[cfe-dev] Static Analyzer: LiveVariables and SymbolReaper

Alexander Shaposhnikov via cfe-dev cfe-dev at lists.llvm.org
Sun Oct 29 17:08:44 PDT 2017

(long read, sorry in advance)
i'm looking into the internals of SymbolReaper and LiveVariables and have
several questions on my mind. Since I have not built a consistent
understanding of what's going on there yet + assume I might be missing
smth, I'd like to start with some very basic example to show how the
(potential) issue manifests itself there. Any explanations / suggestions /
comments would be greatly appreciated.

Example s.c:
typedef struct _IO_FILE FILE;
extern FILE *fopen(const char *path, const char *mode);

void g() {};
void h() {};

void f(int c) {
  FILE *p = fopen("foo.c", "r");
clang -cc1 -analyze -analyzer-checker=debug.ViewCFG s.c
says that there 3 blocks: B2(entry) -> B1 -> B0(exit), B2 and B0 are
essentially empty and all the interesting things are inside B1.
Now let's try to run clang -c --analyze -Xanalyzer
-analyzer-checker=alpha.unix.Stream s.c

s.c:8:9: warning: Value stored to 'p' during its initialization is never
  FILE *p = fopen("foo.c", "r");
        ^   ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
s.c:9:3: warning: Opened File never closed. Potential Resource leakv
2 warnings generated.

*What looks suspicious here - the location of the warning*
"s.c:9:3: warning: Opened File never closed. Potential Resource leak"
*- it points to g() **instead of the end of function or return statement.*

Now let's run the analyzer under lldb and set the breakpoint at
LiveVariables::isLive(const Stmt *Loc, const Stmt *S)

   178 bool LiveVariables::isLive(const Stmt *Loc, const Stmt *S) {

(lldb) p D->dump()
VarDecl 0x11286c178 <s.c:8:3, col:31> col:9 p 'FILE *' cinit
`-CallExpr 0x11286c350 <col:13, col:31> 'FILE *'
  |-ImplicitCastExpr 0x11286c338 <col:13> 'FILE *(*)(const char *, const
char *)' <FunctionToPointerDecay>
  | `-DeclRefExpr 0x11286c1d8 <col:13> 'FILE *(const char *, const char *)'
Function 0x11286bce0 'fopen' 'FILE *(const char *, const char *)'
  |-ImplicitCastExpr 0x11286c3a0 <col:19> 'const char *' <BitCast>
  | `-ImplicitCastExpr 0x11286c388 <col:19> 'char *' <ArrayToPointerDecay>
  |   `-StringLiteral 0x11286c238 <col:19> 'char [6]' lvalue "foo.c"
  `-ImplicitCastExpr 0x11286c3d0 <col:28> 'const char *' <BitCast>
    `-ImplicitCastExpr 0x11286c3b8 <col:28> 'char *' <ArrayToPointerDecay>
      `-StringLiteral 0x11286c2a8 <col:28> 'char [2]' lvalue "r"

(lldb) p getImpl(impl).stmtsToLiveness[S].isLive(D)
(bool) $0 = false

(lldb) p S->dump()
CallExpr 0x11286c470 'void'
`-ImplicitCastExpr 0x11286c458 'void (*)()' <FunctionToPointerDecay>
  `-DeclRefExpr 0x11286c400 'void ()' Function 0x11286be18 'g' 'void ()'

(lldb) fr sel 7
frame #7: 0x0000000106ed4397
S=const clang::CFGStmt @ 0x00007fff5fbf8f50, Pred=0x0000000114004a30) at

Here getImpl(impl).stmtsToLiveness[S].isLive(D) returns false and
Static Analyzer thinks that the variable "p" is dead and will remove the
binding (from the store). Since this variable is marked as dead,
the corresponding checkers are called (in ExprEngine::removeDead
getCheckerManager().runCheckersForDeadSymbols ...) and the stream checker
reports a leak.
In fact, if i'm not mistaken, at this point the variable "p" is not dead
yet and the leak should be reported much later at the end of the function.

The problem does not appear to be specific to StreamChecker, after playing
with several other simple examples, it looks like  LiveVariables::isLive
returns false in most cases
(and so does SymbolReaper::isLive(const VarRegion *VR, bool
includeStoreBindings) ).
This results in loosing information about variables or emitting diagnostics
at the wrong locations, for example, see FIXMEs at
llvm/tools/clang/test/Analysis/unions.cpp +96,
llvm/tools/clang/test/Analysis/self-assign.cpp +41,
llvm/tools/clang/test/Analysis/pr22954.c in "int f19(int i) {...}",
llvm/tools/clang/test/Analysis/pr22954.c in "int f31() {...}" etc.

So the question here - if CSA works as expected for this example
(in particular, I'm wondering if LiveVariables::computeLiveness

does the right thing or, alternatively, if it's used properly).

P.S. After playing a little bit more with different toy code snippets and
dumping the full state
of LiveVariables (everything: stmtsToLiveness, blocksEndToLiveness etc) it
looks like in most cases it's almost empty.
P.P.S. The following experiment might be of some interest: if one switches
the method
SymbolReaper::isLive to
(VarContext == CurrentContext)  || VarContext->isParentOf(CurrentContext)
|| isAlwaysAlive(....)
the behavior for some very simple tests (i was looking at the toy tests
with 3-4 blocks in CFG) becomes more predictable (and a bunch of FIXMEs get
but this, of course, would not be the correct implementation in the general

Kind regards,
Alexander Shaposhnikov
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