm.org
>>>>>> > https://lists.llvm.org/cgi-bin/mailman/listinfo/cfe-dev
>>>>> _______________________________________________
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