[www-releases] r280493 - Add 3.9.0 source, docs and binaries

Hans Wennborg via llvm-commits llvm-commits at lists.llvm.org
Fri Sep 2 08:56:56 PDT 2016


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+  <div class="section" id="kaleidoscope-extending-the-language-user-defined-operators">
+<h1>6. Kaleidoscope: Extending the Language: User-defined Operators<a class="headerlink" href="#kaleidoscope-extending-the-language-user-defined-operators" title="Permalink to this headline">¶</a></h1>
+<div class="contents local topic" id="contents">
+<ul class="simple">
+<li><a class="reference internal" href="#chapter-6-introduction" id="id1">Chapter 6 Introduction</a></li>
+<li><a class="reference internal" href="#user-defined-operators-the-idea" id="id2">User-defined Operators: the Idea</a></li>
+<li><a class="reference internal" href="#user-defined-binary-operators" id="id3">User-defined Binary Operators</a></li>
+<li><a class="reference internal" href="#user-defined-unary-operators" id="id4">User-defined Unary Operators</a></li>
+<li><a class="reference internal" href="#kicking-the-tires" id="id5">Kicking the Tires</a></li>
+<li><a class="reference internal" href="#full-code-listing" id="id6">Full Code Listing</a></li>
+</ul>
+</div>
+<div class="section" id="chapter-6-introduction">
+<h2><a class="toc-backref" href="#id1">6.1. Chapter 6 Introduction</a><a class="headerlink" href="#chapter-6-introduction" title="Permalink to this headline">¶</a></h2>
+<p>Welcome to Chapter 6 of the “<a class="reference external" href="index.html">Implementing a language with
+LLVM</a>” tutorial. At this point in our tutorial, we now
+have a fully functional language that is fairly minimal, but also
+useful. There is still one big problem with it, however. Our language
+doesn’t have many useful operators (like division, logical negation, or
+even any comparisons besides less-than).</p>
+<p>This chapter of the tutorial takes a wild digression into adding
+user-defined operators to the simple and beautiful Kaleidoscope
+language. This digression now gives us a simple and ugly language in
+some ways, but also a powerful one at the same time. One of the great
+things about creating your own language is that you get to decide what
+is good or bad. In this tutorial we’ll assume that it is okay to use
+this as a way to show some interesting parsing techniques.</p>
+<p>At the end of this tutorial, we’ll run through an example Kaleidoscope
+application that <a class="reference external" href="#kicking-the-tires">renders the Mandelbrot set</a>. This gives an
+example of what you can build with Kaleidoscope and its feature set.</p>
+</div>
+<div class="section" id="user-defined-operators-the-idea">
+<h2><a class="toc-backref" href="#id2">6.2. User-defined Operators: the Idea</a><a class="headerlink" href="#user-defined-operators-the-idea" title="Permalink to this headline">¶</a></h2>
+<p>The “operator overloading” that we will add to Kaleidoscope is more
+general than languages like C++. In C++, you are only allowed to
+redefine existing operators: you can’t programatically change the
+grammar, introduce new operators, change precedence levels, etc. In this
+chapter, we will add this capability to Kaleidoscope, which will let the
+user round out the set of operators that are supported.</p>
+<p>The point of going into user-defined operators in a tutorial like this
+is to show the power and flexibility of using a hand-written parser.
+Thus far, the parser we have been implementing uses recursive descent
+for most parts of the grammar and operator precedence parsing for the
+expressions. See <a class="reference external" href="OCamlLangImpl2.html">Chapter 2</a> for details. Without
+using operator precedence parsing, it would be very difficult to allow
+the programmer to introduce new operators into the grammar: the grammar
+is dynamically extensible as the JIT runs.</p>
+<p>The two specific features we’ll add are programmable unary operators
+(right now, Kaleidoscope has no unary operators at all) as well as
+binary operators. An example of this is:</p>
+<div class="highlight-python"><div class="highlight"><pre># Logical unary not.
+def unary!(v)
+  if v then
+    0
+  else
+    1;
+
+# Define > with the same precedence as <.
+def binary> 10 (LHS RHS)
+  RHS < LHS;
+
+# Binary "logical or", (note that it does not "short circuit")
+def binary| 5 (LHS RHS)
+  if LHS then
+    1
+  else if RHS then
+    1
+  else
+    0;
+
+# Define = with slightly lower precedence than relationals.
+def binary= 9 (LHS RHS)
+  !(LHS < RHS | LHS > RHS);
+</pre></div>
+</div>
+<p>Many languages aspire to being able to implement their standard runtime
+library in the language itself. In Kaleidoscope, we can implement
+significant parts of the language in the library!</p>
+<p>We will break down implementation of these features into two parts:
+implementing support for user-defined binary operators and adding unary
+operators.</p>
+</div>
+<div class="section" id="user-defined-binary-operators">
+<h2><a class="toc-backref" href="#id3">6.3. User-defined Binary Operators</a><a class="headerlink" href="#user-defined-binary-operators" title="Permalink to this headline">¶</a></h2>
+<p>Adding support for user-defined binary operators is pretty simple with
+our current framework. We’ll first add support for the unary/binary
+keywords:</p>
+<div class="highlight-ocaml"><div class="highlight"><pre><span class="k">type</span> <span class="n">token</span> <span class="o">=</span>
+  <span class="o">...</span>
+  <span class="c">(* operators *)</span>
+  <span class="o">|</span> <span class="nc">Binary</span> <span class="o">|</span> <span class="nn">Unary</span>
+
+<span class="p">...</span>
+
+<span class="n">and</span> <span class="n">lex_ident</span> <span class="n">buffer</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="n">parser</span>
+  <span class="o">...</span>
+      <span class="o">|</span> <span class="s2">"for"</span> <span class="o">-></span> <span class="o">[<</span> <span class="k">'</span><span class="nn">Token</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="nc">For</span><span class="o">;</span> <span class="n">stream</span> <span class="o">>]</span>
+      <span class="o">|</span> <span class="s2">"in"</span> <span class="o">-></span> <span class="o">[<</span> <span class="k">'</span><span class="nn">Token</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="nc">In</span><span class="o">;</span> <span class="n">stream</span> <span class="o">>]</span>
+      <span class="o">|</span> <span class="s2">"binary"</span> <span class="o">-></span> <span class="o">[<</span> <span class="k">'</span><span class="nn">Token</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="nc">Binary</span><span class="o">;</span> <span class="n">stream</span> <span class="o">>]</span>
+      <span class="o">|</span> <span class="s2">"unary"</span> <span class="o">-></span> <span class="o">[<</span> <span class="k">'</span><span class="nn">Token</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="nc">Unary</span><span class="o">;</span> <span class="n">stream</span> <span class="o">>]</span>
+</pre></div>
+</div>
+<p>This just adds lexer support for the unary and binary keywords, like we
+did in <a class="reference external" href="OCamlLangImpl5.html#lexer-extensions-for-if-then-else">previous chapters</a>. One nice
+thing about our current AST, is that we represent binary operators with
+full generalisation by using their ASCII code as the opcode. For our
+extended operators, we’ll use this same representation, so we don’t need
+any new AST or parser support.</p>
+<p>On the other hand, we have to be able to represent the definitions of
+these new operators, in the “def binary| 5” part of the function
+definition. In our grammar so far, the “name” for the function
+definition is parsed as the “prototype” production and into the
+<tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">Ast.Prototype</span></tt> AST node. To represent our new user-defined operators
+as prototypes, we have to extend the <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">Ast.Prototype</span></tt> AST node like
+this:</p>
+<div class="highlight-ocaml"><div class="highlight"><pre><span class="c">(* proto - This type represents the "prototype" for a function, which captures</span>
+<span class="c"> * its name, and its argument names (thus implicitly the number of arguments the</span>
+<span class="c"> * function takes). *)</span>
+<span class="k">type</span> <span class="n">proto</span> <span class="o">=</span>
+  <span class="o">|</span> <span class="nc">Prototype</span> <span class="k">of</span> <span class="kt">string</span> <span class="o">*</span> <span class="kt">string</span> <span class="kt">array</span>
+  <span class="o">|</span> <span class="nc">BinOpPrototype</span> <span class="k">of</span> <span class="kt">string</span> <span class="o">*</span> <span class="kt">string</span> <span class="kt">array</span> <span class="o">*</span> <span class="kt">int</span>
+</pre></div>
+</div>
+<p>Basically, in addition to knowing a name for the prototype, we now keep
+track of whether it was an operator, and if it was, what precedence
+level the operator is at. The precedence is only used for binary
+operators (as you’ll see below, it just doesn’t apply for unary
+operators). Now that we have a way to represent the prototype for a
+user-defined operator, we need to parse it:</p>
+<div class="highlight-ocaml"><div class="highlight"><pre><span class="c">(* prototype</span>
+<span class="c"> *   ::= id '(' id* ')'</span>
+<span class="c"> *   ::= binary LETTER number? (id, id)</span>
+<span class="c"> *   ::= unary LETTER number? (id) *)</span>
+<span class="k">let</span> <span class="n">parse_prototype</span> <span class="o">=</span>
+  <span class="k">let</span> <span class="k">rec</span> <span class="n">parse_args</span> <span class="n">accumulator</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="n">parser</span>
+    <span class="o">|</span> <span class="o">[<</span> <span class="k">'</span><span class="nn">Token</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="nc">Ident</span> <span class="n">id</span><span class="o">;</span> <span class="n">e</span><span class="o">=</span><span class="n">parse_args</span> <span class="o">(</span><span class="n">id</span><span class="o">::</span><span class="n">accumulator</span><span class="o">)</span> <span class="o">>]</span> <span class="o">-></span> <span class="n">e</span>
+    <span class="o">|</span> <span class="o">[<</span> <span class="o">>]</span> <span class="o">-></span> <span class="n">accumulator</span>
+  <span class="k">in</span>
+  <span class="k">let</span> <span class="n">parse_operator</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="n">parser</span>
+    <span class="o">|</span> <span class="o">[<</span> <span class="k">'</span><span class="nn">Token</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="nc">Unary</span> <span class="o">>]</span> <span class="o">-></span> <span class="s2">"unary"</span><span class="o">,</span> <span class="mi">1</span>
+    <span class="o">|</span> <span class="o">[<</span> <span class="k">'</span><span class="nn">Token</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="nc">Binary</span> <span class="o">>]</span> <span class="o">-></span> <span class="s2">"binary"</span><span class="o">,</span> <span class="mi">2</span>
+  <span class="k">in</span>
+  <span class="k">let</span> <span class="n">parse_binary_precedence</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="n">parser</span>
+    <span class="o">|</span> <span class="o">[<</span> <span class="k">'</span><span class="nn">Token</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="nc">Number</span> <span class="n">n</span> <span class="o">>]</span> <span class="o">-></span> <span class="n">int_of_float</span> <span class="n">n</span>
+    <span class="o">|</span> <span class="o">[<</span> <span class="o">>]</span> <span class="o">-></span> <span class="mi">30</span>
+  <span class="k">in</span>
+  <span class="n">parser</span>
+  <span class="o">|</span> <span class="o">[<</span> <span class="k">'</span><span class="nn">Token</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="nc">Ident</span> <span class="n">id</span><span class="o">;</span>
+       <span class="k">'</span><span class="nn">Token</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="nc">Kwd</span> <span class="sc">'('</span> <span class="o">??</span> <span class="s2">"expected '(' in prototype"</span><span class="o">;</span>
+       <span class="n">args</span><span class="o">=</span><span class="n">parse_args</span> <span class="bp">[]</span><span class="o">;</span>
+       <span class="k">'</span><span class="nn">Token</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="nc">Kwd</span> <span class="sc">')'</span> <span class="o">??</span> <span class="s2">"expected ')' in prototype"</span> <span class="o">>]</span> <span class="o">-></span>
+      <span class="c">(* success. *)</span>
+      <span class="nn">Ast</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="nc">Prototype</span> <span class="o">(</span><span class="n">id</span><span class="o">,</span> <span class="nn">Array</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="n">of_list</span> <span class="o">(</span><span class="nn">List</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="n">rev</span> <span class="n">args</span><span class="o">))</span>
+  <span class="o">|</span> <span class="o">[<</span> <span class="o">(</span><span class="n">prefix</span><span class="o">,</span> <span class="n">kind</span><span class="o">)=</span><span class="n">parse_operator</span><span class="o">;</span>
+       <span class="k">'</span><span class="nn">Token</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="nc">Kwd</span> <span class="n">op</span> <span class="o">??</span> <span class="s2">"expected an operator"</span><span class="o">;</span>
+       <span class="c">(* Read the precedence if present. *)</span>
+       <span class="n">binary_precedence</span><span class="o">=</span><span class="n">parse_binary_precedence</span><span class="o">;</span>
+       <span class="k">'</span><span class="nn">Token</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="nc">Kwd</span> <span class="sc">'('</span> <span class="o">??</span> <span class="s2">"expected '(' in prototype"</span><span class="o">;</span>
+        <span class="n">args</span><span class="o">=</span><span class="n">parse_args</span> <span class="bp">[]</span><span class="o">;</span>
+       <span class="k">'</span><span class="nn">Token</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="nc">Kwd</span> <span class="sc">')'</span> <span class="o">??</span> <span class="s2">"expected ')' in prototype"</span> <span class="o">>]</span> <span class="o">-></span>
+      <span class="k">let</span> <span class="n">name</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="n">prefix</span> <span class="o">^</span> <span class="o">(</span><span class="nn">String</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="n">make</span> <span class="mi">1</span> <span class="n">op</span><span class="o">)</span> <span class="k">in</span>
+      <span class="k">let</span> <span class="n">args</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="nn">Array</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="n">of_list</span> <span class="o">(</span><span class="nn">List</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="n">rev</span> <span class="n">args</span><span class="o">)</span> <span class="k">in</span>
+
+      <span class="c">(* Verify right number of arguments for operator. *)</span>
+      <span class="k">if</span> <span class="nn">Array</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="n">length</span> <span class="n">args</span> <span class="o">!=</span> <span class="n">kind</span>
+      <span class="k">then</span> <span class="k">raise</span> <span class="o">(</span><span class="nn">Stream</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="nc">Error</span> <span class="s2">"invalid number of operands for operator"</span><span class="o">)</span>
+      <span class="k">else</span>
+        <span class="k">if</span> <span class="n">kind</span> <span class="o">==</span> <span class="mi">1</span> <span class="k">then</span>
+          <span class="nn">Ast</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="nc">Prototype</span> <span class="o">(</span><span class="n">name</span><span class="o">,</span> <span class="n">args</span><span class="o">)</span>
+        <span class="k">else</span>
+          <span class="nn">Ast</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="nc">BinOpPrototype</span> <span class="o">(</span><span class="n">name</span><span class="o">,</span> <span class="n">args</span><span class="o">,</span> <span class="n">binary_precedence</span><span class="o">)</span>
+  <span class="o">|</span> <span class="o">[<</span> <span class="o">>]</span> <span class="o">-></span>
+      <span class="k">raise</span> <span class="o">(</span><span class="nn">Stream</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="nc">Error</span> <span class="s2">"expected function name in prototype"</span><span class="o">)</span>
+</pre></div>
+</div>
+<p>This is all fairly straightforward parsing code, and we have already
+seen a lot of similar code in the past. One interesting part about the
+code above is the couple lines that set up <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">name</span></tt> for binary
+operators. This builds names like “binary@” for a newly defined “@”
+operator. This then takes advantage of the fact that symbol names in the
+LLVM symbol table are allowed to have any character in them, including
+embedded nul characters.</p>
+<p>The next interesting thing to add, is codegen support for these binary
+operators. Given our current structure, this is a simple addition of a
+default case for our existing binary operator node:</p>
+<div class="highlight-ocaml"><div class="highlight"><pre><span class="k">let</span> <span class="n">codegen_expr</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="k">function</span>
+  <span class="o">...</span>
+  <span class="o">|</span> <span class="nn">Ast</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="nc">Binary</span> <span class="o">(</span><span class="n">op</span><span class="o">,</span> <span class="n">lhs</span><span class="o">,</span> <span class="n">rhs</span><span class="o">)</span> <span class="o">-></span>
+      <span class="k">let</span> <span class="n">lhs_val</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="n">codegen_expr</span> <span class="n">lhs</span> <span class="k">in</span>
+      <span class="k">let</span> <span class="n">rhs_val</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="n">codegen_expr</span> <span class="n">rhs</span> <span class="k">in</span>
+      <span class="k">begin</span>
+        <span class="k">match</span> <span class="n">op</span> <span class="k">with</span>
+        <span class="o">|</span> <span class="sc">'+'</span> <span class="o">-></span> <span class="n">build_add</span> <span class="n">lhs_val</span> <span class="n">rhs_val</span> <span class="s2">"addtmp"</span> <span class="n">builder</span>
+        <span class="o">|</span> <span class="sc">'-'</span> <span class="o">-></span> <span class="n">build_sub</span> <span class="n">lhs_val</span> <span class="n">rhs_val</span> <span class="s2">"subtmp"</span> <span class="n">builder</span>
+        <span class="o">|</span> <span class="sc">'*'</span> <span class="o">-></span> <span class="n">build_mul</span> <span class="n">lhs_val</span> <span class="n">rhs_val</span> <span class="s2">"multmp"</span> <span class="n">builder</span>
+        <span class="o">|</span> <span class="sc">'<'</span> <span class="o">-></span>
+            <span class="c">(* Convert bool 0/1 to double 0.0 or 1.0 *)</span>
+            <span class="k">let</span> <span class="n">i</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="n">build_fcmp</span> <span class="nn">Fcmp</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="nc">Ult</span> <span class="n">lhs_val</span> <span class="n">rhs_val</span> <span class="s2">"cmptmp"</span> <span class="n">builder</span> <span class="k">in</span>
+            <span class="n">build_uitofp</span> <span class="n">i</span> <span class="n">double_type</span> <span class="s2">"booltmp"</span> <span class="n">builder</span>
+        <span class="o">|</span> <span class="o">_</span> <span class="o">-></span>
+            <span class="c">(* If it wasn't a builtin binary operator, it must be a user defined</span>
+<span class="c">             * one. Emit a call to it. *)</span>
+            <span class="k">let</span> <span class="n">callee</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="s2">"binary"</span> <span class="o">^</span> <span class="o">(</span><span class="nn">String</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="n">make</span> <span class="mi">1</span> <span class="n">op</span><span class="o">)</span> <span class="k">in</span>
+            <span class="k">let</span> <span class="n">callee</span> <span class="o">=</span>
+              <span class="k">match</span> <span class="n">lookup_function</span> <span class="n">callee</span> <span class="n">the_module</span> <span class="k">with</span>
+              <span class="o">|</span> <span class="nc">Some</span> <span class="n">callee</span> <span class="o">-></span> <span class="n">callee</span>
+              <span class="o">|</span> <span class="nc">None</span> <span class="o">-></span> <span class="k">raise</span> <span class="o">(</span><span class="nc">Error</span> <span class="s2">"binary operator not found!"</span><span class="o">)</span>
+            <span class="k">in</span>
+            <span class="n">build_call</span> <span class="n">callee</span> <span class="o">[|</span><span class="n">lhs_val</span><span class="o">;</span> <span class="n">rhs_val</span><span class="o">|]</span> <span class="s2">"binop"</span> <span class="n">builder</span>
+      <span class="k">end</span>
+</pre></div>
+</div>
+<p>As you can see above, the new code is actually really simple. It just
+does a lookup for the appropriate operator in the symbol table and
+generates a function call to it. Since user-defined operators are just
+built as normal functions (because the “prototype” boils down to a
+function with the right name) everything falls into place.</p>
+<p>The final piece of code we are missing, is a bit of top level magic:</p>
+<div class="highlight-ocaml"><div class="highlight"><pre><span class="k">let</span> <span class="n">codegen_func</span> <span class="n">the_fpm</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="k">function</span>
+  <span class="o">|</span> <span class="nn">Ast</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="nc">Function</span> <span class="o">(</span><span class="n">proto</span><span class="o">,</span> <span class="n">body</span><span class="o">)</span> <span class="o">-></span>
+      <span class="nn">Hashtbl</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="n">clear</span> <span class="n">named_values</span><span class="o">;</span>
+      <span class="k">let</span> <span class="n">the_function</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="n">codegen_proto</span> <span class="n">proto</span> <span class="k">in</span>
+
+      <span class="c">(* If this is an operator, install it. *)</span>
+      <span class="k">begin</span> <span class="k">match</span> <span class="n">proto</span> <span class="k">with</span>
+      <span class="o">|</span> <span class="nn">Ast</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="nc">BinOpPrototype</span> <span class="o">(</span><span class="n">name</span><span class="o">,</span> <span class="n">args</span><span class="o">,</span> <span class="n">prec</span><span class="o">)</span> <span class="o">-></span>
+          <span class="k">let</span> <span class="n">op</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="n">name</span><span class="o">.[</span><span class="nn">String</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="n">length</span> <span class="n">name</span> <span class="o">-</span> <span class="mi">1</span><span class="o">]</span> <span class="k">in</span>
+          <span class="nn">Hashtbl</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="n">add</span> <span class="nn">Parser</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="n">binop_precedence</span> <span class="n">op</span> <span class="n">prec</span><span class="o">;</span>
+      <span class="o">|</span> <span class="o">_</span> <span class="o">-></span> <span class="bp">()</span>
+      <span class="k">end</span><span class="o">;</span>
+
+      <span class="c">(* Create a new basic block to start insertion into. *)</span>
+      <span class="k">let</span> <span class="n">bb</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="n">append_block</span> <span class="n">context</span> <span class="s2">"entry"</span> <span class="n">the_function</span> <span class="k">in</span>
+      <span class="n">position_at_end</span> <span class="n">bb</span> <span class="n">builder</span><span class="o">;</span>
+      <span class="o">...</span>
+</pre></div>
+</div>
+<p>Basically, before codegening a function, if it is a user-defined
+operator, we register it in the precedence table. This allows the binary
+operator parsing logic we already have in place to handle it. Since we
+are working on a fully-general operator precedence parser, this is all
+we need to do to “extend the grammar”.</p>
+<p>Now we have useful user-defined binary operators. This builds a lot on
+the previous framework we built for other operators. Adding unary
+operators is a bit more challenging, because we don’t have any framework
+for it yet - lets see what it takes.</p>
+</div>
+<div class="section" id="user-defined-unary-operators">
+<h2><a class="toc-backref" href="#id4">6.4. User-defined Unary Operators</a><a class="headerlink" href="#user-defined-unary-operators" title="Permalink to this headline">¶</a></h2>
+<p>Since we don’t currently support unary operators in the Kaleidoscope
+language, we’ll need to add everything to support them. Above, we added
+simple support for the ‘unary’ keyword to the lexer. In addition to
+that, we need an AST node:</p>
+<div class="highlight-ocaml"><div class="highlight"><pre><span class="k">type</span> <span class="n">expr</span> <span class="o">=</span>
+  <span class="o">...</span>
+  <span class="c">(* variant for a unary operator. *)</span>
+  <span class="o">|</span> <span class="nc">Unary</span> <span class="k">of</span> <span class="kt">char</span> <span class="o">*</span> <span class="n">expr</span>
+  <span class="o">...</span>
+</pre></div>
+</div>
+<p>This AST node is very simple and obvious by now. It directly mirrors the
+binary operator AST node, except that it only has one child. With this,
+we need to add the parsing logic. Parsing a unary operator is pretty
+simple: we’ll add a new function to do it:</p>
+<div class="highlight-ocaml"><div class="highlight"><pre><span class="c">(* unary</span>
+<span class="c"> *   ::= primary</span>
+<span class="c"> *   ::= '!' unary *)</span>
+<span class="ow">and</span> <span class="n">parse_unary</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="n">parser</span>
+  <span class="c">(* If this is a unary operator, read it. *)</span>
+  <span class="o">|</span> <span class="o">[<</span> <span class="k">'</span><span class="nn">Token</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="nc">Kwd</span> <span class="n">op</span> <span class="k">when</span> <span class="n">op</span> <span class="o">!=</span> <span class="sc">'('</span> <span class="o">&&</span> <span class="n">op</span> <span class="o">!=</span> <span class="sc">')'</span><span class="o">;</span> <span class="n">operand</span><span class="o">=</span><span class="n">parse_expr</span> <span class="o">>]</span> <span class="o">-></span>
+      <span class="nn">Ast</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="nc">Unary</span> <span class="o">(</span><span class="n">op</span><span class="o">,</span> <span class="n">operand</span><span class="o">)</span>
+
+  <span class="c">(* If the current token is not an operator, it must be a primary expr. *)</span>
+  <span class="o">|</span> <span class="o">[<</span> <span class="n">stream</span> <span class="o">>]</span> <span class="o">-></span> <span class="n">parse_primary</span> <span class="n">stream</span>
+</pre></div>
+</div>
+<p>The grammar we add is pretty straightforward here. If we see a unary
+operator when parsing a primary operator, we eat the operator as a
+prefix and parse the remaining piece as another unary operator. This
+allows us to handle multiple unary operators (e.g. ”!!x”). Note that
+unary operators can’t have ambiguous parses like binary operators can,
+so there is no need for precedence information.</p>
+<p>The problem with this function, is that we need to call ParseUnary from
+somewhere. To do this, we change previous callers of ParsePrimary to
+call <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">parse_unary</span></tt> instead:</p>
+<div class="highlight-ocaml"><div class="highlight"><pre><span class="c">(* binoprhs</span>
+<span class="c"> *   ::= ('+' primary)* *)</span>
+<span class="ow">and</span> <span class="n">parse_bin_rhs</span> <span class="n">expr_prec</span> <span class="n">lhs</span> <span class="n">stream</span> <span class="o">=</span>
+        <span class="o">...</span>
+        <span class="c">(* Parse the unary expression after the binary operator. *)</span>
+        <span class="k">let</span> <span class="n">rhs</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="n">parse_unary</span> <span class="n">stream</span> <span class="k">in</span>
+        <span class="o">...</span>
+
+<span class="o">...</span>
+
+<span class="c">(* expression</span>
+<span class="c"> *   ::= primary binoprhs *)</span>
+<span class="ow">and</span> <span class="n">parse_expr</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="n">parser</span>
+  <span class="o">|</span> <span class="o">[<</span> <span class="n">lhs</span><span class="o">=</span><span class="n">parse_unary</span><span class="o">;</span> <span class="n">stream</span> <span class="o">>]</span> <span class="o">-></span> <span class="n">parse_bin_rhs</span> <span class="mi">0</span> <span class="n">lhs</span> <span class="n">stream</span>
+</pre></div>
+</div>
+<p>With these two simple changes, we are now able to parse unary operators
+and build the AST for them. Next up, we need to add parser support for
+prototypes, to parse the unary operator prototype. We extend the binary
+operator code above with:</p>
+<div class="highlight-ocaml"><div class="highlight"><pre><span class="c">(* prototype</span>
+<span class="c"> *   ::= id '(' id* ')'</span>
+<span class="c"> *   ::= binary LETTER number? (id, id)</span>
+<span class="c"> *   ::= unary LETTER number? (id) *)</span>
+<span class="k">let</span> <span class="n">parse_prototype</span> <span class="o">=</span>
+  <span class="k">let</span> <span class="k">rec</span> <span class="n">parse_args</span> <span class="n">accumulator</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="n">parser</span>
+    <span class="o">|</span> <span class="o">[<</span> <span class="k">'</span><span class="nn">Token</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="nc">Ident</span> <span class="n">id</span><span class="o">;</span> <span class="n">e</span><span class="o">=</span><span class="n">parse_args</span> <span class="o">(</span><span class="n">id</span><span class="o">::</span><span class="n">accumulator</span><span class="o">)</span> <span class="o">>]</span> <span class="o">-></span> <span class="n">e</span>
+    <span class="o">|</span> <span class="o">[<</span> <span class="o">>]</span> <span class="o">-></span> <span class="n">accumulator</span>
+  <span class="k">in</span>
+  <span class="k">let</span> <span class="n">parse_operator</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="n">parser</span>
+    <span class="o">|</span> <span class="o">[<</span> <span class="k">'</span><span class="nn">Token</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="nc">Unary</span> <span class="o">>]</span> <span class="o">-></span> <span class="s2">"unary"</span><span class="o">,</span> <span class="mi">1</span>
+    <span class="o">|</span> <span class="o">[<</span> <span class="k">'</span><span class="nn">Token</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="nc">Binary</span> <span class="o">>]</span> <span class="o">-></span> <span class="s2">"binary"</span><span class="o">,</span> <span class="mi">2</span>
+  <span class="k">in</span>
+  <span class="k">let</span> <span class="n">parse_binary_precedence</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="n">parser</span>
+    <span class="o">|</span> <span class="o">[<</span> <span class="k">'</span><span class="nn">Token</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="nc">Number</span> <span class="n">n</span> <span class="o">>]</span> <span class="o">-></span> <span class="n">int_of_float</span> <span class="n">n</span>
+    <span class="o">|</span> <span class="o">[<</span> <span class="o">>]</span> <span class="o">-></span> <span class="mi">30</span>
+  <span class="k">in</span>
+  <span class="n">parser</span>
+  <span class="o">|</span> <span class="o">[<</span> <span class="k">'</span><span class="nn">Token</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="nc">Ident</span> <span class="n">id</span><span class="o">;</span>
+       <span class="k">'</span><span class="nn">Token</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="nc">Kwd</span> <span class="sc">'('</span> <span class="o">??</span> <span class="s2">"expected '(' in prototype"</span><span class="o">;</span>
+       <span class="n">args</span><span class="o">=</span><span class="n">parse_args</span> <span class="bp">[]</span><span class="o">;</span>
+       <span class="k">'</span><span class="nn">Token</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="nc">Kwd</span> <span class="sc">')'</span> <span class="o">??</span> <span class="s2">"expected ')' in prototype"</span> <span class="o">>]</span> <span class="o">-></span>
+      <span class="c">(* success. *)</span>
+      <span class="nn">Ast</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="nc">Prototype</span> <span class="o">(</span><span class="n">id</span><span class="o">,</span> <span class="nn">Array</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="n">of_list</span> <span class="o">(</span><span class="nn">List</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="n">rev</span> <span class="n">args</span><span class="o">))</span>
+  <span class="o">|</span> <span class="o">[<</span> <span class="o">(</span><span class="n">prefix</span><span class="o">,</span> <span class="n">kind</span><span class="o">)=</span><span class="n">parse_operator</span><span class="o">;</span>
+       <span class="k">'</span><span class="nn">Token</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="nc">Kwd</span> <span class="n">op</span> <span class="o">??</span> <span class="s2">"expected an operator"</span><span class="o">;</span>
+       <span class="c">(* Read the precedence if present. *)</span>
+       <span class="n">binary_precedence</span><span class="o">=</span><span class="n">parse_binary_precedence</span><span class="o">;</span>
+       <span class="k">'</span><span class="nn">Token</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="nc">Kwd</span> <span class="sc">'('</span> <span class="o">??</span> <span class="s2">"expected '(' in prototype"</span><span class="o">;</span>
+        <span class="n">args</span><span class="o">=</span><span class="n">parse_args</span> <span class="bp">[]</span><span class="o">;</span>
+       <span class="k">'</span><span class="nn">Token</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="nc">Kwd</span> <span class="sc">')'</span> <span class="o">??</span> <span class="s2">"expected ')' in prototype"</span> <span class="o">>]</span> <span class="o">-></span>
+      <span class="k">let</span> <span class="n">name</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="n">prefix</span> <span class="o">^</span> <span class="o">(</span><span class="nn">String</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="n">make</span> <span class="mi">1</span> <span class="n">op</span><span class="o">)</span> <span class="k">in</span>
+      <span class="k">let</span> <span class="n">args</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="nn">Array</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="n">of_list</span> <span class="o">(</span><span class="nn">List</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="n">rev</span> <span class="n">args</span><span class="o">)</span> <span class="k">in</span>
+
+      <span class="c">(* Verify right number of arguments for operator. *)</span>
+      <span class="k">if</span> <span class="nn">Array</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="n">length</span> <span class="n">args</span> <span class="o">!=</span> <span class="n">kind</span>
+      <span class="k">then</span> <span class="k">raise</span> <span class="o">(</span><span class="nn">Stream</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="nc">Error</span> <span class="s2">"invalid number of operands for operator"</span><span class="o">)</span>
+      <span class="k">else</span>
+        <span class="k">if</span> <span class="n">kind</span> <span class="o">==</span> <span class="mi">1</span> <span class="k">then</span>
+          <span class="nn">Ast</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="nc">Prototype</span> <span class="o">(</span><span class="n">name</span><span class="o">,</span> <span class="n">args</span><span class="o">)</span>
+        <span class="k">else</span>
+          <span class="nn">Ast</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="nc">BinOpPrototype</span> <span class="o">(</span><span class="n">name</span><span class="o">,</span> <span class="n">args</span><span class="o">,</span> <span class="n">binary_precedence</span><span class="o">)</span>
+  <span class="o">|</span> <span class="o">[<</span> <span class="o">>]</span> <span class="o">-></span>
+      <span class="k">raise</span> <span class="o">(</span><span class="nn">Stream</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="nc">Error</span> <span class="s2">"expected function name in prototype"</span><span class="o">)</span>
+</pre></div>
+</div>
+<p>As with binary operators, we name unary operators with a name that
+includes the operator character. This assists us at code generation
+time. Speaking of, the final piece we need to add is codegen support for
+unary operators. It looks like this:</p>
+<div class="highlight-ocaml"><div class="highlight"><pre><span class="k">let</span> <span class="k">rec</span> <span class="n">codegen_expr</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="k">function</span>
+  <span class="o">...</span>
+  <span class="o">|</span> <span class="nn">Ast</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="nc">Unary</span> <span class="o">(</span><span class="n">op</span><span class="o">,</span> <span class="n">operand</span><span class="o">)</span> <span class="o">-></span>
+      <span class="k">let</span> <span class="n">operand</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="n">codegen_expr</span> <span class="n">operand</span> <span class="k">in</span>
+      <span class="k">let</span> <span class="n">callee</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="s2">"unary"</span> <span class="o">^</span> <span class="o">(</span><span class="nn">String</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="n">make</span> <span class="mi">1</span> <span class="n">op</span><span class="o">)</span> <span class="k">in</span>
+      <span class="k">let</span> <span class="n">callee</span> <span class="o">=</span>
+        <span class="k">match</span> <span class="n">lookup_function</span> <span class="n">callee</span> <span class="n">the_module</span> <span class="k">with</span>
+        <span class="o">|</span> <span class="nc">Some</span> <span class="n">callee</span> <span class="o">-></span> <span class="n">callee</span>
+        <span class="o">|</span> <span class="nc">None</span> <span class="o">-></span> <span class="k">raise</span> <span class="o">(</span><span class="nc">Error</span> <span class="s2">"unknown unary operator"</span><span class="o">)</span>
+      <span class="k">in</span>
+      <span class="n">build_call</span> <span class="n">callee</span> <span class="o">[|</span><span class="n">operand</span><span class="o">|]</span> <span class="s2">"unop"</span> <span class="n">builder</span>
+</pre></div>
+</div>
+<p>This code is similar to, but simpler than, the code for binary
+operators. It is simpler primarily because it doesn’t need to handle any
+predefined operators.</p>
+</div>
+<div class="section" id="kicking-the-tires">
+<h2><a class="toc-backref" href="#id5">6.5. Kicking the Tires</a><a class="headerlink" href="#kicking-the-tires" title="Permalink to this headline">¶</a></h2>
+<p>It is somewhat hard to believe, but with a few simple extensions we’ve
+covered in the last chapters, we have grown a real-ish language. With
+this, we can do a lot of interesting things, including I/O, math, and a
+bunch of other things. For example, we can now add a nice sequencing
+operator (printd is defined to print out the specified value and a
+newline):</p>
+<div class="highlight-python"><div class="highlight"><pre>ready> extern printd(x);
+Read extern: declare double @printd(double)
+ready> def binary : 1 (x y) 0;  # Low-precedence operator that ignores operands.
+..
+ready> printd(123) : printd(456) : printd(789);
+123.000000
+456.000000
+789.000000
+Evaluated to 0.000000
+</pre></div>
+</div>
+<p>We can also define a bunch of other “primitive” operations, such as:</p>
+<div class="highlight-python"><div class="highlight"><pre># Logical unary not.
+def unary!(v)
+  if v then
+    0
+  else
+    1;
+
+# Unary negate.
+def unary-(v)
+  0-v;
+
+# Define > with the same precedence as <.
+def binary> 10 (LHS RHS)
+  RHS < LHS;
+
+# Binary logical or, which does not short circuit.
+def binary| 5 (LHS RHS)
+  if LHS then
+    1
+  else if RHS then
+    1
+  else
+    0;
+
+# Binary logical and, which does not short circuit.
+def binary& 6 (LHS RHS)
+  if !LHS then
+    0
+  else
+    !!RHS;
+
+# Define = with slightly lower precedence than relationals.
+def binary = 9 (LHS RHS)
+  !(LHS < RHS | LHS > RHS);
+</pre></div>
+</div>
+<p>Given the previous if/then/else support, we can also define interesting
+functions for I/O. For example, the following prints out a character
+whose “density” reflects the value passed in: the lower the value, the
+denser the character:</p>
+<div class="highlight-python"><div class="highlight"><pre>ready>
+
+extern putchard(char)
+def printdensity(d)
+  if d > 8 then
+    putchard(32)  # ' '
+  else if d > 4 then
+    putchard(46)  # '.'
+  else if d > 2 then
+    putchard(43)  # '+'
+  else
+    putchard(42); # '*'
+...
+ready> printdensity(1): printdensity(2): printdensity(3) :
+          printdensity(4): printdensity(5): printdensity(9): putchard(10);
+*++..
+Evaluated to 0.000000
+</pre></div>
+</div>
+<p>Based on these simple primitive operations, we can start to define more
+interesting things. For example, here’s a little function that solves
+for the number of iterations it takes a function in the complex plane to
+converge:</p>
+<div class="highlight-python"><div class="highlight"><pre># determine whether the specific location diverges.
+# Solve for z = z^2 + c in the complex plane.
+def mandelconverger(real imag iters creal cimag)
+  if iters > 255 | (real*real + imag*imag > 4) then
+    iters
+  else
+    mandelconverger(real*real - imag*imag + creal,
+                    2*real*imag + cimag,
+                    iters+1, creal, cimag);
+
+# return the number of iterations required for the iteration to escape
+def mandelconverge(real imag)
+  mandelconverger(real, imag, 0, real, imag);
+</pre></div>
+</div>
+<p>This “z = z<sup>2</sup> + c” function is a beautiful little creature
+that is the basis for computation of the <a class="reference external" href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mandelbrot_set">Mandelbrot
+Set</a>. Our
+<tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">mandelconverge</span></tt> function returns the number of iterations that it
+takes for a complex orbit to escape, saturating to 255. This is not a
+very useful function by itself, but if you plot its value over a
+two-dimensional plane, you can see the Mandelbrot set. Given that we are
+limited to using putchard here, our amazing graphical output is limited,
+but we can whip together something using the density plotter above:</p>
+<div class="highlight-python"><div class="highlight"><pre># compute and plot the mandelbrot set with the specified 2 dimensional range
+# info.
+def mandelhelp(xmin xmax xstep   ymin ymax ystep)
+  for y = ymin, y < ymax, ystep in (
+    (for x = xmin, x < xmax, xstep in
+       printdensity(mandelconverge(x,y)))
+    : putchard(10)
+  )
+
+# mandel - This is a convenient helper function for plotting the mandelbrot set
+# from the specified position with the specified Magnification.
+def mandel(realstart imagstart realmag imagmag)
+  mandelhelp(realstart, realstart+realmag*78, realmag,
+             imagstart, imagstart+imagmag*40, imagmag);
+</pre></div>
+</div>
+<p>Given this, we can try plotting out the mandelbrot set! Lets try it out:</p>
+<div class="highlight-python"><div class="highlight"><pre>ready> mandel(-2.3, -1.3, 0.05, 0.07);
+*******************************+++++++++++*************************************
+*************************+++++++++++++++++++++++*******************************
+**********************+++++++++++++++++++++++++++++****************************
+*******************+++++++++++++++++++++.. ...++++++++*************************
+*****************++++++++++++++++++++++.... ...+++++++++***********************
+***************+++++++++++++++++++++++.....   ...+++++++++*********************
+**************+++++++++++++++++++++++....     ....+++++++++********************
+*************++++++++++++++++++++++......      .....++++++++*******************
+************+++++++++++++++++++++.......       .......+++++++******************
+***********+++++++++++++++++++....                ... .+++++++*****************
+**********+++++++++++++++++.......                     .+++++++****************
+*********++++++++++++++...........                    ...+++++++***************
+********++++++++++++............                      ...++++++++**************
+********++++++++++... ..........                        .++++++++**************
+*******+++++++++.....                                   .+++++++++*************
+*******++++++++......                                  ..+++++++++*************
+*******++++++.......                                   ..+++++++++*************
+*******+++++......                                     ..+++++++++*************
+*******.... ....                                      ...+++++++++*************
+*******.... .                                         ...+++++++++*************
+*******+++++......                                    ...+++++++++*************
+*******++++++.......                                   ..+++++++++*************
+*******++++++++......                                   .+++++++++*************
+*******+++++++++.....                                  ..+++++++++*************
+********++++++++++... ..........                        .++++++++**************
+********++++++++++++............                      ...++++++++**************
+*********++++++++++++++..........                     ...+++++++***************
+**********++++++++++++++++........                     .+++++++****************
+**********++++++++++++++++++++....                ... ..+++++++****************
+***********++++++++++++++++++++++.......       .......++++++++*****************
+************+++++++++++++++++++++++......      ......++++++++******************
+**************+++++++++++++++++++++++....      ....++++++++********************
+***************+++++++++++++++++++++++.....   ...+++++++++*********************
+*****************++++++++++++++++++++++....  ...++++++++***********************
+*******************+++++++++++++++++++++......++++++++*************************
+*********************++++++++++++++++++++++.++++++++***************************
+*************************+++++++++++++++++++++++*******************************
+******************************+++++++++++++************************************
+*******************************************************************************
+*******************************************************************************
+*******************************************************************************
+Evaluated to 0.000000
+ready> mandel(-2, -1, 0.02, 0.04);
+**************************+++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++
+***********************++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++
+*********************+++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++.
+*******************+++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++...
+*****************+++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++.....
+***************++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++........
+**************++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++...........
+************+++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++..............
+***********++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++........        .
+**********++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++.............
+********+++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++..................
+*******+++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++.......................
+******+++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++...........................
+*****++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++............................
+*****++++++++++++++++++++++++++++...............................
+****++++++++++++++++++++++++++......   .........................
+***++++++++++++++++++++++++.........     ......    ...........
+***++++++++++++++++++++++............
+**+++++++++++++++++++++..............
+**+++++++++++++++++++................
+*++++++++++++++++++.................
+*++++++++++++++++............ ...
+*++++++++++++++..............
+*+++....++++................
+*..........  ...........
+*
+*..........  ...........
+*+++....++++................
+*++++++++++++++..............
+*++++++++++++++++............ ...
+*++++++++++++++++++.................
+**+++++++++++++++++++................
+**+++++++++++++++++++++..............
+***++++++++++++++++++++++............
+***++++++++++++++++++++++++.........     ......    ...........
+****++++++++++++++++++++++++++......   .........................
+*****++++++++++++++++++++++++++++...............................
+*****++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++............................
+******+++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++...........................
+*******+++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++.......................
+********+++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++..................
+Evaluated to 0.000000
+ready> mandel(-0.9, -1.4, 0.02, 0.03);
+*******************************************************************************
+*******************************************************************************
+*******************************************************************************
+**********+++++++++++++++++++++************************************************
+*+++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++***************************************
++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++**********************************
+++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++*****************************
+++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++*************************
++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++**********************
++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++.........++++++++++++++++++*******************
++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++....   ......+++++++++++++++++++****************
++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++.......  ........+++++++++++++++++++**************
+++++++++++++++++++++++++++++........   ........++++++++++++++++++++************
++++++++++++++++++++++++++++.........     ..  ...+++++++++++++++++++++**********
+++++++++++++++++++++++++++...........        ....++++++++++++++++++++++********
+++++++++++++++++++++++++.............       .......++++++++++++++++++++++******
++++++++++++++++++++++++.............        ........+++++++++++++++++++++++****
+++++++++++++++++++++++...........           ..........++++++++++++++++++++++***
+++++++++++++++++++++...........                .........++++++++++++++++++++++*
+++++++++++++++++++............                  ...........++++++++++++++++++++
+++++++++++++++++...............                 .............++++++++++++++++++
+++++++++++++++.................                 ...............++++++++++++++++
+++++++++++++..................                  .................++++++++++++++
++++++++++..................                      .................+++++++++++++
+++++++........        .                               .........  ..++++++++++++
+++............                                         ......    ....++++++++++
+..............                                                    ...++++++++++
+..............                                                    ....+++++++++
+..............                                                    .....++++++++
+.............                                                    ......++++++++
+...........                                                     .......++++++++
+.........                                                       ........+++++++
+.........                                                       ........+++++++
+.........                                                           ....+++++++
+........                                                             ...+++++++
+.......                                                              ...+++++++
+                                                                    ....+++++++
+                                                                   .....+++++++
+                                                                    ....+++++++
+                                                                    ....+++++++
+                                                                    ....+++++++
+Evaluated to 0.000000
+ready> ^D
+</pre></div>
+</div>
+<p>At this point, you may be starting to realize that Kaleidoscope is a
+real and powerful language. It may not be self-similar :), but it can be
+used to plot things that are!</p>
+<p>With this, we conclude the “adding user-defined operators” chapter of
+the tutorial. We have successfully augmented our language, adding the
+ability to extend the language in the library, and we have shown how
+this can be used to build a simple but interesting end-user application
+in Kaleidoscope. At this point, Kaleidoscope can build a variety of
+applications that are functional and can call functions with
+side-effects, but it can’t actually define and mutate a variable itself.</p>
+<p>Strikingly, variable mutation is an important feature of some languages,
+and it is not at all obvious how to <a class="reference external" href="OCamlLangImpl7.html">add support for mutable
+variables</a> without having to add an “SSA
+construction” phase to your front-end. In the next chapter, we will
+describe how you can add variable mutation without building SSA in your
+front-end.</p>
+</div>
+<div class="section" id="full-code-listing">
+<h2><a class="toc-backref" href="#id6">6.6. Full Code Listing</a><a class="headerlink" href="#full-code-listing" title="Permalink to this headline">¶</a></h2>
+<p>Here is the complete code listing for our running example, enhanced with
+the if/then/else and for expressions.. To build this example, use:</p>
+<div class="highlight-bash"><div class="highlight"><pre><span class="c"># Compile</span>
+ocamlbuild toy.byte
+<span class="c"># Run</span>
+./toy.byte
+</pre></div>
+</div>
+<p>Here is the code:</p>
+<dl class="docutils">
+<dt>_tags:</dt>
+<dd><div class="first last highlight-python"><div class="highlight"><pre><{lexer,parser}.ml>: use_camlp4, pp(camlp4of)
+<*.{byte,native}>: g++, use_llvm, use_llvm_analysis
+<*.{byte,native}>: use_llvm_executionengine, use_llvm_target
+<*.{byte,native}>: use_llvm_scalar_opts, use_bindings
+</pre></div>
+</div>
+</dd>
+<dt>myocamlbuild.ml:</dt>
+<dd><div class="first last highlight-ocaml"><div class="highlight"><pre><span class="k">open</span> <span class="nc">Ocamlbuild_plugin</span><span class="o">;;</span>
+
+<span class="n">ocaml_lib</span> <span class="o">~</span><span class="n">extern</span><span class="o">:</span><span class="bp">true</span> <span class="s2">"llvm"</span><span class="o">;;</span>
+<span class="n">ocaml_lib</span> <span class="o">~</span><span class="n">extern</span><span class="o">:</span><span class="bp">true</span> <span class="s2">"llvm_analysis"</span><span class="o">;;</span>
+<span class="n">ocaml_lib</span> <span class="o">~</span><span class="n">extern</span><span class="o">:</span><span class="bp">true</span> <span class="s2">"llvm_executionengine"</span><span class="o">;;</span>
+<span class="n">ocaml_lib</span> <span class="o">~</span><span class="n">extern</span><span class="o">:</span><span class="bp">true</span> <span class="s2">"llvm_target"</span><span class="o">;;</span>
+<span class="n">ocaml_lib</span> <span class="o">~</span><span class="n">extern</span><span class="o">:</span><span class="bp">true</span> <span class="s2">"llvm_scalar_opts"</span><span class="o">;;</span>
+
+<span class="n">flag</span> <span class="o">[</span><span class="s2">"link"</span><span class="o">;</span> <span class="s2">"ocaml"</span><span class="o">;</span> <span class="s2">"g++"</span><span class="o">]</span> <span class="o">(</span><span class="nc">S</span><span class="o">[</span><span class="nc">A</span><span class="s2">"-cc"</span><span class="o">;</span> <span class="nc">A</span><span class="s2">"g++"</span><span class="o">;</span> <span class="nc">A</span><span class="s2">"-cclib"</span><span class="o">;</span> <span class="nc">A</span><span class="s2">"-rdynamic"</span><span class="o">]);;</span>
+<span class="n">dep</span> <span class="o">[</span><span class="s2">"link"</span><span class="o">;</span> <span class="s2">"ocaml"</span><span class="o">;</span> <span class="s2">"use_bindings"</span><span class="o">]</span> <span class="o">[</span><span class="s2">"bindings.o"</span><span class="o">];;</span>
+</pre></div>
+</div>
+</dd>
+<dt>token.ml:</dt>
+<dd><div class="first last highlight-ocaml"><div class="highlight"><pre><span class="c">(*===----------------------------------------------------------------------===</span>
+<span class="c"> * Lexer Tokens</span>
+<span class="c"> *===----------------------------------------------------------------------===*)</span>
+
+<span class="c">(* The lexer returns these 'Kwd' if it is an unknown character, otherwise one of</span>
+<span class="c"> * these others for known things. *)</span>
+<span class="k">type</span> <span class="n">token</span> <span class="o">=</span>
+  <span class="c">(* commands *)</span>
+  <span class="o">|</span> <span class="nc">Def</span> <span class="o">|</span> <span class="nc">Extern</span>
+
+  <span class="c">(* primary *)</span>
+  <span class="o">|</span> <span class="nc">Ident</span> <span class="k">of</span> <span class="kt">string</span> <span class="o">|</span> <span class="nc">Number</span> <span class="k">of</span> <span class="kt">float</span>
+
+  <span class="c">(* unknown *)</span>
+  <span class="o">|</span> <span class="nc">Kwd</span> <span class="k">of</span> <span class="kt">char</span>
+
+  <span class="c">(* control *)</span>
+  <span class="o">|</span> <span class="nc">If</span> <span class="o">|</span> <span class="nc">Then</span> <span class="o">|</span> <span class="nc">Else</span>
+  <span class="o">|</span> <span class="nc">For</span> <span class="o">|</span> <span class="nc">In</span>
+
+  <span class="c">(* operators *)</span>
+  <span class="o">|</span> <span class="nc">Binary</span> <span class="o">|</span> <span class="nc">Unary</span>
+</pre></div>
+</div>
+</dd>
+<dt>lexer.ml:</dt>
+<dd><div class="first last highlight-ocaml"><div class="highlight"><pre><span class="c">(*===----------------------------------------------------------------------===</span>
+<span class="c"> * Lexer</span>
+<span class="c"> *===----------------------------------------------------------------------===*)</span>
+
+<span class="k">let</span> <span class="k">rec</span> <span class="n">lex</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="n">parser</span>
+  <span class="c">(* Skip any whitespace. *)</span>
+  <span class="o">|</span> <span class="o">[<</span> <span class="k">'</span> <span class="o">(</span><span class="sc">' '</span> <span class="o">|</span> <span class="sc">'\n'</span> <span class="o">|</span> <span class="sc">'\r'</span> <span class="o">|</span> <span class="sc">'\t'</span><span class="o">);</span> <span class="n">stream</span> <span class="o">>]</span> <span class="o">-></span> <span class="n">lex</span> <span class="n">stream</span>
+
+  <span class="c">(* identifier: [a-zA-Z][a-zA-Z0-9] *)</span>
+  <span class="o">|</span> <span class="o">[<</span> <span class="k">'</span> <span class="o">(</span><span class="sc">'A'</span> <span class="o">..</span> <span class="sc">'Z'</span> <span class="o">|</span> <span class="sc">'a'</span> <span class="o">..</span> <span class="sc">'z'</span> <span class="k">as</span> <span class="n">c</span><span class="o">);</span> <span class="n">stream</span> <span class="o">>]</span> <span class="o">-></span>
+      <span class="k">let</span> <span class="n">buffer</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="nn">Buffer</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="n">create</span> <span class="mi">1</span> <span class="k">in</span>
+      <span class="nn">Buffer</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="n">add_char</span> <span class="n">buffer</span> <span class="n">c</span><span class="o">;</span>
+      <span class="n">lex_ident</span> <span class="n">buffer</span> <span class="n">stream</span>
+
+  <span class="c">(* number: [0-9.]+ *)</span>
+  <span class="o">|</span> <span class="o">[<</span> <span class="k">'</span> <span class="o">(</span><span class="sc">'0'</span> <span class="o">..</span> <span class="sc">'9'</span> <span class="k">as</span> <span class="n">c</span><span class="o">);</span> <span class="n">stream</span> <span class="o">>]</span> <span class="o">-></span>
+      <span class="k">let</span> <span class="n">buffer</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="nn">Buffer</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="n">create</span> <span class="mi">1</span> <span class="k">in</span>
+      <span class="nn">Buffer</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="n">add_char</span> <span class="n">buffer</span> <span class="n">c</span><span class="o">;</span>
+      <span class="n">lex_number</span> <span class="n">buffer</span> <span class="n">stream</span>
+
+  <span class="c">(* Comment until end of line. *)</span>
+  <span class="o">|</span> <span class="o">[<</span> <span class="k">'</span> <span class="o">(</span><span class="sc">'#'</span><span class="o">);</span> <span class="n">stream</span> <span class="o">>]</span> <span class="o">-></span>
+      <span class="n">lex_comment</span> <span class="n">stream</span>
+
+  <span class="c">(* Otherwise, just return the character as its ascii value. *)</span>
+  <span class="o">|</span> <span class="o">[<</span> <span class="k">'</span><span class="n">c</span><span class="o">;</span> <span class="n">stream</span> <span class="o">>]</span> <span class="o">-></span>
+      <span class="o">[<</span> <span class="k">'</span><span class="nn">Token</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="nc">Kwd</span> <span class="n">c</span><span class="o">;</span> <span class="n">lex</span> <span class="n">stream</span> <span class="o">>]</span>
+
+  <span class="c">(* end of stream. *)</span>
+  <span class="o">|</span> <span class="o">[<</span> <span class="o">>]</span> <span class="o">-></span> <span class="o">[<</span> <span class="o">>]</span>
+
+<span class="ow">and</span> <span class="n">lex_number</span> <span class="n">buffer</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="n">parser</span>
+  <span class="o">|</span> <span class="o">[<</span> <span class="k">'</span> <span class="o">(</span><span class="sc">'0'</span> <span class="o">..</span> <span class="sc">'9'</span> <span class="o">|</span> <span class="sc">'.'</span> <span class="k">as</span> <span class="n">c</span><span class="o">);</span> <span class="n">stream</span> <span class="o">>]</span> <span class="o">-></span>
+      <span class="nn">Buffer</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="n">add_char</span> <span class="n">buffer</span> <span class="n">c</span><span class="o">;</span>
+      <span class="n">lex_number</span> <span class="n">buffer</span> <span class="n">stream</span>
+  <span class="o">|</span> <span class="o">[<</span> <span class="n">stream</span><span class="o">=</span><span class="n">lex</span> <span class="o">>]</span> <span class="o">-></span>
+      <span class="o">[<</span> <span class="k">'</span><span class="nn">Token</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="nc">Number</span> <span class="o">(</span><span class="n">float_of_string</span> <span class="o">(</span><span class="nn">Buffer</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="n">contents</span> <span class="n">buffer</span><span class="o">));</span> <span class="n">stream</span> <span class="o">>]</span>
+
+<span class="ow">and</span> <span class="n">lex_ident</span> <span class="n">buffer</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="n">parser</span>
+  <span class="o">|</span> <span class="o">[<</span> <span class="k">'</span> <span class="o">(</span><span class="sc">'A'</span> <span class="o">..</span> <span class="sc">'Z'</span> <span class="o">|</span> <span class="sc">'a'</span> <span class="o">..</span> <span class="sc">'z'</span> <span class="o">|</span> <span class="sc">'0'</span> <span class="o">..</span> <span class="sc">'9'</span> <span class="k">as</span> <span class="n">c</span><span class="o">);</span> <span class="n">stream</span> <span class="o">>]</span> <span class="o">-></span>
+      <span class="nn">Buffer</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="n">add_char</span> <span class="n">buffer</span> <span class="n">c</span><span class="o">;</span>
+      <span class="n">lex_ident</span> <span class="n">buffer</span> <span class="n">stream</span>
+  <span class="o">|</span> <span class="o">[<</span> <span class="n">stream</span><span class="o">=</span><span class="n">lex</span> <span class="o">>]</span> <span class="o">-></span>
+      <span class="k">match</span> <span class="nn">Buffer</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="n">contents</span> <span class="n">buffer</span> <span class="k">with</span>
+      <span class="o">|</span> <span class="s2">"def"</span> <span class="o">-></span> <span class="o">[<</span> <span class="k">'</span><span class="nn">Token</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="nc">Def</span><span class="o">;</span> <span class="n">stream</span> <span class="o">>]</span>
+      <span class="o">|</span> <span class="s2">"extern"</span> <span class="o">-></span> <span class="o">[<</span> <span class="k">'</span><span class="nn">Token</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="nc">Extern</span><span class="o">;</span> <span class="n">stream</span> <span class="o">>]</span>
+      <span class="o">|</span> <span class="s2">"if"</span> <span class="o">-></span> <span class="o">[<</span> <span class="k">'</span><span class="nn">Token</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="nc">If</span><span class="o">;</span> <span class="n">stream</span> <span class="o">>]</span>
+      <span class="o">|</span> <span class="s2">"then"</span> <span class="o">-></span> <span class="o">[<</span> <span class="k">'</span><span class="nn">Token</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="nc">Then</span><span class="o">;</span> <span class="n">stream</span> <span class="o">>]</span>
+      <span class="o">|</span> <span class="s2">"else"</span> <span class="o">-></span> <span class="o">[<</span> <span class="k">'</span><span class="nn">Token</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="nc">Else</span><span class="o">;</span> <span class="n">stream</span> <span class="o">>]</span>
+      <span class="o">|</span> <span class="s2">"for"</span> <span class="o">-></span> <span class="o">[<</span> <span class="k">'</span><span class="nn">Token</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="nc">For</span><span class="o">;</span> <span class="n">stream</span> <span class="o">>]</span>
+      <span class="o">|</span> <span class="s2">"in"</span> <span class="o">-></span> <span class="o">[<</span> <span class="k">'</span><span class="nn">Token</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="nc">In</span><span class="o">;</span> <span class="n">stream</span> <span class="o">>]</span>
+      <span class="o">|</span> <span class="s2">"binary"</span> <span class="o">-></span> <span class="o">[<</span> <span class="k">'</span><span class="nn">Token</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="nc">Binary</span><span class="o">;</span> <span class="n">stream</span> <span class="o">>]</span>
+      <span class="o">|</span> <span class="s2">"unary"</span> <span class="o">-></span> <span class="o">[<</span> <span class="k">'</span><span class="nn">Token</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="nc">Unary</span><span class="o">;</span> <span class="n">stream</span> <span class="o">>]</span>
+      <span class="o">|</span> <span class="n">id</span> <span class="o">-></span> <span class="o">[<</span> <span class="k">'</span><span class="nn">Token</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="nc">Ident</span> <span class="n">id</span><span class="o">;</span> <span class="n">stream</span> <span class="o">>]</span>
+
+<span class="ow">and</span> <span class="n">lex_comment</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="n">parser</span>
+  <span class="o">|</span> <span class="o">[<</span> <span class="k">'</span> <span class="o">(</span><span class="sc">'\n'</span><span class="o">);</span> <span class="n">stream</span><span class="o">=</span><span class="n">lex</span> <span class="o">>]</span> <span class="o">-></span> <span class="n">stream</span>
+  <span class="o">|</span> <span class="o">[<</span> <span class="k">'</span><span class="n">c</span><span class="o">;</span> <span class="n">e</span><span class="o">=</span><span class="n">lex_comment</span> <span class="o">>]</span> <span class="o">-></span> <span class="n">e</span>
+  <span class="o">|</span> <span class="o">[<</span> <span class="o">>]</span> <span class="o">-></span> <span class="o">[<</span> <span class="o">>]</span>
+</pre></div>
+</div>
+</dd>
+<dt>ast.ml:</dt>
+<dd><div class="first last highlight-ocaml"><div class="highlight"><pre><span class="c">(*===----------------------------------------------------------------------===</span>
+<span class="c"> * Abstract Syntax Tree (aka Parse Tree)</span>
+<span class="c"> *===----------------------------------------------------------------------===*)</span>
+
+<span class="c">(* expr - Base type for all expression nodes. *)</span>
+<span class="k">type</span> <span class="n">expr</span> <span class="o">=</span>
+  <span class="c">(* variant for numeric literals like "1.0". *)</span>
+  <span class="o">|</span> <span class="nc">Number</span> <span class="k">of</span> <span class="kt">float</span>
+
+  <span class="c">(* variant for referencing a variable, like "a". *)</span>
+  <span class="o">|</span> <span class="nc">Variable</span> <span class="k">of</span> <span class="kt">string</span>
+
+  <span class="c">(* variant for a unary operator. *)</span>
+  <span class="o">|</span> <span class="nc">Unary</span> <span class="k">of</span> <span class="kt">char</span> <span class="o">*</span> <span class="n">expr</span>
+
+  <span class="c">(* variant for a binary operator. *)</span>
+  <span class="o">|</span> <span class="nc">Binary</span> <span class="k">of</span> <span class="kt">char</span> <span class="o">*</span> <span class="n">expr</span> <span class="o">*</span> <span class="n">expr</span>
+
+  <span class="c">(* variant for function calls. *)</span>
+  <span class="o">|</span> <span class="nc">Call</span> <span class="k">of</span> <span class="kt">string</span> <span class="o">*</span> <span class="n">expr</span> <span class="kt">array</span>
+
+  <span class="c">(* variant for if/then/else. *)</span>
+  <span class="o">|</span> <span class="nc">If</span> <span class="k">of</span> <span class="n">expr</span> <span class="o">*</span> <span class="n">expr</span> <span class="o">*</span> <span class="n">expr</span>
+
+  <span class="c">(* variant for for/in. *)</span>
+  <span class="o">|</span> <span class="nc">For</span> <span class="k">of</span> <span class="kt">string</span> <span class="o">*</span> <span class="n">expr</span> <span class="o">*</span> <span class="n">expr</span> <span class="o">*</span> <span class="n">expr</span> <span class="n">option</span> <span class="o">*</span> <span class="n">expr</span>
+
+<span class="c">(* proto - This type represents the "prototype" for a function, which captures</span>
+<span class="c"> * its name, and its argument names (thus implicitly the number of arguments the</span>
+<span class="c"> * function takes). *)</span>
+<span class="k">type</span> <span class="n">proto</span> <span class="o">=</span>
+  <span class="o">|</span> <span class="nc">Prototype</span> <span class="k">of</span> <span class="kt">string</span> <span class="o">*</span> <span class="kt">string</span> <span class="kt">array</span>
+  <span class="o">|</span> <span class="nc">BinOpPrototype</span> <span class="k">of</span> <span class="kt">string</span> <span class="o">*</span> <span class="kt">string</span> <span class="kt">array</span> <span class="o">*</span> <span class="kt">int</span>
+
+<span class="c">(* func - This type represents a function definition itself. *)</span>
+<span class="k">type</span> <span class="n">func</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="nc">Function</span> <span class="k">of</span> <span class="n">proto</span> <span class="o">*</span> <span class="n">expr</span>
+</pre></div>
+</div>
+</dd>
+<dt>parser.ml:</dt>
+<dd><div class="first last highlight-ocaml"><div class="highlight"><pre><span class="c">(*===---------------------------------------------------------------------===</span>
+<span class="c"> * Parser</span>
+<span class="c"> *===---------------------------------------------------------------------===*)</span>
+
+<span class="c">(* binop_precedence - This holds the precedence for each binary operator that is</span>
+<span class="c"> * defined *)</span>
+<span class="k">let</span> <span class="n">binop_precedence</span><span class="o">:(</span><span class="kt">char</span><span class="o">,</span> <span class="kt">int</span><span class="o">)</span> <span class="nn">Hashtbl</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="n">t</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="nn">Hashtbl</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="n">create</span> <span class="mi">10</span>
+
+<span class="c">(* precedence - Get the precedence of the pending binary operator token. *)</span>
+<span class="k">let</span> <span class="n">precedence</span> <span class="n">c</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="k">try</span> <span class="nn">Hashtbl</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="n">find</span> <span class="n">binop_precedence</span> <span class="n">c</span> <span class="k">with</span> <span class="nc">Not_found</span> <span class="o">-></span> <span class="o">-</span><span class="mi">1</span>
+
+<span class="c">(* primary</span>
+<span class="c"> *   ::= identifier</span>
+<span class="c"> *   ::= numberexpr</span>
+<span class="c"> *   ::= parenexpr</span>
+<span class="c"> *   ::= ifexpr</span>
+<span class="c"> *   ::= forexpr *)</span>
+<span class="k">let</span> <span class="k">rec</span> <span class="n">parse_primary</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="n">parser</span>
+  <span class="c">(* numberexpr ::= number *)</span>
+  <span class="o">|</span> <span class="o">[<</span> <span class="k">'</span><span class="nn">Token</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="nc">Number</span> <span class="n">n</span> <span class="o">>]</span> <span class="o">-></span> <span class="nn">Ast</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="nc">Number</span> <span class="n">n</span>
+
+  <span class="c">(* parenexpr ::= '(' expression ')' *)</span>
+  <span class="o">|</span> <span class="o">[<</span> <span class="k">'</span><span class="nn">Token</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="nc">Kwd</span> <span class="sc">'('</span><span class="o">;</span> <span class="n">e</span><span class="o">=</span><span class="n">parse_expr</span><span class="o">;</span> <span class="k">'</span><span class="nn">Token</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="nc">Kwd</span> <span class="sc">')'</span> <span class="o">??</span> <span class="s2">"expected ')'"</span> <span class="o">>]</span> <span class="o">-></span> <span class="n">e</span>
+
+  <span class="c">(* identifierexpr</span>
+<span class="c">   *   ::= identifier</span>
+<span class="c">   *   ::= identifier '(' argumentexpr ')' *)</span>
+  <span class="o">|</span> <span class="o">[<</span> <span class="k">'</span><span class="nn">Token</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="nc">Ident</span> <span class="n">id</span><span class="o">;</span> <span class="n">stream</span> <span class="o">>]</span> <span class="o">-></span>
+      <span class="k">let</span> <span class="k">rec</span> <span class="n">parse_args</span> <span class="n">accumulator</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="n">parser</span>
+        <span class="o">|</span> <span class="o">[<</span> <span class="n">e</span><span class="o">=</span><span class="n">parse_expr</span><span class="o">;</span> <span class="n">stream</span> <span class="o">>]</span> <span class="o">-></span>
+            <span class="k">begin</span> <span class="n">parser</span>
+              <span class="o">|</span> <span class="o">[<</span> <span class="k">'</span><span class="nn">Token</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="nc">Kwd</span> <span class="sc">','</span><span class="o">;</span> <span class="n">e</span><span class="o">=</span><span class="n">parse_args</span> <span class="o">(</span><span class="n">e</span> <span class="o">::</span> <span class="n">accumulator</span><span class="o">)</span> <span class="o">>]</span> <span class="o">-></span> <span class="n">e</span>
+              <span class="o">|</span> <span class="o">[<</span> <span class="o">>]</span> <span class="o">-></span> <span class="n">e</span> <span class="o">::</span> <span class="n">accumulator</span>
+            <span class="k">end</span> <span class="n">stream</span>
+        <span class="o">|</span> <span class="o">[<</span> <span class="o">>]</span> <span class="o">-></span> <span class="n">accumulator</span>
+      <span class="k">in</span>
+      <span class="k">let</span> <span class="k">rec</span> <span class="n">parse_ident</span> <span class="n">id</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="n">parser</span>
+        <span class="c">(* Call. *)</span>
+        <span class="o">|</span> <span class="o">[<</span> <span class="k">'</span><span class="nn">Token</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="nc">Kwd</span> <span class="sc">'('</span><span class="o">;</span>
+             <span class="n">args</span><span class="o">=</span><span class="n">parse_args</span> <span class="bp">[]</span><span class="o">;</span>
+             <span class="k">'</span><span class="nn">Token</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="nc">Kwd</span> <span class="sc">')'</span> <span class="o">??</span> <span class="s2">"expected ')'"</span><span class="o">>]</span> <span class="o">-></span>
+            <span class="nn">Ast</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="nc">Call</span> <span class="o">(</span><span class="n">id</span><span class="o">,</span> <span class="nn">Array</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="n">of_list</span> <span class="o">(</span><span class="nn">List</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="n">rev</span> <span class="n">args</span><span class="o">))</span>
+
+        <span class="c">(* Simple variable ref. *)</span>
+        <span class="o">|</span> <span class="o">[<</span> <span class="o">>]</span> <span class="o">-></span> <span class="nn">Ast</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="nc">Variable</span> <span class="n">id</span>
+      <span class="k">in</span>
+      <span class="n">parse_ident</span> <span class="n">id</span> <span class="n">stream</span>
+
+  <span class="c">(* ifexpr ::= 'if' expr 'then' expr 'else' expr *)</span>
+  <span class="o">|</span> <span class="o">[<</span> <span class="k">'</span><span class="nn">Token</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="nc">If</span><span class="o">;</span> <span class="n">c</span><span class="o">=</span><span class="n">parse_expr</span><span class="o">;</span>
+       <span class="k">'</span><span class="nn">Token</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="nc">Then</span> <span class="o">??</span> <span class="s2">"expected 'then'"</span><span class="o">;</span> <span class="n">t</span><span class="o">=</span><span class="n">parse_expr</span><span class="o">;</span>
+       <span class="k">'</span><span class="nn">Token</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="nc">Else</span> <span class="o">??</span> <span class="s2">"expected 'else'"</span><span class="o">;</span> <span class="n">e</span><span class="o">=</span><span class="n">parse_expr</span> <span class="o">>]</span> <span class="o">-></span>
+      <span class="nn">Ast</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="nc">If</span> <span class="o">(</span><span class="n">c</span><span class="o">,</span> <span class="n">t</span><span class="o">,</span> <span class="n">e</span><span class="o">)</span>
+
+  <span class="c">(* forexpr</span>
+<span class="c">        ::= 'for' identifier '=' expr ',' expr (',' expr)? 'in' expression *)</span>
+  <span class="o">|</span> <span class="o">[<</span> <span class="k">'</span><span class="nn">Token</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="nc">For</span><span class="o">;</span>
+       <span class="k">'</span><span class="nn">Token</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="nc">Ident</span> <span class="n">id</span> <span class="o">??</span> <span class="s2">"expected identifier after for"</span><span class="o">;</span>
+       <span class="k">'</span><span class="nn">Token</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="nc">Kwd</span> <span class="sc">'='</span> <span class="o">??</span> <span class="s2">"expected '=' after for"</span><span class="o">;</span>
+       <span class="n">stream</span> <span class="o">>]</span> <span class="o">-></span>
+      <span class="k">begin</span> <span class="n">parser</span>
+        <span class="o">|</span> <span class="o">[<</span>
+             <span class="n">start</span><span class="o">=</span><span class="n">parse_expr</span><span class="o">;</span>
+             <span class="k">'</span><span class="nn">Token</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="nc">Kwd</span> <span class="sc">','</span> <span class="o">??</span> <span class="s2">"expected ',' after for"</span><span class="o">;</span>
+             <span class="n">end_</span><span class="o">=</span><span class="n">parse_expr</span><span class="o">;</span>
+             <span class="n">stream</span> <span class="o">>]</span> <span class="o">-></span>
+            <span class="k">let</span> <span class="n">step</span> <span class="o">=</span>
+              <span class="k">begin</span> <span class="n">parser</span>
+              <span class="o">|</span> <span class="o">[<</span> <span class="k">'</span><span class="nn">Token</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="nc">Kwd</span> <span class="sc">','</span><span class="o">;</span> <span class="n">step</span><span class="o">=</span><span class="n">parse_expr</span> <span class="o">>]</span> <span class="o">-></span> <span class="nc">Some</span> <span class="n">step</span>
+              <span class="o">|</span> <span class="o">[<</span> <span class="o">>]</span> <span class="o">-></span> <span class="nc">None</span>
+              <span class="k">end</span> <span class="n">stream</span>
+            <span class="k">in</span>
+            <span class="k">begin</span> <span class="n">parser</span>
+            <span class="o">|</span> <span class="o">[<</span> <span class="k">'</span><span class="nn">Token</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="nc">In</span><span class="o">;</span> <span class="n">body</span><span class="o">=</span><span class="n">parse_expr</span> <span class="o">>]</span> <span class="o">-></span>
+                <span class="nn">Ast</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="nc">For</span> <span class="o">(</span><span class="n">id</span><span class="o">,</span> <span class="n">start</span><span class="o">,</span> <span class="n">end_</span><span class="o">,</span> <span class="n">step</span><span class="o">,</span> <span class="n">body</span><span class="o">)</span>
+            <span class="o">|</span> <span class="o">[<</span> <span class="o">>]</span> <span class="o">-></span>
+                <span class="k">raise</span> <span class="o">(</span><span class="nn">Stream</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="nc">Error</span> <span class="s2">"expected 'in' after for"</span><span class="o">)</span>
+            <span class="k">end</span> <span class="n">stream</span>
+        <span class="o">|</span> <span class="o">[<</span> <span class="o">>]</span> <span class="o">-></span>
+            <span class="k">raise</span> <span class="o">(</span><span class="nn">Stream</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="nc">Error</span> <span class="s2">"expected '=' after for"</span><span class="o">)</span>
+      <span class="k">end</span> <span class="n">stream</span>
+
+  <span class="o">|</span> <span class="o">[<</span> <span class="o">>]</span> <span class="o">-></span> <span class="k">raise</span> <span class="o">(</span><span class="nn">Stream</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="nc">Error</span> <span class="s2">"unknown token when expecting an expression."</span><span class="o">)</span>
+
+<span class="c">(* unary</span>
+<span class="c"> *   ::= primary</span>
+<span class="c"> *   ::= '!' unary *)</span>
+<span class="ow">and</span> <span class="n">parse_unary</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="n">parser</span>
+  <span class="c">(* If this is a unary operator, read it. *)</span>
+  <span class="o">|</span> <span class="o">[<</span> <span class="k">'</span><span class="nn">Token</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="nc">Kwd</span> <span class="n">op</span> <span class="k">when</span> <span class="n">op</span> <span class="o">!=</span> <span class="sc">'('</span> <span class="o">&&</span> <span class="n">op</span> <span class="o">!=</span> <span class="sc">')'</span><span class="o">;</span> <span class="n">operand</span><span class="o">=</span><span class="n">parse_expr</span> <span class="o">>]</span> <span class="o">-></span>
+      <span class="nn">Ast</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="nc">Unary</span> <span class="o">(</span><span class="n">op</span><span class="o">,</span> <span class="n">operand</span><span class="o">)</span>
+
+  <span class="c">(* If the current token is not an operator, it must be a primary expr. *)</span>
+  <span class="o">|</span> <span class="o">[<</span> <span class="n">stream</span> <span class="o">>]</span> <span class="o">-></span> <span class="n">parse_primary</span> <span class="n">stream</span>
+
+<span class="c">(* binoprhs</span>
+<span class="c"> *   ::= ('+' primary)* *)</span>
+<span class="ow">and</span> <span class="n">parse_bin_rhs</span> <span class="n">expr_prec</span> <span class="n">lhs</span> <span class="n">stream</span> <span class="o">=</span>
+  <span class="k">match</span> <span class="nn">Stream</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="n">peek</span> <span class="n">stream</span> <span class="k">with</span>
+  <span class="c">(* If this is a binop, find its precedence. *)</span>
+  <span class="o">|</span> <span class="nc">Some</span> <span class="o">(</span><span class="nn">Token</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="nc">Kwd</span> <span class="n">c</span><span class="o">)</span> <span class="k">when</span> <span class="nn">Hashtbl</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="n">mem</span> <span class="n">binop_precedence</span> <span class="n">c</span> <span class="o">-></span>
+      <span class="k">let</span> <span class="n">token_prec</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="n">precedence</span> <span class="n">c</span> <span class="k">in</span>
+
+      <span class="c">(* If this is a binop that binds at least as tightly as the current binop,</span>
+<span class="c">       * consume it, otherwise we are done. *)</span>
+      <span class="k">if</span> <span class="n">token_prec</span> <span class="o"><</span> <span class="n">expr_prec</span> <span class="k">then</span> <span class="n">lhs</span> <span class="k">else</span> <span class="k">begin</span>
+        <span class="c">(* Eat the binop. *)</span>
+        <span class="nn">Stream</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="n">junk</span> <span class="n">stream</span><span class="o">;</span>
+
+        <span class="c">(* Parse the unary expression after the binary operator. *)</span>
+        <span class="k">let</span> <span class="n">rhs</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="n">parse_unary</span> <span class="n">stream</span> <span class="k">in</span>
+
+        <span class="c">(* Okay, we know this is a binop. *)</span>
+        <span class="k">let</span> <span class="n">rhs</span> <span class="o">=</span>
+          <span class="k">match</span> <span class="nn">Stream</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="n">peek</span> <span class="n">stream</span> <span class="k">with</span>
+          <span class="o">|</span> <span class="nc">Some</span> <span class="o">(</span><span class="nn">Token</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="nc">Kwd</span> <span class="n">c2</span><span class="o">)</span> <span class="o">-></span>
+              <span class="c">(* If BinOp binds less tightly with rhs than the operator after</span>
+<span class="c">               * rhs, let the pending operator take rhs as its lhs. *)</span>
+              <span class="k">let</span> <span class="n">next_prec</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="n">precedence</span> <span class="n">c2</span> <span class="k">in</span>
+              <span class="k">if</span> <span class="n">token_prec</span> <span class="o"><</span> <span class="n">next_prec</span>
+              <span class="k">then</span> <span class="n">parse_bin_rhs</span> <span class="o">(</span><span class="n">token_prec</span> <span class="o">+</span> <span class="mi">1</span><span class="o">)</span> <span class="n">rhs</span> <span class="n">stream</span>
+              <span class="k">else</span> <span class="n">rhs</span>
+          <span class="o">|</span> <span class="o">_</span> <span class="o">-></span> <span class="n">rhs</span>
+        <span class="k">in</span>
+
+        <span class="c">(* Merge lhs/rhs. *)</span>
+        <span class="k">let</span> <span class="n">lhs</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="nn">Ast</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="nc">Binary</span> <span class="o">(</span><span class="n">c</span><span class="o">,</span> <span class="n">lhs</span><span class="o">,</span> <span class="n">rhs</span><span class="o">)</span> <span class="k">in</span>
+        <span class="n">parse_bin_rhs</span> <span class="n">expr_prec</span> <span class="n">lhs</span> <span class="n">stream</span>
+      <span class="k">end</span>
+  <span class="o">|</span> <span class="o">_</span> <span class="o">-></span> <span class="n">lhs</span>
+
+<span class="c">(* expression</span>
+<span class="c"> *   ::= primary binoprhs *)</span>
+<span class="ow">and</span> <span class="n">parse_expr</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="n">parser</span>
+  <span class="o">|</span> <span class="o">[<</span> <span class="n">lhs</span><span class="o">=</span><span class="n">parse_unary</span><span class="o">;</span> <span class="n">stream</span> <span class="o">>]</span> <span class="o">-></span> <span class="n">parse_bin_rhs</span> <span class="mi">0</span> <span class="n">lhs</span> <span class="n">stream</span>
+
+<span class="c">(* prototype</span>
+<span class="c"> *   ::= id '(' id* ')'</span>
+<span class="c"> *   ::= binary LETTER number? (id, id)</span>
+<span class="c"> *   ::= unary LETTER number? (id) *)</span>
+<span class="k">let</span> <span class="n">parse_prototype</span> <span class="o">=</span>
+  <span class="k">let</span> <span class="k">rec</span> <span class="n">parse_args</span> <span class="n">accumulator</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="n">parser</span>
+    <span class="o">|</span> <span class="o">[<</span> <span class="k">'</span><span class="nn">Token</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="nc">Ident</span> <span class="n">id</span><span class="o">;</span> <span class="n">e</span><span class="o">=</span><span class="n">parse_args</span> <span class="o">(</span><span class="n">id</span><span class="o">::</span><span class="n">accumulator</span><span class="o">)</span> <span class="o">>]</span> <span class="o">-></span> <span class="n">e</span>
+    <span class="o">|</span> <span class="o">[<</span> <span class="o">>]</span> <span class="o">-></span> <span class="n">accumulator</span>
+  <span class="k">in</span>
+  <span class="k">let</span> <span class="n">parse_operator</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="n">parser</span>
+    <span class="o">|</span> <span class="o">[<</span> <span class="k">'</span><span class="nn">Token</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="nc">Unary</span> <span class="o">>]</span> <span class="o">-></span> <span class="s2">"unary"</span><span class="o">,</span> <span class="mi">1</span>
+    <span class="o">|</span> <span class="o">[<</span> <span class="k">'</span><span class="nn">Token</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="nc">Binary</span> <span class="o">>]</span> <span class="o">-></span> <span class="s2">"binary"</span><span class="o">,</span> <span class="mi">2</span>
+  <span class="k">in</span>
+  <span class="k">let</span> <span class="n">parse_binary_precedence</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="n">parser</span>
+    <span class="o">|</span> <span class="o">[<</span> <span class="k">'</span><span class="nn">Token</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="nc">Number</span> <span class="n">n</span> <span class="o">>]</span> <span class="o">-></span> <span class="n">int_of_float</span> <span class="n">n</span>
+    <span class="o">|</span> <span class="o">[<</span> <span class="o">>]</span> <span class="o">-></span> <span class="mi">30</span>
+  <span class="k">in</span>
+  <span class="n">parser</span>
+  <span class="o">|</span> <span class="o">[<</span> <span class="k">'</span><span class="nn">Token</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="nc">Ident</span> <span class="n">id</span><span class="o">;</span>
+       <span class="k">'</span><span class="nn">Token</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="nc">Kwd</span> <span class="sc">'('</span> <span class="o">??</span> <span class="s2">"expected '(' in prototype"</span><span class="o">;</span>
+       <span class="n">args</span><span class="o">=</span><span class="n">parse_args</span> <span class="bp">[]</span><span class="o">;</span>
+       <span class="k">'</span><span class="nn">Token</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="nc">Kwd</span> <span class="sc">')'</span> <span class="o">??</span> <span class="s2">"expected ')' in prototype"</span> <span class="o">>]</span> <span class="o">-></span>
+      <span class="c">(* success. *)</span>
+      <span class="nn">Ast</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="nc">Prototype</span> <span class="o">(</span><span class="n">id</span><span class="o">,</span> <span class="nn">Array</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="n">of_list</span> <span class="o">(</span><span class="nn">List</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="n">rev</span> <span class="n">args</span><span class="o">))</span>
+  <span class="o">|</span> <span class="o">[<</span> <span class="o">(</span><span class="n">prefix</span><span class="o">,</span> <span class="n">kind</span><span class="o">)=</span><span class="n">parse_operator</span><span class="o">;</span>
+       <span class="k">'</span><span class="nn">Token</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="nc">Kwd</span> <span class="n">op</span> <span class="o">??</span> <span class="s2">"expected an operator"</span><span class="o">;</span>
+       <span class="c">(* Read the precedence if present. *)</span>
+       <span class="n">binary_precedence</span><span class="o">=</span><span class="n">parse_binary_precedence</span><span class="o">;</span>
+       <span class="k">'</span><span class="nn">Token</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="nc">Kwd</span> <span class="sc">'('</span> <span class="o">??</span> <span class="s2">"expected '(' in prototype"</span><span class="o">;</span>
+        <span class="n">args</span><span class="o">=</span><span class="n">parse_args</span> <span class="bp">[]</span><span class="o">;</span>
+       <span class="k">'</span><span class="nn">Token</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="nc">Kwd</span> <span class="sc">')'</span> <span class="o">??</span> <span class="s2">"expected ')' in prototype"</span> <span class="o">>]</span> <span class="o">-></span>
+      <span class="k">let</span> <span class="n">name</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="n">prefix</span> <span class="o">^</span> <span class="o">(</span><span class="nn">String</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="n">make</span> <span class="mi">1</span> <span class="n">op</span><span class="o">)</span> <span class="k">in</span>
+      <span class="k">let</span> <span class="n">args</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="nn">Array</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="n">of_list</span> <span class="o">(</span><span class="nn">List</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="n">rev</span> <span class="n">args</span><span class="o">)</span> <span class="k">in</span>
+
+      <span class="c">(* Verify right number of arguments for operator. *)</span>
+      <span class="k">if</span> <span class="nn">Array</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="n">length</span> <span class="n">args</span> <span class="o">!=</span> <span class="n">kind</span>
+      <span class="k">then</span> <span class="k">raise</span> <span class="o">(</span><span class="nn">Stream</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="nc">Error</span> <span class="s2">"invalid number of operands for operator"</span><span class="o">)</span>
+      <span class="k">else</span>
+        <span class="k">if</span> <span class="n">kind</span> <span class="o">==</span> <span class="mi">1</span> <span class="k">then</span>
+          <span class="nn">Ast</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="nc">Prototype</span> <span class="o">(</span><span class="n">name</span><span class="o">,</span> <span class="n">args</span><span class="o">)</span>
+        <span class="k">else</span>
+          <span class="nn">Ast</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="nc">BinOpPrototype</span> <span class="o">(</span><span class="n">name</span><span class="o">,</span> <span class="n">args</span><span class="o">,</span> <span class="n">binary_precedence</span><span class="o">)</span>
+  <span class="o">|</span> <span class="o">[<</span> <span class="o">>]</span> <span class="o">-></span>
+      <span class="k">raise</span> <span class="o">(</span><span class="nn">Stream</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="nc">Error</span> <span class="s2">"expected function name in prototype"</span><span class="o">)</span>
+
+<span class="c">(* definition ::= 'def' prototype expression *)</span>
+<span class="k">let</span> <span class="n">parse_definition</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="n">parser</span>
+  <span class="o">|</span> <span class="o">[<</span> <span class="k">'</span><span class="nn">Token</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="nc">Def</span><span class="o">;</span> <span class="n">p</span><span class="o">=</span><span class="n">parse_prototype</span><span class="o">;</span> <span class="n">e</span><span class="o">=</span><span class="n">parse_expr</span> <span class="o">>]</span> <span class="o">-></span>
+      <span class="nn">Ast</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="nc">Function</span> <span class="o">(</span><span class="n">p</span><span class="o">,</span> <span class="n">e</span><span class="o">)</span>
+
+<span class="c">(* toplevelexpr ::= expression *)</span>
+<span class="k">let</span> <span class="n">parse_toplevel</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="n">parser</span>
+  <span class="o">|</span> <span class="o">[<</span> <span class="n">e</span><span class="o">=</span><span class="n">parse_expr</span> <span class="o">>]</span> <span class="o">-></span>
+      <span class="c">(* Make an anonymous proto. *)</span>
+      <span class="nn">Ast</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="nc">Function</span> <span class="o">(</span><span class="nn">Ast</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="nc">Prototype</span> <span class="o">(</span><span class="s2">""</span><span class="o">,</span> <span class="o">[||]),</span> <span class="n">e</span><span class="o">)</span>
+
+<span class="c">(*  external ::= 'extern' prototype *)</span>
+<span class="k">let</span> <span class="n">parse_extern</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="n">parser</span>
+  <span class="o">|</span> <span class="o">[<</span> <span class="k">'</span><span class="nn">Token</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="nc">Extern</span><span class="o">;</span> <span class="n">e</span><span class="o">=</span><span class="n">parse_prototype</span> <span class="o">>]</span> <span class="o">-></span> <span class="n">e</span>
+</pre></div>
+</div>
+</dd>
+<dt>codegen.ml:</dt>
+<dd><div class="first last highlight-ocaml"><div class="highlight"><pre><span class="c">(*===----------------------------------------------------------------------===</span>
+<span class="c"> * Code Generation</span>
+<span class="c"> *===----------------------------------------------------------------------===*)</span>
+
+<span class="k">open</span> <span class="nc">Llvm</span>
+
+<span class="k">exception</span> <span class="nc">Error</span> <span class="k">of</span> <span class="kt">string</span>
+
+<span class="k">let</span> <span class="n">context</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="n">global_context</span> <span class="bp">()</span>
+<span class="k">let</span> <span class="n">the_module</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="n">create_module</span> <span class="n">context</span> <span class="s2">"my cool jit"</span>
+<span class="k">let</span> <span class="n">builder</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="n">builder</span> <span class="n">context</span>
+<span class="k">let</span> <span class="n">named_values</span><span class="o">:(</span><span class="kt">string</span><span class="o">,</span> <span class="n">llvalue</span><span class="o">)</span> <span class="nn">Hashtbl</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="n">t</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="nn">Hashtbl</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="n">create</span> <span class="mi">10</span>
+<span class="k">let</span> <span class="n">double_type</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="n">double_type</span> <span class="n">context</span>
+
+<span class="k">let</span> <span class="k">rec</span> <span class="n">codegen_expr</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="k">function</span>
+  <span class="o">|</span> <span class="nn">Ast</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="nc">Number</span> <span class="n">n</span> <span class="o">-></span> <span class="n">const_float</span> <span class="n">double_type</span> <span class="n">n</span>
+  <span class="o">|</span> <span class="nn">Ast</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="nc">Variable</span> <span class="n">name</span> <span class="o">-></span>
+      <span class="o">(</span><span class="k">try</span> <span class="nn">Hashtbl</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="n">find</span> <span class="n">named_values</span> <span class="n">name</span> <span class="k">with</span>
+        <span class="o">|</span> <span class="nc">Not_found</span> <span class="o">-></span> <span class="k">raise</span> <span class="o">(</span><span class="nc">Error</span> <span class="s2">"unknown variable name"</span><span class="o">))</span>
+  <span class="o">|</span> <span class="nn">Ast</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="nc">Unary</span> <span class="o">(</span><span class="n">op</span><span class="o">,</span> <span class="n">operand</span><span class="o">)</span> <span class="o">-></span>
+      <span class="k">let</span> <span class="n">operand</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="n">codegen_expr</span> <span class="n">operand</span> <span class="k">in</span>
+      <span class="k">let</span> <span class="n">callee</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="s2">"unary"</span> <span class="o">^</span> <span class="o">(</span><span class="nn">String</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="n">make</span> <span class="mi">1</span> <span class="n">op</span><span class="o">)</span> <span class="k">in</span>
+      <span class="k">let</span> <span class="n">callee</span> <span class="o">=</span>
+        <span class="k">match</span> <span class="n">lookup_function</span> <span class="n">callee</span> <span class="n">the_module</span> <span class="k">with</span>
+        <span class="o">|</span> <span class="nc">Some</span> <span class="n">callee</span> <span class="o">-></span> <span class="n">callee</span>
+        <span class="o">|</span> <span class="nc">None</span> <span class="o">-></span> <span class="k">raise</span> <span class="o">(</span><span class="nc">Error</span> <span class="s2">"unknown unary operator"</span><span class="o">)</span>
+      <span class="k">in</span>
+      <span class="n">build_call</span> <span class="n">callee</span> <span class="o">[|</span><span class="n">operand</span><span class="o">|]</span> <span class="s2">"unop"</span> <span class="n">builder</span>
+  <span class="o">|</span> <span class="nn">Ast</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="nc">Binary</span> <span class="o">(</span><span class="n">op</span><span class="o">,</span> <span class="n">lhs</span><span class="o">,</span> <span class="n">rhs</span><span class="o">)</span> <span class="o">-></span>
+      <span class="k">let</span> <span class="n">lhs_val</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="n">codegen_expr</span> <span class="n">lhs</span> <span class="k">in</span>
+      <span class="k">let</span> <span class="n">rhs_val</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="n">codegen_expr</span> <span class="n">rhs</span> <span class="k">in</span>
+      <span class="k">begin</span>
+        <span class="k">match</span> <span class="n">op</span> <span class="k">with</span>
+        <span class="o">|</span> <span class="sc">'+'</span> <span class="o">-></span> <span class="n">build_add</span> <span class="n">lhs_val</span> <span class="n">rhs_val</span> <span class="s2">"addtmp"</span> <span class="n">builder</span>
+        <span class="o">|</span> <span class="sc">'-'</span> <span class="o">-></span> <span class="n">build_sub</span> <span class="n">lhs_val</span> <span class="n">rhs_val</span> <span class="s2">"subtmp"</span> <span class="n">builder</span>
+        <span class="o">|</span> <span class="sc">'*'</span> <span class="o">-></span> <span class="n">build_mul</span> <span class="n">lhs_val</span> <span class="n">rhs_val</span> <span class="s2">"multmp"</span> <span class="n">builder</span>
+        <span class="o">|</span> <span class="sc">'<'</span> <span class="o">-></span>
+            <span class="c">(* Convert bool 0/1 to double 0.0 or 1.0 *)</span>
+            <span class="k">let</span> <span class="n">i</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="n">build_fcmp</span> <span class="nn">Fcmp</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="nc">Ult</span> <span class="n">lhs_val</span> <span class="n">rhs_val</span> <span class="s2">"cmptmp"</span> <span class="n">builder</span> <span class="k">in</span>
+            <span class="n">build_uitofp</span> <span class="n">i</span> <span class="n">double_type</span> <span class="s2">"booltmp"</span> <span class="n">builder</span>
+        <span class="o">|</span> <span class="o">_</span> <span class="o">-></span>
+            <span class="c">(* If it wasn't a builtin binary operator, it must be a user defined</span>
+<span class="c">             * one. Emit a call to it. *)</span>
+            <span class="k">let</span> <span class="n">callee</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="s2">"binary"</span> <span class="o">^</span> <span class="o">(</span><span class="nn">String</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="n">make</span> <span class="mi">1</span> <span class="n">op</span><span class="o">)</span> <span class="k">in</span>
+            <span class="k">let</span> <span class="n">callee</span> <span class="o">=</span>
+              <span class="k">match</span> <span class="n">lookup_function</span> <span class="n">callee</span> <span class="n">the_module</span> <span class="k">with</span>
+              <span class="o">|</span> <span class="nc">Some</span> <span class="n">callee</span> <span class="o">-></span> <span class="n">callee</span>
+              <span class="o">|</span> <span class="nc">None</span> <span class="o">-></span> <span class="k">raise</span> <span class="o">(</span><span class="nc">Error</span> <span class="s2">"binary operator not found!"</span><span class="o">)</span>
+            <span class="k">in</span>
+            <span class="n">build_call</span> <span class="n">callee</span> <span class="o">[|</span><span class="n">lhs_val</span><span class="o">;</span> <span class="n">rhs_val</span><span class="o">|]</span> <span class="s2">"binop"</span> <span class="n">builder</span>
+      <span class="k">end</span>
+  <span class="o">|</span> <span class="nn">Ast</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="nc">Call</span> <span class="o">(</span><span class="n">callee</span><span class="o">,</span> <span class="n">args</span><span class="o">)</span> <span class="o">-></span>
+      <span class="c">(* Look up the name in the module table. *)</span>
+      <span class="k">let</span> <span class="n">callee</span> <span class="o">=</span>
+        <span class="k">match</span> <span class="n">lookup_function</span> <span class="n">callee</span> <span class="n">the_module</span> <span class="k">with</span>
+        <span class="o">|</span> <span class="nc">Some</span> <span class="n">callee</span> <span class="o">-></span> <span class="n">callee</span>
+        <span class="o">|</span> <span class="nc">None</span> <span class="o">-></span> <span class="k">raise</span> <span class="o">(</span><span class="nc">Error</span> <span class="s2">"unknown function referenced"</span><span class="o">)</span>
+      <span class="k">in</span>
+      <span class="k">let</span> <span class="n">params</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="n">params</span> <span class="n">callee</span> <span class="k">in</span>
+
+      <span class="c">(* If argument mismatch error. *)</span>
+      <span class="k">if</span> <span class="nn">Array</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="n">length</span> <span class="n">params</span> <span class="o">==</span> <span class="nn">Array</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="n">length</span> <span class="n">args</span> <span class="k">then</span> <span class="bp">()</span> <span class="k">else</span>
+        <span class="k">raise</span> <span class="o">(</span><span class="nc">Error</span> <span class="s2">"incorrect # arguments passed"</span><span class="o">);</span>
+      <span class="k">let</span> <span class="n">args</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="nn">Array</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="n">map</span> <span class="n">codegen_expr</span> <span class="n">args</span> <span class="k">in</span>
+      <span class="n">build_call</span> <span class="n">callee</span> <span class="n">args</span> <span class="s2">"calltmp"</span> <span class="n">builder</span>
+  <span class="o">|</span> <span class="nn">Ast</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="nc">If</span> <span class="o">(</span><span class="n">cond</span><span class="o">,</span> <span class="n">then_</span><span class="o">,</span> <span class="n">else_</span><span class="o">)</span> <span class="o">-></span>
+      <span class="k">let</span> <span class="n">cond</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="n">codegen_expr</span> <span class="n">cond</span> <span class="k">in</span>
+
+      <span class="c">(* Convert condition to a bool by comparing equal to 0.0 *)</span>
+      <span class="k">let</span> <span class="n">zero</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="n">const_float</span> <span class="n">double_type</span> <span class="mi">0</span><span class="o">.</span><span class="mi">0</span> <span class="k">in</span>
+      <span class="k">let</span> <span class="n">cond_val</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="n">build_fcmp</span> <span class="nn">Fcmp</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="nc">One</span> <span class="n">cond</span> <span class="n">zero</span> <span class="s2">"ifcond"</span> <span class="n">builder</span> <span class="k">in</span>
+
+      <span class="c">(* Grab the first block so that we might later add the conditional branch</span>
+<span class="c">       * to it at the end of the function. *)</span>
+      <span class="k">let</span> <span class="n">start_bb</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="n">insertion_block</span> <span class="n">builder</span> <span class="k">in</span>
+      <span class="k">let</span> <span class="n">the_function</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="n">block_parent</span> <span class="n">start_bb</span> <span class="k">in</span>
+
+      <span class="k">let</span> <span class="n">then_bb</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="n">append_block</span> <span class="n">context</span> <span class="s2">"then"</span> <span class="n">the_function</span> <span class="k">in</span>
+
+      <span class="c">(* Emit 'then' value. *)</span>
+      <span class="n">position_at_end</span> <span class="n">then_bb</span> <span class="n">builder</span><span class="o">;</span>
+      <span class="k">let</span> <span class="n">then_val</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="n">codegen_expr</span> <span class="n">then_</span> <span class="k">in</span>
+
+      <span class="c">(* Codegen of 'then' can change the current block, update then_bb for the</span>
+<span class="c">       * phi. We create a new name because one is used for the phi node, and the</span>
+<span class="c">       * other is used for the conditional branch. *)</span>
+      <span class="k">let</span> <span class="n">new_then_bb</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="n">insertion_block</span> <span class="n">builder</span> <span class="k">in</span>
+
+      <span class="c">(* Emit 'else' value. *)</span>
+      <span class="k">let</span> <span class="n">else_bb</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="n">append_block</span> <span class="n">context</span> <span class="s2">"else"</span> <span class="n">the_function</span> <span class="k">in</span>
+      <span class="n">position_at_end</span> <span class="n">else_bb</span> <span class="n">builder</span><span class="o">;</span>
+      <span class="k">let</span> <span class="n">else_val</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="n">codegen_expr</span> <span class="n">else_</span> <span class="k">in</span>
+
+      <span class="c">(* Codegen of 'else' can change the current block, update else_bb for the</span>
+<span class="c">       * phi. *)</span>
+      <span class="k">let</span> <span class="n">new_else_bb</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="n">insertion_block</span> <span class="n">builder</span> <span class="k">in</span>
+
+      <span class="c">(* Emit merge block. *)</span>
+      <span class="k">let</span> <span class="n">merge_bb</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="n">append_block</span> <span class="n">context</span> <span class="s2">"ifcont"</span> <span class="n">the_function</span> <span class="k">in</span>
+      <span class="n">position_at_end</span> <span class="n">merge_bb</span> <span class="n">builder</span><span class="o">;</span>
+      <span class="k">let</span> <span class="n">incoming</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="o">[(</span><span class="n">then_val</span><span class="o">,</span> <span class="n">new_then_bb</span><span class="o">);</span> <span class="o">(</span><span class="n">else_val</span><span class="o">,</span> <span class="n">new_else_bb</span><span class="o">)]</span> <span class="k">in</span>
+      <span class="k">let</span> <span class="n">phi</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="n">build_phi</span> <span class="n">incoming</span> <span class="s2">"iftmp"</span> <span class="n">builder</span> <span class="k">in</span>
+
+      <span class="c">(* Return to the start block to add the conditional branch. *)</span>
+      <span class="n">position_at_end</span> <span class="n">start_bb</span> <span class="n">builder</span><span class="o">;</span>
+      <span class="n">ignore</span> <span class="o">(</span><span class="n">build_cond_br</span> <span class="n">cond_val</span> <span class="n">then_bb</span> <span class="n">else_bb</span> <span class="n">builder</span><span class="o">);</span>
+
+      <span class="c">(* Set a unconditional branch at the end of the 'then' block and the</span>
+<span class="c">       * 'else' block to the 'merge' block. *)</span>
+      <span class="n">position_at_end</span> <span class="n">new_then_bb</span> <span class="n">builder</span><span class="o">;</span> <span class="n">ignore</span> <span class="o">(</span><span class="n">build_br</span> <span class="n">merge_bb</span> <span class="n">builder</span><span class="o">);</span>
+      <span class="n">position_at_end</span> <span class="n">new_else_bb</span> <span class="n">builder</span><span class="o">;</span> <span class="n">ignore</span> <span class="o">(</span><span class="n">build_br</span> <span class="n">merge_bb</span> <span class="n">builder</span><span class="o">);</span>
+
+      <span class="c">(* Finally, set the builder to the end of the merge block. *)</span>
+      <span class="n">position_at_end</span> <span class="n">merge_bb</span> <span class="n">builder</span><span class="o">;</span>
+
+      <span class="n">phi</span>
+  <span class="o">|</span> <span class="nn">Ast</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="nc">For</span> <span class="o">(</span><span class="n">var_name</span><span class="o">,</span> <span class="n">start</span><span class="o">,</span> <span class="n">end_</span><span class="o">,</span> <span class="n">step</span><span class="o">,</span> <span class="n">body</span><span class="o">)</span> <span class="o">-></span>
+      <span class="c">(* Emit the start code first, without 'variable' in scope. *)</span>
+      <span class="k">let</span> <span class="n">start_val</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="n">codegen_expr</span> <span class="n">start</span> <span class="k">in</span>
+
+      <span class="c">(* Make the new basic block for the loop header, inserting after current</span>
+<span class="c">       * block. *)</span>
+      <span class="k">let</span> <span class="n">preheader_bb</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="n">insertion_block</span> <span class="n">builder</span> <span class="k">in</span>
+      <span class="k">let</span> <span class="n">the_function</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="n">block_parent</span> <span class="n">preheader_bb</span> <span class="k">in</span>
+      <span class="k">let</span> <span class="n">loop_bb</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="n">append_block</span> <span class="n">context</span> <span class="s2">"loop"</span> <span class="n">the_function</span> <span class="k">in</span>
+
+      <span class="c">(* Insert an explicit fall through from the current block to the</span>
+<span class="c">       * loop_bb. *)</span>
+      <span class="n">ignore</span> <span class="o">(</span><span class="n">build_br</span> <span class="n">loop_bb</span> <span class="n">builder</span><span class="o">);</span>
+
+      <span class="c">(* Start insertion in loop_bb. *)</span>
+      <span class="n">position_at_end</span> <span class="n">loop_bb</span> <span class="n">builder</span><span class="o">;</span>
+
+      <span class="c">(* Start the PHI node with an entry for start. *)</span>
+      <span class="k">let</span> <span class="n">variable</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="n">build_phi</span> <span class="o">[(</span><span class="n">start_val</span><span class="o">,</span> <span class="n">preheader_bb</span><span class="o">)]</span> <span class="n">var_name</span> <span class="n">builder</span> <span class="k">in</span>
+
+      <span class="c">(* Within the loop, the variable is defined equal to the PHI node. If it</span>
+<span class="c">       * shadows an existing variable, we have to restore it, so save it</span>
+<span class="c">       * now. *)</span>
+      <span class="k">let</span> <span class="n">old_val</span> <span class="o">=</span>
+        <span class="k">try</span> <span class="nc">Some</span> <span class="o">(</span><span class="nn">Hashtbl</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="n">find</span> <span class="n">named_values</span> <span class="n">var_name</span><span class="o">)</span> <span class="k">with</span> <span class="nc">Not_found</span> <span class="o">-></span> <span class="nc">None</span>
+      <span class="k">in</span>
+      <span class="nn">Hashtbl</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="n">add</span> <span class="n">named_values</span> <span class="n">var_name</span> <span class="n">variable</span><span class="o">;</span>
+
+      <span class="c">(* Emit the body of the loop.  This, like any other expr, can change the</span>
+<span class="c">       * current BB.  Note that we ignore the value computed by the body, but</span>
+<span class="c">       * don't allow an error *)</span>
+      <span class="n">ignore</span> <span class="o">(</span><span class="n">codegen_expr</span> <span class="n">body</span><span class="o">);</span>
+
+      <span class="c">(* Emit the step value. *)</span>
+      <span class="k">let</span> <span class="n">step_val</span> <span class="o">=</span>
+        <span class="k">match</span> <span class="n">step</span> <span class="k">with</span>
+        <span class="o">|</span> <span class="nc">Some</span> <span class="n">step</span> <span class="o">-></span> <span class="n">codegen_expr</span> <span class="n">step</span>
+        <span class="c">(* If not specified, use 1.0. *)</span>
+        <span class="o">|</span> <span class="nc">None</span> <span class="o">-></span> <span class="n">const_float</span> <span class="n">double_type</span> <span class="mi">1</span><span class="o">.</span><span class="mi">0</span>
+      <span class="k">in</span>
+
+      <span class="k">let</span> <span class="n">next_var</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="n">build_add</span> <span class="n">variable</span> <span class="n">step_val</span> <span class="s2">"nextvar"</span> <span class="n">builder</span> <span class="k">in</span>
+
+      <span class="c">(* Compute the end condition. *)</span>
+      <span class="k">let</span> <span class="n">end_cond</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="n">codegen_expr</span> <span class="n">end_</span> <span class="k">in</span>
+
+      <span class="c">(* Convert condition to a bool by comparing equal to 0.0. *)</span>
+      <span class="k">let</span> <span class="n">zero</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="n">const_float</span> <span class="n">double_type</span> <span class="mi">0</span><span class="o">.</span><span class="mi">0</span> <span class="k">in</span>
+      <span class="k">let</span> <span class="n">end_cond</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="n">build_fcmp</span> <span class="nn">Fcmp</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="nc">One</span> <span class="n">end_cond</span> <span class="n">zero</span> <span class="s2">"loopcond"</span> <span class="n">builder</span> <span class="k">in</span>
+
+      <span class="c">(* Create the "after loop" block and insert it. *)</span>
+      <span class="k">let</span> <span class="n">loop_end_bb</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="n">insertion_block</span> <span class="n">builder</span> <span class="k">in</span>
+      <span class="k">let</span> <span class="n">after_bb</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="n">append_block</span> <span class="n">context</span> <span class="s2">"afterloop"</span> <span class="n">the_function</span> <span class="k">in</span>
+
+      <span class="c">(* Insert the conditional branch into the end of loop_end_bb. *)</span>
+      <span class="n">ignore</span> <span class="o">(</span><span class="n">build_cond_br</span> <span class="n">end_cond</span> <span class="n">loop_bb</span> <span class="n">after_bb</span> <span class="n">builder</span><span class="o">);</span>
+
+      <span class="c">(* Any new code will be inserted in after_bb. *)</span>
+      <span class="n">position_at_end</span> <span class="n">after_bb</span> <span class="n">builder</span><span class="o">;</span>
+
+      <span class="c">(* Add a new entry to the PHI node for the backedge. *)</span>
+      <span class="n">add_incoming</span> <span class="o">(</span><span class="n">next_var</span><span class="o">,</span> <span class="n">loop_end_bb</span><span class="o">)</span> <span class="n">variable</span><span class="o">;</span>
+
+      <span class="c">(* Restore the unshadowed variable. *)</span>
+      <span class="k">begin</span> <span class="k">match</span> <span class="n">old_val</span> <span class="k">with</span>
+      <span class="o">|</span> <span class="nc">Some</span> <span class="n">old_val</span> <span class="o">-></span> <span class="nn">Hashtbl</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="n">add</span> <span class="n">named_values</span> <span class="n">var_name</span> <span class="n">old_val</span>
+      <span class="o">|</span> <span class="nc">None</span> <span class="o">-></span> <span class="bp">()</span>
+      <span class="k">end</span><span class="o">;</span>
+
+      <span class="c">(* for expr always returns 0.0. *)</span>
+      <span class="n">const_null</span> <span class="n">double_type</span>
+
+<span class="k">let</span> <span class="n">codegen_proto</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="k">function</span>
+  <span class="o">|</span> <span class="nn">Ast</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="nc">Prototype</span> <span class="o">(</span><span class="n">name</span><span class="o">,</span> <span class="n">args</span><span class="o">)</span> <span class="o">|</span> <span class="nn">Ast</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="nc">BinOpPrototype</span> <span class="o">(</span><span class="n">name</span><span class="o">,</span> <span class="n">args</span><span class="o">,</span> <span class="o">_)</span> <span class="o">-></span>
+      <span class="c">(* Make the function type: double(double,double) etc. *)</span>
+      <span class="k">let</span> <span class="n">doubles</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="nn">Array</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="n">make</span> <span class="o">(</span><span class="nn">Array</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="n">length</span> <span class="n">args</span><span class="o">)</span> <span class="n">double_type</span> <span class="k">in</span>
+      <span class="k">let</span> <span class="n">ft</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="n">function_type</span> <span class="n">double_type</span> <span class="n">doubles</span> <span class="k">in</span>
+      <span class="k">let</span> <span class="n">f</span> <span class="o">=</span>
+        <span class="k">match</span> <span class="n">lookup_function</span> <span class="n">name</span> <span class="n">the_module</span> <span class="k">with</span>
+        <span class="o">|</span> <span class="nc">None</span> <span class="o">-></span> <span class="n">declare_function</span> <span class="n">name</span> <span class="n">ft</span> <span class="n">the_module</span>
+
+        <span class="c">(* If 'f' conflicted, there was already something named 'name'. If it</span>
+<span class="c">         * has a body, don't allow redefinition or reextern. *)</span>
+        <span class="o">|</span> <span class="nc">Some</span> <span class="n">f</span> <span class="o">-></span>
+            <span class="c">(* If 'f' already has a body, reject this. *)</span>
+            <span class="k">if</span> <span class="n">block_begin</span> <span class="n">f</span> <span class="o"><></span> <span class="nc">At_end</span> <span class="n">f</span> <span class="k">then</span>
+              <span class="k">raise</span> <span class="o">(</span><span class="nc">Error</span> <span class="s2">"redefinition of function"</span><span class="o">);</span>
+
+            <span class="c">(* If 'f' took a different number of arguments, reject. *)</span>
+            <span class="k">if</span> <span class="n">element_type</span> <span class="o">(</span><span class="n">type_of</span> <span class="n">f</span><span class="o">)</span> <span class="o"><></span> <span class="n">ft</span> <span class="k">then</span>
+              <span class="k">raise</span> <span class="o">(</span><span class="nc">Error</span> <span class="s2">"redefinition of function with different # args"</span><span class="o">);</span>
+            <span class="n">f</span>
+      <span class="k">in</span>
+
+      <span class="c">(* Set names for all arguments. *)</span>
+      <span class="nn">Array</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="n">iteri</span> <span class="o">(</span><span class="k">fun</span> <span class="n">i</span> <span class="n">a</span> <span class="o">-></span>
+        <span class="k">let</span> <span class="n">n</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="n">args</span><span class="o">.(</span><span class="n">i</span><span class="o">)</span> <span class="k">in</span>
+        <span class="n">set_value_name</span> <span class="n">n</span> <span class="n">a</span><span class="o">;</span>
+        <span class="nn">Hashtbl</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="n">add</span> <span class="n">named_values</span> <span class="n">n</span> <span class="n">a</span><span class="o">;</span>
+      <span class="o">)</span> <span class="o">(</span><span class="n">params</span> <span class="n">f</span><span class="o">);</span>
+      <span class="n">f</span>
+
+<span class="k">let</span> <span class="n">codegen_func</span> <span class="n">the_fpm</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="k">function</span>
+  <span class="o">|</span> <span class="nn">Ast</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="nc">Function</span> <span class="o">(</span><span class="n">proto</span><span class="o">,</span> <span class="n">body</span><span class="o">)</span> <span class="o">-></span>
+      <span class="nn">Hashtbl</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="n">clear</span> <span class="n">named_values</span><span class="o">;</span>
+      <span class="k">let</span> <span class="n">the_function</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="n">codegen_proto</span> <span class="n">proto</span> <span class="k">in</span>
+
+      <span class="c">(* If this is an operator, install it. *)</span>
+      <span class="k">begin</span> <span class="k">match</span> <span class="n">proto</span> <span class="k">with</span>
+      <span class="o">|</span> <span class="nn">Ast</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="nc">BinOpPrototype</span> <span class="o">(</span><span class="n">name</span><span class="o">,</span> <span class="n">args</span><span class="o">,</span> <span class="n">prec</span><span class="o">)</span> <span class="o">-></span>
+          <span class="k">let</span> <span class="n">op</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="n">name</span><span class="o">.[</span><span class="nn">String</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="n">length</span> <span class="n">name</span> <span class="o">-</span> <span class="mi">1</span><span class="o">]</span> <span class="k">in</span>
+          <span class="nn">Hashtbl</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="n">add</span> <span class="nn">Parser</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="n">binop_precedence</span> <span class="n">op</span> <span class="n">prec</span><span class="o">;</span>
+      <span class="o">|</span> <span class="o">_</span> <span class="o">-></span> <span class="bp">()</span>
+      <span class="k">end</span><span class="o">;</span>
+
+      <span class="c">(* Create a new basic block to start insertion into. *)</span>
+      <span class="k">let</span> <span class="n">bb</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="n">append_block</span> <span class="n">context</span> <span class="s2">"entry"</span> <span class="n">the_function</span> <span class="k">in</span>
+      <span class="n">position_at_end</span> <span class="n">bb</span> <span class="n">builder</span><span class="o">;</span>
+
+      <span class="k">try</span>
+        <span class="k">let</span> <span class="n">ret_val</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="n">codegen_expr</span> <span class="n">body</span> <span class="k">in</span>
+
+        <span class="c">(* Finish off the function. *)</span>
+        <span class="k">let</span> <span class="o">_</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="n">build_ret</span> <span class="n">ret_val</span> <span class="n">builder</span> <span class="k">in</span>
+
+        <span class="c">(* Validate the generated code, checking for consistency. *)</span>
+        <span class="nn">Llvm_analysis</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="n">assert_valid_function</span> <span class="n">the_function</span><span class="o">;</span>
+
+        <span class="c">(* Optimize the function. *)</span>
+        <span class="k">let</span> <span class="o">_</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="nn">PassManager</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="n">run_function</span> <span class="n">the_function</span> <span class="n">the_fpm</span> <span class="k">in</span>
+
+        <span class="n">the_function</span>
+      <span class="k">with</span> <span class="n">e</span> <span class="o">-></span>
+        <span class="n">delete_function</span> <span class="n">the_function</span><span class="o">;</span>
+        <span class="k">raise</span> <span class="n">e</span>
+</pre></div>
+</div>
+</dd>
+<dt>toplevel.ml:</dt>
+<dd><div class="first last highlight-ocaml"><div class="highlight"><pre><span class="c">(*===----------------------------------------------------------------------===</span>
+<span class="c"> * Top-Level parsing and JIT Driver</span>
+<span class="c"> *===----------------------------------------------------------------------===*)</span>
+
+<span class="k">open</span> <span class="nc">Llvm</span>
+<span class="k">open</span> <span class="nc">Llvm_executionengine</span>
+
+<span class="c">(* top ::= definition | external | expression | ';' *)</span>
+<span class="k">let</span> <span class="k">rec</span> <span class="n">main_loop</span> <span class="n">the_fpm</span> <span class="n">the_execution_engine</span> <span class="n">stream</span> <span class="o">=</span>
+  <span class="k">match</span> <span class="nn">Stream</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="n">peek</span> <span class="n">stream</span> <span class="k">with</span>
+  <span class="o">|</span> <span class="nc">None</span> <span class="o">-></span> <span class="bp">()</span>
+
+  <span class="c">(* ignore top-level semicolons. *)</span>
+  <span class="o">|</span> <span class="nc">Some</span> <span class="o">(</span><span class="nn">Token</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="nc">Kwd</span> <span class="sc">';'</span><span class="o">)</span> <span class="o">-></span>
+      <span class="nn">Stream</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="n">junk</span> <span class="n">stream</span><span class="o">;</span>
+      <span class="n">main_loop</span> <span class="n">the_fpm</span> <span class="n">the_execution_engine</span> <span class="n">stream</span>
+
+  <span class="o">|</span> <span class="nc">Some</span> <span class="n">token</span> <span class="o">-></span>
+      <span class="k">begin</span>
+        <span class="k">try</span> <span class="k">match</span> <span class="n">token</span> <span class="k">with</span>
+        <span class="o">|</span> <span class="nn">Token</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="nc">Def</span> <span class="o">-></span>
+            <span class="k">let</span> <span class="n">e</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="nn">Parser</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="n">parse_definition</span> <span class="n">stream</span> <span class="k">in</span>
+            <span class="n">print_endline</span> <span class="s2">"parsed a function definition."</span><span class="o">;</span>
+            <span class="n">dump_value</span> <span class="o">(</span><span class="nn">Codegen</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="n">codegen_func</span> <span class="n">the_fpm</span> <span class="n">e</span><span class="o">);</span>
+        <span class="o">|</span> <span class="nn">Token</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="nc">Extern</span> <span class="o">-></span>
+            <span class="k">let</span> <span class="n">e</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="nn">Parser</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="n">parse_extern</span> <span class="n">stream</span> <span class="k">in</span>
+            <span class="n">print_endline</span> <span class="s2">"parsed an extern."</span><span class="o">;</span>
+            <span class="n">dump_value</span> <span class="o">(</span><span class="nn">Codegen</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="n">codegen_proto</span> <span class="n">e</span><span class="o">);</span>
+        <span class="o">|</span> <span class="o">_</span> <span class="o">-></span>
+            <span class="c">(* Evaluate a top-level expression into an anonymous function. *)</span>
+            <span class="k">let</span> <span class="n">e</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="nn">Parser</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="n">parse_toplevel</span> <span class="n">stream</span> <span class="k">in</span>
+            <span class="n">print_endline</span> <span class="s2">"parsed a top-level expr"</span><span class="o">;</span>
+            <span class="k">let</span> <span class="n">the_function</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="nn">Codegen</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="n">codegen_func</span> <span class="n">the_fpm</span> <span class="n">e</span> <span class="k">in</span>
+            <span class="n">dump_value</span> <span class="n">the_function</span><span class="o">;</span>
+
+            <span class="c">(* JIT the function, returning a function pointer. *)</span>
+            <span class="k">let</span> <span class="n">result</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="nn">ExecutionEngine</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="n">run_function</span> <span class="n">the_function</span> <span class="o">[||]</span>
+              <span class="n">the_execution_engine</span> <span class="k">in</span>
+
+            <span class="n">print_string</span> <span class="s2">"Evaluated to "</span><span class="o">;</span>
+            <span class="n">print_float</span> <span class="o">(</span><span class="nn">GenericValue</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="n">as_float</span> <span class="nn">Codegen</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="n">double_type</span> <span class="n">result</span><span class="o">);</span>
+            <span class="n">print_newline</span> <span class="bp">()</span><span class="o">;</span>
+        <span class="k">with</span> <span class="nn">Stream</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="nc">Error</span> <span class="n">s</span> <span class="o">|</span> <span class="nn">Codegen</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="nc">Error</span> <span class="n">s</span> <span class="o">-></span>
+          <span class="c">(* Skip token for error recovery. *)</span>
+          <span class="nn">Stream</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="n">junk</span> <span class="n">stream</span><span class="o">;</span>
+          <span class="n">print_endline</span> <span class="n">s</span><span class="o">;</span>
+      <span class="k">end</span><span class="o">;</span>
+      <span class="n">print_string</span> <span class="s2">"ready> "</span><span class="o">;</span> <span class="n">flush</span> <span class="n">stdout</span><span class="o">;</span>
+      <span class="n">main_loop</span> <span class="n">the_fpm</span> <span class="n">the_execution_engine</span> <span class="n">stream</span>
+</pre></div>
+</div>
+</dd>
+<dt>toy.ml:</dt>
+<dd><div class="first last highlight-ocaml"><div class="highlight"><pre><span class="c">(*===----------------------------------------------------------------------===</span>
+<span class="c"> * Main driver code.</span>
+<span class="c"> *===----------------------------------------------------------------------===*)</span>
+
+<span class="k">open</span> <span class="nc">Llvm</span>
+<span class="k">open</span> <span class="nc">Llvm_executionengine</span>
+<span class="k">open</span> <span class="nc">Llvm_target</span>
+<span class="k">open</span> <span class="nc">Llvm_scalar_opts</span>
+
+<span class="k">let</span> <span class="n">main</span> <span class="bp">()</span> <span class="o">=</span>
+  <span class="n">ignore</span> <span class="o">(</span><span class="n">initialize_native_target</span> <span class="bp">()</span><span class="o">);</span>
+
+  <span class="c">(* Install standard binary operators.</span>
+<span class="c">   * 1 is the lowest precedence. *)</span>
+  <span class="nn">Hashtbl</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="n">add</span> <span class="nn">Parser</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="n">binop_precedence</span> <span class="sc">'<'</span> <span class="mi">10</span><span class="o">;</span>
+  <span class="nn">Hashtbl</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="n">add</span> <span class="nn">Parser</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="n">binop_precedence</span> <span class="sc">'+'</span> <span class="mi">20</span><span class="o">;</span>
+  <span class="nn">Hashtbl</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="n">add</span> <span class="nn">Parser</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="n">binop_precedence</span> <span class="sc">'-'</span> <span class="mi">20</span><span class="o">;</span>
+  <span class="nn">Hashtbl</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="n">add</span> <span class="nn">Parser</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="n">binop_precedence</span> <span class="sc">'*'</span> <span class="mi">40</span><span class="o">;</span>    <span class="c">(* highest. *)</span>
+
+  <span class="c">(* Prime the first token. *)</span>
+  <span class="n">print_string</span> <span class="s2">"ready> "</span><span class="o">;</span> <span class="n">flush</span> <span class="n">stdout</span><span class="o">;</span>
+  <span class="k">let</span> <span class="n">stream</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="nn">Lexer</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="n">lex</span> <span class="o">(</span><span class="nn">Stream</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="n">of_channel</span> <span class="n">stdin</span><span class="o">)</span> <span class="k">in</span>
+
+  <span class="c">(* Create the JIT. *)</span>
+  <span class="k">let</span> <span class="n">the_execution_engine</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="nn">ExecutionEngine</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="n">create</span> <span class="nn">Codegen</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="n">the_module</span> <span class="k">in</span>
+  <span class="k">let</span> <span class="n">the_fpm</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="nn">PassManager</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="n">create_function</span> <span class="nn">Codegen</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="n">the_module</span> <span class="k">in</span>
+
+  <span class="c">(* Set up the optimizer pipeline.  Start with registering info about how the</span>
+<span class="c">   * target lays out data structures. *)</span>
+  <span class="nn">DataLayout</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="n">add</span> <span class="o">(</span><span class="nn">ExecutionEngine</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="n">target_data</span> <span class="n">the_execution_engine</span><span class="o">)</span> <span class="n">the_fpm</span><span class="o">;</span>
+
+  <span class="c">(* Do simple "peephole" optimizations and bit-twiddling optzn. *)</span>
+  <span class="n">add_instruction_combination</span> <span class="n">the_fpm</span><span class="o">;</span>
+
+  <span class="c">(* reassociate expressions. *)</span>
+  <span class="n">add_reassociation</span> <span class="n">the_fpm</span><span class="o">;</span>
+
+  <span class="c">(* Eliminate Common SubExpressions. *)</span>
+  <span class="n">add_gvn</span> <span class="n">the_fpm</span><span class="o">;</span>
+
+  <span class="c">(* Simplify the control flow graph (deleting unreachable blocks, etc). *)</span>
+  <span class="n">add_cfg_simplification</span> <span class="n">the_fpm</span><span class="o">;</span>
+
+  <span class="n">ignore</span> <span class="o">(</span><span class="nn">PassManager</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="n">initialize</span> <span class="n">the_fpm</span><span class="o">);</span>
+
+  <span class="c">(* Run the main "interpreter loop" now. *)</span>
+  <span class="nn">Toplevel</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="n">main_loop</span> <span class="n">the_fpm</span> <span class="n">the_execution_engine</span> <span class="n">stream</span><span class="o">;</span>
+
+  <span class="c">(* Print out all the generated code. *)</span>
+  <span class="n">dump_module</span> <span class="nn">Codegen</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="n">the_module</span>
+<span class="o">;;</span>
+
+<span class="n">main</span> <span class="bp">()</span>
+</pre></div>
+</div>
+</dd>
+<dt>bindings.c</dt>
+<dd><div class="first last highlight-c"><div class="highlight"><pre><span class="cp">#include <stdio.h></span>
+
+<span class="cm">/* putchard - putchar that takes a double and returns 0. */</span>
+<span class="k">extern</span> <span class="kt">double</span> <span class="nf">putchard</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="kt">double</span> <span class="n">X</span><span class="p">)</span> <span class="p">{</span>
+  <span class="n">putchar</span><span class="p">((</span><span class="kt">char</span><span class="p">)</span><span class="n">X</span><span class="p">);</span>
+  <span class="k">return</span> <span class="mi">0</span><span class="p">;</span>
+<span class="p">}</span>
+
+<span class="cm">/* printd - printf that takes a double prints it as "%f\n", returning 0. */</span>
+<span class="k">extern</span> <span class="kt">double</span> <span class="nf">printd</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="kt">double</span> <span class="n">X</span><span class="p">)</span> <span class="p">{</span>
+  <span class="n">printf</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="s">"%f</span><span class="se">\n</span><span class="s">"</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="n">X</span><span class="p">);</span>
+  <span class="k">return</span> <span class="mi">0</span><span class="p">;</span>
+<span class="p">}</span>
+</pre></div>
+</div>
+</dd>
+</dl>
+<p><a class="reference external" href="OCamlLangImpl7.html">Next: Extending the language: mutable variables / SSA
+construction</a></p>
+</div>
+</div>
+
+
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+      </div>
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+  <div class="section" id="kaleidoscope-extending-the-language-mutable-variables">
+<h1>7. Kaleidoscope: Extending the Language: Mutable Variables<a class="headerlink" href="#kaleidoscope-extending-the-language-mutable-variables" title="Permalink to this headline">¶</a></h1>
+<div class="contents local topic" id="contents">
+<ul class="simple">
+<li><a class="reference internal" href="#chapter-7-introduction" id="id2">Chapter 7 Introduction</a></li>
+<li><a class="reference internal" href="#why-is-this-a-hard-problem" id="id3">Why is this a hard problem?</a></li>
+<li><a class="reference internal" href="#memory-in-llvm" id="id4">Memory in LLVM</a></li>
+<li><a class="reference internal" href="#mutable-variables-in-kaleidoscope" id="id5">Mutable Variables in Kaleidoscope</a></li>
+<li><a class="reference internal" href="#adjusting-existing-variables-for-mutation" id="id6">Adjusting Existing Variables for Mutation</a></li>
+<li><a class="reference internal" href="#new-assignment-operator" id="id7">New Assignment Operator</a></li>
+<li><a class="reference internal" href="#user-defined-local-variables" id="id8">User-defined Local Variables</a></li>
+<li><a class="reference internal" href="#id1" id="id9">Full Code Listing</a></li>
+</ul>
+</div>
+<div class="section" id="chapter-7-introduction">
+<h2><a class="toc-backref" href="#id2">7.1. Chapter 7 Introduction</a><a class="headerlink" href="#chapter-7-introduction" title="Permalink to this headline">¶</a></h2>
+<p>Welcome to Chapter 7 of the “<a class="reference external" href="index.html">Implementing a language with
+LLVM</a>” tutorial. In chapters 1 through 6, we’ve built a
+very respectable, albeit simple, <a class="reference external" href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Functional_programming">functional programming
+language</a>. In our
+journey, we learned some parsing techniques, how to build and represent
+an AST, how to build LLVM IR, and how to optimize the resultant code as
+well as JIT compile it.</p>
+<p>While Kaleidoscope is interesting as a functional language, the fact
+that it is functional makes it “too easy” to generate LLVM IR for it. In
+particular, a functional language makes it very easy to build LLVM IR
+directly in <a class="reference external" href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Static_single_assignment_form">SSA
+form</a>.
+Since LLVM requires that the input code be in SSA form, this is a very
+nice property and it is often unclear to newcomers how to generate code
+for an imperative language with mutable variables.</p>
+<p>The short (and happy) summary of this chapter is that there is no need
+for your front-end to build SSA form: LLVM provides highly tuned and
+well tested support for this, though the way it works is a bit
+unexpected for some.</p>
+</div>
+<div class="section" id="why-is-this-a-hard-problem">
+<h2><a class="toc-backref" href="#id3">7.2. Why is this a hard problem?</a><a class="headerlink" href="#why-is-this-a-hard-problem" title="Permalink to this headline">¶</a></h2>
+<p>To understand why mutable variables cause complexities in SSA
+construction, consider this extremely simple C example:</p>
+<div class="highlight-c"><div class="highlight"><pre><span class="kt">int</span> <span class="n">G</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="n">H</span><span class="p">;</span>
+<span class="kt">int</span> <span class="nf">test</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="kt">_Bool</span> <span class="n">Condition</span><span class="p">)</span> <span class="p">{</span>
+  <span class="kt">int</span> <span class="n">X</span><span class="p">;</span>
+  <span class="k">if</span> <span class="p">(</span><span class="n">Condition</span><span class="p">)</span>
+    <span class="n">X</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="n">G</span><span class="p">;</span>
+  <span class="k">else</span>
+    <span class="n">X</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="n">H</span><span class="p">;</span>
+  <span class="k">return</span> <span class="n">X</span><span class="p">;</span>
+<span class="p">}</span>
+</pre></div>
+</div>
+<p>In this case, we have the variable “X”, whose value depends on the path
+executed in the program. Because there are two different possible values
+for X before the return instruction, a PHI node is inserted to merge the
+two values. The LLVM IR that we want for this example looks like this:</p>
+<div class="highlight-llvm"><div class="highlight"><pre><span class="vg">@G</span> <span class="p">=</span> <span class="k">weak</span> <span class="k">global</span> <span class="k">i32</span> <span class="m">0</span>   <span class="c">; type of @G is i32*</span>
+<span class="vg">@H</span> <span class="p">=</span> <span class="k">weak</span> <span class="k">global</span> <span class="k">i32</span> <span class="m">0</span>   <span class="c">; type of @H is i32*</span>
+
+<span class="k">define</span> <span class="k">i32</span> <span class="vg">@test</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="k">i1</span> <span class="nv">%Condition</span><span class="p">)</span> <span class="p">{</span>
+<span class="nl">entry:</span>
+  <span class="k">br</span> <span class="k">i1</span> <span class="nv">%Condition</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="kt">label</span> <span class="nv">%cond_true</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="kt">label</span> <span class="nv">%cond_false</span>
+
+<span class="nl">cond_true:</span>
+  <span class="nv">%X.0</span> <span class="p">=</span> <span class="k">load</span> <span class="k">i32</span><span class="p">*</span> <span class="vg">@G</span>
+  <span class="k">br</span> <span class="kt">label</span> <span class="nv">%cond_next</span>
+
+<span class="nl">cond_false:</span>
+  <span class="nv">%X.1</span> <span class="p">=</span> <span class="k">load</span> <span class="k">i32</span><span class="p">*</span> <span class="vg">@H</span>
+  <span class="k">br</span> <span class="kt">label</span> <span class="nv">%cond_next</span>
+
+<span class="nl">cond_next:</span>
+  <span class="nv">%X.2</span> <span class="p">=</span> <span class="k">phi</span> <span class="k">i32</span> <span class="p">[</span> <span class="nv">%X.1</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="nv">%cond_false</span> <span class="p">],</span> <span class="p">[</span> <span class="nv">%X.0</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="nv">%cond_true</span> <span class="p">]</span>
+  <span class="k">ret</span> <span class="k">i32</span> <span class="nv">%X.2</span>
+<span class="p">}</span>
+</pre></div>
+</div>
+<p>In this example, the loads from the G and H global variables are
+explicit in the LLVM IR, and they live in the then/else branches of the
+if statement (cond_true/cond_false). In order to merge the incoming
+values, the X.2 phi node in the cond_next block selects the right value
+to use based on where control flow is coming from: if control flow comes
+from the cond_false block, X.2 gets the value of X.1. Alternatively, if
+control flow comes from cond_true, it gets the value of X.0. The intent
+of this chapter is not to explain the details of SSA form. For more
+information, see one of the many <a class="reference external" href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Static_single_assignment_form">online
+references</a>.</p>
+<p>The question for this article is “who places the phi nodes when lowering
+assignments to mutable variables?”. The issue here is that LLVM
+<em>requires</em> that its IR be in SSA form: there is no “non-ssa” mode for
+it. However, SSA construction requires non-trivial algorithms and data
+structures, so it is inconvenient and wasteful for every front-end to
+have to reproduce this logic.</p>
+</div>
+<div class="section" id="memory-in-llvm">
+<h2><a class="toc-backref" href="#id4">7.3. Memory in LLVM</a><a class="headerlink" href="#memory-in-llvm" title="Permalink to this headline">¶</a></h2>
+<p>The ‘trick’ here is that while LLVM does require all register values to
+be in SSA form, it does not require (or permit) memory objects to be in
+SSA form. In the example above, note that the loads from G and H are
+direct accesses to G and H: they are not renamed or versioned. This
+differs from some other compiler systems, which do try to version memory
+objects. In LLVM, instead of encoding dataflow analysis of memory into
+the LLVM IR, it is handled with <a class="reference external" href="../WritingAnLLVMPass.html">Analysis
+Passes</a> which are computed on demand.</p>
+<p>With this in mind, the high-level idea is that we want to make a stack
+variable (which lives in memory, because it is on the stack) for each
+mutable object in a function. To take advantage of this trick, we need
+to talk about how LLVM represents stack variables.</p>
+<p>In LLVM, all memory accesses are explicit with load/store instructions,
+and it is carefully designed not to have (or need) an “address-of”
+operator. Notice how the type of the @G/@H global variables is actually
+“i32*” even though the variable is defined as “i32”. What this means is
+that @G defines <em>space</em> for an i32 in the global data area, but its
+<em>name</em> actually refers to the address for that space. Stack variables
+work the same way, except that instead of being declared with global
+variable definitions, they are declared with the <a class="reference external" href="../LangRef.html#alloca-instruction">LLVM alloca
+instruction</a>:</p>
+<div class="highlight-llvm"><div class="highlight"><pre><span class="k">define</span> <span class="k">i32</span> <span class="vg">@example</span><span class="p">()</span> <span class="p">{</span>
+<span class="nl">entry:</span>
+  <span class="nv">%X</span> <span class="p">=</span> <span class="k">alloca</span> <span class="k">i32</span>           <span class="c">; type of %X is i32*.</span>
+  <span class="p">...</span>
+  <span class="nv">%tmp</span> <span class="p">=</span> <span class="k">load</span> <span class="k">i32</span><span class="p">*</span> <span class="nv">%X</span>       <span class="c">; load the stack value %X from the stack.</span>
+  <span class="nv">%tmp2</span> <span class="p">=</span> <span class="k">add</span> <span class="k">i32</span> <span class="nv">%tmp</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="m">1</span>   <span class="c">; increment it</span>
+  <span class="k">store</span> <span class="k">i32</span> <span class="nv">%tmp2</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="k">i32</span><span class="p">*</span> <span class="nv">%X</span>  <span class="c">; store it back</span>
+  <span class="p">...</span>
+</pre></div>
+</div>
+<p>This code shows an example of how you can declare and manipulate a stack
+variable in the LLVM IR. Stack memory allocated with the alloca
+instruction is fully general: you can pass the address of the stack slot
+to functions, you can store it in other variables, etc. In our example
+above, we could rewrite the example to use the alloca technique to avoid
+using a PHI node:</p>
+<div class="highlight-llvm"><div class="highlight"><pre><span class="vg">@G</span> <span class="p">=</span> <span class="k">weak</span> <span class="k">global</span> <span class="k">i32</span> <span class="m">0</span>   <span class="c">; type of @G is i32*</span>
+<span class="vg">@H</span> <span class="p">=</span> <span class="k">weak</span> <span class="k">global</span> <span class="k">i32</span> <span class="m">0</span>   <span class="c">; type of @H is i32*</span>
+
+<span class="k">define</span> <span class="k">i32</span> <span class="vg">@test</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="k">i1</span> <span class="nv">%Condition</span><span class="p">)</span> <span class="p">{</span>
+<span class="nl">entry:</span>
+  <span class="nv">%X</span> <span class="p">=</span> <span class="k">alloca</span> <span class="k">i32</span>           <span class="c">; type of %X is i32*.</span>
+  <span class="k">br</span> <span class="k">i1</span> <span class="nv">%Condition</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="kt">label</span> <span class="nv">%cond_true</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="kt">label</span> <span class="nv">%cond_false</span>
+
+<span class="nl">cond_true:</span>
+  <span class="nv">%X.0</span> <span class="p">=</span> <span class="k">load</span> <span class="k">i32</span><span class="p">*</span> <span class="vg">@G</span>
+        <span class="k">store</span> <span class="k">i32</span> <span class="nv">%X.0</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="k">i32</span><span class="p">*</span> <span class="nv">%X</span>   <span class="c">; Update X</span>
+  <span class="k">br</span> <span class="kt">label</span> <span class="nv">%cond_next</span>
+
+<span class="nl">cond_false:</span>
+  <span class="nv">%X.1</span> <span class="p">=</span> <span class="k">load</span> <span class="k">i32</span><span class="p">*</span> <span class="vg">@H</span>
+        <span class="k">store</span> <span class="k">i32</span> <span class="nv">%X.1</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="k">i32</span><span class="p">*</span> <span class="nv">%X</span>   <span class="c">; Update X</span>
+  <span class="k">br</span> <span class="kt">label</span> <span class="nv">%cond_next</span>
+
+<span class="nl">cond_next:</span>
+  <span class="nv">%X.2</span> <span class="p">=</span> <span class="k">load</span> <span class="k">i32</span><span class="p">*</span> <span class="nv">%X</span>       <span class="c">; Read X</span>
+  <span class="k">ret</span> <span class="k">i32</span> <span class="nv">%X.2</span>
+<span class="p">}</span>
+</pre></div>
+</div>
+<p>With this, we have discovered a way to handle arbitrary mutable
+variables without the need to create Phi nodes at all:</p>
+<ol class="arabic simple">
+<li>Each mutable variable becomes a stack allocation.</li>
+<li>Each read of the variable becomes a load from the stack.</li>
+<li>Each update of the variable becomes a store to the stack.</li>
+<li>Taking the address of a variable just uses the stack address
+directly.</li>
+</ol>
+<p>While this solution has solved our immediate problem, it introduced
+another one: we have now apparently introduced a lot of stack traffic
+for very simple and common operations, a major performance problem.
+Fortunately for us, the LLVM optimizer has a highly-tuned optimization
+pass named “mem2reg” that handles this case, promoting allocas like this
+into SSA registers, inserting Phi nodes as appropriate. If you run this
+example through the pass, for example, you’ll get:</p>
+<div class="highlight-bash"><div class="highlight"><pre><span class="nv">$ </span>llvm-as < example.ll | opt -mem2reg | llvm-dis
+ at G <span class="o">=</span> weak global i32 0
+ at H <span class="o">=</span> weak global i32 0
+
+define i32 @test<span class="o">(</span>i1 %Condition<span class="o">)</span> <span class="o">{</span>
+entry:
+  br i1 %Condition, label %cond_true, label %cond_false
+
+cond_true:
+  %X.0 <span class="o">=</span> load i32* @G
+  br label %cond_next
+
+cond_false:
+  %X.1 <span class="o">=</span> load i32* @H
+  br label %cond_next
+
+cond_next:
+  %X.01 <span class="o">=</span> phi i32 <span class="o">[</span> %X.1, %cond_false <span class="o">]</span>, <span class="o">[</span> %X.0, %cond_true <span class="o">]</span>
+  ret i32 %X.01
+<span class="o">}</span>
+</pre></div>
+</div>
+<p>The mem2reg pass implements the standard “iterated dominance frontier”
+algorithm for constructing SSA form and has a number of optimizations
+that speed up (very common) degenerate cases. The mem2reg optimization
+pass is the answer to dealing with mutable variables, and we highly
+recommend that you depend on it. Note that mem2reg only works on
+variables in certain circumstances:</p>
+<ol class="arabic simple">
+<li>mem2reg is alloca-driven: it looks for allocas and if it can handle
+them, it promotes them. It does not apply to global variables or heap
+allocations.</li>
+<li>mem2reg only looks for alloca instructions in the entry block of the
+function. Being in the entry block guarantees that the alloca is only
+executed once, which makes analysis simpler.</li>
+<li>mem2reg only promotes allocas whose uses are direct loads and stores.
+If the address of the stack object is passed to a function, or if any
+funny pointer arithmetic is involved, the alloca will not be
+promoted.</li>
+<li>mem2reg only works on allocas of <a class="reference external" href="../LangRef.html#first-class-types">first
+class</a> values (such as pointers,
+scalars and vectors), and only if the array size of the allocation is
+1 (or missing in the .ll file). mem2reg is not capable of promoting
+structs or arrays to registers. Note that the “sroa” pass is
+more powerful and can promote structs, “unions”, and arrays in many
+cases.</li>
+</ol>
+<p>All of these properties are easy to satisfy for most imperative
+languages, and we’ll illustrate it below with Kaleidoscope. The final
+question you may be asking is: should I bother with this nonsense for my
+front-end? Wouldn’t it be better if I just did SSA construction
+directly, avoiding use of the mem2reg optimization pass? In short, we
+strongly recommend that you use this technique for building SSA form,
+unless there is an extremely good reason not to. Using this technique
+is:</p>
+<ul class="simple">
+<li>Proven and well tested: clang uses this technique
+for local mutable variables. As such, the most common clients of LLVM
+are using this to handle a bulk of their variables. You can be sure
+that bugs are found fast and fixed early.</li>
+<li>Extremely Fast: mem2reg has a number of special cases that make it
+fast in common cases as well as fully general. For example, it has
+fast-paths for variables that are only used in a single block,
+variables that only have one assignment point, good heuristics to
+avoid insertion of unneeded phi nodes, etc.</li>
+<li>Needed for debug info generation: <a class="reference external" href="../SourceLevelDebugging.html">Debug information in
+LLVM</a> relies on having the address of
+the variable exposed so that debug info can be attached to it. This
+technique dovetails very naturally with this style of debug info.</li>
+</ul>
+<p>If nothing else, this makes it much easier to get your front-end up and
+running, and is very simple to implement. Lets extend Kaleidoscope with
+mutable variables now!</p>
+</div>
+<div class="section" id="mutable-variables-in-kaleidoscope">
+<h2><a class="toc-backref" href="#id5">7.4. Mutable Variables in Kaleidoscope</a><a class="headerlink" href="#mutable-variables-in-kaleidoscope" title="Permalink to this headline">¶</a></h2>
+<p>Now that we know the sort of problem we want to tackle, lets see what
+this looks like in the context of our little Kaleidoscope language.
+We’re going to add two features:</p>
+<ol class="arabic simple">
+<li>The ability to mutate variables with the ‘=’ operator.</li>
+<li>The ability to define new variables.</li>
+</ol>
+<p>While the first item is really what this is about, we only have
+variables for incoming arguments as well as for induction variables, and
+redefining those only goes so far :). Also, the ability to define new
+variables is a useful thing regardless of whether you will be mutating
+them. Here’s a motivating example that shows how we could use these:</p>
+<div class="highlight-python"><div class="highlight"><pre># Define ':' for sequencing: as a low-precedence operator that ignores operands
+# and just returns the RHS.
+def binary : 1 (x y) y;
+
+# Recursive fib, we could do this before.
+def fib(x)
+  if (x < 3) then
+    1
+  else
+    fib(x-1)+fib(x-2);
+
+# Iterative fib.
+def fibi(x)
+  var a = 1, b = 1, c in
+  (for i = 3, i < x in
+     c = a + b :
+     a = b :
+     b = c) :
+  b;
+
+# Call it.
+fibi(10);
+</pre></div>
+</div>
+<p>In order to mutate variables, we have to change our existing variables
+to use the “alloca trick”. Once we have that, we’ll add our new
+operator, then extend Kaleidoscope to support new variable definitions.</p>
+</div>
+<div class="section" id="adjusting-existing-variables-for-mutation">
+<h2><a class="toc-backref" href="#id6">7.5. Adjusting Existing Variables for Mutation</a><a class="headerlink" href="#adjusting-existing-variables-for-mutation" title="Permalink to this headline">¶</a></h2>
+<p>The symbol table in Kaleidoscope is managed at code generation time by
+the ‘<tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">named_values</span></tt>‘ map. This map currently keeps track of the LLVM
+“Value*” that holds the double value for the named variable. In order
+to support mutation, we need to change this slightly, so that it
+<tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">named_values</span></tt> holds the <em>memory location</em> of the variable in
+question. Note that this change is a refactoring: it changes the
+structure of the code, but does not (by itself) change the behavior of
+the compiler. All of these changes are isolated in the Kaleidoscope code
+generator.</p>
+<p>At this point in Kaleidoscope’s development, it only supports variables
+for two things: incoming arguments to functions and the induction
+variable of ‘for’ loops. For consistency, we’ll allow mutation of these
+variables in addition to other user-defined variables. This means that
+these will both need memory locations.</p>
+<p>To start our transformation of Kaleidoscope, we’ll change the
+<tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">named_values</span></tt> map so that it maps to AllocaInst* instead of Value*.
+Once we do this, the C++ compiler will tell us what parts of the code we
+need to update:</p>
+<p><strong>Note:</strong> the ocaml bindings currently model both <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">Value*</span></tt>‘s and
+<tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">AllocInst*</span></tt>‘s as <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">Llvm.llvalue</span></tt>‘s, but this may change in the future
+to be more type safe.</p>
+<div class="highlight-ocaml"><div class="highlight"><pre><span class="k">let</span> <span class="n">named_values</span><span class="o">:(</span><span class="kt">string</span><span class="o">,</span> <span class="n">llvalue</span><span class="o">)</span> <span class="nn">Hashtbl</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="n">t</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="nn">Hashtbl</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="n">create</span> <span class="mi">10</span>
+</pre></div>
+</div>
+<p>Also, since we will need to create these alloca’s, we’ll use a helper
+function that ensures that the allocas are created in the entry block of
+the function:</p>
+<div class="highlight-ocaml"><div class="highlight"><pre><span class="c">(* Create an alloca instruction in the entry block of the function. This</span>
+<span class="c"> * is used for mutable variables etc. *)</span>
+<span class="k">let</span> <span class="n">create_entry_block_alloca</span> <span class="n">the_function</span> <span class="n">var_name</span> <span class="o">=</span>
+  <span class="k">let</span> <span class="n">builder</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="n">builder_at</span> <span class="o">(</span><span class="n">instr_begin</span> <span class="o">(</span><span class="n">entry_block</span> <span class="n">the_function</span><span class="o">))</span> <span class="k">in</span>
+  <span class="n">build_alloca</span> <span class="n">double_type</span> <span class="n">var_name</span> <span class="n">builder</span>
+</pre></div>
+</div>
+<p>This funny looking code creates an <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">Llvm.llbuilder</span></tt> object that is
+pointing at the first instruction of the entry block. It then creates an
+alloca with the expected name and returns it. Because all values in
+Kaleidoscope are doubles, there is no need to pass in a type to use.</p>
+<p>With this in place, the first functionality change we want to make is to
+variable references. In our new scheme, variables live on the stack, so
+code generating a reference to them actually needs to produce a load
+from the stack slot:</p>
+<div class="highlight-ocaml"><div class="highlight"><pre><span class="k">let</span> <span class="k">rec</span> <span class="n">codegen_expr</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="k">function</span>
+  <span class="o">...</span>
+  <span class="o">|</span> <span class="nn">Ast</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="nc">Variable</span> <span class="n">name</span> <span class="o">-></span>
+      <span class="k">let</span> <span class="n">v</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="k">try</span> <span class="nn">Hashtbl</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="n">find</span> <span class="n">named_values</span> <span class="n">name</span> <span class="k">with</span>
+        <span class="o">|</span> <span class="nc">Not_found</span> <span class="o">-></span> <span class="k">raise</span> <span class="o">(</span><span class="nc">Error</span> <span class="s2">"unknown variable name"</span><span class="o">)</span>
+      <span class="k">in</span>
+      <span class="c">(* Load the value. *)</span>
+      <span class="n">build_load</span> <span class="n">v</span> <span class="n">name</span> <span class="n">builder</span>
+</pre></div>
+</div>
+<p>As you can see, this is pretty straightforward. Now we need to update
+the things that define the variables to set up the alloca. We’ll start
+with <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">codegen_expr</span> <span class="pre">Ast.For</span> <span class="pre">...</span></tt> (see the <a class="reference external" href="#id1">full code listing</a>
+for the unabridged code):</p>
+<div class="highlight-ocaml"><div class="highlight"><pre><span class="o">|</span> <span class="nn">Ast</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="nc">For</span> <span class="o">(</span><span class="n">var_name</span><span class="o">,</span> <span class="n">start</span><span class="o">,</span> <span class="n">end_</span><span class="o">,</span> <span class="n">step</span><span class="o">,</span> <span class="n">body</span><span class="o">)</span> <span class="o">-></span>
+    <span class="k">let</span> <span class="n">the_function</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="n">block_parent</span> <span class="o">(</span><span class="n">insertion_block</span> <span class="n">builder</span><span class="o">)</span> <span class="k">in</span>
+
+    <span class="c">(* Create an alloca for the variable in the entry block. *)</span>
+    <span class="k">let</span> <span class="n">alloca</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="n">create_entry_block_alloca</span> <span class="n">the_function</span> <span class="n">var_name</span> <span class="k">in</span>
+
+    <span class="c">(* Emit the start code first, without 'variable' in scope. *)</span>
+    <span class="k">let</span> <span class="n">start_val</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="n">codegen_expr</span> <span class="n">start</span> <span class="k">in</span>
+
+    <span class="c">(* Store the value into the alloca. *)</span>
+    <span class="n">ignore</span><span class="o">(</span><span class="n">build_store</span> <span class="n">start_val</span> <span class="n">alloca</span> <span class="n">builder</span><span class="o">);</span>
+
+    <span class="o">...</span>
+
+    <span class="c">(* Within the loop, the variable is defined equal to the PHI node. If it</span>
+<span class="c">     * shadows an existing variable, we have to restore it, so save it</span>
+<span class="c">     * now. *)</span>
+    <span class="k">let</span> <span class="n">old_val</span> <span class="o">=</span>
+      <span class="k">try</span> <span class="nc">Some</span> <span class="o">(</span><span class="nn">Hashtbl</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="n">find</span> <span class="n">named_values</span> <span class="n">var_name</span><span class="o">)</span> <span class="k">with</span> <span class="nc">Not_found</span> <span class="o">-></span> <span class="nc">None</span>
+    <span class="k">in</span>
+    <span class="nn">Hashtbl</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="n">add</span> <span class="n">named_values</span> <span class="n">var_name</span> <span class="n">alloca</span><span class="o">;</span>
+
+    <span class="o">...</span>
+
+    <span class="c">(* Compute the end condition. *)</span>
+    <span class="k">let</span> <span class="n">end_cond</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="n">codegen_expr</span> <span class="n">end_</span> <span class="k">in</span>
+
+    <span class="c">(* Reload, increment, and restore the alloca. This handles the case where</span>
+<span class="c">     * the body of the loop mutates the variable. *)</span>
+    <span class="k">let</span> <span class="n">cur_var</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="n">build_load</span> <span class="n">alloca</span> <span class="n">var_name</span> <span class="n">builder</span> <span class="k">in</span>
+    <span class="k">let</span> <span class="n">next_var</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="n">build_add</span> <span class="n">cur_var</span> <span class="n">step_val</span> <span class="s2">"nextvar"</span> <span class="n">builder</span> <span class="k">in</span>
+    <span class="n">ignore</span><span class="o">(</span><span class="n">build_store</span> <span class="n">next_var</span> <span class="n">alloca</span> <span class="n">builder</span><span class="o">);</span>
+    <span class="o">...</span>
+</pre></div>
+</div>
+<p>This code is virtually identical to the code <a class="reference external" href="OCamlLangImpl5.html#code-generation-for-the-for-loop">before we allowed mutable
+variables</a>. The big difference is that
+we no longer have to construct a PHI node, and we use load/store to
+access the variable as needed.</p>
+<p>To support mutable argument variables, we need to also make allocas for
+them. The code for this is also pretty simple:</p>
+<div class="highlight-ocaml"><div class="highlight"><pre><span class="c">(* Create an alloca for each argument and register the argument in the symbol</span>
+<span class="c"> * table so that references to it will succeed. *)</span>
+<span class="k">let</span> <span class="n">create_argument_allocas</span> <span class="n">the_function</span> <span class="n">proto</span> <span class="o">=</span>
+  <span class="k">let</span> <span class="n">args</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="k">match</span> <span class="n">proto</span> <span class="k">with</span>
+    <span class="o">|</span> <span class="nn">Ast</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="nc">Prototype</span> <span class="o">(_,</span> <span class="n">args</span><span class="o">)</span> <span class="o">|</span> <span class="nn">Ast</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="nc">BinOpPrototype</span> <span class="o">(_,</span> <span class="n">args</span><span class="o">,</span> <span class="o">_)</span> <span class="o">-></span> <span class="n">args</span>
+  <span class="k">in</span>
+  <span class="nn">Array</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="n">iteri</span> <span class="o">(</span><span class="k">fun</span> <span class="n">i</span> <span class="n">ai</span> <span class="o">-></span>
+    <span class="k">let</span> <span class="n">var_name</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="n">args</span><span class="o">.(</span><span class="n">i</span><span class="o">)</span> <span class="k">in</span>
+    <span class="c">(* Create an alloca for this variable. *)</span>
+    <span class="k">let</span> <span class="n">alloca</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="n">create_entry_block_alloca</span> <span class="n">the_function</span> <span class="n">var_name</span> <span class="k">in</span>
+
+    <span class="c">(* Store the initial value into the alloca. *)</span>
+    <span class="n">ignore</span><span class="o">(</span><span class="n">build_store</span> <span class="n">ai</span> <span class="n">alloca</span> <span class="n">builder</span><span class="o">);</span>
+
+    <span class="c">(* Add arguments to variable symbol table. *)</span>
+    <span class="nn">Hashtbl</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="n">add</span> <span class="n">named_values</span> <span class="n">var_name</span> <span class="n">alloca</span><span class="o">;</span>
+  <span class="o">)</span> <span class="o">(</span><span class="n">params</span> <span class="n">the_function</span><span class="o">)</span>
+</pre></div>
+</div>
+<p>For each argument, we make an alloca, store the input value to the
+function into the alloca, and register the alloca as the memory location
+for the argument. This method gets invoked by <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">Codegen.codegen_func</span></tt>
+right after it sets up the entry block for the function.</p>
+<p>The final missing piece is adding the mem2reg pass, which allows us to
+get good codegen once again:</p>
+<div class="highlight-ocaml"><div class="highlight"><pre><span class="k">let</span> <span class="n">main</span> <span class="bp">()</span> <span class="o">=</span>
+  <span class="o">...</span>
+  <span class="k">let</span> <span class="n">the_fpm</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="nn">PassManager</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="n">create_function</span> <span class="nn">Codegen</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="n">the_module</span> <span class="k">in</span>
+
+  <span class="c">(* Set up the optimizer pipeline.  Start with registering info about how the</span>
+<span class="c">   * target lays out data structures. *)</span>
+  <span class="nn">DataLayout</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="n">add</span> <span class="o">(</span><span class="nn">ExecutionEngine</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="n">target_data</span> <span class="n">the_execution_engine</span><span class="o">)</span> <span class="n">the_fpm</span><span class="o">;</span>
+
+  <span class="c">(* Promote allocas to registers. *)</span>
+  <span class="n">add_memory_to_register_promotion</span> <span class="n">the_fpm</span><span class="o">;</span>
+
+  <span class="c">(* Do simple "peephole" optimizations and bit-twiddling optzn. *)</span>
+  <span class="n">add_instruction_combining</span> <span class="n">the_fpm</span><span class="o">;</span>
+
+  <span class="c">(* reassociate expressions. *)</span>
+  <span class="n">add_reassociation</span> <span class="n">the_fpm</span><span class="o">;</span>
+</pre></div>
+</div>
+<p>It is interesting to see what the code looks like before and after the
+mem2reg optimization runs. For example, this is the before/after code
+for our recursive fib function. Before the optimization:</p>
+<div class="highlight-llvm"><div class="highlight"><pre><span class="k">define</span> <span class="kt">double</span> <span class="vg">@fib</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="kt">double</span> <span class="nv">%x</span><span class="p">)</span> <span class="p">{</span>
+<span class="nl">entry:</span>
+  <span class="nv">%x1</span> <span class="p">=</span> <span class="k">alloca</span> <span class="kt">double</span>
+  <span class="k">store</span> <span class="kt">double</span> <span class="nv">%x</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="kt">double</span><span class="p">*</span> <span class="nv">%x1</span>
+  <span class="nv">%x2</span> <span class="p">=</span> <span class="k">load</span> <span class="kt">double</span><span class="p">*</span> <span class="nv">%x1</span>
+  <span class="nv">%cmptmp</span> <span class="p">=</span> <span class="k">fcmp</span> <span class="k">ult</span> <span class="kt">double</span> <span class="nv">%x2</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="m">3.000000e+00</span>
+  <span class="nv">%booltmp</span> <span class="p">=</span> <span class="k">uitofp</span> <span class="k">i1</span> <span class="nv">%cmptmp</span> <span class="k">to</span> <span class="kt">double</span>
+  <span class="nv">%ifcond</span> <span class="p">=</span> <span class="k">fcmp</span> <span class="k">one</span> <span class="kt">double</span> <span class="nv">%booltmp</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="m">0.000000e+00</span>
+  <span class="k">br</span> <span class="k">i1</span> <span class="nv">%ifcond</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="kt">label</span> <span class="nv">%then</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="kt">label</span> <span class="nv">%else</span>
+
+<span class="nl">then:</span>    <span class="c">; preds = %entry</span>
+  <span class="k">br</span> <span class="kt">label</span> <span class="nv">%ifcont</span>
+
+<span class="nl">else:</span>    <span class="c">; preds = %entry</span>
+  <span class="nv">%x3</span> <span class="p">=</span> <span class="k">load</span> <span class="kt">double</span><span class="p">*</span> <span class="nv">%x1</span>
+  <span class="nv">%subtmp</span> <span class="p">=</span> <span class="k">fsub</span> <span class="kt">double</span> <span class="nv">%x3</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="m">1.000000e+00</span>
+  <span class="nv">%calltmp</span> <span class="p">=</span> <span class="k">call</span> <span class="kt">double</span> <span class="vg">@fib</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="kt">double</span> <span class="nv">%subtmp</span><span class="p">)</span>
+  <span class="nv">%x4</span> <span class="p">=</span> <span class="k">load</span> <span class="kt">double</span><span class="p">*</span> <span class="nv">%x1</span>
+  <span class="nv">%subtmp5</span> <span class="p">=</span> <span class="k">fsub</span> <span class="kt">double</span> <span class="nv">%x4</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="m">2.000000e+00</span>
+  <span class="nv">%calltmp6</span> <span class="p">=</span> <span class="k">call</span> <span class="kt">double</span> <span class="vg">@fib</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="kt">double</span> <span class="nv">%subtmp5</span><span class="p">)</span>
+  <span class="nv">%addtmp</span> <span class="p">=</span> <span class="k">fadd</span> <span class="kt">double</span> <span class="nv">%calltmp</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="nv">%calltmp6</span>
+  <span class="k">br</span> <span class="kt">label</span> <span class="nv">%ifcont</span>
+
+<span class="nl">ifcont:</span>    <span class="c">; preds = %else, %then</span>
+  <span class="nv">%iftmp</span> <span class="p">=</span> <span class="k">phi</span> <span class="kt">double</span> <span class="p">[</span> <span class="m">1.000000e+00</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="nv">%then</span> <span class="p">],</span> <span class="p">[</span> <span class="nv">%addtmp</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="nv">%else</span> <span class="p">]</span>
+  <span class="k">ret</span> <span class="kt">double</span> <span class="nv">%iftmp</span>
+<span class="p">}</span>
+</pre></div>
+</div>
+<p>Here there is only one variable (x, the input argument) but you can
+still see the extremely simple-minded code generation strategy we are
+using. In the entry block, an alloca is created, and the initial input
+value is stored into it. Each reference to the variable does a reload
+from the stack. Also, note that we didn’t modify the if/then/else
+expression, so it still inserts a PHI node. While we could make an
+alloca for it, it is actually easier to create a PHI node for it, so we
+still just make the PHI.</p>
+<p>Here is the code after the mem2reg pass runs:</p>
+<div class="highlight-llvm"><div class="highlight"><pre><span class="k">define</span> <span class="kt">double</span> <span class="vg">@fib</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="kt">double</span> <span class="nv">%x</span><span class="p">)</span> <span class="p">{</span>
+<span class="nl">entry:</span>
+  <span class="nv">%cmptmp</span> <span class="p">=</span> <span class="k">fcmp</span> <span class="k">ult</span> <span class="kt">double</span> <span class="nv">%x</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="m">3.000000e+00</span>
+  <span class="nv">%booltmp</span> <span class="p">=</span> <span class="k">uitofp</span> <span class="k">i1</span> <span class="nv">%cmptmp</span> <span class="k">to</span> <span class="kt">double</span>
+  <span class="nv">%ifcond</span> <span class="p">=</span> <span class="k">fcmp</span> <span class="k">one</span> <span class="kt">double</span> <span class="nv">%booltmp</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="m">0.000000e+00</span>
+  <span class="k">br</span> <span class="k">i1</span> <span class="nv">%ifcond</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="kt">label</span> <span class="nv">%then</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="kt">label</span> <span class="nv">%else</span>
+
+<span class="nl">then:</span>
+  <span class="k">br</span> <span class="kt">label</span> <span class="nv">%ifcont</span>
+
+<span class="nl">else:</span>
+  <span class="nv">%subtmp</span> <span class="p">=</span> <span class="k">fsub</span> <span class="kt">double</span> <span class="nv">%x</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="m">1.000000e+00</span>
+  <span class="nv">%calltmp</span> <span class="p">=</span> <span class="k">call</span> <span class="kt">double</span> <span class="vg">@fib</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="kt">double</span> <span class="nv">%subtmp</span><span class="p">)</span>
+  <span class="nv">%subtmp5</span> <span class="p">=</span> <span class="k">fsub</span> <span class="kt">double</span> <span class="nv">%x</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="m">2.000000e+00</span>
+  <span class="nv">%calltmp6</span> <span class="p">=</span> <span class="k">call</span> <span class="kt">double</span> <span class="vg">@fib</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="kt">double</span> <span class="nv">%subtmp5</span><span class="p">)</span>
+  <span class="nv">%addtmp</span> <span class="p">=</span> <span class="k">fadd</span> <span class="kt">double</span> <span class="nv">%calltmp</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="nv">%calltmp6</span>
+  <span class="k">br</span> <span class="kt">label</span> <span class="nv">%ifcont</span>
+
+<span class="nl">ifcont:</span>    <span class="c">; preds = %else, %then</span>
+  <span class="nv">%iftmp</span> <span class="p">=</span> <span class="k">phi</span> <span class="kt">double</span> <span class="p">[</span> <span class="m">1.000000e+00</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="nv">%then</span> <span class="p">],</span> <span class="p">[</span> <span class="nv">%addtmp</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="nv">%else</span> <span class="p">]</span>
+  <span class="k">ret</span> <span class="kt">double</span> <span class="nv">%iftmp</span>
+<span class="p">}</span>
+</pre></div>
+</div>
+<p>This is a trivial case for mem2reg, since there are no redefinitions of
+the variable. The point of showing this is to calm your tension about
+inserting such blatent inefficiencies :).</p>
+<p>After the rest of the optimizers run, we get:</p>
+<div class="highlight-llvm"><div class="highlight"><pre><span class="k">define</span> <span class="kt">double</span> <span class="vg">@fib</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="kt">double</span> <span class="nv">%x</span><span class="p">)</span> <span class="p">{</span>
+<span class="nl">entry:</span>
+  <span class="nv">%cmptmp</span> <span class="p">=</span> <span class="k">fcmp</span> <span class="k">ult</span> <span class="kt">double</span> <span class="nv">%x</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="m">3.000000e+00</span>
+  <span class="nv">%booltmp</span> <span class="p">=</span> <span class="k">uitofp</span> <span class="k">i1</span> <span class="nv">%cmptmp</span> <span class="k">to</span> <span class="kt">double</span>
+  <span class="nv">%ifcond</span> <span class="p">=</span> <span class="k">fcmp</span> <span class="k">ueq</span> <span class="kt">double</span> <span class="nv">%booltmp</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="m">0.000000e+00</span>
+  <span class="k">br</span> <span class="k">i1</span> <span class="nv">%ifcond</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="kt">label</span> <span class="nv">%else</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="kt">label</span> <span class="nv">%ifcont</span>
+
+<span class="nl">else:</span>
+  <span class="nv">%subtmp</span> <span class="p">=</span> <span class="k">fsub</span> <span class="kt">double</span> <span class="nv">%x</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="m">1.000000e+00</span>
+  <span class="nv">%calltmp</span> <span class="p">=</span> <span class="k">call</span> <span class="kt">double</span> <span class="vg">@fib</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="kt">double</span> <span class="nv">%subtmp</span><span class="p">)</span>
+  <span class="nv">%subtmp5</span> <span class="p">=</span> <span class="k">fsub</span> <span class="kt">double</span> <span class="nv">%x</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="m">2.000000e+00</span>
+  <span class="nv">%calltmp6</span> <span class="p">=</span> <span class="k">call</span> <span class="kt">double</span> <span class="vg">@fib</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="kt">double</span> <span class="nv">%subtmp5</span><span class="p">)</span>
+  <span class="nv">%addtmp</span> <span class="p">=</span> <span class="k">fadd</span> <span class="kt">double</span> <span class="nv">%calltmp</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="nv">%calltmp6</span>
+  <span class="k">ret</span> <span class="kt">double</span> <span class="nv">%addtmp</span>
+
+<span class="nl">ifcont:</span>
+  <span class="k">ret</span> <span class="kt">double</span> <span class="m">1.000000e+00</span>
+<span class="p">}</span>
+</pre></div>
+</div>
+<p>Here we see that the simplifycfg pass decided to clone the return
+instruction into the end of the ‘else’ block. This allowed it to
+eliminate some branches and the PHI node.</p>
+<p>Now that all symbol table references are updated to use stack variables,
+we’ll add the assignment operator.</p>
+</div>
+<div class="section" id="new-assignment-operator">
+<h2><a class="toc-backref" href="#id7">7.6. New Assignment Operator</a><a class="headerlink" href="#new-assignment-operator" title="Permalink to this headline">¶</a></h2>
+<p>With our current framework, adding a new assignment operator is really
+simple. We will parse it just like any other binary operator, but handle
+it internally (instead of allowing the user to define it). The first
+step is to set a precedence:</p>
+<div class="highlight-ocaml"><div class="highlight"><pre><span class="k">let</span> <span class="n">main</span> <span class="bp">()</span> <span class="o">=</span>
+  <span class="c">(* Install standard binary operators.</span>
+<span class="c">   * 1 is the lowest precedence. *)</span>
+  <span class="nn">Hashtbl</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="n">add</span> <span class="nn">Parser</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="n">binop_precedence</span> <span class="sc">'='</span> <span class="mi">2</span><span class="o">;</span>
+  <span class="nn">Hashtbl</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="n">add</span> <span class="nn">Parser</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="n">binop_precedence</span> <span class="sc">'<'</span> <span class="mi">10</span><span class="o">;</span>
+  <span class="nn">Hashtbl</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="n">add</span> <span class="nn">Parser</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="n">binop_precedence</span> <span class="sc">'+'</span> <span class="mi">20</span><span class="o">;</span>
+  <span class="nn">Hashtbl</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="n">add</span> <span class="nn">Parser</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="n">binop_precedence</span> <span class="sc">'-'</span> <span class="mi">20</span><span class="o">;</span>
+  <span class="o">...</span>
+</pre></div>
+</div>
+<p>Now that the parser knows the precedence of the binary operator, it
+takes care of all the parsing and AST generation. We just need to
+implement codegen for the assignment operator. This looks like:</p>
+<div class="highlight-ocaml"><div class="highlight"><pre><span class="k">let</span> <span class="k">rec</span> <span class="n">codegen_expr</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="k">function</span>
+      <span class="k">begin</span> <span class="k">match</span> <span class="n">op</span> <span class="k">with</span>
+      <span class="o">|</span> <span class="sc">'='</span> <span class="o">-></span>
+          <span class="c">(* Special case '=' because we don't want to emit the LHS as an</span>
+<span class="c">           * expression. *)</span>
+          <span class="k">let</span> <span class="n">name</span> <span class="o">=</span>
+            <span class="k">match</span> <span class="n">lhs</span> <span class="k">with</span>
+            <span class="o">|</span> <span class="nn">Ast</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="nc">Variable</span> <span class="n">name</span> <span class="o">-></span> <span class="n">name</span>
+            <span class="o">|</span> <span class="o">_</span> <span class="o">-></span> <span class="k">raise</span> <span class="o">(</span><span class="nc">Error</span> <span class="s2">"destination of '=' must be a variable"</span><span class="o">)</span>
+          <span class="k">in</span>
+</pre></div>
+</div>
+<p>Unlike the rest of the binary operators, our assignment operator doesn’t
+follow the “emit LHS, emit RHS, do computation” model. As such, it is
+handled as a special case before the other binary operators are handled.
+The other strange thing is that it requires the LHS to be a variable. It
+is invalid to have “(x+1) = expr” - only things like “x = expr” are
+allowed.</p>
+<div class="highlight-ocaml"><div class="highlight"><pre>    <span class="c">(* Codegen the rhs. *)</span>
+    <span class="k">let</span> <span class="n">val_</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="n">codegen_expr</span> <span class="n">rhs</span> <span class="k">in</span>
+
+    <span class="c">(* Lookup the name. *)</span>
+    <span class="k">let</span> <span class="n">variable</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="k">try</span> <span class="nn">Hashtbl</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="n">find</span> <span class="n">named_values</span> <span class="n">name</span> <span class="k">with</span>
+    <span class="o">|</span> <span class="nc">Not_found</span> <span class="o">-></span> <span class="k">raise</span> <span class="o">(</span><span class="nc">Error</span> <span class="s2">"unknown variable name"</span><span class="o">)</span>
+    <span class="k">in</span>
+    <span class="n">ignore</span><span class="o">(</span><span class="n">build_store</span> <span class="n">val_</span> <span class="n">variable</span> <span class="n">builder</span><span class="o">);</span>
+    <span class="n">val_</span>
+<span class="o">|</span> <span class="o">_</span> <span class="o">-></span>
+      <span class="o">...</span>
+</pre></div>
+</div>
+<p>Once we have the variable, codegen’ing the assignment is
+straightforward: we emit the RHS of the assignment, create a store, and
+return the computed value. Returning a value allows for chained
+assignments like “X = (Y = Z)”.</p>
+<p>Now that we have an assignment operator, we can mutate loop variables
+and arguments. For example, we can now run code like this:</p>
+<div class="highlight-python"><div class="highlight"><pre># Function to print a double.
+extern printd(x);
+
+# Define ':' for sequencing: as a low-precedence operator that ignores operands
+# and just returns the RHS.
+def binary : 1 (x y) y;
+
+def test(x)
+  printd(x) :
+  x = 4 :
+  printd(x);
+
+test(123);
+</pre></div>
+</div>
+<p>When run, this example prints “123” and then “4”, showing that we did
+actually mutate the value! Okay, we have now officially implemented our
+goal: getting this to work requires SSA construction in the general
+case. However, to be really useful, we want the ability to define our
+own local variables, lets add this next!</p>
+</div>
+<div class="section" id="user-defined-local-variables">
+<h2><a class="toc-backref" href="#id8">7.7. User-defined Local Variables</a><a class="headerlink" href="#user-defined-local-variables" title="Permalink to this headline">¶</a></h2>
+<p>Adding var/in is just like any other other extensions we made to
+Kaleidoscope: we extend the lexer, the parser, the AST and the code
+generator. The first step for adding our new ‘var/in’ construct is to
+extend the lexer. As before, this is pretty trivial, the code looks like
+this:</p>
+<div class="highlight-ocaml"><div class="highlight"><pre><span class="k">type</span> <span class="n">token</span> <span class="o">=</span>
+  <span class="o">...</span>
+  <span class="c">(* var definition *)</span>
+  <span class="o">|</span> <span class="nn">Var</span>
+
+<span class="p">...</span>
+
+<span class="n">and</span> <span class="n">lex_ident</span> <span class="n">buffer</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="n">parser</span>
+      <span class="o">...</span>
+      <span class="o">|</span> <span class="s2">"in"</span> <span class="o">-></span> <span class="o">[<</span> <span class="k">'</span><span class="nn">Token</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="nc">In</span><span class="o">;</span> <span class="n">stream</span> <span class="o">>]</span>
+      <span class="o">|</span> <span class="s2">"binary"</span> <span class="o">-></span> <span class="o">[<</span> <span class="k">'</span><span class="nn">Token</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="nc">Binary</span><span class="o">;</span> <span class="n">stream</span> <span class="o">>]</span>
+      <span class="o">|</span> <span class="s2">"unary"</span> <span class="o">-></span> <span class="o">[<</span> <span class="k">'</span><span class="nn">Token</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="nc">Unary</span><span class="o">;</span> <span class="n">stream</span> <span class="o">>]</span>
+      <span class="o">|</span> <span class="s2">"var"</span> <span class="o">-></span> <span class="o">[<</span> <span class="k">'</span><span class="nn">Token</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="nc">Var</span><span class="o">;</span> <span class="n">stream</span> <span class="o">>]</span>
+      <span class="o">...</span>
+</pre></div>
+</div>
+<p>The next step is to define the AST node that we will construct. For
+var/in, it looks like this:</p>
+<div class="highlight-ocaml"><div class="highlight"><pre><span class="k">type</span> <span class="n">expr</span> <span class="o">=</span>
+  <span class="o">...</span>
+  <span class="c">(* variant for var/in. *)</span>
+  <span class="o">|</span> <span class="nc">Var</span> <span class="k">of</span> <span class="o">(</span><span class="kt">string</span> <span class="o">*</span> <span class="n">expr</span> <span class="n">option</span><span class="o">)</span> <span class="kt">array</span> <span class="o">*</span> <span class="n">expr</span>
+  <span class="o">...</span>
+</pre></div>
+</div>
+<p>var/in allows a list of names to be defined all at once, and each name
+can optionally have an initializer value. As such, we capture this
+information in the VarNames vector. Also, var/in has a body, this body
+is allowed to access the variables defined by the var/in.</p>
+<p>With this in place, we can define the parser pieces. The first thing we
+do is add it as a primary expression:</p>
+<div class="highlight-ocaml"><div class="highlight"><pre><span class="c">(* primary</span>
+<span class="c"> *   ::= identifier</span>
+<span class="c"> *   ::= numberexpr</span>
+<span class="c"> *   ::= parenexpr</span>
+<span class="c"> *   ::= ifexpr</span>
+<span class="c"> *   ::= forexpr</span>
+<span class="c"> *   ::= varexpr *)</span>
+<span class="k">let</span> <span class="k">rec</span> <span class="n">parse_primary</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="n">parser</span>
+  <span class="o">...</span>
+  <span class="c">(* varexpr</span>
+<span class="c">   *   ::= 'var' identifier ('=' expression?</span>
+<span class="c">   *             (',' identifier ('=' expression)?)* 'in' expression *)</span>
+  <span class="o">|</span> <span class="o">[<</span> <span class="k">'</span><span class="nn">Token</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="nc">Var</span><span class="o">;</span>
+       <span class="c">(* At least one variable name is required. *)</span>
+       <span class="k">'</span><span class="nn">Token</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="nc">Ident</span> <span class="n">id</span> <span class="o">??</span> <span class="s2">"expected identifier after var"</span><span class="o">;</span>
+       <span class="n">init</span><span class="o">=</span><span class="n">parse_var_init</span><span class="o">;</span>
+       <span class="n">var_names</span><span class="o">=</span><span class="n">parse_var_names</span> <span class="o">[(</span><span class="n">id</span><span class="o">,</span> <span class="n">init</span><span class="o">)];</span>
+       <span class="c">(* At this point, we have to have 'in'. *)</span>
+       <span class="k">'</span><span class="nn">Token</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="nc">In</span> <span class="o">??</span> <span class="s2">"expected 'in' keyword after 'var'"</span><span class="o">;</span>
+       <span class="n">body</span><span class="o">=</span><span class="n">parse_expr</span> <span class="o">>]</span> <span class="o">-></span>
+      <span class="nn">Ast</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="nc">Var</span> <span class="o">(</span><span class="nn">Array</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="n">of_list</span> <span class="o">(</span><span class="nn">List</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="n">rev</span> <span class="n">var_names</span><span class="o">),</span> <span class="n">body</span><span class="o">)</span>
+
+<span class="o">...</span>
+
+<span class="ow">and</span> <span class="n">parse_var_init</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="n">parser</span>
+  <span class="c">(* read in the optional initializer. *)</span>
+  <span class="o">|</span> <span class="o">[<</span> <span class="k">'</span><span class="nn">Token</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="nc">Kwd</span> <span class="sc">'='</span><span class="o">;</span> <span class="n">e</span><span class="o">=</span><span class="n">parse_expr</span> <span class="o">>]</span> <span class="o">-></span> <span class="nc">Some</span> <span class="n">e</span>
+  <span class="o">|</span> <span class="o">[<</span> <span class="o">>]</span> <span class="o">-></span> <span class="nc">None</span>
+
+<span class="ow">and</span> <span class="n">parse_var_names</span> <span class="n">accumulator</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="n">parser</span>
+  <span class="o">|</span> <span class="o">[<</span> <span class="k">'</span><span class="nn">Token</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="nc">Kwd</span> <span class="sc">','</span><span class="o">;</span>
+       <span class="k">'</span><span class="nn">Token</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="nc">Ident</span> <span class="n">id</span> <span class="o">??</span> <span class="s2">"expected identifier list after var"</span><span class="o">;</span>
+       <span class="n">init</span><span class="o">=</span><span class="n">parse_var_init</span><span class="o">;</span>
+       <span class="n">e</span><span class="o">=</span><span class="n">parse_var_names</span> <span class="o">((</span><span class="n">id</span><span class="o">,</span> <span class="n">init</span><span class="o">)</span> <span class="o">::</span> <span class="n">accumulator</span><span class="o">)</span> <span class="o">>]</span> <span class="o">-></span> <span class="n">e</span>
+  <span class="o">|</span> <span class="o">[<</span> <span class="o">>]</span> <span class="o">-></span> <span class="n">accumulator</span>
+</pre></div>
+</div>
+<p>Now that we can parse and represent the code, we need to support
+emission of LLVM IR for it. This code starts out with:</p>
+<div class="highlight-ocaml"><div class="highlight"><pre><span class="k">let</span> <span class="k">rec</span> <span class="n">codegen_expr</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="k">function</span>
+  <span class="o">...</span>
+  <span class="o">|</span> <span class="nn">Ast</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="nc">Var</span> <span class="o">(</span><span class="n">var_names</span><span class="o">,</span> <span class="n">body</span><span class="o">)</span>
+      <span class="k">let</span> <span class="n">old_bindings</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="n">ref</span> <span class="bp">[]</span> <span class="k">in</span>
+
+      <span class="k">let</span> <span class="n">the_function</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="n">block_parent</span> <span class="o">(</span><span class="n">insertion_block</span> <span class="n">builder</span><span class="o">)</span> <span class="k">in</span>
+
+      <span class="c">(* Register all variables and emit their initializer. *)</span>
+      <span class="nn">Array</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="n">iter</span> <span class="o">(</span><span class="k">fun</span> <span class="o">(</span><span class="n">var_name</span><span class="o">,</span> <span class="n">init</span><span class="o">)</span> <span class="o">-></span>
+</pre></div>
+</div>
+<p>Basically it loops over all the variables, installing them one at a
+time. For each variable we put into the symbol table, we remember the
+previous value that we replace in OldBindings.</p>
+<div class="highlight-ocaml"><div class="highlight"><pre>  <span class="c">(* Emit the initializer before adding the variable to scope, this</span>
+<span class="c">   * prevents the initializer from referencing the variable itself, and</span>
+<span class="c">   * permits stuff like this:</span>
+<span class="c">   *   var a = 1 in</span>
+<span class="c">   *     var a = a in ...   # refers to outer 'a'. *)</span>
+  <span class="k">let</span> <span class="n">init_val</span> <span class="o">=</span>
+    <span class="k">match</span> <span class="n">init</span> <span class="k">with</span>
+    <span class="o">|</span> <span class="nc">Some</span> <span class="n">init</span> <span class="o">-></span> <span class="n">codegen_expr</span> <span class="n">init</span>
+    <span class="c">(* If not specified, use 0.0. *)</span>
+    <span class="o">|</span> <span class="nc">None</span> <span class="o">-></span> <span class="n">const_float</span> <span class="n">double_type</span> <span class="mi">0</span><span class="o">.</span><span class="mi">0</span>
+  <span class="k">in</span>
+
+  <span class="k">let</span> <span class="n">alloca</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="n">create_entry_block_alloca</span> <span class="n">the_function</span> <span class="n">var_name</span> <span class="k">in</span>
+  <span class="n">ignore</span><span class="o">(</span><span class="n">build_store</span> <span class="n">init_val</span> <span class="n">alloca</span> <span class="n">builder</span><span class="o">);</span>
+
+  <span class="c">(* Remember the old variable binding so that we can restore the binding</span>
+<span class="c">   * when we unrecurse. *)</span>
+
+  <span class="k">begin</span>
+    <span class="k">try</span>
+      <span class="k">let</span> <span class="n">old_value</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="nn">Hashtbl</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="n">find</span> <span class="n">named_values</span> <span class="n">var_name</span> <span class="k">in</span>
+      <span class="n">old_bindings</span> <span class="o">:=</span> <span class="o">(</span><span class="n">var_name</span><span class="o">,</span> <span class="n">old_value</span><span class="o">)</span> <span class="o">::</span> <span class="o">!</span><span class="n">old_bindings</span><span class="o">;</span>
+    <span class="k">with</span> <span class="nc">Not_found</span> <span class="o">></span> <span class="bp">()</span>
+  <span class="k">end</span><span class="o">;</span>
+
+  <span class="c">(* Remember this binding. *)</span>
+  <span class="nn">Hashtbl</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="n">add</span> <span class="n">named_values</span> <span class="n">var_name</span> <span class="n">alloca</span><span class="o">;</span>
+<span class="o">)</span> <span class="n">var_names</span><span class="o">;</span>
+</pre></div>
+</div>
+<p>There are more comments here than code. The basic idea is that we emit
+the initializer, create the alloca, then update the symbol table to
+point to it. Once all the variables are installed in the symbol table,
+we evaluate the body of the var/in expression:</p>
+<div class="highlight-ocaml"><div class="highlight"><pre><span class="c">(* Codegen the body, now that all vars are in scope. *)</span>
+<span class="k">let</span> <span class="n">body_val</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="n">codegen_expr</span> <span class="n">body</span> <span class="k">in</span>
+</pre></div>
+</div>
+<p>Finally, before returning, we restore the previous variable bindings:</p>
+<div class="highlight-ocaml"><div class="highlight"><pre><span class="c">(* Pop all our variables from scope. *)</span>
+<span class="nn">List</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="n">iter</span> <span class="o">(</span><span class="k">fun</span> <span class="o">(</span><span class="n">var_name</span><span class="o">,</span> <span class="n">old_value</span><span class="o">)</span> <span class="o">-></span>
+  <span class="nn">Hashtbl</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="n">add</span> <span class="n">named_values</span> <span class="n">var_name</span> <span class="n">old_value</span>
+<span class="o">)</span> <span class="o">!</span><span class="n">old_bindings</span><span class="o">;</span>
+
+<span class="c">(* Return the body computation. *)</span>
+<span class="n">body_val</span>
+</pre></div>
+</div>
+<p>The end result of all of this is that we get properly scoped variable
+definitions, and we even (trivially) allow mutation of them :).</p>
+<p>With this, we completed what we set out to do. Our nice iterative fib
+example from the intro compiles and runs just fine. The mem2reg pass
+optimizes all of our stack variables into SSA registers, inserting PHI
+nodes where needed, and our front-end remains simple: no “iterated
+dominance frontier” computation anywhere in sight.</p>
+</div>
+<div class="section" id="id1">
+<h2><a class="toc-backref" href="#id9">7.8. Full Code Listing</a><a class="headerlink" href="#id1" title="Permalink to this headline">¶</a></h2>
+<p>Here is the complete code listing for our running example, enhanced with
+mutable variables and var/in support. To build this example, use:</p>
+<div class="highlight-bash"><div class="highlight"><pre><span class="c"># Compile</span>
+ocamlbuild toy.byte
+<span class="c"># Run</span>
+./toy.byte
+</pre></div>
+</div>
+<p>Here is the code:</p>
+<dl class="docutils">
+<dt>_tags:</dt>
+<dd><div class="first last highlight-python"><div class="highlight"><pre><{lexer,parser}.ml>: use_camlp4, pp(camlp4of)
+<*.{byte,native}>: g++, use_llvm, use_llvm_analysis
+<*.{byte,native}>: use_llvm_executionengine, use_llvm_target
+<*.{byte,native}>: use_llvm_scalar_opts, use_bindings
+</pre></div>
+</div>
+</dd>
+<dt>myocamlbuild.ml:</dt>
+<dd><div class="first last highlight-ocaml"><div class="highlight"><pre><span class="k">open</span> <span class="nc">Ocamlbuild_plugin</span><span class="o">;;</span>
+
+<span class="n">ocaml_lib</span> <span class="o">~</span><span class="n">extern</span><span class="o">:</span><span class="bp">true</span> <span class="s2">"llvm"</span><span class="o">;;</span>
+<span class="n">ocaml_lib</span> <span class="o">~</span><span class="n">extern</span><span class="o">:</span><span class="bp">true</span> <span class="s2">"llvm_analysis"</span><span class="o">;;</span>
+<span class="n">ocaml_lib</span> <span class="o">~</span><span class="n">extern</span><span class="o">:</span><span class="bp">true</span> <span class="s2">"llvm_executionengine"</span><span class="o">;;</span>
+<span class="n">ocaml_lib</span> <span class="o">~</span><span class="n">extern</span><span class="o">:</span><span class="bp">true</span> <span class="s2">"llvm_target"</span><span class="o">;;</span>
+<span class="n">ocaml_lib</span> <span class="o">~</span><span class="n">extern</span><span class="o">:</span><span class="bp">true</span> <span class="s2">"llvm_scalar_opts"</span><span class="o">;;</span>
+
+<span class="n">flag</span> <span class="o">[</span><span class="s2">"link"</span><span class="o">;</span> <span class="s2">"ocaml"</span><span class="o">;</span> <span class="s2">"g++"</span><span class="o">]</span> <span class="o">(</span><span class="nc">S</span><span class="o">[</span><span class="nc">A</span><span class="s2">"-cc"</span><span class="o">;</span> <span class="nc">A</span><span class="s2">"g++"</span><span class="o">;</span> <span class="nc">A</span><span class="s2">"-cclib"</span><span class="o">;</span> <span class="nc">A</span><span class="s2">"-rdynamic"</span><span class="o">]);;</span>
+<span class="n">dep</span> <span class="o">[</span><span class="s2">"link"</span><span class="o">;</span> <span class="s2">"ocaml"</span><span class="o">;</span> <span class="s2">"use_bindings"</span><span class="o">]</span> <span class="o">[</span><span class="s2">"bindings.o"</span><span class="o">];;</span>
+</pre></div>
+</div>
+</dd>
+<dt>token.ml:</dt>
+<dd><div class="first last highlight-ocaml"><div class="highlight"><pre><span class="c">(*===----------------------------------------------------------------------===</span>
+<span class="c"> * Lexer Tokens</span>
+<span class="c"> *===----------------------------------------------------------------------===*)</span>
+
+<span class="c">(* The lexer returns these 'Kwd' if it is an unknown character, otherwise one of</span>
+<span class="c"> * these others for known things. *)</span>
+<span class="k">type</span> <span class="n">token</span> <span class="o">=</span>
+  <span class="c">(* commands *)</span>
+  <span class="o">|</span> <span class="nc">Def</span> <span class="o">|</span> <span class="nc">Extern</span>
+
+  <span class="c">(* primary *)</span>
+  <span class="o">|</span> <span class="nc">Ident</span> <span class="k">of</span> <span class="kt">string</span> <span class="o">|</span> <span class="nc">Number</span> <span class="k">of</span> <span class="kt">float</span>
+
+  <span class="c">(* unknown *)</span>
+  <span class="o">|</span> <span class="nc">Kwd</span> <span class="k">of</span> <span class="kt">char</span>
+
+  <span class="c">(* control *)</span>
+  <span class="o">|</span> <span class="nc">If</span> <span class="o">|</span> <span class="nc">Then</span> <span class="o">|</span> <span class="nc">Else</span>
+  <span class="o">|</span> <span class="nc">For</span> <span class="o">|</span> <span class="nc">In</span>
+
+  <span class="c">(* operators *)</span>
+  <span class="o">|</span> <span class="nc">Binary</span> <span class="o">|</span> <span class="nc">Unary</span>
+
+  <span class="c">(* var definition *)</span>
+  <span class="o">|</span> <span class="nc">Var</span>
+</pre></div>
+</div>
+</dd>
+<dt>lexer.ml:</dt>
+<dd><div class="first last highlight-ocaml"><div class="highlight"><pre><span class="c">(*===----------------------------------------------------------------------===</span>
+<span class="c"> * Lexer</span>
+<span class="c"> *===----------------------------------------------------------------------===*)</span>
+
+<span class="k">let</span> <span class="k">rec</span> <span class="n">lex</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="n">parser</span>
+  <span class="c">(* Skip any whitespace. *)</span>
+  <span class="o">|</span> <span class="o">[<</span> <span class="k">'</span> <span class="o">(</span><span class="sc">' '</span> <span class="o">|</span> <span class="sc">'\n'</span> <span class="o">|</span> <span class="sc">'\r'</span> <span class="o">|</span> <span class="sc">'\t'</span><span class="o">);</span> <span class="n">stream</span> <span class="o">>]</span> <span class="o">-></span> <span class="n">lex</span> <span class="n">stream</span>
+
+  <span class="c">(* identifier: [a-zA-Z][a-zA-Z0-9] *)</span>
+  <span class="o">|</span> <span class="o">[<</span> <span class="k">'</span> <span class="o">(</span><span class="sc">'A'</span> <span class="o">..</span> <span class="sc">'Z'</span> <span class="o">|</span> <span class="sc">'a'</span> <span class="o">..</span> <span class="sc">'z'</span> <span class="k">as</span> <span class="n">c</span><span class="o">);</span> <span class="n">stream</span> <span class="o">>]</span> <span class="o">-></span>
+      <span class="k">let</span> <span class="n">buffer</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="nn">Buffer</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="n">create</span> <span class="mi">1</span> <span class="k">in</span>
+      <span class="nn">Buffer</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="n">add_char</span> <span class="n">buffer</span> <span class="n">c</span><span class="o">;</span>
+      <span class="n">lex_ident</span> <span class="n">buffer</span> <span class="n">stream</span>
+
+  <span class="c">(* number: [0-9.]+ *)</span>
+  <span class="o">|</span> <span class="o">[<</span> <span class="k">'</span> <span class="o">(</span><span class="sc">'0'</span> <span class="o">..</span> <span class="sc">'9'</span> <span class="k">as</span> <span class="n">c</span><span class="o">);</span> <span class="n">stream</span> <span class="o">>]</span> <span class="o">-></span>
+      <span class="k">let</span> <span class="n">buffer</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="nn">Buffer</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="n">create</span> <span class="mi">1</span> <span class="k">in</span>
+      <span class="nn">Buffer</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="n">add_char</span> <span class="n">buffer</span> <span class="n">c</span><span class="o">;</span>
+      <span class="n">lex_number</span> <span class="n">buffer</span> <span class="n">stream</span>
+
+  <span class="c">(* Comment until end of line. *)</span>
+  <span class="o">|</span> <span class="o">[<</span> <span class="k">'</span> <span class="o">(</span><span class="sc">'#'</span><span class="o">);</span> <span class="n">stream</span> <span class="o">>]</span> <span class="o">-></span>
+      <span class="n">lex_comment</span> <span class="n">stream</span>
+
+  <span class="c">(* Otherwise, just return the character as its ascii value. *)</span>
+  <span class="o">|</span> <span class="o">[<</span> <span class="k">'</span><span class="n">c</span><span class="o">;</span> <span class="n">stream</span> <span class="o">>]</span> <span class="o">-></span>
+      <span class="o">[<</span> <span class="k">'</span><span class="nn">Token</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="nc">Kwd</span> <span class="n">c</span><span class="o">;</span> <span class="n">lex</span> <span class="n">stream</span> <span class="o">>]</span>
+
+  <span class="c">(* end of stream. *)</span>
+  <span class="o">|</span> <span class="o">[<</span> <span class="o">>]</span> <span class="o">-></span> <span class="o">[<</span> <span class="o">>]</span>
+
+<span class="ow">and</span> <span class="n">lex_number</span> <span class="n">buffer</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="n">parser</span>
+  <span class="o">|</span> <span class="o">[<</span> <span class="k">'</span> <span class="o">(</span><span class="sc">'0'</span> <span class="o">..</span> <span class="sc">'9'</span> <span class="o">|</span> <span class="sc">'.'</span> <span class="k">as</span> <span class="n">c</span><span class="o">);</span> <span class="n">stream</span> <span class="o">>]</span> <span class="o">-></span>
+      <span class="nn">Buffer</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="n">add_char</span> <span class="n">buffer</span> <span class="n">c</span><span class="o">;</span>
+      <span class="n">lex_number</span> <span class="n">buffer</span> <span class="n">stream</span>
+  <span class="o">|</span> <span class="o">[<</span> <span class="n">stream</span><span class="o">=</span><span class="n">lex</span> <span class="o">>]</span> <span class="o">-></span>
+      <span class="o">[<</span> <span class="k">'</span><span class="nn">Token</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="nc">Number</span> <span class="o">(</span><span class="n">float_of_string</span> <span class="o">(</span><span class="nn">Buffer</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="n">contents</span> <span class="n">buffer</span><span class="o">));</span> <span class="n">stream</span> <span class="o">>]</span>
+
+<span class="ow">and</span> <span class="n">lex_ident</span> <span class="n">buffer</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="n">parser</span>
+  <span class="o">|</span> <span class="o">[<</span> <span class="k">'</span> <span class="o">(</span><span class="sc">'A'</span> <span class="o">..</span> <span class="sc">'Z'</span> <span class="o">|</span> <span class="sc">'a'</span> <span class="o">..</span> <span class="sc">'z'</span> <span class="o">|</span> <span class="sc">'0'</span> <span class="o">..</span> <span class="sc">'9'</span> <span class="k">as</span> <span class="n">c</span><span class="o">);</span> <span class="n">stream</span> <span class="o">>]</span> <span class="o">-></span>
+      <span class="nn">Buffer</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="n">add_char</span> <span class="n">buffer</span> <span class="n">c</span><span class="o">;</span>
+      <span class="n">lex_ident</span> <span class="n">buffer</span> <span class="n">stream</span>
+  <span class="o">|</span> <span class="o">[<</span> <span class="n">stream</span><span class="o">=</span><span class="n">lex</span> <span class="o">>]</span> <span class="o">-></span>
+      <span class="k">match</span> <span class="nn">Buffer</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="n">contents</span> <span class="n">buffer</span> <span class="k">with</span>
+      <span class="o">|</span> <span class="s2">"def"</span> <span class="o">-></span> <span class="o">[<</span> <span class="k">'</span><span class="nn">Token</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="nc">Def</span><span class="o">;</span> <span class="n">stream</span> <span class="o">>]</span>
+      <span class="o">|</span> <span class="s2">"extern"</span> <span class="o">-></span> <span class="o">[<</span> <span class="k">'</span><span class="nn">Token</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="nc">Extern</span><span class="o">;</span> <span class="n">stream</span> <span class="o">>]</span>
+      <span class="o">|</span> <span class="s2">"if"</span> <span class="o">-></span> <span class="o">[<</span> <span class="k">'</span><span class="nn">Token</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="nc">If</span><span class="o">;</span> <span class="n">stream</span> <span class="o">>]</span>
+      <span class="o">|</span> <span class="s2">"then"</span> <span class="o">-></span> <span class="o">[<</span> <span class="k">'</span><span class="nn">Token</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="nc">Then</span><span class="o">;</span> <span class="n">stream</span> <span class="o">>]</span>
+      <span class="o">|</span> <span class="s2">"else"</span> <span class="o">-></span> <span class="o">[<</span> <span class="k">'</span><span class="nn">Token</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="nc">Else</span><span class="o">;</span> <span class="n">stream</span> <span class="o">>]</span>
+      <span class="o">|</span> <span class="s2">"for"</span> <span class="o">-></span> <span class="o">[<</span> <span class="k">'</span><span class="nn">Token</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="nc">For</span><span class="o">;</span> <span class="n">stream</span> <span class="o">>]</span>
+      <span class="o">|</span> <span class="s2">"in"</span> <span class="o">-></span> <span class="o">[<</span> <span class="k">'</span><span class="nn">Token</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="nc">In</span><span class="o">;</span> <span class="n">stream</span> <span class="o">>]</span>
+      <span class="o">|</span> <span class="s2">"binary"</span> <span class="o">-></span> <span class="o">[<</span> <span class="k">'</span><span class="nn">Token</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="nc">Binary</span><span class="o">;</span> <span class="n">stream</span> <span class="o">>]</span>
+      <span class="o">|</span> <span class="s2">"unary"</span> <span class="o">-></span> <span class="o">[<</span> <span class="k">'</span><span class="nn">Token</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="nc">Unary</span><span class="o">;</span> <span class="n">stream</span> <span class="o">>]</span>
+      <span class="o">|</span> <span class="s2">"var"</span> <span class="o">-></span> <span class="o">[<</span> <span class="k">'</span><span class="nn">Token</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="nc">Var</span><span class="o">;</span> <span class="n">stream</span> <span class="o">>]</span>
+      <span class="o">|</span> <span class="n">id</span> <span class="o">-></span> <span class="o">[<</span> <span class="k">'</span><span class="nn">Token</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="nc">Ident</span> <span class="n">id</span><span class="o">;</span> <span class="n">stream</span> <span class="o">>]</span>
+
+<span class="ow">and</span> <span class="n">lex_comment</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="n">parser</span>
+  <span class="o">|</span> <span class="o">[<</span> <span class="k">'</span> <span class="o">(</span><span class="sc">'\n'</span><span class="o">);</span> <span class="n">stream</span><span class="o">=</span><span class="n">lex</span> <span class="o">>]</span> <span class="o">-></span> <span class="n">stream</span>
+  <span class="o">|</span> <span class="o">[<</span> <span class="k">'</span><span class="n">c</span><span class="o">;</span> <span class="n">e</span><span class="o">=</span><span class="n">lex_comment</span> <span class="o">>]</span> <span class="o">-></span> <span class="n">e</span>
+  <span class="o">|</span> <span class="o">[<</span> <span class="o">>]</span> <span class="o">-></span> <span class="o">[<</span> <span class="o">>]</span>
+</pre></div>
+</div>
+</dd>
+<dt>ast.ml:</dt>
+<dd><div class="first last highlight-ocaml"><div class="highlight"><pre><span class="c">(*===----------------------------------------------------------------------===</span>
+<span class="c"> * Abstract Syntax Tree (aka Parse Tree)</span>
+<span class="c"> *===----------------------------------------------------------------------===*)</span>
+
+<span class="c">(* expr - Base type for all expression nodes. *)</span>
+<span class="k">type</span> <span class="n">expr</span> <span class="o">=</span>
+  <span class="c">(* variant for numeric literals like "1.0". *)</span>
+  <span class="o">|</span> <span class="nc">Number</span> <span class="k">of</span> <span class="kt">float</span>
+
+  <span class="c">(* variant for referencing a variable, like "a". *)</span>
+  <span class="o">|</span> <span class="nc">Variable</span> <span class="k">of</span> <span class="kt">string</span>
+
+  <span class="c">(* variant for a unary operator. *)</span>
+  <span class="o">|</span> <span class="nc">Unary</span> <span class="k">of</span> <span class="kt">char</span> <span class="o">*</span> <span class="n">expr</span>
+
+  <span class="c">(* variant for a binary operator. *)</span>
+  <span class="o">|</span> <span class="nc">Binary</span> <span class="k">of</span> <span class="kt">char</span> <span class="o">*</span> <span class="n">expr</span> <span class="o">*</span> <span class="n">expr</span>
+
+  <span class="c">(* variant for function calls. *)</span>
+  <span class="o">|</span> <span class="nc">Call</span> <span class="k">of</span> <span class="kt">string</span> <span class="o">*</span> <span class="n">expr</span> <span class="kt">array</span>
+
+  <span class="c">(* variant for if/then/else. *)</span>
+  <span class="o">|</span> <span class="nc">If</span> <span class="k">of</span> <span class="n">expr</span> <span class="o">*</span> <span class="n">expr</span> <span class="o">*</span> <span class="n">expr</span>
+
+  <span class="c">(* variant for for/in. *)</span>
+  <span class="o">|</span> <span class="nc">For</span> <span class="k">of</span> <span class="kt">string</span> <span class="o">*</span> <span class="n">expr</span> <span class="o">*</span> <span class="n">expr</span> <span class="o">*</span> <span class="n">expr</span> <span class="n">option</span> <span class="o">*</span> <span class="n">expr</span>
+
+  <span class="c">(* variant for var/in. *)</span>
+  <span class="o">|</span> <span class="nc">Var</span> <span class="k">of</span> <span class="o">(</span><span class="kt">string</span> <span class="o">*</span> <span class="n">expr</span> <span class="n">option</span><span class="o">)</span> <span class="kt">array</span> <span class="o">*</span> <span class="n">expr</span>
+
+<span class="c">(* proto - This type represents the "prototype" for a function, which captures</span>
+<span class="c"> * its name, and its argument names (thus implicitly the number of arguments the</span>
+<span class="c"> * function takes). *)</span>
+<span class="k">type</span> <span class="n">proto</span> <span class="o">=</span>
+  <span class="o">|</span> <span class="nc">Prototype</span> <span class="k">of</span> <span class="kt">string</span> <span class="o">*</span> <span class="kt">string</span> <span class="kt">array</span>
+  <span class="o">|</span> <span class="nc">BinOpPrototype</span> <span class="k">of</span> <span class="kt">string</span> <span class="o">*</span> <span class="kt">string</span> <span class="kt">array</span> <span class="o">*</span> <span class="kt">int</span>
+
+<span class="c">(* func - This type represents a function definition itself. *)</span>
+<span class="k">type</span> <span class="n">func</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="nc">Function</span> <span class="k">of</span> <span class="n">proto</span> <span class="o">*</span> <span class="n">expr</span>
+</pre></div>
+</div>
+</dd>
+<dt>parser.ml:</dt>
+<dd><div class="first last highlight-ocaml"><div class="highlight"><pre><span class="c">(*===---------------------------------------------------------------------===</span>
+<span class="c"> * Parser</span>
+<span class="c"> *===---------------------------------------------------------------------===*)</span>
+
+<span class="c">(* binop_precedence - This holds the precedence for each binary operator that is</span>
+<span class="c"> * defined *)</span>
+<span class="k">let</span> <span class="n">binop_precedence</span><span class="o">:(</span><span class="kt">char</span><span class="o">,</span> <span class="kt">int</span><span class="o">)</span> <span class="nn">Hashtbl</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="n">t</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="nn">Hashtbl</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="n">create</span> <span class="mi">10</span>
+
+<span class="c">(* precedence - Get the precedence of the pending binary operator token. *)</span>
+<span class="k">let</span> <span class="n">precedence</span> <span class="n">c</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="k">try</span> <span class="nn">Hashtbl</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="n">find</span> <span class="n">binop_precedence</span> <span class="n">c</span> <span class="k">with</span> <span class="nc">Not_found</span> <span class="o">-></span> <span class="o">-</span><span class="mi">1</span>
+
+<span class="c">(* primary</span>
+<span class="c"> *   ::= identifier</span>
+<span class="c"> *   ::= numberexpr</span>
+<span class="c"> *   ::= parenexpr</span>
+<span class="c"> *   ::= ifexpr</span>
+<span class="c"> *   ::= forexpr</span>
+<span class="c"> *   ::= varexpr *)</span>
+<span class="k">let</span> <span class="k">rec</span> <span class="n">parse_primary</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="n">parser</span>
+  <span class="c">(* numberexpr ::= number *)</span>
+  <span class="o">|</span> <span class="o">[<</span> <span class="k">'</span><span class="nn">Token</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="nc">Number</span> <span class="n">n</span> <span class="o">>]</span> <span class="o">-></span> <span class="nn">Ast</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="nc">Number</span> <span class="n">n</span>
+
+  <span class="c">(* parenexpr ::= '(' expression ')' *)</span>
+  <span class="o">|</span> <span class="o">[<</span> <span class="k">'</span><span class="nn">Token</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="nc">Kwd</span> <span class="sc">'('</span><span class="o">;</span> <span class="n">e</span><span class="o">=</span><span class="n">parse_expr</span><span class="o">;</span> <span class="k">'</span><span class="nn">Token</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="nc">Kwd</span> <span class="sc">')'</span> <span class="o">??</span> <span class="s2">"expected ')'"</span> <span class="o">>]</span> <span class="o">-></span> <span class="n">e</span>
+
+  <span class="c">(* identifierexpr</span>
+<span class="c">   *   ::= identifier</span>
+<span class="c">   *   ::= identifier '(' argumentexpr ')' *)</span>
+  <span class="o">|</span> <span class="o">[<</span> <span class="k">'</span><span class="nn">Token</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="nc">Ident</span> <span class="n">id</span><span class="o">;</span> <span class="n">stream</span> <span class="o">>]</span> <span class="o">-></span>
+      <span class="k">let</span> <span class="k">rec</span> <span class="n">parse_args</span> <span class="n">accumulator</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="n">parser</span>
+        <span class="o">|</span> <span class="o">[<</span> <span class="n">e</span><span class="o">=</span><span class="n">parse_expr</span><span class="o">;</span> <span class="n">stream</span> <span class="o">>]</span> <span class="o">-></span>
+            <span class="k">begin</span> <span class="n">parser</span>
+              <span class="o">|</span> <span class="o">[<</span> <span class="k">'</span><span class="nn">Token</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="nc">Kwd</span> <span class="sc">','</span><span class="o">;</span> <span class="n">e</span><span class="o">=</span><span class="n">parse_args</span> <span class="o">(</span><span class="n">e</span> <span class="o">::</span> <span class="n">accumulator</span><span class="o">)</span> <span class="o">>]</span> <span class="o">-></span> <span class="n">e</span>
+              <span class="o">|</span> <span class="o">[<</span> <span class="o">>]</span> <span class="o">-></span> <span class="n">e</span> <span class="o">::</span> <span class="n">accumulator</span>
+            <span class="k">end</span> <span class="n">stream</span>
+        <span class="o">|</span> <span class="o">[<</span> <span class="o">>]</span> <span class="o">-></span> <span class="n">accumulator</span>
+      <span class="k">in</span>
+      <span class="k">let</span> <span class="k">rec</span> <span class="n">parse_ident</span> <span class="n">id</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="n">parser</span>
+        <span class="c">(* Call. *)</span>
+        <span class="o">|</span> <span class="o">[<</span> <span class="k">'</span><span class="nn">Token</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="nc">Kwd</span> <span class="sc">'('</span><span class="o">;</span>
+             <span class="n">args</span><span class="o">=</span><span class="n">parse_args</span> <span class="bp">[]</span><span class="o">;</span>
+             <span class="k">'</span><span class="nn">Token</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="nc">Kwd</span> <span class="sc">')'</span> <span class="o">??</span> <span class="s2">"expected ')'"</span><span class="o">>]</span> <span class="o">-></span>
+            <span class="nn">Ast</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="nc">Call</span> <span class="o">(</span><span class="n">id</span><span class="o">,</span> <span class="nn">Array</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="n">of_list</span> <span class="o">(</span><span class="nn">List</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="n">rev</span> <span class="n">args</span><span class="o">))</span>
+
+        <span class="c">(* Simple variable ref. *)</span>
+        <span class="o">|</span> <span class="o">[<</span> <span class="o">>]</span> <span class="o">-></span> <span class="nn">Ast</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="nc">Variable</span> <span class="n">id</span>
+      <span class="k">in</span>
+      <span class="n">parse_ident</span> <span class="n">id</span> <span class="n">stream</span>
+
+  <span class="c">(* ifexpr ::= 'if' expr 'then' expr 'else' expr *)</span>
+  <span class="o">|</span> <span class="o">[<</span> <span class="k">'</span><span class="nn">Token</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="nc">If</span><span class="o">;</span> <span class="n">c</span><span class="o">=</span><span class="n">parse_expr</span><span class="o">;</span>
+       <span class="k">'</span><span class="nn">Token</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="nc">Then</span> <span class="o">??</span> <span class="s2">"expected 'then'"</span><span class="o">;</span> <span class="n">t</span><span class="o">=</span><span class="n">parse_expr</span><span class="o">;</span>
+       <span class="k">'</span><span class="nn">Token</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="nc">Else</span> <span class="o">??</span> <span class="s2">"expected 'else'"</span><span class="o">;</span> <span class="n">e</span><span class="o">=</span><span class="n">parse_expr</span> <span class="o">>]</span> <span class="o">-></span>
+      <span class="nn">Ast</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="nc">If</span> <span class="o">(</span><span class="n">c</span><span class="o">,</span> <span class="n">t</span><span class="o">,</span> <span class="n">e</span><span class="o">)</span>
+
+  <span class="c">(* forexpr</span>
+<span class="c">        ::= 'for' identifier '=' expr ',' expr (',' expr)? 'in' expression *)</span>
+  <span class="o">|</span> <span class="o">[<</span> <span class="k">'</span><span class="nn">Token</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="nc">For</span><span class="o">;</span>
+       <span class="k">'</span><span class="nn">Token</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="nc">Ident</span> <span class="n">id</span> <span class="o">??</span> <span class="s2">"expected identifier after for"</span><span class="o">;</span>
+       <span class="k">'</span><span class="nn">Token</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="nc">Kwd</span> <span class="sc">'='</span> <span class="o">??</span> <span class="s2">"expected '=' after for"</span><span class="o">;</span>
+       <span class="n">stream</span> <span class="o">>]</span> <span class="o">-></span>
+      <span class="k">begin</span> <span class="n">parser</span>
+        <span class="o">|</span> <span class="o">[<</span>
+             <span class="n">start</span><span class="o">=</span><span class="n">parse_expr</span><span class="o">;</span>
+             <span class="k">'</span><span class="nn">Token</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="nc">Kwd</span> <span class="sc">','</span> <span class="o">??</span> <span class="s2">"expected ',' after for"</span><span class="o">;</span>
+             <span class="n">end_</span><span class="o">=</span><span class="n">parse_expr</span><span class="o">;</span>
+             <span class="n">stream</span> <span class="o">>]</span> <span class="o">-></span>
+            <span class="k">let</span> <span class="n">step</span> <span class="o">=</span>
+              <span class="k">begin</span> <span class="n">parser</span>
+              <span class="o">|</span> <span class="o">[<</span> <span class="k">'</span><span class="nn">Token</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="nc">Kwd</span> <span class="sc">','</span><span class="o">;</span> <span class="n">step</span><span class="o">=</span><span class="n">parse_expr</span> <span class="o">>]</span> <span class="o">-></span> <span class="nc">Some</span> <span class="n">step</span>
+              <span class="o">|</span> <span class="o">[<</span> <span class="o">>]</span> <span class="o">-></span> <span class="nc">None</span>
+              <span class="k">end</span> <span class="n">stream</span>
+            <span class="k">in</span>
+            <span class="k">begin</span> <span class="n">parser</span>
+            <span class="o">|</span> <span class="o">[<</span> <span class="k">'</span><span class="nn">Token</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="nc">In</span><span class="o">;</span> <span class="n">body</span><span class="o">=</span><span class="n">parse_expr</span> <span class="o">>]</span> <span class="o">-></span>
+                <span class="nn">Ast</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="nc">For</span> <span class="o">(</span><span class="n">id</span><span class="o">,</span> <span class="n">start</span><span class="o">,</span> <span class="n">end_</span><span class="o">,</span> <span class="n">step</span><span class="o">,</span> <span class="n">body</span><span class="o">)</span>
+            <span class="o">|</span> <span class="o">[<</span> <span class="o">>]</span> <span class="o">-></span>
+                <span class="k">raise</span> <span class="o">(</span><span class="nn">Stream</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="nc">Error</span> <span class="s2">"expected 'in' after for"</span><span class="o">)</span>
+            <span class="k">end</span> <span class="n">stream</span>
+        <span class="o">|</span> <span class="o">[<</span> <span class="o">>]</span> <span class="o">-></span>
+            <span class="k">raise</span> <span class="o">(</span><span class="nn">Stream</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="nc">Error</span> <span class="s2">"expected '=' after for"</span><span class="o">)</span>
+      <span class="k">end</span> <span class="n">stream</span>
+
+  <span class="c">(* varexpr</span>
+<span class="c">   *   ::= 'var' identifier ('=' expression?</span>
+<span class="c">   *             (',' identifier ('=' expression)?)* 'in' expression *)</span>
+  <span class="o">|</span> <span class="o">[<</span> <span class="k">'</span><span class="nn">Token</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="nc">Var</span><span class="o">;</span>
+       <span class="c">(* At least one variable name is required. *)</span>
+       <span class="k">'</span><span class="nn">Token</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="nc">Ident</span> <span class="n">id</span> <span class="o">??</span> <span class="s2">"expected identifier after var"</span><span class="o">;</span>
+       <span class="n">init</span><span class="o">=</span><span class="n">parse_var_init</span><span class="o">;</span>
+       <span class="n">var_names</span><span class="o">=</span><span class="n">parse_var_names</span> <span class="o">[(</span><span class="n">id</span><span class="o">,</span> <span class="n">init</span><span class="o">)];</span>
+       <span class="c">(* At this point, we have to have 'in'. *)</span>
+       <span class="k">'</span><span class="nn">Token</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="nc">In</span> <span class="o">??</span> <span class="s2">"expected 'in' keyword after 'var'"</span><span class="o">;</span>
+       <span class="n">body</span><span class="o">=</span><span class="n">parse_expr</span> <span class="o">>]</span> <span class="o">-></span>
+      <span class="nn">Ast</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="nc">Var</span> <span class="o">(</span><span class="nn">Array</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="n">of_list</span> <span class="o">(</span><span class="nn">List</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="n">rev</span> <span class="n">var_names</span><span class="o">),</span> <span class="n">body</span><span class="o">)</span>
+
+  <span class="o">|</span> <span class="o">[<</span> <span class="o">>]</span> <span class="o">-></span> <span class="k">raise</span> <span class="o">(</span><span class="nn">Stream</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="nc">Error</span> <span class="s2">"unknown token when expecting an expression."</span><span class="o">)</span>
+
+<span class="c">(* unary</span>
+<span class="c"> *   ::= primary</span>
+<span class="c"> *   ::= '!' unary *)</span>
+<span class="ow">and</span> <span class="n">parse_unary</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="n">parser</span>
+  <span class="c">(* If this is a unary operator, read it. *)</span>
+  <span class="o">|</span> <span class="o">[<</span> <span class="k">'</span><span class="nn">Token</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="nc">Kwd</span> <span class="n">op</span> <span class="k">when</span> <span class="n">op</span> <span class="o">!=</span> <span class="sc">'('</span> <span class="o">&&</span> <span class="n">op</span> <span class="o">!=</span> <span class="sc">')'</span><span class="o">;</span> <span class="n">operand</span><span class="o">=</span><span class="n">parse_expr</span> <span class="o">>]</span> <span class="o">-></span>
+      <span class="nn">Ast</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="nc">Unary</span> <span class="o">(</span><span class="n">op</span><span class="o">,</span> <span class="n">operand</span><span class="o">)</span>
+
+  <span class="c">(* If the current token is not an operator, it must be a primary expr. *)</span>
+  <span class="o">|</span> <span class="o">[<</span> <span class="n">stream</span> <span class="o">>]</span> <span class="o">-></span> <span class="n">parse_primary</span> <span class="n">stream</span>
+
+<span class="c">(* binoprhs</span>
+<span class="c"> *   ::= ('+' primary)* *)</span>
+<span class="ow">and</span> <span class="n">parse_bin_rhs</span> <span class="n">expr_prec</span> <span class="n">lhs</span> <span class="n">stream</span> <span class="o">=</span>
+  <span class="k">match</span> <span class="nn">Stream</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="n">peek</span> <span class="n">stream</span> <span class="k">with</span>
+  <span class="c">(* If this is a binop, find its precedence. *)</span>
+  <span class="o">|</span> <span class="nc">Some</span> <span class="o">(</span><span class="nn">Token</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="nc">Kwd</span> <span class="n">c</span><span class="o">)</span> <span class="k">when</span> <span class="nn">Hashtbl</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="n">mem</span> <span class="n">binop_precedence</span> <span class="n">c</span> <span class="o">-></span>
+      <span class="k">let</span> <span class="n">token_prec</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="n">precedence</span> <span class="n">c</span> <span class="k">in</span>
+
+      <span class="c">(* If this is a binop that binds at least as tightly as the current binop,</span>
+<span class="c">       * consume it, otherwise we are done. *)</span>
+      <span class="k">if</span> <span class="n">token_prec</span> <span class="o"><</span> <span class="n">expr_prec</span> <span class="k">then</span> <span class="n">lhs</span> <span class="k">else</span> <span class="k">begin</span>
+        <span class="c">(* Eat the binop. *)</span>
+        <span class="nn">Stream</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="n">junk</span> <span class="n">stream</span><span class="o">;</span>
+
+        <span class="c">(* Parse the primary expression after the binary operator. *)</span>
+        <span class="k">let</span> <span class="n">rhs</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="n">parse_unary</span> <span class="n">stream</span> <span class="k">in</span>
+
+        <span class="c">(* Okay, we know this is a binop. *)</span>
+        <span class="k">let</span> <span class="n">rhs</span> <span class="o">=</span>
+          <span class="k">match</span> <span class="nn">Stream</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="n">peek</span> <span class="n">stream</span> <span class="k">with</span>
+          <span class="o">|</span> <span class="nc">Some</span> <span class="o">(</span><span class="nn">Token</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="nc">Kwd</span> <span class="n">c2</span><span class="o">)</span> <span class="o">-></span>
+              <span class="c">(* If BinOp binds less tightly with rhs than the operator after</span>
+<span class="c">               * rhs, let the pending operator take rhs as its lhs. *)</span>
+              <span class="k">let</span> <span class="n">next_prec</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="n">precedence</span> <span class="n">c2</span> <span class="k">in</span>
+              <span class="k">if</span> <span class="n">token_prec</span> <span class="o"><</span> <span class="n">next_prec</span>
+              <span class="k">then</span> <span class="n">parse_bin_rhs</span> <span class="o">(</span><span class="n">token_prec</span> <span class="o">+</span> <span class="mi">1</span><span class="o">)</span> <span class="n">rhs</span> <span class="n">stream</span>
+              <span class="k">else</span> <span class="n">rhs</span>
+          <span class="o">|</span> <span class="o">_</span> <span class="o">-></span> <span class="n">rhs</span>
+        <span class="k">in</span>
+
+        <span class="c">(* Merge lhs/rhs. *)</span>
+        <span class="k">let</span> <span class="n">lhs</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="nn">Ast</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="nc">Binary</span> <span class="o">(</span><span class="n">c</span><span class="o">,</span> <span class="n">lhs</span><span class="o">,</span> <span class="n">rhs</span><span class="o">)</span> <span class="k">in</span>
+        <span class="n">parse_bin_rhs</span> <span class="n">expr_prec</span> <span class="n">lhs</span> <span class="n">stream</span>
+      <span class="k">end</span>
+  <span class="o">|</span> <span class="o">_</span> <span class="o">-></span> <span class="n">lhs</span>
+
+<span class="ow">and</span> <span class="n">parse_var_init</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="n">parser</span>
+  <span class="c">(* read in the optional initializer. *)</span>
+  <span class="o">|</span> <span class="o">[<</span> <span class="k">'</span><span class="nn">Token</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="nc">Kwd</span> <span class="sc">'='</span><span class="o">;</span> <span class="n">e</span><span class="o">=</span><span class="n">parse_expr</span> <span class="o">>]</span> <span class="o">-></span> <span class="nc">Some</span> <span class="n">e</span>
+  <span class="o">|</span> <span class="o">[<</span> <span class="o">>]</span> <span class="o">-></span> <span class="nc">None</span>
+
+<span class="ow">and</span> <span class="n">parse_var_names</span> <span class="n">accumulator</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="n">parser</span>
+  <span class="o">|</span> <span class="o">[<</span> <span class="k">'</span><span class="nn">Token</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="nc">Kwd</span> <span class="sc">','</span><span class="o">;</span>
+       <span class="k">'</span><span class="nn">Token</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="nc">Ident</span> <span class="n">id</span> <span class="o">??</span> <span class="s2">"expected identifier list after var"</span><span class="o">;</span>
+       <span class="n">init</span><span class="o">=</span><span class="n">parse_var_init</span><span class="o">;</span>
+       <span class="n">e</span><span class="o">=</span><span class="n">parse_var_names</span> <span class="o">((</span><span class="n">id</span><span class="o">,</span> <span class="n">init</span><span class="o">)</span> <span class="o">::</span> <span class="n">accumulator</span><span class="o">)</span> <span class="o">>]</span> <span class="o">-></span> <span class="n">e</span>
+  <span class="o">|</span> <span class="o">[<</span> <span class="o">>]</span> <span class="o">-></span> <span class="n">accumulator</span>
+
+<span class="c">(* expression</span>
+<span class="c"> *   ::= primary binoprhs *)</span>
+<span class="ow">and</span> <span class="n">parse_expr</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="n">parser</span>
+  <span class="o">|</span> <span class="o">[<</span> <span class="n">lhs</span><span class="o">=</span><span class="n">parse_unary</span><span class="o">;</span> <span class="n">stream</span> <span class="o">>]</span> <span class="o">-></span> <span class="n">parse_bin_rhs</span> <span class="mi">0</span> <span class="n">lhs</span> <span class="n">stream</span>
+
+<span class="c">(* prototype</span>
+<span class="c"> *   ::= id '(' id* ')'</span>
+<span class="c"> *   ::= binary LETTER number? (id, id)</span>
+<span class="c"> *   ::= unary LETTER number? (id) *)</span>
+<span class="k">let</span> <span class="n">parse_prototype</span> <span class="o">=</span>
+  <span class="k">let</span> <span class="k">rec</span> <span class="n">parse_args</span> <span class="n">accumulator</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="n">parser</span>
+    <span class="o">|</span> <span class="o">[<</span> <span class="k">'</span><span class="nn">Token</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="nc">Ident</span> <span class="n">id</span><span class="o">;</span> <span class="n">e</span><span class="o">=</span><span class="n">parse_args</span> <span class="o">(</span><span class="n">id</span><span class="o">::</span><span class="n">accumulator</span><span class="o">)</span> <span class="o">>]</span> <span class="o">-></span> <span class="n">e</span>
+    <span class="o">|</span> <span class="o">[<</span> <span class="o">>]</span> <span class="o">-></span> <span class="n">accumulator</span>
+  <span class="k">in</span>
+  <span class="k">let</span> <span class="n">parse_operator</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="n">parser</span>
+    <span class="o">|</span> <span class="o">[<</span> <span class="k">'</span><span class="nn">Token</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="nc">Unary</span> <span class="o">>]</span> <span class="o">-></span> <span class="s2">"unary"</span><span class="o">,</span> <span class="mi">1</span>
+    <span class="o">|</span> <span class="o">[<</span> <span class="k">'</span><span class="nn">Token</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="nc">Binary</span> <span class="o">>]</span> <span class="o">-></span> <span class="s2">"binary"</span><span class="o">,</span> <span class="mi">2</span>
+  <span class="k">in</span>
+  <span class="k">let</span> <span class="n">parse_binary_precedence</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="n">parser</span>
+    <span class="o">|</span> <span class="o">[<</span> <span class="k">'</span><span class="nn">Token</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="nc">Number</span> <span class="n">n</span> <span class="o">>]</span> <span class="o">-></span> <span class="n">int_of_float</span> <span class="n">n</span>
+    <span class="o">|</span> <span class="o">[<</span> <span class="o">>]</span> <span class="o">-></span> <span class="mi">30</span>
+  <span class="k">in</span>
+  <span class="n">parser</span>
+  <span class="o">|</span> <span class="o">[<</span> <span class="k">'</span><span class="nn">Token</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="nc">Ident</span> <span class="n">id</span><span class="o">;</span>
+       <span class="k">'</span><span class="nn">Token</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="nc">Kwd</span> <span class="sc">'('</span> <span class="o">??</span> <span class="s2">"expected '(' in prototype"</span><span class="o">;</span>
+       <span class="n">args</span><span class="o">=</span><span class="n">parse_args</span> <span class="bp">[]</span><span class="o">;</span>
+       <span class="k">'</span><span class="nn">Token</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="nc">Kwd</span> <span class="sc">')'</span> <span class="o">??</span> <span class="s2">"expected ')' in prototype"</span> <span class="o">>]</span> <span class="o">-></span>
+      <span class="c">(* success. *)</span>
+      <span class="nn">Ast</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="nc">Prototype</span> <span class="o">(</span><span class="n">id</span><span class="o">,</span> <span class="nn">Array</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="n">of_list</span> <span class="o">(</span><span class="nn">List</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="n">rev</span> <span class="n">args</span><span class="o">))</span>
+  <span class="o">|</span> <span class="o">[<</span> <span class="o">(</span><span class="n">prefix</span><span class="o">,</span> <span class="n">kind</span><span class="o">)=</span><span class="n">parse_operator</span><span class="o">;</span>
+       <span class="k">'</span><span class="nn">Token</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="nc">Kwd</span> <span class="n">op</span> <span class="o">??</span> <span class="s2">"expected an operator"</span><span class="o">;</span>
+       <span class="c">(* Read the precedence if present. *)</span>
+       <span class="n">binary_precedence</span><span class="o">=</span><span class="n">parse_binary_precedence</span><span class="o">;</span>
+       <span class="k">'</span><span class="nn">Token</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="nc">Kwd</span> <span class="sc">'('</span> <span class="o">??</span> <span class="s2">"expected '(' in prototype"</span><span class="o">;</span>
+        <span class="n">args</span><span class="o">=</span><span class="n">parse_args</span> <span class="bp">[]</span><span class="o">;</span>
+       <span class="k">'</span><span class="nn">Token</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="nc">Kwd</span> <span class="sc">')'</span> <span class="o">??</span> <span class="s2">"expected ')' in prototype"</span> <span class="o">>]</span> <span class="o">-></span>
+      <span class="k">let</span> <span class="n">name</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="n">prefix</span> <span class="o">^</span> <span class="o">(</span><span class="nn">String</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="n">make</span> <span class="mi">1</span> <span class="n">op</span><span class="o">)</span> <span class="k">in</span>
+      <span class="k">let</span> <span class="n">args</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="nn">Array</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="n">of_list</span> <span class="o">(</span><span class="nn">List</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="n">rev</span> <span class="n">args</span><span class="o">)</span> <span class="k">in</span>
+
+      <span class="c">(* Verify right number of arguments for operator. *)</span>
+      <span class="k">if</span> <span class="nn">Array</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="n">length</span> <span class="n">args</span> <span class="o">!=</span> <span class="n">kind</span>
+      <span class="k">then</span> <span class="k">raise</span> <span class="o">(</span><span class="nn">Stream</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="nc">Error</span> <span class="s2">"invalid number of operands for operator"</span><span class="o">)</span>
+      <span class="k">else</span>
+        <span class="k">if</span> <span class="n">kind</span> <span class="o">==</span> <span class="mi">1</span> <span class="k">then</span>
+          <span class="nn">Ast</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="nc">Prototype</span> <span class="o">(</span><span class="n">name</span><span class="o">,</span> <span class="n">args</span><span class="o">)</span>
+        <span class="k">else</span>
+          <span class="nn">Ast</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="nc">BinOpPrototype</span> <span class="o">(</span><span class="n">name</span><span class="o">,</span> <span class="n">args</span><span class="o">,</span> <span class="n">binary_precedence</span><span class="o">)</span>
+  <span class="o">|</span> <span class="o">[<</span> <span class="o">>]</span> <span class="o">-></span>
+      <span class="k">raise</span> <span class="o">(</span><span class="nn">Stream</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="nc">Error</span> <span class="s2">"expected function name in prototype"</span><span class="o">)</span>
+
+<span class="c">(* definition ::= 'def' prototype expression *)</span>
+<span class="k">let</span> <span class="n">parse_definition</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="n">parser</span>
+  <span class="o">|</span> <span class="o">[<</span> <span class="k">'</span><span class="nn">Token</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="nc">Def</span><span class="o">;</span> <span class="n">p</span><span class="o">=</span><span class="n">parse_prototype</span><span class="o">;</span> <span class="n">e</span><span class="o">=</span><span class="n">parse_expr</span> <span class="o">>]</span> <span class="o">-></span>
+      <span class="nn">Ast</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="nc">Function</span> <span class="o">(</span><span class="n">p</span><span class="o">,</span> <span class="n">e</span><span class="o">)</span>
+
+<span class="c">(* toplevelexpr ::= expression *)</span>
+<span class="k">let</span> <span class="n">parse_toplevel</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="n">parser</span>
+  <span class="o">|</span> <span class="o">[<</span> <span class="n">e</span><span class="o">=</span><span class="n">parse_expr</span> <span class="o">>]</span> <span class="o">-></span>
+      <span class="c">(* Make an anonymous proto. *)</span>
+      <span class="nn">Ast</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="nc">Function</span> <span class="o">(</span><span class="nn">Ast</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="nc">Prototype</span> <span class="o">(</span><span class="s2">""</span><span class="o">,</span> <span class="o">[||]),</span> <span class="n">e</span><span class="o">)</span>
+
+<span class="c">(*  external ::= 'extern' prototype *)</span>
+<span class="k">let</span> <span class="n">parse_extern</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="n">parser</span>
+  <span class="o">|</span> <span class="o">[<</span> <span class="k">'</span><span class="nn">Token</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="nc">Extern</span><span class="o">;</span> <span class="n">e</span><span class="o">=</span><span class="n">parse_prototype</span> <span class="o">>]</span> <span class="o">-></span> <span class="n">e</span>
+</pre></div>
+</div>
+</dd>
+<dt>codegen.ml:</dt>
+<dd><div class="first last highlight-ocaml"><div class="highlight"><pre><span class="c">(*===----------------------------------------------------------------------===</span>
+<span class="c"> * Code Generation</span>
+<span class="c"> *===----------------------------------------------------------------------===*)</span>
+
+<span class="k">open</span> <span class="nc">Llvm</span>
+
+<span class="k">exception</span> <span class="nc">Error</span> <span class="k">of</span> <span class="kt">string</span>
+
+<span class="k">let</span> <span class="n">context</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="n">global_context</span> <span class="bp">()</span>
+<span class="k">let</span> <span class="n">the_module</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="n">create_module</span> <span class="n">context</span> <span class="s2">"my cool jit"</span>
+<span class="k">let</span> <span class="n">builder</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="n">builder</span> <span class="n">context</span>
+<span class="k">let</span> <span class="n">named_values</span><span class="o">:(</span><span class="kt">string</span><span class="o">,</span> <span class="n">llvalue</span><span class="o">)</span> <span class="nn">Hashtbl</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="n">t</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="nn">Hashtbl</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="n">create</span> <span class="mi">10</span>
+<span class="k">let</span> <span class="n">double_type</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="n">double_type</span> <span class="n">context</span>
+
+<span class="c">(* Create an alloca instruction in the entry block of the function. This</span>
+<span class="c"> * is used for mutable variables etc. *)</span>
+<span class="k">let</span> <span class="n">create_entry_block_alloca</span> <span class="n">the_function</span> <span class="n">var_name</span> <span class="o">=</span>
+  <span class="k">let</span> <span class="n">builder</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="n">builder_at</span> <span class="n">context</span> <span class="o">(</span><span class="n">instr_begin</span> <span class="o">(</span><span class="n">entry_block</span> <span class="n">the_function</span><span class="o">))</span> <span class="k">in</span>
+  <span class="n">build_alloca</span> <span class="n">double_type</span> <span class="n">var_name</span> <span class="n">builder</span>
+
+<span class="k">let</span> <span class="k">rec</span> <span class="n">codegen_expr</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="k">function</span>
+  <span class="o">|</span> <span class="nn">Ast</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="nc">Number</span> <span class="n">n</span> <span class="o">-></span> <span class="n">const_float</span> <span class="n">double_type</span> <span class="n">n</span>
+  <span class="o">|</span> <span class="nn">Ast</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="nc">Variable</span> <span class="n">name</span> <span class="o">-></span>
+      <span class="k">let</span> <span class="n">v</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="k">try</span> <span class="nn">Hashtbl</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="n">find</span> <span class="n">named_values</span> <span class="n">name</span> <span class="k">with</span>
+        <span class="o">|</span> <span class="nc">Not_found</span> <span class="o">-></span> <span class="k">raise</span> <span class="o">(</span><span class="nc">Error</span> <span class="s2">"unknown variable name"</span><span class="o">)</span>
+      <span class="k">in</span>
+      <span class="c">(* Load the value. *)</span>
+      <span class="n">build_load</span> <span class="n">v</span> <span class="n">name</span> <span class="n">builder</span>
+  <span class="o">|</span> <span class="nn">Ast</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="nc">Unary</span> <span class="o">(</span><span class="n">op</span><span class="o">,</span> <span class="n">operand</span><span class="o">)</span> <span class="o">-></span>
+      <span class="k">let</span> <span class="n">operand</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="n">codegen_expr</span> <span class="n">operand</span> <span class="k">in</span>
+      <span class="k">let</span> <span class="n">callee</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="s2">"unary"</span> <span class="o">^</span> <span class="o">(</span><span class="nn">String</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="n">make</span> <span class="mi">1</span> <span class="n">op</span><span class="o">)</span> <span class="k">in</span>
+      <span class="k">let</span> <span class="n">callee</span> <span class="o">=</span>
+        <span class="k">match</span> <span class="n">lookup_function</span> <span class="n">callee</span> <span class="n">the_module</span> <span class="k">with</span>
+        <span class="o">|</span> <span class="nc">Some</span> <span class="n">callee</span> <span class="o">-></span> <span class="n">callee</span>
+        <span class="o">|</span> <span class="nc">None</span> <span class="o">-></span> <span class="k">raise</span> <span class="o">(</span><span class="nc">Error</span> <span class="s2">"unknown unary operator"</span><span class="o">)</span>
+      <span class="k">in</span>
+      <span class="n">build_call</span> <span class="n">callee</span> <span class="o">[|</span><span class="n">operand</span><span class="o">|]</span> <span class="s2">"unop"</span> <span class="n">builder</span>
+  <span class="o">|</span> <span class="nn">Ast</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="nc">Binary</span> <span class="o">(</span><span class="n">op</span><span class="o">,</span> <span class="n">lhs</span><span class="o">,</span> <span class="n">rhs</span><span class="o">)</span> <span class="o">-></span>
+      <span class="k">begin</span> <span class="k">match</span> <span class="n">op</span> <span class="k">with</span>
+      <span class="o">|</span> <span class="sc">'='</span> <span class="o">-></span>
+          <span class="c">(* Special case '=' because we don't want to emit the LHS as an</span>
+<span class="c">           * expression. *)</span>
+          <span class="k">let</span> <span class="n">name</span> <span class="o">=</span>
+            <span class="k">match</span> <span class="n">lhs</span> <span class="k">with</span>
+            <span class="o">|</span> <span class="nn">Ast</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="nc">Variable</span> <span class="n">name</span> <span class="o">-></span> <span class="n">name</span>
+            <span class="o">|</span> <span class="o">_</span> <span class="o">-></span> <span class="k">raise</span> <span class="o">(</span><span class="nc">Error</span> <span class="s2">"destination of '=' must be a variable"</span><span class="o">)</span>
+          <span class="k">in</span>
+
+          <span class="c">(* Codegen the rhs. *)</span>
+          <span class="k">let</span> <span class="n">val_</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="n">codegen_expr</span> <span class="n">rhs</span> <span class="k">in</span>
+
+          <span class="c">(* Lookup the name. *)</span>
+          <span class="k">let</span> <span class="n">variable</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="k">try</span> <span class="nn">Hashtbl</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="n">find</span> <span class="n">named_values</span> <span class="n">name</span> <span class="k">with</span>
+          <span class="o">|</span> <span class="nc">Not_found</span> <span class="o">-></span> <span class="k">raise</span> <span class="o">(</span><span class="nc">Error</span> <span class="s2">"unknown variable name"</span><span class="o">)</span>
+          <span class="k">in</span>
+          <span class="n">ignore</span><span class="o">(</span><span class="n">build_store</span> <span class="n">val_</span> <span class="n">variable</span> <span class="n">builder</span><span class="o">);</span>
+          <span class="n">val_</span>
+      <span class="o">|</span> <span class="o">_</span> <span class="o">-></span>
+          <span class="k">let</span> <span class="n">lhs_val</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="n">codegen_expr</span> <span class="n">lhs</span> <span class="k">in</span>
+          <span class="k">let</span> <span class="n">rhs_val</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="n">codegen_expr</span> <span class="n">rhs</span> <span class="k">in</span>
+          <span class="k">begin</span>
+            <span class="k">match</span> <span class="n">op</span> <span class="k">with</span>
+            <span class="o">|</span> <span class="sc">'+'</span> <span class="o">-></span> <span class="n">build_add</span> <span class="n">lhs_val</span> <span class="n">rhs_val</span> <span class="s2">"addtmp"</span> <span class="n">builder</span>
+            <span class="o">|</span> <span class="sc">'-'</span> <span class="o">-></span> <span class="n">build_sub</span> <span class="n">lhs_val</span> <span class="n">rhs_val</span> <span class="s2">"subtmp"</span> <span class="n">builder</span>
+            <span class="o">|</span> <span class="sc">'*'</span> <span class="o">-></span> <span class="n">build_mul</span> <span class="n">lhs_val</span> <span class="n">rhs_val</span> <span class="s2">"multmp"</span> <span class="n">builder</span>
+            <span class="o">|</span> <span class="sc">'<'</span> <span class="o">-></span>
+                <span class="c">(* Convert bool 0/1 to double 0.0 or 1.0 *)</span>
+                <span class="k">let</span> <span class="n">i</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="n">build_fcmp</span> <span class="nn">Fcmp</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="nc">Ult</span> <span class="n">lhs_val</span> <span class="n">rhs_val</span> <span class="s2">"cmptmp"</span> <span class="n">builder</span> <span class="k">in</span>
+                <span class="n">build_uitofp</span> <span class="n">i</span> <span class="n">double_type</span> <span class="s2">"booltmp"</span> <span class="n">builder</span>
+            <span class="o">|</span> <span class="o">_</span> <span class="o">-></span>
+                <span class="c">(* If it wasn't a builtin binary operator, it must be a user defined</span>
+<span class="c">                 * one. Emit a call to it. *)</span>
+                <span class="k">let</span> <span class="n">callee</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="s2">"binary"</span> <span class="o">^</span> <span class="o">(</span><span class="nn">String</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="n">make</span> <span class="mi">1</span> <span class="n">op</span><span class="o">)</span> <span class="k">in</span>
+                <span class="k">let</span> <span class="n">callee</span> <span class="o">=</span>
+                  <span class="k">match</span> <span class="n">lookup_function</span> <span class="n">callee</span> <span class="n">the_module</span> <span class="k">with</span>
+                  <span class="o">|</span> <span class="nc">Some</span> <span class="n">callee</span> <span class="o">-></span> <span class="n">callee</span>
+                  <span class="o">|</span> <span class="nc">None</span> <span class="o">-></span> <span class="k">raise</span> <span class="o">(</span><span class="nc">Error</span> <span class="s2">"binary operator not found!"</span><span class="o">)</span>
+                <span class="k">in</span>
+                <span class="n">build_call</span> <span class="n">callee</span> <span class="o">[|</span><span class="n">lhs_val</span><span class="o">;</span> <span class="n">rhs_val</span><span class="o">|]</span> <span class="s2">"binop"</span> <span class="n">builder</span>
+          <span class="k">end</span>
+      <span class="k">end</span>
+  <span class="o">|</span> <span class="nn">Ast</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="nc">Call</span> <span class="o">(</span><span class="n">callee</span><span class="o">,</span> <span class="n">args</span><span class="o">)</span> <span class="o">-></span>
+      <span class="c">(* Look up the name in the module table. *)</span>
+      <span class="k">let</span> <span class="n">callee</span> <span class="o">=</span>
+        <span class="k">match</span> <span class="n">lookup_function</span> <span class="n">callee</span> <span class="n">the_module</span> <span class="k">with</span>
+        <span class="o">|</span> <span class="nc">Some</span> <span class="n">callee</span> <span class="o">-></span> <span class="n">callee</span>
+        <span class="o">|</span> <span class="nc">None</span> <span class="o">-></span> <span class="k">raise</span> <span class="o">(</span><span class="nc">Error</span> <span class="s2">"unknown function referenced"</span><span class="o">)</span>
+      <span class="k">in</span>
+      <span class="k">let</span> <span class="n">params</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="n">params</span> <span class="n">callee</span> <span class="k">in</span>
+
+      <span class="c">(* If argument mismatch error. *)</span>
+      <span class="k">if</span> <span class="nn">Array</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="n">length</span> <span class="n">params</span> <span class="o">==</span> <span class="nn">Array</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="n">length</span> <span class="n">args</span> <span class="k">then</span> <span class="bp">()</span> <span class="k">else</span>
+        <span class="k">raise</span> <span class="o">(</span><span class="nc">Error</span> <span class="s2">"incorrect # arguments passed"</span><span class="o">);</span>
+      <span class="k">let</span> <span class="n">args</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="nn">Array</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="n">map</span> <span class="n">codegen_expr</span> <span class="n">args</span> <span class="k">in</span>
+      <span class="n">build_call</span> <span class="n">callee</span> <span class="n">args</span> <span class="s2">"calltmp"</span> <span class="n">builder</span>
+  <span class="o">|</span> <span class="nn">Ast</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="nc">If</span> <span class="o">(</span><span class="n">cond</span><span class="o">,</span> <span class="n">then_</span><span class="o">,</span> <span class="n">else_</span><span class="o">)</span> <span class="o">-></span>
+      <span class="k">let</span> <span class="n">cond</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="n">codegen_expr</span> <span class="n">cond</span> <span class="k">in</span>
+
+      <span class="c">(* Convert condition to a bool by comparing equal to 0.0 *)</span>
+      <span class="k">let</span> <span class="n">zero</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="n">const_float</span> <span class="n">double_type</span> <span class="mi">0</span><span class="o">.</span><span class="mi">0</span> <span class="k">in</span>
+      <span class="k">let</span> <span class="n">cond_val</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="n">build_fcmp</span> <span class="nn">Fcmp</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="nc">One</span> <span class="n">cond</span> <span class="n">zero</span> <span class="s2">"ifcond"</span> <span class="n">builder</span> <span class="k">in</span>
+
+      <span class="c">(* Grab the first block so that we might later add the conditional branch</span>
+<span class="c">       * to it at the end of the function. *)</span>
+      <span class="k">let</span> <span class="n">start_bb</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="n">insertion_block</span> <span class="n">builder</span> <span class="k">in</span>
+      <span class="k">let</span> <span class="n">the_function</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="n">block_parent</span> <span class="n">start_bb</span> <span class="k">in</span>
+
+      <span class="k">let</span> <span class="n">then_bb</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="n">append_block</span> <span class="n">context</span> <span class="s2">"then"</span> <span class="n">the_function</span> <span class="k">in</span>
+
+      <span class="c">(* Emit 'then' value. *)</span>
+      <span class="n">position_at_end</span> <span class="n">then_bb</span> <span class="n">builder</span><span class="o">;</span>
+      <span class="k">let</span> <span class="n">then_val</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="n">codegen_expr</span> <span class="n">then_</span> <span class="k">in</span>
+
+      <span class="c">(* Codegen of 'then' can change the current block, update then_bb for the</span>
+<span class="c">       * phi. We create a new name because one is used for the phi node, and the</span>
+<span class="c">       * other is used for the conditional branch. *)</span>
+      <span class="k">let</span> <span class="n">new_then_bb</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="n">insertion_block</span> <span class="n">builder</span> <span class="k">in</span>
+
+      <span class="c">(* Emit 'else' value. *)</span>
+      <span class="k">let</span> <span class="n">else_bb</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="n">append_block</span> <span class="n">context</span> <span class="s2">"else"</span> <span class="n">the_function</span> <span class="k">in</span>
+      <span class="n">position_at_end</span> <span class="n">else_bb</span> <span class="n">builder</span><span class="o">;</span>
+      <span class="k">let</span> <span class="n">else_val</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="n">codegen_expr</span> <span class="n">else_</span> <span class="k">in</span>
+
+      <span class="c">(* Codegen of 'else' can change the current block, update else_bb for the</span>
+<span class="c">       * phi. *)</span>
+      <span class="k">let</span> <span class="n">new_else_bb</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="n">insertion_block</span> <span class="n">builder</span> <span class="k">in</span>
+
+      <span class="c">(* Emit merge block. *)</span>
+      <span class="k">let</span> <span class="n">merge_bb</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="n">append_block</span> <span class="n">context</span> <span class="s2">"ifcont"</span> <span class="n">the_function</span> <span class="k">in</span>
+      <span class="n">position_at_end</span> <span class="n">merge_bb</span> <span class="n">builder</span><span class="o">;</span>
+      <span class="k">let</span> <span class="n">incoming</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="o">[(</span><span class="n">then_val</span><span class="o">,</span> <span class="n">new_then_bb</span><span class="o">);</span> <span class="o">(</span><span class="n">else_val</span><span class="o">,</span> <span class="n">new_else_bb</span><span class="o">)]</span> <span class="k">in</span>
+      <span class="k">let</span> <span class="n">phi</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="n">build_phi</span> <span class="n">incoming</span> <span class="s2">"iftmp"</span> <span class="n">builder</span> <span class="k">in</span>
+
+      <span class="c">(* Return to the start block to add the conditional branch. *)</span>
+      <span class="n">position_at_end</span> <span class="n">start_bb</span> <span class="n">builder</span><span class="o">;</span>
+      <span class="n">ignore</span> <span class="o">(</span><span class="n">build_cond_br</span> <span class="n">cond_val</span> <span class="n">then_bb</span> <span class="n">else_bb</span> <span class="n">builder</span><span class="o">);</span>
+
+      <span class="c">(* Set a unconditional branch at the end of the 'then' block and the</span>
+<span class="c">       * 'else' block to the 'merge' block. *)</span>
+      <span class="n">position_at_end</span> <span class="n">new_then_bb</span> <span class="n">builder</span><span class="o">;</span> <span class="n">ignore</span> <span class="o">(</span><span class="n">build_br</span> <span class="n">merge_bb</span> <span class="n">builder</span><span class="o">);</span>
+      <span class="n">position_at_end</span> <span class="n">new_else_bb</span> <span class="n">builder</span><span class="o">;</span> <span class="n">ignore</span> <span class="o">(</span><span class="n">build_br</span> <span class="n">merge_bb</span> <span class="n">builder</span><span class="o">);</span>
+
+      <span class="c">(* Finally, set the builder to the end of the merge block. *)</span>
+      <span class="n">position_at_end</span> <span class="n">merge_bb</span> <span class="n">builder</span><span class="o">;</span>
+
+      <span class="n">phi</span>
+  <span class="o">|</span> <span class="nn">Ast</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="nc">For</span> <span class="o">(</span><span class="n">var_name</span><span class="o">,</span> <span class="n">start</span><span class="o">,</span> <span class="n">end_</span><span class="o">,</span> <span class="n">step</span><span class="o">,</span> <span class="n">body</span><span class="o">)</span> <span class="o">-></span>
+      <span class="c">(* Output this as:</span>
+<span class="c">       *   var = alloca double</span>
+<span class="c">       *   ...</span>
+<span class="c">       *   start = startexpr</span>
+<span class="c">       *   store start -> var</span>
+<span class="c">       *   goto loop</span>
+<span class="c">       * loop:</span>
+<span class="c">       *   ...</span>
+<span class="c">       *   bodyexpr</span>
+<span class="c">       *   ...</span>
+<span class="c">       * loopend:</span>
+<span class="c">       *   step = stepexpr</span>
+<span class="c">       *   endcond = endexpr</span>
+<span class="c">       *</span>
+<span class="c">       *   curvar = load var</span>
+<span class="c">       *   nextvar = curvar + step</span>
+<span class="c">       *   store nextvar -> var</span>
+<span class="c">       *   br endcond, loop, endloop</span>
+<span class="c">       * outloop: *)</span>
+
+      <span class="k">let</span> <span class="n">the_function</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="n">block_parent</span> <span class="o">(</span><span class="n">insertion_block</span> <span class="n">builder</span><span class="o">)</span> <span class="k">in</span>
+
+      <span class="c">(* Create an alloca for the variable in the entry block. *)</span>
+      <span class="k">let</span> <span class="n">alloca</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="n">create_entry_block_alloca</span> <span class="n">the_function</span> <span class="n">var_name</span> <span class="k">in</span>
+
+      <span class="c">(* Emit the start code first, without 'variable' in scope. *)</span>
+      <span class="k">let</span> <span class="n">start_val</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="n">codegen_expr</span> <span class="n">start</span> <span class="k">in</span>
+
+      <span class="c">(* Store the value into the alloca. *)</span>
+      <span class="n">ignore</span><span class="o">(</span><span class="n">build_store</span> <span class="n">start_val</span> <span class="n">alloca</span> <span class="n">builder</span><span class="o">);</span>
+
+      <span class="c">(* Make the new basic block for the loop header, inserting after current</span>
+<span class="c">       * block. *)</span>
+      <span class="k">let</span> <span class="n">loop_bb</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="n">append_block</span> <span class="n">context</span> <span class="s2">"loop"</span> <span class="n">the_function</span> <span class="k">in</span>
+
+      <span class="c">(* Insert an explicit fall through from the current block to the</span>
+<span class="c">       * loop_bb. *)</span>
+      <span class="n">ignore</span> <span class="o">(</span><span class="n">build_br</span> <span class="n">loop_bb</span> <span class="n">builder</span><span class="o">);</span>
+
+      <span class="c">(* Start insertion in loop_bb. *)</span>
+      <span class="n">position_at_end</span> <span class="n">loop_bb</span> <span class="n">builder</span><span class="o">;</span>
+
+      <span class="c">(* Within the loop, the variable is defined equal to the PHI node. If it</span>
+<span class="c">       * shadows an existing variable, we have to restore it, so save it</span>
+<span class="c">       * now. *)</span>
+      <span class="k">let</span> <span class="n">old_val</span> <span class="o">=</span>
+        <span class="k">try</span> <span class="nc">Some</span> <span class="o">(</span><span class="nn">Hashtbl</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="n">find</span> <span class="n">named_values</span> <span class="n">var_name</span><span class="o">)</span> <span class="k">with</span> <span class="nc">Not_found</span> <span class="o">-></span> <span class="nc">None</span>
+      <span class="k">in</span>
+      <span class="nn">Hashtbl</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="n">add</span> <span class="n">named_values</span> <span class="n">var_name</span> <span class="n">alloca</span><span class="o">;</span>
+
+      <span class="c">(* Emit the body of the loop.  This, like any other expr, can change the</span>
+<span class="c">       * current BB.  Note that we ignore the value computed by the body, but</span>
+<span class="c">       * don't allow an error *)</span>
+      <span class="n">ignore</span> <span class="o">(</span><span class="n">codegen_expr</span> <span class="n">body</span><span class="o">);</span>
+
+      <span class="c">(* Emit the step value. *)</span>
+      <span class="k">let</span> <span class="n">step_val</span> <span class="o">=</span>
+        <span class="k">match</span> <span class="n">step</span> <span class="k">with</span>
+        <span class="o">|</span> <span class="nc">Some</span> <span class="n">step</span> <span class="o">-></span> <span class="n">codegen_expr</span> <span class="n">step</span>
+        <span class="c">(* If not specified, use 1.0. *)</span>
+        <span class="o">|</span> <span class="nc">None</span> <span class="o">-></span> <span class="n">const_float</span> <span class="n">double_type</span> <span class="mi">1</span><span class="o">.</span><span class="mi">0</span>
+      <span class="k">in</span>
+
+      <span class="c">(* Compute the end condition. *)</span>
+      <span class="k">let</span> <span class="n">end_cond</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="n">codegen_expr</span> <span class="n">end_</span> <span class="k">in</span>
+
+      <span class="c">(* Reload, increment, and restore the alloca. This handles the case where</span>
+<span class="c">       * the body of the loop mutates the variable. *)</span>
+      <span class="k">let</span> <span class="n">cur_var</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="n">build_load</span> <span class="n">alloca</span> <span class="n">var_name</span> <span class="n">builder</span> <span class="k">in</span>
+      <span class="k">let</span> <span class="n">next_var</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="n">build_add</span> <span class="n">cur_var</span> <span class="n">step_val</span> <span class="s2">"nextvar"</span> <span class="n">builder</span> <span class="k">in</span>
+      <span class="n">ignore</span><span class="o">(</span><span class="n">build_store</span> <span class="n">next_var</span> <span class="n">alloca</span> <span class="n">builder</span><span class="o">);</span>
+
+      <span class="c">(* Convert condition to a bool by comparing equal to 0.0. *)</span>
+      <span class="k">let</span> <span class="n">zero</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="n">const_float</span> <span class="n">double_type</span> <span class="mi">0</span><span class="o">.</span><span class="mi">0</span> <span class="k">in</span>
+      <span class="k">let</span> <span class="n">end_cond</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="n">build_fcmp</span> <span class="nn">Fcmp</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="nc">One</span> <span class="n">end_cond</span> <span class="n">zero</span> <span class="s2">"loopcond"</span> <span class="n">builder</span> <span class="k">in</span>
+
+      <span class="c">(* Create the "after loop" block and insert it. *)</span>
+      <span class="k">let</span> <span class="n">after_bb</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="n">append_block</span> <span class="n">context</span> <span class="s2">"afterloop"</span> <span class="n">the_function</span> <span class="k">in</span>
+
+      <span class="c">(* Insert the conditional branch into the end of loop_end_bb. *)</span>
+      <span class="n">ignore</span> <span class="o">(</span><span class="n">build_cond_br</span> <span class="n">end_cond</span> <span class="n">loop_bb</span> <span class="n">after_bb</span> <span class="n">builder</span><span class="o">);</span>
+
+      <span class="c">(* Any new code will be inserted in after_bb. *)</span>
+      <span class="n">position_at_end</span> <span class="n">after_bb</span> <span class="n">builder</span><span class="o">;</span>
+
+      <span class="c">(* Restore the unshadowed variable. *)</span>
+      <span class="k">begin</span> <span class="k">match</span> <span class="n">old_val</span> <span class="k">with</span>
+      <span class="o">|</span> <span class="nc">Some</span> <span class="n">old_val</span> <span class="o">-></span> <span class="nn">Hashtbl</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="n">add</span> <span class="n">named_values</span> <span class="n">var_name</span> <span class="n">old_val</span>
+      <span class="o">|</span> <span class="nc">None</span> <span class="o">-></span> <span class="bp">()</span>
+      <span class="k">end</span><span class="o">;</span>
+
+      <span class="c">(* for expr always returns 0.0. *)</span>
+      <span class="n">const_null</span> <span class="n">double_type</span>
+  <span class="o">|</span> <span class="nn">Ast</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="nc">Var</span> <span class="o">(</span><span class="n">var_names</span><span class="o">,</span> <span class="n">body</span><span class="o">)</span> <span class="o">-></span>
+      <span class="k">let</span> <span class="n">old_bindings</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="n">ref</span> <span class="bp">[]</span> <span class="k">in</span>
+
+      <span class="k">let</span> <span class="n">the_function</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="n">block_parent</span> <span class="o">(</span><span class="n">insertion_block</span> <span class="n">builder</span><span class="o">)</span> <span class="k">in</span>
+
+      <span class="c">(* Register all variables and emit their initializer. *)</span>
+      <span class="nn">Array</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="n">iter</span> <span class="o">(</span><span class="k">fun</span> <span class="o">(</span><span class="n">var_name</span><span class="o">,</span> <span class="n">init</span><span class="o">)</span> <span class="o">-></span>
+        <span class="c">(* Emit the initializer before adding the variable to scope, this</span>
+<span class="c">         * prevents the initializer from referencing the variable itself, and</span>
+<span class="c">         * permits stuff like this:</span>
+<span class="c">         *   var a = 1 in</span>
+<span class="c">         *     var a = a in ...   # refers to outer 'a'. *)</span>
+        <span class="k">let</span> <span class="n">init_val</span> <span class="o">=</span>
+          <span class="k">match</span> <span class="n">init</span> <span class="k">with</span>
+          <span class="o">|</span> <span class="nc">Some</span> <span class="n">init</span> <span class="o">-></span> <span class="n">codegen_expr</span> <span class="n">init</span>
+          <span class="c">(* If not specified, use 0.0. *)</span>
+          <span class="o">|</span> <span class="nc">None</span> <span class="o">-></span> <span class="n">const_float</span> <span class="n">double_type</span> <span class="mi">0</span><span class="o">.</span><span class="mi">0</span>
+        <span class="k">in</span>
+
+        <span class="k">let</span> <span class="n">alloca</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="n">create_entry_block_alloca</span> <span class="n">the_function</span> <span class="n">var_name</span> <span class="k">in</span>
+        <span class="n">ignore</span><span class="o">(</span><span class="n">build_store</span> <span class="n">init_val</span> <span class="n">alloca</span> <span class="n">builder</span><span class="o">);</span>
+
+        <span class="c">(* Remember the old variable binding so that we can restore the binding</span>
+<span class="c">         * when we unrecurse. *)</span>
+        <span class="k">begin</span>
+          <span class="k">try</span>
+            <span class="k">let</span> <span class="n">old_value</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="nn">Hashtbl</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="n">find</span> <span class="n">named_values</span> <span class="n">var_name</span> <span class="k">in</span>
+            <span class="n">old_bindings</span> <span class="o">:=</span> <span class="o">(</span><span class="n">var_name</span><span class="o">,</span> <span class="n">old_value</span><span class="o">)</span> <span class="o">::</span> <span class="o">!</span><span class="n">old_bindings</span><span class="o">;</span>
+          <span class="k">with</span> <span class="nc">Not_found</span> <span class="o">-></span> <span class="bp">()</span>
+        <span class="k">end</span><span class="o">;</span>
+
+        <span class="c">(* Remember this binding. *)</span>
+        <span class="nn">Hashtbl</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="n">add</span> <span class="n">named_values</span> <span class="n">var_name</span> <span class="n">alloca</span><span class="o">;</span>
+      <span class="o">)</span> <span class="n">var_names</span><span class="o">;</span>
+
+      <span class="c">(* Codegen the body, now that all vars are in scope. *)</span>
+      <span class="k">let</span> <span class="n">body_val</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="n">codegen_expr</span> <span class="n">body</span> <span class="k">in</span>
+
+      <span class="c">(* Pop all our variables from scope. *)</span>
+      <span class="nn">List</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="n">iter</span> <span class="o">(</span><span class="k">fun</span> <span class="o">(</span><span class="n">var_name</span><span class="o">,</span> <span class="n">old_value</span><span class="o">)</span> <span class="o">-></span>
+        <span class="nn">Hashtbl</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="n">add</span> <span class="n">named_values</span> <span class="n">var_name</span> <span class="n">old_value</span>
+      <span class="o">)</span> <span class="o">!</span><span class="n">old_bindings</span><span class="o">;</span>
+
+      <span class="c">(* Return the body computation. *)</span>
+      <span class="n">body_val</span>
+
+<span class="k">let</span> <span class="n">codegen_proto</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="k">function</span>
+  <span class="o">|</span> <span class="nn">Ast</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="nc">Prototype</span> <span class="o">(</span><span class="n">name</span><span class="o">,</span> <span class="n">args</span><span class="o">)</span> <span class="o">|</span> <span class="nn">Ast</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="nc">BinOpPrototype</span> <span class="o">(</span><span class="n">name</span><span class="o">,</span> <span class="n">args</span><span class="o">,</span> <span class="o">_)</span> <span class="o">-></span>
+      <span class="c">(* Make the function type: double(double,double) etc. *)</span>
+      <span class="k">let</span> <span class="n">doubles</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="nn">Array</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="n">make</span> <span class="o">(</span><span class="nn">Array</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="n">length</span> <span class="n">args</span><span class="o">)</span> <span class="n">double_type</span> <span class="k">in</span>
+      <span class="k">let</span> <span class="n">ft</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="n">function_type</span> <span class="n">double_type</span> <span class="n">doubles</span> <span class="k">in</span>
+      <span class="k">let</span> <span class="n">f</span> <span class="o">=</span>
+        <span class="k">match</span> <span class="n">lookup_function</span> <span class="n">name</span> <span class="n">the_module</span> <span class="k">with</span>
+        <span class="o">|</span> <span class="nc">None</span> <span class="o">-></span> <span class="n">declare_function</span> <span class="n">name</span> <span class="n">ft</span> <span class="n">the_module</span>
+
+        <span class="c">(* If 'f' conflicted, there was already something named 'name'. If it</span>
+<span class="c">         * has a body, don't allow redefinition or reextern. *)</span>
+        <span class="o">|</span> <span class="nc">Some</span> <span class="n">f</span> <span class="o">-></span>
+            <span class="c">(* If 'f' already has a body, reject this. *)</span>
+            <span class="k">if</span> <span class="n">block_begin</span> <span class="n">f</span> <span class="o"><></span> <span class="nc">At_end</span> <span class="n">f</span> <span class="k">then</span>
+              <span class="k">raise</span> <span class="o">(</span><span class="nc">Error</span> <span class="s2">"redefinition of function"</span><span class="o">);</span>
+
+            <span class="c">(* If 'f' took a different number of arguments, reject. *)</span>
+            <span class="k">if</span> <span class="n">element_type</span> <span class="o">(</span><span class="n">type_of</span> <span class="n">f</span><span class="o">)</span> <span class="o"><></span> <span class="n">ft</span> <span class="k">then</span>
+              <span class="k">raise</span> <span class="o">(</span><span class="nc">Error</span> <span class="s2">"redefinition of function with different # args"</span><span class="o">);</span>
+            <span class="n">f</span>
+      <span class="k">in</span>
+
+      <span class="c">(* Set names for all arguments. *)</span>
+      <span class="nn">Array</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="n">iteri</span> <span class="o">(</span><span class="k">fun</span> <span class="n">i</span> <span class="n">a</span> <span class="o">-></span>
+        <span class="k">let</span> <span class="n">n</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="n">args</span><span class="o">.(</span><span class="n">i</span><span class="o">)</span> <span class="k">in</span>
+        <span class="n">set_value_name</span> <span class="n">n</span> <span class="n">a</span><span class="o">;</span>
+        <span class="nn">Hashtbl</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="n">add</span> <span class="n">named_values</span> <span class="n">n</span> <span class="n">a</span><span class="o">;</span>
+      <span class="o">)</span> <span class="o">(</span><span class="n">params</span> <span class="n">f</span><span class="o">);</span>
+      <span class="n">f</span>
+
+<span class="c">(* Create an alloca for each argument and register the argument in the symbol</span>
+<span class="c"> * table so that references to it will succeed. *)</span>
+<span class="k">let</span> <span class="n">create_argument_allocas</span> <span class="n">the_function</span> <span class="n">proto</span> <span class="o">=</span>
+  <span class="k">let</span> <span class="n">args</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="k">match</span> <span class="n">proto</span> <span class="k">with</span>
+    <span class="o">|</span> <span class="nn">Ast</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="nc">Prototype</span> <span class="o">(_,</span> <span class="n">args</span><span class="o">)</span> <span class="o">|</span> <span class="nn">Ast</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="nc">BinOpPrototype</span> <span class="o">(_,</span> <span class="n">args</span><span class="o">,</span> <span class="o">_)</span> <span class="o">-></span> <span class="n">args</span>
+  <span class="k">in</span>
+  <span class="nn">Array</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="n">iteri</span> <span class="o">(</span><span class="k">fun</span> <span class="n">i</span> <span class="n">ai</span> <span class="o">-></span>
+    <span class="k">let</span> <span class="n">var_name</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="n">args</span><span class="o">.(</span><span class="n">i</span><span class="o">)</span> <span class="k">in</span>
+    <span class="c">(* Create an alloca for this variable. *)</span>
+    <span class="k">let</span> <span class="n">alloca</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="n">create_entry_block_alloca</span> <span class="n">the_function</span> <span class="n">var_name</span> <span class="k">in</span>
+
+    <span class="c">(* Store the initial value into the alloca. *)</span>
+    <span class="n">ignore</span><span class="o">(</span><span class="n">build_store</span> <span class="n">ai</span> <span class="n">alloca</span> <span class="n">builder</span><span class="o">);</span>
+
+    <span class="c">(* Add arguments to variable symbol table. *)</span>
+    <span class="nn">Hashtbl</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="n">add</span> <span class="n">named_values</span> <span class="n">var_name</span> <span class="n">alloca</span><span class="o">;</span>
+  <span class="o">)</span> <span class="o">(</span><span class="n">params</span> <span class="n">the_function</span><span class="o">)</span>
+
+<span class="k">let</span> <span class="n">codegen_func</span> <span class="n">the_fpm</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="k">function</span>
+  <span class="o">|</span> <span class="nn">Ast</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="nc">Function</span> <span class="o">(</span><span class="n">proto</span><span class="o">,</span> <span class="n">body</span><span class="o">)</span> <span class="o">-></span>
+      <span class="nn">Hashtbl</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="n">clear</span> <span class="n">named_values</span><span class="o">;</span>
+      <span class="k">let</span> <span class="n">the_function</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="n">codegen_proto</span> <span class="n">proto</span> <span class="k">in</span>
+
+      <span class="c">(* If this is an operator, install it. *)</span>
+      <span class="k">begin</span> <span class="k">match</span> <span class="n">proto</span> <span class="k">with</span>
+      <span class="o">|</span> <span class="nn">Ast</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="nc">BinOpPrototype</span> <span class="o">(</span><span class="n">name</span><span class="o">,</span> <span class="n">args</span><span class="o">,</span> <span class="n">prec</span><span class="o">)</span> <span class="o">-></span>
+          <span class="k">let</span> <span class="n">op</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="n">name</span><span class="o">.[</span><span class="nn">String</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="n">length</span> <span class="n">name</span> <span class="o">-</span> <span class="mi">1</span><span class="o">]</span> <span class="k">in</span>
+          <span class="nn">Hashtbl</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="n">add</span> <span class="nn">Parser</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="n">binop_precedence</span> <span class="n">op</span> <span class="n">prec</span><span class="o">;</span>
+      <span class="o">|</span> <span class="o">_</span> <span class="o">-></span> <span class="bp">()</span>
+      <span class="k">end</span><span class="o">;</span>
+
+      <span class="c">(* Create a new basic block to start insertion into. *)</span>
+      <span class="k">let</span> <span class="n">bb</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="n">append_block</span> <span class="n">context</span> <span class="s2">"entry"</span> <span class="n">the_function</span> <span class="k">in</span>
+      <span class="n">position_at_end</span> <span class="n">bb</span> <span class="n">builder</span><span class="o">;</span>
+
+      <span class="k">try</span>
+        <span class="c">(* Add all arguments to the symbol table and create their allocas. *)</span>
+        <span class="n">create_argument_allocas</span> <span class="n">the_function</span> <span class="n">proto</span><span class="o">;</span>
+
+        <span class="k">let</span> <span class="n">ret_val</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="n">codegen_expr</span> <span class="n">body</span> <span class="k">in</span>
+
+        <span class="c">(* Finish off the function. *)</span>
+        <span class="k">let</span> <span class="o">_</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="n">build_ret</span> <span class="n">ret_val</span> <span class="n">builder</span> <span class="k">in</span>
+
+        <span class="c">(* Validate the generated code, checking for consistency. *)</span>
+        <span class="nn">Llvm_analysis</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="n">assert_valid_function</span> <span class="n">the_function</span><span class="o">;</span>
+
+        <span class="c">(* Optimize the function. *)</span>
+        <span class="k">let</span> <span class="o">_</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="nn">PassManager</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="n">run_function</span> <span class="n">the_function</span> <span class="n">the_fpm</span> <span class="k">in</span>
+
+        <span class="n">the_function</span>
+      <span class="k">with</span> <span class="n">e</span> <span class="o">-></span>
+        <span class="n">delete_function</span> <span class="n">the_function</span><span class="o">;</span>
+        <span class="k">raise</span> <span class="n">e</span>
+</pre></div>
+</div>
+</dd>
+<dt>toplevel.ml:</dt>
+<dd><div class="first last highlight-ocaml"><div class="highlight"><pre><span class="c">(*===----------------------------------------------------------------------===</span>
+<span class="c"> * Top-Level parsing and JIT Driver</span>
+<span class="c"> *===----------------------------------------------------------------------===*)</span>
+
+<span class="k">open</span> <span class="nc">Llvm</span>
+<span class="k">open</span> <span class="nc">Llvm_executionengine</span>
+
+<span class="c">(* top ::= definition | external | expression | ';' *)</span>
+<span class="k">let</span> <span class="k">rec</span> <span class="n">main_loop</span> <span class="n">the_fpm</span> <span class="n">the_execution_engine</span> <span class="n">stream</span> <span class="o">=</span>
+  <span class="k">match</span> <span class="nn">Stream</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="n">peek</span> <span class="n">stream</span> <span class="k">with</span>
+  <span class="o">|</span> <span class="nc">None</span> <span class="o">-></span> <span class="bp">()</span>
+
+  <span class="c">(* ignore top-level semicolons. *)</span>
+  <span class="o">|</span> <span class="nc">Some</span> <span class="o">(</span><span class="nn">Token</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="nc">Kwd</span> <span class="sc">';'</span><span class="o">)</span> <span class="o">-></span>
+      <span class="nn">Stream</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="n">junk</span> <span class="n">stream</span><span class="o">;</span>
+      <span class="n">main_loop</span> <span class="n">the_fpm</span> <span class="n">the_execution_engine</span> <span class="n">stream</span>
+
+  <span class="o">|</span> <span class="nc">Some</span> <span class="n">token</span> <span class="o">-></span>
+      <span class="k">begin</span>
+        <span class="k">try</span> <span class="k">match</span> <span class="n">token</span> <span class="k">with</span>
+        <span class="o">|</span> <span class="nn">Token</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="nc">Def</span> <span class="o">-></span>
+            <span class="k">let</span> <span class="n">e</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="nn">Parser</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="n">parse_definition</span> <span class="n">stream</span> <span class="k">in</span>
+            <span class="n">print_endline</span> <span class="s2">"parsed a function definition."</span><span class="o">;</span>
+            <span class="n">dump_value</span> <span class="o">(</span><span class="nn">Codegen</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="n">codegen_func</span> <span class="n">the_fpm</span> <span class="n">e</span><span class="o">);</span>
+        <span class="o">|</span> <span class="nn">Token</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="nc">Extern</span> <span class="o">-></span>
+            <span class="k">let</span> <span class="n">e</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="nn">Parser</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="n">parse_extern</span> <span class="n">stream</span> <span class="k">in</span>
+            <span class="n">print_endline</span> <span class="s2">"parsed an extern."</span><span class="o">;</span>
+            <span class="n">dump_value</span> <span class="o">(</span><span class="nn">Codegen</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="n">codegen_proto</span> <span class="n">e</span><span class="o">);</span>
+        <span class="o">|</span> <span class="o">_</span> <span class="o">-></span>
+            <span class="c">(* Evaluate a top-level expression into an anonymous function. *)</span>
+            <span class="k">let</span> <span class="n">e</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="nn">Parser</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="n">parse_toplevel</span> <span class="n">stream</span> <span class="k">in</span>
+            <span class="n">print_endline</span> <span class="s2">"parsed a top-level expr"</span><span class="o">;</span>
+            <span class="k">let</span> <span class="n">the_function</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="nn">Codegen</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="n">codegen_func</span> <span class="n">the_fpm</span> <span class="n">e</span> <span class="k">in</span>
+            <span class="n">dump_value</span> <span class="n">the_function</span><span class="o">;</span>
+
+            <span class="c">(* JIT the function, returning a function pointer. *)</span>
+            <span class="k">let</span> <span class="n">result</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="nn">ExecutionEngine</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="n">run_function</span> <span class="n">the_function</span> <span class="o">[||]</span>
+              <span class="n">the_execution_engine</span> <span class="k">in</span>
+
+            <span class="n">print_string</span> <span class="s2">"Evaluated to "</span><span class="o">;</span>
+            <span class="n">print_float</span> <span class="o">(</span><span class="nn">GenericValue</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="n">as_float</span> <span class="nn">Codegen</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="n">double_type</span> <span class="n">result</span><span class="o">);</span>
+            <span class="n">print_newline</span> <span class="bp">()</span><span class="o">;</span>
+        <span class="k">with</span> <span class="nn">Stream</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="nc">Error</span> <span class="n">s</span> <span class="o">|</span> <span class="nn">Codegen</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="nc">Error</span> <span class="n">s</span> <span class="o">-></span>
+          <span class="c">(* Skip token for error recovery. *)</span>
+          <span class="nn">Stream</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="n">junk</span> <span class="n">stream</span><span class="o">;</span>
+          <span class="n">print_endline</span> <span class="n">s</span><span class="o">;</span>
+      <span class="k">end</span><span class="o">;</span>
+      <span class="n">print_string</span> <span class="s2">"ready> "</span><span class="o">;</span> <span class="n">flush</span> <span class="n">stdout</span><span class="o">;</span>
+      <span class="n">main_loop</span> <span class="n">the_fpm</span> <span class="n">the_execution_engine</span> <span class="n">stream</span>
+</pre></div>
+</div>
+</dd>
+<dt>toy.ml:</dt>
+<dd><div class="first last highlight-ocaml"><div class="highlight"><pre><span class="c">(*===----------------------------------------------------------------------===</span>
+<span class="c"> * Main driver code.</span>
+<span class="c"> *===----------------------------------------------------------------------===*)</span>
+
+<span class="k">open</span> <span class="nc">Llvm</span>
+<span class="k">open</span> <span class="nc">Llvm_executionengine</span>
+<span class="k">open</span> <span class="nc">Llvm_target</span>
+<span class="k">open</span> <span class="nc">Llvm_scalar_opts</span>
+
+<span class="k">let</span> <span class="n">main</span> <span class="bp">()</span> <span class="o">=</span>
+  <span class="n">ignore</span> <span class="o">(</span><span class="n">initialize_native_target</span> <span class="bp">()</span><span class="o">);</span>
+
+  <span class="c">(* Install standard binary operators.</span>
+<span class="c">   * 1 is the lowest precedence. *)</span>
+  <span class="nn">Hashtbl</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="n">add</span> <span class="nn">Parser</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="n">binop_precedence</span> <span class="sc">'='</span> <span class="mi">2</span><span class="o">;</span>
+  <span class="nn">Hashtbl</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="n">add</span> <span class="nn">Parser</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="n">binop_precedence</span> <span class="sc">'<'</span> <span class="mi">10</span><span class="o">;</span>
+  <span class="nn">Hashtbl</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="n">add</span> <span class="nn">Parser</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="n">binop_precedence</span> <span class="sc">'+'</span> <span class="mi">20</span><span class="o">;</span>
+  <span class="nn">Hashtbl</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="n">add</span> <span class="nn">Parser</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="n">binop_precedence</span> <span class="sc">'-'</span> <span class="mi">20</span><span class="o">;</span>
+  <span class="nn">Hashtbl</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="n">add</span> <span class="nn">Parser</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="n">binop_precedence</span> <span class="sc">'*'</span> <span class="mi">40</span><span class="o">;</span>    <span class="c">(* highest. *)</span>
+
+  <span class="c">(* Prime the first token. *)</span>
+  <span class="n">print_string</span> <span class="s2">"ready> "</span><span class="o">;</span> <span class="n">flush</span> <span class="n">stdout</span><span class="o">;</span>
+  <span class="k">let</span> <span class="n">stream</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="nn">Lexer</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="n">lex</span> <span class="o">(</span><span class="nn">Stream</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="n">of_channel</span> <span class="n">stdin</span><span class="o">)</span> <span class="k">in</span>
+
+  <span class="c">(* Create the JIT. *)</span>
+  <span class="k">let</span> <span class="n">the_execution_engine</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="nn">ExecutionEngine</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="n">create</span> <span class="nn">Codegen</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="n">the_module</span> <span class="k">in</span>
+  <span class="k">let</span> <span class="n">the_fpm</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="nn">PassManager</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="n">create_function</span> <span class="nn">Codegen</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="n">the_module</span> <span class="k">in</span>
+
+  <span class="c">(* Set up the optimizer pipeline.  Start with registering info about how the</span>
+<span class="c">   * target lays out data structures. *)</span>
+  <span class="nn">DataLayout</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="n">add</span> <span class="o">(</span><span class="nn">ExecutionEngine</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="n">target_data</span> <span class="n">the_execution_engine</span><span class="o">)</span> <span class="n">the_fpm</span><span class="o">;</span>
+
+  <span class="c">(* Promote allocas to registers. *)</span>
+  <span class="n">add_memory_to_register_promotion</span> <span class="n">the_fpm</span><span class="o">;</span>
+
+  <span class="c">(* Do simple "peephole" optimizations and bit-twiddling optzn. *)</span>
+  <span class="n">add_instruction_combination</span> <span class="n">the_fpm</span><span class="o">;</span>
+
+  <span class="c">(* reassociate expressions. *)</span>
+  <span class="n">add_reassociation</span> <span class="n">the_fpm</span><span class="o">;</span>
+
+  <span class="c">(* Eliminate Common SubExpressions. *)</span>
+  <span class="n">add_gvn</span> <span class="n">the_fpm</span><span class="o">;</span>
+
+  <span class="c">(* Simplify the control flow graph (deleting unreachable blocks, etc). *)</span>
+  <span class="n">add_cfg_simplification</span> <span class="n">the_fpm</span><span class="o">;</span>
+
+  <span class="n">ignore</span> <span class="o">(</span><span class="nn">PassManager</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="n">initialize</span> <span class="n">the_fpm</span><span class="o">);</span>
+
+  <span class="c">(* Run the main "interpreter loop" now. *)</span>
+  <span class="nn">Toplevel</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="n">main_loop</span> <span class="n">the_fpm</span> <span class="n">the_execution_engine</span> <span class="n">stream</span><span class="o">;</span>
+
+  <span class="c">(* Print out all the generated code. *)</span>
+  <span class="n">dump_module</span> <span class="nn">Codegen</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="n">the_module</span>
+<span class="o">;;</span>
+
+<span class="n">main</span> <span class="bp">()</span>
+</pre></div>
+</div>
+</dd>
+<dt>bindings.c</dt>
+<dd><div class="first last highlight-c"><div class="highlight"><pre><span class="cp">#include <stdio.h></span>
+
+<span class="cm">/* putchard - putchar that takes a double and returns 0. */</span>
+<span class="k">extern</span> <span class="kt">double</span> <span class="nf">putchard</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="kt">double</span> <span class="n">X</span><span class="p">)</span> <span class="p">{</span>
+  <span class="n">putchar</span><span class="p">((</span><span class="kt">char</span><span class="p">)</span><span class="n">X</span><span class="p">);</span>
+  <span class="k">return</span> <span class="mi">0</span><span class="p">;</span>
+<span class="p">}</span>
+
+<span class="cm">/* printd - printf that takes a double prints it as "%f\n", returning 0. */</span>
+<span class="k">extern</span> <span class="kt">double</span> <span class="nf">printd</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="kt">double</span> <span class="n">X</span><span class="p">)</span> <span class="p">{</span>
+  <span class="n">printf</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="s">"%f</span><span class="se">\n</span><span class="s">"</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="n">X</span><span class="p">);</span>
+  <span class="k">return</span> <span class="mi">0</span><span class="p">;</span>
+<span class="p">}</span>
+</pre></div>
+</div>
+</dd>
+</dl>
+<p><a class="reference external" href="OCamlLangImpl8.html">Next: Conclusion and other useful LLVM tidbits</a></p>
+</div>
+</div>
+
+
+          </div>
+      </div>
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+  <div class="section" id="kaleidoscope-conclusion-and-other-useful-llvm-tidbits">
+<h1>8. Kaleidoscope: Conclusion and other useful LLVM tidbits<a class="headerlink" href="#kaleidoscope-conclusion-and-other-useful-llvm-tidbits" title="Permalink to this headline">¶</a></h1>
+<div class="contents local topic" id="contents">
+<ul class="simple">
+<li><a class="reference internal" href="#tutorial-conclusion" id="id2">Tutorial Conclusion</a></li>
+<li><a class="reference internal" href="#properties-of-the-llvm-ir" id="id3">Properties of the LLVM IR</a><ul>
+<li><a class="reference internal" href="#target-independence" id="id4">Target Independence</a></li>
+<li><a class="reference internal" href="#safety-guarantees" id="id5">Safety Guarantees</a></li>
+<li><a class="reference internal" href="#language-specific-optimizations" id="id6">Language-Specific Optimizations</a></li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li><a class="reference internal" href="#tips-and-tricks" id="id7">Tips and Tricks</a><ul>
+<li><a class="reference internal" href="#implementing-portable-offsetof-sizeof" id="id8">Implementing portable offsetof/sizeof</a></li>
+<li><a class="reference internal" href="#garbage-collected-stack-frames" id="id9">Garbage Collected Stack Frames</a></li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+</ul>
+</div>
+<div class="section" id="tutorial-conclusion">
+<h2><a class="toc-backref" href="#id2">8.1. Tutorial Conclusion</a><a class="headerlink" href="#tutorial-conclusion" title="Permalink to this headline">¶</a></h2>
+<p>Welcome to the final chapter of the “<a class="reference external" href="index.html">Implementing a language with
+LLVM</a>” tutorial. In the course of this tutorial, we have
+grown our little Kaleidoscope language from being a useless toy, to
+being a semi-interesting (but probably still useless) toy. :)</p>
+<p>It is interesting to see how far we’ve come, and how little code it has
+taken. We built the entire lexer, parser, AST, code generator, and an
+interactive run-loop (with a JIT!) by-hand in under 700 lines of
+(non-comment/non-blank) code.</p>
+<p>Our little language supports a couple of interesting features: it
+supports user defined binary and unary operators, it uses JIT
+compilation for immediate evaluation, and it supports a few control flow
+constructs with SSA construction.</p>
+<p>Part of the idea of this tutorial was to show you how easy and fun it
+can be to define, build, and play with languages. Building a compiler
+need not be a scary or mystical process! Now that you’ve seen some of
+the basics, I strongly encourage you to take the code and hack on it.
+For example, try adding:</p>
+<ul class="simple">
+<li><strong>global variables</strong> - While global variables have questional value
+in modern software engineering, they are often useful when putting
+together quick little hacks like the Kaleidoscope compiler itself.
+Fortunately, our current setup makes it very easy to add global
+variables: just have value lookup check to see if an unresolved
+variable is in the global variable symbol table before rejecting it.
+To create a new global variable, make an instance of the LLVM
+<tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">GlobalVariable</span></tt> class.</li>
+<li><strong>typed variables</strong> - Kaleidoscope currently only supports variables
+of type double. This gives the language a very nice elegance, because
+only supporting one type means that you never have to specify types.
+Different languages have different ways of handling this. The easiest
+way is to require the user to specify types for every variable
+definition, and record the type of the variable in the symbol table
+along with its Value*.</li>
+<li><strong>arrays, structs, vectors, etc</strong> - Once you add types, you can start
+extending the type system in all sorts of interesting ways. Simple
+arrays are very easy and are quite useful for many different
+applications. Adding them is mostly an exercise in learning how the
+LLVM <a class="reference external" href="../LangRef.html#getelementptr-instruction">getelementptr</a> instruction
+works: it is so nifty/unconventional, it <a class="reference external" href="../GetElementPtr.html">has its own
+FAQ</a>! If you add support for recursive types
+(e.g. linked lists), make sure to read the <a class="reference external" href="../ProgrammersManual.html#TypeResolve">section in the LLVM
+Programmer’s Manual</a> that
+describes how to construct them.</li>
+<li><strong>standard runtime</strong> - Our current language allows the user to access
+arbitrary external functions, and we use it for things like “printd”
+and “putchard”. As you extend the language to add higher-level
+constructs, often these constructs make the most sense if they are
+lowered to calls into a language-supplied runtime. For example, if
+you add hash tables to the language, it would probably make sense to
+add the routines to a runtime, instead of inlining them all the way.</li>
+<li><strong>memory management</strong> - Currently we can only access the stack in
+Kaleidoscope. It would also be useful to be able to allocate heap
+memory, either with calls to the standard libc malloc/free interface
+or with a garbage collector. If you would like to use garbage
+collection, note that LLVM fully supports <a class="reference external" href="../GarbageCollection.html">Accurate Garbage
+Collection</a> including algorithms that
+move objects and need to scan/update the stack.</li>
+<li><strong>debugger support</strong> - LLVM supports generation of <a class="reference external" href="../SourceLevelDebugging.html">DWARF Debug
+info</a> which is understood by common
+debuggers like GDB. Adding support for debug info is fairly
+straightforward. The best way to understand it is to compile some
+C/C++ code with “<tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">clang</span> <span class="pre">-g</span> <span class="pre">-O0</span></tt>” and taking a look at what it
+produces.</li>
+<li><strong>exception handling support</strong> - LLVM supports generation of <a class="reference external" href="../ExceptionHandling.html">zero
+cost exceptions</a> which interoperate with
+code compiled in other languages. You could also generate code by
+implicitly making every function return an error value and checking
+it. You could also make explicit use of setjmp/longjmp. There are
+many different ways to go here.</li>
+<li><strong>object orientation, generics, database access, complex numbers,
+geometric programming, ...</strong> - Really, there is no end of crazy
+features that you can add to the language.</li>
+<li><strong>unusual domains</strong> - We’ve been talking about applying LLVM to a
+domain that many people are interested in: building a compiler for a
+specific language. However, there are many other domains that can use
+compiler technology that are not typically considered. For example,
+LLVM has been used to implement OpenGL graphics acceleration,
+translate C++ code to ActionScript, and many other cute and clever
+things. Maybe you will be the first to JIT compile a regular
+expression interpreter into native code with LLVM?</li>
+</ul>
+<p>Have fun - try doing something crazy and unusual. Building a language
+like everyone else always has, is much less fun than trying something a
+little crazy or off the wall and seeing how it turns out. If you get
+stuck or want to talk about it, feel free to email the <a class="reference external" href="http://lists.llvm.org/mailman/listinfo/llvm-dev">llvm-dev mailing
+list</a>: it has lots
+of people who are interested in languages and are often willing to help
+out.</p>
+<p>Before we end this tutorial, I want to talk about some “tips and tricks”
+for generating LLVM IR. These are some of the more subtle things that
+may not be obvious, but are very useful if you want to take advantage of
+LLVM’s capabilities.</p>
+</div>
+<div class="section" id="properties-of-the-llvm-ir">
+<h2><a class="toc-backref" href="#id3">8.2. Properties of the LLVM IR</a><a class="headerlink" href="#properties-of-the-llvm-ir" title="Permalink to this headline">¶</a></h2>
+<p>We have a couple common questions about code in the LLVM IR form - lets
+just get these out of the way right now, shall we?</p>
+<div class="section" id="target-independence">
+<h3><a class="toc-backref" href="#id4">8.2.1. Target Independence</a><a class="headerlink" href="#target-independence" title="Permalink to this headline">¶</a></h3>
+<p>Kaleidoscope is an example of a “portable language”: any program written
+in Kaleidoscope will work the same way on any target that it runs on.
+Many other languages have this property, e.g. lisp, java, haskell,
+javascript, python, etc (note that while these languages are portable,
+not all their libraries are).</p>
+<p>One nice aspect of LLVM is that it is often capable of preserving target
+independence in the IR: you can take the LLVM IR for a
+Kaleidoscope-compiled program and run it on any target that LLVM
+supports, even emitting C code and compiling that on targets that LLVM
+doesn’t support natively. You can trivially tell that the Kaleidoscope
+compiler generates target-independent code because it never queries for
+any target-specific information when generating code.</p>
+<p>The fact that LLVM provides a compact, target-independent,
+representation for code gets a lot of people excited. Unfortunately,
+these people are usually thinking about C or a language from the C
+family when they are asking questions about language portability. I say
+“unfortunately”, because there is really no way to make (fully general)
+C code portable, other than shipping the source code around (and of
+course, C source code is not actually portable in general either - ever
+port a really old application from 32- to 64-bits?).</p>
+<p>The problem with C (again, in its full generality) is that it is heavily
+laden with target specific assumptions. As one simple example, the
+preprocessor often destructively removes target-independence from the
+code when it processes the input text:</p>
+<div class="highlight-c"><div class="highlight"><pre><span class="cp">#ifdef __i386__</span>
+  <span class="kt">int</span> <span class="n">X</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="mi">1</span><span class="p">;</span>
+<span class="cp">#else</span>
+  <span class="kt">int</span> <span class="n">X</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="mi">42</span><span class="p">;</span>
+<span class="cp">#endif</span>
+</pre></div>
+</div>
+<p>While it is possible to engineer more and more complex solutions to
+problems like this, it cannot be solved in full generality in a way that
+is better than shipping the actual source code.</p>
+<p>That said, there are interesting subsets of C that can be made portable.
+If you are willing to fix primitive types to a fixed size (say int =
+32-bits, and long = 64-bits), don’t care about ABI compatibility with
+existing binaries, and are willing to give up some other minor features,
+you can have portable code. This can make sense for specialized domains
+such as an in-kernel language.</p>
+</div>
+<div class="section" id="safety-guarantees">
+<h3><a class="toc-backref" href="#id5">8.2.2. Safety Guarantees</a><a class="headerlink" href="#safety-guarantees" title="Permalink to this headline">¶</a></h3>
+<p>Many of the languages above are also “safe” languages: it is impossible
+for a program written in Java to corrupt its address space and crash the
+process (assuming the JVM has no bugs). Safety is an interesting
+property that requires a combination of language design, runtime
+support, and often operating system support.</p>
+<p>It is certainly possible to implement a safe language in LLVM, but LLVM
+IR does not itself guarantee safety. The LLVM IR allows unsafe pointer
+casts, use after free bugs, buffer over-runs, and a variety of other
+problems. Safety needs to be implemented as a layer on top of LLVM and,
+conveniently, several groups have investigated this. Ask on the <a class="reference external" href="http://lists.llvm.org/mailman/listinfo/llvm-dev">llvm-dev
+mailing list</a> if
+you are interested in more details.</p>
+</div>
+<div class="section" id="language-specific-optimizations">
+<h3><a class="toc-backref" href="#id6">8.2.3. Language-Specific Optimizations</a><a class="headerlink" href="#language-specific-optimizations" title="Permalink to this headline">¶</a></h3>
+<p>One thing about LLVM that turns off many people is that it does not
+solve all the world’s problems in one system (sorry ‘world hunger’,
+someone else will have to solve you some other day). One specific
+complaint is that people perceive LLVM as being incapable of performing
+high-level language-specific optimization: LLVM “loses too much
+information”.</p>
+<p>Unfortunately, this is really not the place to give you a full and
+unified version of “Chris Lattner’s theory of compiler design”. Instead,
+I’ll make a few observations:</p>
+<p>First, you’re right that LLVM does lose information. For example, as of
+this writing, there is no way to distinguish in the LLVM IR whether an
+SSA-value came from a C “int” or a C “long” on an ILP32 machine (other
+than debug info). Both get compiled down to an ‘i32’ value and the
+information about what it came from is lost. The more general issue
+here, is that the LLVM type system uses “structural equivalence” instead
+of “name equivalence”. Another place this surprises people is if you
+have two types in a high-level language that have the same structure
+(e.g. two different structs that have a single int field): these types
+will compile down into a single LLVM type and it will be impossible to
+tell what it came from.</p>
+<p>Second, while LLVM does lose information, LLVM is not a fixed target: we
+continue to enhance and improve it in many different ways. In addition
+to adding new features (LLVM did not always support exceptions or debug
+info), we also extend the IR to capture important information for
+optimization (e.g. whether an argument is sign or zero extended,
+information about pointers aliasing, etc). Many of the enhancements are
+user-driven: people want LLVM to include some specific feature, so they
+go ahead and extend it.</p>
+<p>Third, it is <em>possible and easy</em> to add language-specific optimizations,
+and you have a number of choices in how to do it. As one trivial
+example, it is easy to add language-specific optimization passes that
+“know” things about code compiled for a language. In the case of the C
+family, there is an optimization pass that “knows” about the standard C
+library functions. If you call “exit(0)” in main(), it knows that it is
+safe to optimize that into “return 0;” because C specifies what the
+‘exit’ function does.</p>
+<p>In addition to simple library knowledge, it is possible to embed a
+variety of other language-specific information into the LLVM IR. If you
+have a specific need and run into a wall, please bring the topic up on
+the llvm-dev list. At the very worst, you can always treat LLVM as if it
+were a “dumb code generator” and implement the high-level optimizations
+you desire in your front-end, on the language-specific AST.</p>
+</div>
+</div>
+<div class="section" id="tips-and-tricks">
+<h2><a class="toc-backref" href="#id7">8.3. Tips and Tricks</a><a class="headerlink" href="#tips-and-tricks" title="Permalink to this headline">¶</a></h2>
+<p>There is a variety of useful tips and tricks that you come to know after
+working on/with LLVM that aren’t obvious at first glance. Instead of
+letting everyone rediscover them, this section talks about some of these
+issues.</p>
+<div class="section" id="implementing-portable-offsetof-sizeof">
+<h3><a class="toc-backref" href="#id8">8.3.1. Implementing portable offsetof/sizeof</a><a class="headerlink" href="#implementing-portable-offsetof-sizeof" title="Permalink to this headline">¶</a></h3>
+<p>One interesting thing that comes up, if you are trying to keep the code
+generated by your compiler “target independent”, is that you often need
+to know the size of some LLVM type or the offset of some field in an
+llvm structure. For example, you might need to pass the size of a type
+into a function that allocates memory.</p>
+<p>Unfortunately, this can vary widely across targets: for example the
+width of a pointer is trivially target-specific. However, there is a
+<a class="reference external" href="http://nondot.org/sabre/LLVMNotes/SizeOf-OffsetOf-VariableSizedStructs.txt">clever way to use the getelementptr
+instruction</a>
+that allows you to compute this in a portable way.</p>
+</div>
+<div class="section" id="garbage-collected-stack-frames">
+<h3><a class="toc-backref" href="#id9">8.3.2. Garbage Collected Stack Frames</a><a class="headerlink" href="#garbage-collected-stack-frames" title="Permalink to this headline">¶</a></h3>
+<p>Some languages want to explicitly manage their stack frames, often so
+that they are garbage collected or to allow easy implementation of
+closures. There are often better ways to implement these features than
+explicit stack frames, but <a class="reference external" href="http://nondot.org/sabre/LLVMNotes/ExplicitlyManagedStackFrames.txt">LLVM does support
+them,</a>
+if you want. It requires your front-end to convert the code into
+<a class="reference external" href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Continuation-passing_style">Continuation Passing
+Style</a> and
+the use of tail calls (which LLVM also supports).</p>
+</div>
+</div>
+</div>
+
+
+          </div>
+      </div>
+      <div class="clearer"></div>
+    </div>
+    <div class="related">
+      <h3>Navigation</h3>
+      <ul>
+        <li class="right" style="margin-right: 10px">
+          <a href="../genindex.html" title="General Index"
+             >index</a></li>
+        <li class="right" >
+          <a href="BuildingAJIT1.html" title="1. Building a JIT: Starting out with KaleidoscopeJIT"
+             >next</a> |</li>
+        <li class="right" >
+          <a href="OCamlLangImpl7.html" title="7. Kaleidoscope: Extending the Language: Mutable Variables"
+             >previous</a> |</li>
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+        © Copyright 2003-2016, LLVM Project.
+      Last updated on 2016-08-31.
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+
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+    <meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=utf-8" />
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+    <title>LLVM Tutorial: Table of Contents — LLVM 3.9 documentation</title>
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+    <link rel="top" title="LLVM 3.9 documentation" href="../index.html" />
+    <link rel="next" title="1. Kaleidoscope: Tutorial Introduction and the Lexer" href="LangImpl01.html" />
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+        <li class="right" style="margin-right: 10px">
+          <a href="../genindex.html" title="General Index"
+             accesskey="I">index</a></li>
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+          <a href="LangImpl01.html" title="1. Kaleidoscope: Tutorial Introduction and the Lexer"
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+          <div class="body">
+            
+  <div class="section" id="llvm-tutorial-table-of-contents">
+<h1>LLVM Tutorial: Table of Contents<a class="headerlink" href="#llvm-tutorial-table-of-contents" title="Permalink to this headline">¶</a></h1>
+<div class="section" id="kaleidoscope-implementing-a-language-with-llvm">
+<h2>Kaleidoscope: Implementing a Language with LLVM<a class="headerlink" href="#kaleidoscope-implementing-a-language-with-llvm" title="Permalink to this headline">¶</a></h2>
+<div class="toctree-wrapper compound">
+<ul>
+<li class="toctree-l1"><a class="reference internal" href="LangImpl01.html">1. Kaleidoscope: Tutorial Introduction and the Lexer</a><ul class="simple">
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li class="toctree-l1"><a class="reference internal" href="LangImpl02.html">2. Kaleidoscope: Implementing a Parser and AST</a><ul class="simple">
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li class="toctree-l1"><a class="reference internal" href="LangImpl03.html">3. Kaleidoscope: Code generation to LLVM IR</a><ul class="simple">
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li class="toctree-l1"><a class="reference internal" href="LangImpl04.html">4. Kaleidoscope: Adding JIT and Optimizer Support</a><ul class="simple">
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li class="toctree-l1"><a class="reference internal" href="LangImpl05.html">5. Kaleidoscope: Extending the Language: Control Flow</a><ul class="simple">
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li class="toctree-l1"><a class="reference internal" href="LangImpl06.html">6. Kaleidoscope: Extending the Language: User-defined Operators</a><ul class="simple">
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li class="toctree-l1"><a class="reference internal" href="LangImpl07.html">7. Kaleidoscope: Extending the Language: Mutable Variables</a><ul class="simple">
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li class="toctree-l1"><a class="reference internal" href="LangImpl08.html">8. Kaleidoscope: Compiling to Object Code</a><ul class="simple">
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li class="toctree-l1"><a class="reference internal" href="LangImpl09.html">9. Kaleidoscope: Adding Debug Information</a><ul class="simple">
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li class="toctree-l1"><a class="reference internal" href="LangImpl10.html">10. Kaleidoscope: Conclusion and other useful LLVM tidbits</a><ul class="simple">
+</ul>
+</li>
+</ul>
+</div>
+</div>
+<div class="section" id="kaleidoscope-implementing-a-language-with-llvm-in-objective-caml">
+<h2>Kaleidoscope: Implementing a Language with LLVM in Objective Caml<a class="headerlink" href="#kaleidoscope-implementing-a-language-with-llvm-in-objective-caml" title="Permalink to this headline">¶</a></h2>
+<div class="toctree-wrapper compound">
+<ul>
+<li class="toctree-l1"><a class="reference internal" href="OCamlLangImpl1.html">1. Kaleidoscope: Tutorial Introduction and the Lexer</a><ul class="simple">
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li class="toctree-l1"><a class="reference internal" href="OCamlLangImpl2.html">2. Kaleidoscope: Implementing a Parser and AST</a><ul class="simple">
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li class="toctree-l1"><a class="reference internal" href="OCamlLangImpl3.html">3. Kaleidoscope: Code generation to LLVM IR</a><ul class="simple">
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li class="toctree-l1"><a class="reference internal" href="OCamlLangImpl4.html">4. Kaleidoscope: Adding JIT and Optimizer Support</a><ul class="simple">
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li class="toctree-l1"><a class="reference internal" href="OCamlLangImpl5.html">5. Kaleidoscope: Extending the Language: Control Flow</a><ul class="simple">
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li class="toctree-l1"><a class="reference internal" href="OCamlLangImpl6.html">6. Kaleidoscope: Extending the Language: User-defined Operators</a><ul class="simple">
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li class="toctree-l1"><a class="reference internal" href="OCamlLangImpl7.html">7. Kaleidoscope: Extending the Language: Mutable Variables</a><ul class="simple">
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li class="toctree-l1"><a class="reference internal" href="OCamlLangImpl8.html">8. Kaleidoscope: Conclusion and other useful LLVM tidbits</a><ul class="simple">
+</ul>
+</li>
+</ul>
+</div>
+</div>
+<div class="section" id="building-a-jit-in-llvm">
+<h2>Building a JIT in LLVM<a class="headerlink" href="#building-a-jit-in-llvm" title="Permalink to this headline">¶</a></h2>
+<div class="toctree-wrapper compound">
+<ul>
+<li class="toctree-l1"><a class="reference internal" href="BuildingAJIT1.html">1. Building a JIT: Starting out with KaleidoscopeJIT</a><ul class="simple">
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li class="toctree-l1"><a class="reference internal" href="BuildingAJIT2.html">2. Building a JIT: Adding Optimizations – An introduction to ORC Layers</a><ul class="simple">
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li class="toctree-l1"><a class="reference internal" href="BuildingAJIT3.html">3. Building a JIT: Per-function Lazy Compilation</a><ul class="simple">
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li class="toctree-l1"><a class="reference internal" href="BuildingAJIT4.html">4. Building a JIT: Extreme Laziness - Using Compile Callbacks to JIT from ASTs</a><ul class="simple">
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li class="toctree-l1"><a class="reference internal" href="BuildingAJIT5.html">5. Building a JIT: Remote-JITing – Process Isolation and Laziness at a Distance</a><ul class="simple">
+</ul>
+</li>
+</ul>
+</div>
+</div>
+<div class="section" id="external-tutorials">
+<h2>External Tutorials<a class="headerlink" href="#external-tutorials" title="Permalink to this headline">¶</a></h2>
+<dl class="docutils">
+<dt><a class="reference external" href="http://jonathan2251.github.com/lbd/">Tutorial: Creating an LLVM Backend for the Cpu0 Architecture</a></dt>
+<dd>A step-by-step tutorial for developing an LLVM backend. Under
+active development at <a class="reference external" href="https://github.com/Jonathan2251/lbd">https://github.com/Jonathan2251/lbd</a> (please
+contribute!).</dd>
+<dt><a class="reference external" href="http://www.embecosm.com/appnotes/ean10/ean10-howto-llvmas-1.0.html">Howto: Implementing LLVM Integrated Assembler</a></dt>
+<dd>A simple guide for how to implement an LLVM integrated assembler for an
+architecture.</dd>
+</dl>
+</div>
+<div class="section" id="advanced-topics">
+<h2>Advanced Topics<a class="headerlink" href="#advanced-topics" title="Permalink to this headline">¶</a></h2>
+<ol class="arabic simple">
+<li><a class="reference external" href="http://llvm.org/pubs/2004-09-22-LCPCLLVMTutorial.html">Writing an Optimization for LLVM</a></li>
+</ol>
+</div>
+</div>
+
+
+          </div>
+      </div>
+      <div class="clearer"></div>
+    </div>
+    <div class="related">
+      <h3>Navigation</h3>
+      <ul>
+        <li class="right" style="margin-right: 10px">
+          <a href="../genindex.html" title="General Index"
+             >index</a></li>
+        <li class="right" >
+          <a href="LangImpl01.html" title="1. Kaleidoscope: Tutorial Introduction and the Lexer"
+             >next</a> |</li>
+        <li class="right" >
+          <a href="../TestSuiteMakefileGuide.html" title="LLVM test-suite Guide"
+             >previous</a> |</li>
+  <li><a href="http://llvm.org/">LLVM Home</a> | </li>
+  <li><a href="../index.html">Documentation</a>»</li>
+ 
+      </ul>
+    </div>
+    <div class="footer">
+        © Copyright 2003-2016, LLVM Project.
+      Last updated on 2016-08-31.
+      Created using <a href="http://sphinx-doc.org/">Sphinx</a> 1.2.2.
+    </div>
+  </body>
+</html>
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+
+<!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD XHTML 1.0 Transitional//EN"
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+  <div class="section" id="yaml2obj">
+<h1>yaml2obj<a class="headerlink" href="#yaml2obj" title="Permalink to this headline">¶</a></h1>
+<p>yaml2obj takes a YAML description of an object file and converts it to a binary
+file.</p>
+<blockquote>
+<div>$ yaml2obj input-file</div></blockquote>
+<p>Outputs the binary to stdout.</p>
+<div class="section" id="coff-syntax">
+<h2>COFF Syntax<a class="headerlink" href="#coff-syntax" title="Permalink to this headline">¶</a></h2>
+<p>Here’s a sample COFF file.</p>
+<div class="highlight-yaml"><div class="highlight"><pre><span class="l-Scalar-Plain">header</span><span class="p-Indicator">:</span>
+  <span class="l-Scalar-Plain">Machine</span><span class="p-Indicator">:</span> <span class="l-Scalar-Plain">IMAGE_FILE_MACHINE_I386</span> <span class="c1"># (0x14C)</span>
+
+<span class="l-Scalar-Plain">sections</span><span class="p-Indicator">:</span>
+  <span class="p-Indicator">-</span> <span class="l-Scalar-Plain">Name</span><span class="p-Indicator">:</span> <span class="l-Scalar-Plain">.text</span>
+    <span class="l-Scalar-Plain">Characteristics</span><span class="p-Indicator">:</span> <span class="p-Indicator">[</span> <span class="nv">IMAGE_SCN_CNT_CODE</span>
+                     <span class="p-Indicator">,</span> <span class="nv">IMAGE_SCN_ALIGN_16BYTES</span>
+                     <span class="p-Indicator">,</span> <span class="nv">IMAGE_SCN_MEM_EXECUTE</span>
+                     <span class="p-Indicator">,</span> <span class="nv">IMAGE_SCN_MEM_READ</span>
+                     <span class="p-Indicator">]</span> <span class="c1"># 0x60500020</span>
+    <span class="l-Scalar-Plain">SectionData</span><span class="p-Indicator">:</span>
+      <span class="s">"</span><span class="se">\x83\xEC\x0C\xC7\x44\x24\x08\x00\x00\x00\x00\xC7\x04\x24\x00\x00\x00\x00\xE8\x00\x00\x00\x00\xE8\x00\x00\x00\x00\x8B\x44\x24\x08\x83\xC4\x0C\xC3</span><span class="s">"</span> <span class="c1"># |....D$.......$...............D$.....|</span>
+
+<span class="l-Scalar-Plain">symbols</span><span class="p-Indicator">:</span>
+  <span class="p-Indicator">-</span> <span class="l-Scalar-Plain">Name</span><span class="p-Indicator">:</span> <span class="l-Scalar-Plain">.text</span>
+    <span class="l-Scalar-Plain">Value</span><span class="p-Indicator">:</span> <span class="l-Scalar-Plain">0</span>
+    <span class="l-Scalar-Plain">SectionNumber</span><span class="p-Indicator">:</span> <span class="l-Scalar-Plain">1</span>
+    <span class="l-Scalar-Plain">SimpleType</span><span class="p-Indicator">:</span> <span class="l-Scalar-Plain">IMAGE_SYM_TYPE_NULL</span> <span class="c1"># (0)</span>
+    <span class="l-Scalar-Plain">ComplexType</span><span class="p-Indicator">:</span> <span class="l-Scalar-Plain">IMAGE_SYM_DTYPE_NULL</span> <span class="c1"># (0)</span>
+    <span class="l-Scalar-Plain">StorageClass</span><span class="p-Indicator">:</span> <span class="l-Scalar-Plain">IMAGE_SYM_CLASS_STATIC</span> <span class="c1"># (3)</span>
+    <span class="l-Scalar-Plain">NumberOfAuxSymbols</span><span class="p-Indicator">:</span> <span class="l-Scalar-Plain">1</span>
+    <span class="l-Scalar-Plain">AuxiliaryData</span><span class="p-Indicator">:</span>
+      <span class="s">"</span><span class="se">\x24\x00\x00\x00\x03\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x01\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00</span><span class="s">"</span> <span class="c1"># |$.................|</span>
+
+  <span class="p-Indicator">-</span> <span class="l-Scalar-Plain">Name</span><span class="p-Indicator">:</span> <span class="l-Scalar-Plain">_main</span>
+    <span class="l-Scalar-Plain">Value</span><span class="p-Indicator">:</span> <span class="l-Scalar-Plain">0</span>
+    <span class="l-Scalar-Plain">SectionNumber</span><span class="p-Indicator">:</span> <span class="l-Scalar-Plain">1</span>
+    <span class="l-Scalar-Plain">SimpleType</span><span class="p-Indicator">:</span> <span class="l-Scalar-Plain">IMAGE_SYM_TYPE_NULL</span> <span class="c1"># (0)</span>
+    <span class="l-Scalar-Plain">ComplexType</span><span class="p-Indicator">:</span> <span class="l-Scalar-Plain">IMAGE_SYM_DTYPE_NULL</span> <span class="c1"># (0)</span>
+    <span class="l-Scalar-Plain">StorageClass</span><span class="p-Indicator">:</span> <span class="l-Scalar-Plain">IMAGE_SYM_CLASS_EXTERNAL</span> <span class="c1"># (2)</span>
+</pre></div>
+</div>
+<p>Here’s a simplified <a class="reference external" href="http://www.kuwata-lab.com/kwalify/ruby/users-guide.html">Kwalify</a> schema with an extension to allow alternate types.</p>
+<div class="highlight-yaml"><div class="highlight"><pre><span class="l-Scalar-Plain">type</span><span class="p-Indicator">:</span> <span class="l-Scalar-Plain">map</span>
+  <span class="l-Scalar-Plain">mapping</span><span class="p-Indicator">:</span>
+    <span class="l-Scalar-Plain">header</span><span class="p-Indicator">:</span>
+      <span class="l-Scalar-Plain">type</span><span class="p-Indicator">:</span> <span class="l-Scalar-Plain">map</span>
+      <span class="l-Scalar-Plain">mapping</span><span class="p-Indicator">:</span>
+        <span class="l-Scalar-Plain">Machine</span><span class="p-Indicator">:</span> <span class="p-Indicator">[</span> <span class="p-Indicator">{</span><span class="nv">type</span><span class="p-Indicator">:</span> <span class="nv">str</span><span class="p-Indicator">,</span> <span class="nv">enum</span><span class="p-Indicator">:</span>
+                               <span class="p-Indicator">[</span> <span class="nv">IMAGE_FILE_MACHINE_UNKNOWN</span>
+                               <span class="p-Indicator">,</span> <span class="nv">IMAGE_FILE_MACHINE_AM33</span>
+                               <span class="p-Indicator">,</span> <span class="nv">IMAGE_FILE_MACHINE_AMD64</span>
+                               <span class="p-Indicator">,</span> <span class="nv">IMAGE_FILE_MACHINE_ARM</span>
+                               <span class="p-Indicator">,</span> <span class="nv">IMAGE_FILE_MACHINE_ARMNT</span>
+                               <span class="p-Indicator">,</span> <span class="nv">IMAGE_FILE_MACHINE_ARM64</span>
+                               <span class="p-Indicator">,</span> <span class="nv">IMAGE_FILE_MACHINE_EBC</span>
+                               <span class="p-Indicator">,</span> <span class="nv">IMAGE_FILE_MACHINE_I386</span>
+                               <span class="p-Indicator">,</span> <span class="nv">IMAGE_FILE_MACHINE_IA64</span>
+                               <span class="p-Indicator">,</span> <span class="nv">IMAGE_FILE_MACHINE_M32R</span>
+                               <span class="p-Indicator">,</span> <span class="nv">IMAGE_FILE_MACHINE_MIPS16</span>
+                               <span class="p-Indicator">,</span> <span class="nv">IMAGE_FILE_MACHINE_MIPSFPU</span>
+                               <span class="p-Indicator">,</span> <span class="nv">IMAGE_FILE_MACHINE_MIPSFPU16</span>
+                               <span class="p-Indicator">,</span> <span class="nv">IMAGE_FILE_MACHINE_POWERPC</span>
+                               <span class="p-Indicator">,</span> <span class="nv">IMAGE_FILE_MACHINE_POWERPCFP</span>
+                               <span class="p-Indicator">,</span> <span class="nv">IMAGE_FILE_MACHINE_R4000</span>
+                               <span class="p-Indicator">,</span> <span class="nv">IMAGE_FILE_MACHINE_SH3</span>
+                               <span class="p-Indicator">,</span> <span class="nv">IMAGE_FILE_MACHINE_SH3DSP</span>
+                               <span class="p-Indicator">,</span> <span class="nv">IMAGE_FILE_MACHINE_SH4</span>
+                               <span class="p-Indicator">,</span> <span class="nv">IMAGE_FILE_MACHINE_SH5</span>
+                               <span class="p-Indicator">,</span> <span class="nv">IMAGE_FILE_MACHINE_THUMB</span>
+                               <span class="p-Indicator">,</span> <span class="nv">IMAGE_FILE_MACHINE_WCEMIPSV2</span>
+                               <span class="p-Indicator">]}</span>
+                 <span class="p-Indicator">,</span> <span class="p-Indicator">{</span><span class="nv">type</span><span class="p-Indicator">:</span> <span class="nv">int</span><span class="p-Indicator">}</span>
+                 <span class="p-Indicator">]</span>
+        <span class="l-Scalar-Plain">Characteristics</span><span class="p-Indicator">:</span>
+          <span class="p-Indicator">-</span> <span class="l-Scalar-Plain">type</span><span class="p-Indicator">:</span> <span class="l-Scalar-Plain">seq</span>
+            <span class="l-Scalar-Plain">sequence</span><span class="p-Indicator">:</span>
+              <span class="p-Indicator">-</span> <span class="l-Scalar-Plain">type</span><span class="p-Indicator">:</span> <span class="l-Scalar-Plain">str</span>
+                <span class="l-Scalar-Plain">enum</span><span class="p-Indicator">:</span> <span class="p-Indicator">[</span> <span class="nv">IMAGE_FILE_RELOCS_STRIPPED</span>
+                      <span class="p-Indicator">,</span> <span class="nv">IMAGE_FILE_EXECUTABLE_IMAGE</span>
+                      <span class="p-Indicator">,</span> <span class="nv">IMAGE_FILE_LINE_NUMS_STRIPPED</span>
+                      <span class="p-Indicator">,</span> <span class="nv">IMAGE_FILE_LOCAL_SYMS_STRIPPED</span>
+                      <span class="p-Indicator">,</span> <span class="nv">IMAGE_FILE_AGGRESSIVE_WS_TRIM</span>
+                      <span class="p-Indicator">,</span> <span class="nv">IMAGE_FILE_LARGE_ADDRESS_AWARE</span>
+                      <span class="p-Indicator">,</span> <span class="nv">IMAGE_FILE_BYTES_REVERSED_LO</span>
+                      <span class="p-Indicator">,</span> <span class="nv">IMAGE_FILE_32BIT_MACHINE</span>
+                      <span class="p-Indicator">,</span> <span class="nv">IMAGE_FILE_DEBUG_STRIPPED</span>
+                      <span class="p-Indicator">,</span> <span class="nv">IMAGE_FILE_REMOVABLE_RUN_FROM_SWAP</span>
+                      <span class="p-Indicator">,</span> <span class="nv">IMAGE_FILE_NET_RUN_FROM_SWAP</span>
+                      <span class="p-Indicator">,</span> <span class="nv">IMAGE_FILE_SYSTEM</span>
+                      <span class="p-Indicator">,</span> <span class="nv">IMAGE_FILE_DLL</span>
+                      <span class="p-Indicator">,</span> <span class="nv">IMAGE_FILE_UP_SYSTEM_ONLY</span>
+                      <span class="p-Indicator">,</span> <span class="nv">IMAGE_FILE_BYTES_REVERSED_HI</span>
+                      <span class="p-Indicator">]</span>
+          <span class="p-Indicator">-</span> <span class="l-Scalar-Plain">type</span><span class="p-Indicator">:</span> <span class="l-Scalar-Plain">int</span>
+    <span class="l-Scalar-Plain">sections</span><span class="p-Indicator">:</span>
+      <span class="l-Scalar-Plain">type</span><span class="p-Indicator">:</span> <span class="l-Scalar-Plain">seq</span>
+      <span class="l-Scalar-Plain">sequence</span><span class="p-Indicator">:</span>
+        <span class="p-Indicator">-</span> <span class="l-Scalar-Plain">type</span><span class="p-Indicator">:</span> <span class="l-Scalar-Plain">map</span>
+          <span class="l-Scalar-Plain">mapping</span><span class="p-Indicator">:</span>
+            <span class="l-Scalar-Plain">Name</span><span class="p-Indicator">:</span> <span class="p-Indicator">{</span><span class="nv">type</span><span class="p-Indicator">:</span> <span class="nv">str</span><span class="p-Indicator">}</span>
+            <span class="l-Scalar-Plain">Characteristics</span><span class="p-Indicator">:</span>
+              <span class="p-Indicator">-</span> <span class="l-Scalar-Plain">type</span><span class="p-Indicator">:</span> <span class="l-Scalar-Plain">seq</span>
+                <span class="l-Scalar-Plain">sequence</span><span class="p-Indicator">:</span>
+                  <span class="p-Indicator">-</span> <span class="l-Scalar-Plain">type</span><span class="p-Indicator">:</span> <span class="l-Scalar-Plain">str</span>
+                    <span class="l-Scalar-Plain">enum</span><span class="p-Indicator">:</span> <span class="p-Indicator">[</span> <span class="nv">IMAGE_SCN_TYPE_NO_PAD</span>
+                          <span class="p-Indicator">,</span> <span class="nv">IMAGE_SCN_CNT_CODE</span>
+                          <span class="p-Indicator">,</span> <span class="nv">IMAGE_SCN_CNT_INITIALIZED_DATA</span>
+                          <span class="p-Indicator">,</span> <span class="nv">IMAGE_SCN_CNT_UNINITIALIZED_DATA</span>
+                          <span class="p-Indicator">,</span> <span class="nv">IMAGE_SCN_LNK_OTHER</span>
+                          <span class="p-Indicator">,</span> <span class="nv">IMAGE_SCN_LNK_INFO</span>
+                          <span class="p-Indicator">,</span> <span class="nv">IMAGE_SCN_LNK_REMOVE</span>
+                          <span class="p-Indicator">,</span> <span class="nv">IMAGE_SCN_LNK_COMDAT</span>
+                          <span class="p-Indicator">,</span> <span class="nv">IMAGE_SCN_GPREL</span>
+                          <span class="p-Indicator">,</span> <span class="nv">IMAGE_SCN_MEM_PURGEABLE</span>
+                          <span class="p-Indicator">,</span> <span class="nv">IMAGE_SCN_MEM_16BIT</span>
+                          <span class="p-Indicator">,</span> <span class="nv">IMAGE_SCN_MEM_LOCKED</span>
+                          <span class="p-Indicator">,</span> <span class="nv">IMAGE_SCN_MEM_PRELOAD</span>
+                          <span class="p-Indicator">,</span> <span class="nv">IMAGE_SCN_ALIGN_1BYTES</span>
+                          <span class="p-Indicator">,</span> <span class="nv">IMAGE_SCN_ALIGN_2BYTES</span>
+                          <span class="p-Indicator">,</span> <span class="nv">IMAGE_SCN_ALIGN_4BYTES</span>
+                          <span class="p-Indicator">,</span> <span class="nv">IMAGE_SCN_ALIGN_8BYTES</span>
+                          <span class="p-Indicator">,</span> <span class="nv">IMAGE_SCN_ALIGN_16BYTES</span>
+                          <span class="p-Indicator">,</span> <span class="nv">IMAGE_SCN_ALIGN_32BYTES</span>
+                          <span class="p-Indicator">,</span> <span class="nv">IMAGE_SCN_ALIGN_64BYTES</span>
+                          <span class="p-Indicator">,</span> <span class="nv">IMAGE_SCN_ALIGN_128BYTES</span>
+                          <span class="p-Indicator">,</span> <span class="nv">IMAGE_SCN_ALIGN_256BYTES</span>
+                          <span class="p-Indicator">,</span> <span class="nv">IMAGE_SCN_ALIGN_512BYTES</span>
+                          <span class="p-Indicator">,</span> <span class="nv">IMAGE_SCN_ALIGN_1024BYTES</span>
+                          <span class="p-Indicator">,</span> <span class="nv">IMAGE_SCN_ALIGN_2048BYTES</span>
+                          <span class="p-Indicator">,</span> <span class="nv">IMAGE_SCN_ALIGN_4096BYTES</span>
+                          <span class="p-Indicator">,</span> <span class="nv">IMAGE_SCN_ALIGN_8192BYTES</span>
+                          <span class="p-Indicator">,</span> <span class="nv">IMAGE_SCN_LNK_NRELOC_OVFL</span>
+                          <span class="p-Indicator">,</span> <span class="nv">IMAGE_SCN_MEM_DISCARDABLE</span>
+                          <span class="p-Indicator">,</span> <span class="nv">IMAGE_SCN_MEM_NOT_CACHED</span>
+                          <span class="p-Indicator">,</span> <span class="nv">IMAGE_SCN_MEM_NOT_PAGED</span>
+                          <span class="p-Indicator">,</span> <span class="nv">IMAGE_SCN_MEM_SHARED</span>
+                          <span class="p-Indicator">,</span> <span class="nv">IMAGE_SCN_MEM_EXECUTE</span>
+                          <span class="p-Indicator">,</span> <span class="nv">IMAGE_SCN_MEM_READ</span>
+                          <span class="p-Indicator">,</span> <span class="nv">IMAGE_SCN_MEM_WRITE</span>
+                          <span class="p-Indicator">]</span>
+              <span class="p-Indicator">-</span> <span class="l-Scalar-Plain">type</span><span class="p-Indicator">:</span> <span class="l-Scalar-Plain">int</span>
+            <span class="l-Scalar-Plain">SectionData</span><span class="p-Indicator">:</span> <span class="p-Indicator">{</span><span class="nv">type</span><span class="p-Indicator">:</span> <span class="nv">str</span><span class="p-Indicator">}</span>
+    <span class="l-Scalar-Plain">symbols</span><span class="p-Indicator">:</span>
+      <span class="l-Scalar-Plain">type</span><span class="p-Indicator">:</span> <span class="l-Scalar-Plain">seq</span>
+      <span class="l-Scalar-Plain">sequence</span><span class="p-Indicator">:</span>
+        <span class="p-Indicator">-</span> <span class="l-Scalar-Plain">type</span><span class="p-Indicator">:</span> <span class="l-Scalar-Plain">map</span>
+          <span class="l-Scalar-Plain">mapping</span><span class="p-Indicator">:</span>
+            <span class="l-Scalar-Plain">Name</span><span class="p-Indicator">:</span> <span class="p-Indicator">{</span><span class="nv">type</span><span class="p-Indicator">:</span> <span class="nv">str</span><span class="p-Indicator">}</span>
+            <span class="l-Scalar-Plain">Value</span><span class="p-Indicator">:</span> <span class="p-Indicator">{</span><span class="nv">type</span><span class="p-Indicator">:</span> <span class="nv">int</span><span class="p-Indicator">}</span>
+            <span class="l-Scalar-Plain">SectionNumber</span><span class="p-Indicator">:</span> <span class="p-Indicator">{</span><span class="nv">type</span><span class="p-Indicator">:</span> <span class="nv">int</span><span class="p-Indicator">}</span>
+            <span class="l-Scalar-Plain">SimpleType</span><span class="p-Indicator">:</span> <span class="p-Indicator">[</span> <span class="p-Indicator">{</span><span class="nv">type</span><span class="p-Indicator">:</span> <span class="nv">str</span><span class="p-Indicator">,</span> <span class="nv">enum</span><span class="p-Indicator">:</span> <span class="p-Indicator">[</span> <span class="nv">IMAGE_SYM_TYPE_NULL</span>
+                                            <span class="p-Indicator">,</span> <span class="nv">IMAGE_SYM_TYPE_VOID</span>
+                                            <span class="p-Indicator">,</span> <span class="nv">IMAGE_SYM_TYPE_CHAR</span>
+                                            <span class="p-Indicator">,</span> <span class="nv">IMAGE_SYM_TYPE_SHORT</span>
+                                            <span class="p-Indicator">,</span> <span class="nv">IMAGE_SYM_TYPE_INT</span>
+                                            <span class="p-Indicator">,</span> <span class="nv">IMAGE_SYM_TYPE_LONG</span>
+                                            <span class="p-Indicator">,</span> <span class="nv">IMAGE_SYM_TYPE_FLOAT</span>
+                                            <span class="p-Indicator">,</span> <span class="nv">IMAGE_SYM_TYPE_DOUBLE</span>
+                                            <span class="p-Indicator">,</span> <span class="nv">IMAGE_SYM_TYPE_STRUCT</span>
+                                            <span class="p-Indicator">,</span> <span class="nv">IMAGE_SYM_TYPE_UNION</span>
+                                            <span class="p-Indicator">,</span> <span class="nv">IMAGE_SYM_TYPE_ENUM</span>
+                                            <span class="p-Indicator">,</span> <span class="nv">IMAGE_SYM_TYPE_MOE</span>
+                                            <span class="p-Indicator">,</span> <span class="nv">IMAGE_SYM_TYPE_BYTE</span>
+                                            <span class="p-Indicator">,</span> <span class="nv">IMAGE_SYM_TYPE_WORD</span>
+                                            <span class="p-Indicator">,</span> <span class="nv">IMAGE_SYM_TYPE_UINT</span>
+                                            <span class="p-Indicator">,</span> <span class="nv">IMAGE_SYM_TYPE_DWORD</span>
+                                            <span class="p-Indicator">]}</span>
+                        <span class="p-Indicator">,</span> <span class="p-Indicator">{</span><span class="nv">type</span><span class="p-Indicator">:</span> <span class="nv">int</span><span class="p-Indicator">}</span>
+                        <span class="p-Indicator">]</span>
+            <span class="l-Scalar-Plain">ComplexType</span><span class="p-Indicator">:</span> <span class="p-Indicator">[</span> <span class="p-Indicator">{</span><span class="nv">type</span><span class="p-Indicator">:</span> <span class="nv">str</span><span class="p-Indicator">,</span> <span class="nv">enum</span><span class="p-Indicator">:</span> <span class="p-Indicator">[</span> <span class="nv">IMAGE_SYM_DTYPE_NULL</span>
+                                             <span class="p-Indicator">,</span> <span class="nv">IMAGE_SYM_DTYPE_POINTER</span>
+                                             <span class="p-Indicator">,</span> <span class="nv">IMAGE_SYM_DTYPE_FUNCTION</span>
+                                             <span class="p-Indicator">,</span> <span class="nv">IMAGE_SYM_DTYPE_ARRAY</span>
+                                             <span class="p-Indicator">]}</span>
+                         <span class="p-Indicator">,</span> <span class="p-Indicator">{</span><span class="nv">type</span><span class="p-Indicator">:</span> <span class="nv">int</span><span class="p-Indicator">}</span>
+                         <span class="p-Indicator">]</span>
+            <span class="l-Scalar-Plain">StorageClass</span><span class="p-Indicator">:</span> <span class="p-Indicator">[</span> <span class="p-Indicator">{</span><span class="nv">type</span><span class="p-Indicator">:</span> <span class="nv">str</span><span class="p-Indicator">,</span> <span class="nv">enum</span><span class="p-Indicator">:</span>
+                                        <span class="p-Indicator">[</span> <span class="nv">IMAGE_SYM_CLASS_END_OF_FUNCTION</span>
+                                        <span class="p-Indicator">,</span> <span class="nv">IMAGE_SYM_CLASS_NULL</span>
+                                        <span class="p-Indicator">,</span> <span class="nv">IMAGE_SYM_CLASS_AUTOMATIC</span>
+                                        <span class="p-Indicator">,</span> <span class="nv">IMAGE_SYM_CLASS_EXTERNAL</span>
+                                        <span class="p-Indicator">,</span> <span class="nv">IMAGE_SYM_CLASS_STATIC</span>
+                                        <span class="p-Indicator">,</span> <span class="nv">IMAGE_SYM_CLASS_REGISTER</span>
+                                        <span class="p-Indicator">,</span> <span class="nv">IMAGE_SYM_CLASS_EXTERNAL_DEF</span>
+                                        <span class="p-Indicator">,</span> <span class="nv">IMAGE_SYM_CLASS_LABEL</span>
+                                        <span class="p-Indicator">,</span> <span class="nv">IMAGE_SYM_CLASS_UNDEFINED_LABEL</span>
+                                        <span class="p-Indicator">,</span> <span class="nv">IMAGE_SYM_CLASS_MEMBER_OF_STRUCT</span>
+                                        <span class="p-Indicator">,</span> <span class="nv">IMAGE_SYM_CLASS_ARGUMENT</span>
+                                        <span class="p-Indicator">,</span> <span class="nv">IMAGE_SYM_CLASS_STRUCT_TAG</span>
+                                        <span class="p-Indicator">,</span> <span class="nv">IMAGE_SYM_CLASS_MEMBER_OF_UNION</span>
+                                        <span class="p-Indicator">,</span> <span class="nv">IMAGE_SYM_CLASS_UNION_TAG</span>
+                                        <span class="p-Indicator">,</span> <span class="nv">IMAGE_SYM_CLASS_TYPE_DEFINITION</span>
+                                        <span class="p-Indicator">,</span> <span class="nv">IMAGE_SYM_CLASS_UNDEFINED_STATIC</span>
+                                        <span class="p-Indicator">,</span> <span class="nv">IMAGE_SYM_CLASS_ENUM_TAG</span>
+                                        <span class="p-Indicator">,</span> <span class="nv">IMAGE_SYM_CLASS_MEMBER_OF_ENUM</span>
+                                        <span class="p-Indicator">,</span> <span class="nv">IMAGE_SYM_CLASS_REGISTER_PARAM</span>
+                                        <span class="p-Indicator">,</span> <span class="nv">IMAGE_SYM_CLASS_BIT_FIELD</span>
+                                        <span class="p-Indicator">,</span> <span class="nv">IMAGE_SYM_CLASS_BLOCK</span>
+                                        <span class="p-Indicator">,</span> <span class="nv">IMAGE_SYM_CLASS_FUNCTION</span>
+                                        <span class="p-Indicator">,</span> <span class="nv">IMAGE_SYM_CLASS_END_OF_STRUCT</span>
+                                        <span class="p-Indicator">,</span> <span class="nv">IMAGE_SYM_CLASS_FILE</span>
+                                        <span class="p-Indicator">,</span> <span class="nv">IMAGE_SYM_CLASS_SECTION</span>
+                                        <span class="p-Indicator">,</span> <span class="nv">IMAGE_SYM_CLASS_WEAK_EXTERNAL</span>
+                                        <span class="p-Indicator">,</span> <span class="nv">IMAGE_SYM_CLASS_CLR_TOKEN</span>
+                                        <span class="p-Indicator">]}</span>
+                          <span class="p-Indicator">,</span> <span class="p-Indicator">{</span><span class="nv">type</span><span class="p-Indicator">:</span> <span class="nv">int</span><span class="p-Indicator">}</span>
+                          <span class="p-Indicator">]</span>
+</pre></div>
+</div>
+</div>
+</div>
+
+
+          </div>
+      </div>
+      <div class="clearer"></div>
+    </div>
+    <div class="related">
+      <h3>Navigation</h3>
+      <ul>
+        <li class="right" style="margin-right: 10px">
+          <a href="genindex.html" title="General Index"
+             >index</a></li>
+        <li class="right" >
+          <a href="HowToSubmitABug.html" title="How to submit an LLVM bug report"
+             >next</a> |</li>
+        <li class="right" >
+          <a href="HowToAddABuilder.html" title="How To Add Your Build Configuration To LLVM Buildbot Infrastructure"
+             >previous</a> |</li>
+  <li><a href="http://llvm.org/">LLVM Home</a> | </li>
+  <li><a href="index.html">Documentation</a>»</li>
+ 
+      </ul>
+    </div>
+    <div class="footer">
+        © Copyright 2003-2016, LLVM Project.
+      Last updated on 2016-08-31.
+      Created using <a href="http://sphinx-doc.org/">Sphinx</a> 1.2.2.
+    </div>
+  </body>
+</html>
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--- www-releases/trunk/3.9.0/projects/libcxx/docs/.buildinfo (added)
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@@ -0,0 +1,4 @@
+# Sphinx build info version 1
+# This file hashes the configuration used when building these files. When it is not found, a full rebuild will be done.
+config: b90878b7616f65480ba1a9a77ca88c7d
+tags: 645f666f9bcd5a90fca523b33c5a78b7

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@@ -0,0 +1,471 @@
+<!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD XHTML 1.0 Transitional//EN"
+  "http://www.w3.org/TR/xhtml1/DTD/xhtml1-transitional.dtd">
+
+
+<html xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml">
+  <head>
+    <meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=utf-8" />
+    
+    <title>Building libc++ — libc++ 3.9 documentation</title>
+    
+    <link rel="stylesheet" href="_static/haiku.css" type="text/css" />
+    <link rel="stylesheet" href="_static/pygments.css" type="text/css" />
+    
+    <script type="text/javascript">
+      var DOCUMENTATION_OPTIONS = {
+        URL_ROOT:    './',
+        VERSION:     '3.9',
+        COLLAPSE_INDEX: false,
+        FILE_SUFFIX: '.html',
+        HAS_SOURCE:  true
+      };
+    </script>
+    <script type="text/javascript" src="_static/jquery.js"></script>
+    <script type="text/javascript" src="_static/underscore.js"></script>
+    <script type="text/javascript" src="_static/doctools.js"></script>
+    <link rel="top" title="libc++ 3.9 documentation" href="index.html" />
+    <link rel="next" title="Testing libc++" href="TestingLibcxx.html" />
+    <link rel="prev" title="Using libc++" href="UsingLibcxx.html" /> 
+  </head>
+  <body>
+      <div class="header"><h1 class="heading"><a href="index.html">
+          <span>libc++ 3.9 documentation</span></a></h1>
+        <h2 class="heading"><span>Building libc++</span></h2>
+      </div>
+      <div class="topnav">
+      
+        <p>
+        «  <a href="UsingLibcxx.html">Using libc++</a>
+          ::  
+        <a class="uplink" href="index.html">Contents</a>
+          ::  
+        <a href="TestingLibcxx.html">Testing libc++</a>  Â»
+        </p>
+
+      </div>
+      <div class="content">
+        
+        
+  <div class="section" id="building-libc">
+<span id="buildinglibcxx"></span><h1>Building libc++<a class="headerlink" href="#building-libc" title="Permalink to this headline">¶</a></h1>
+<div class="contents local topic" id="contents">
+<ul class="simple">
+<li><a class="reference internal" href="#getting-started" id="id4">Getting Started</a></li>
+<li><a class="reference internal" href="#cmake-options" id="id5">CMake Options</a><ul>
+<li><a class="reference internal" href="#libc-specific-options" id="id6">libc++ specific options</a></li>
+<li><a class="reference internal" href="#libc-experimental-specific-options" id="id7">libc++experimental Specific Options</a></li>
+<li><a class="reference internal" href="#abi-library-specific-options" id="id8">ABI Library Specific Options</a></li>
+<li><a class="reference internal" href="#libc-feature-options" id="id9">libc++ Feature options</a></li>
+<li><a class="reference internal" href="#id3" id="id10">libc++ Feature options</a></li>
+<li><a class="reference internal" href="#llvm-specific-options" id="id11">LLVM-specific options</a></li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li><a class="reference internal" href="#using-alternate-abi-libraries" id="id12">Using Alternate ABI libraries</a><ul>
+<li><a class="reference internal" href="#using-libsupc-on-linux" id="id13">Using libsupc++ on Linux</a></li>
+<li><a class="reference internal" href="#using-libcxxrt-on-linux" id="id14">Using libcxxrt on Linux</a></li>
+<li><a class="reference internal" href="#using-a-local-abi-library-installation" id="id15">Using a local ABI library installation</a></li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+</ul>
+</div>
+<div class="section" id="getting-started">
+<span id="build-instructions"></span><h2><a class="toc-backref" href="#id4">Getting Started</a><a class="headerlink" href="#getting-started" title="Permalink to this headline">¶</a></h2>
+<p>On Mac OS 10.7 (Lion) and later, the easiest way to get this library is to install
+Xcode 4.2 or later.  However if you want to install tip-of-trunk from here
+(getting the bleeding edge), read on.</p>
+<p>The basic steps needed to build libc++ are:</p>
+<ol class="arabic">
+<li><p class="first">Checkout LLVM:</p>
+<ul class="simple">
+<li><tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">cd</span> <span class="pre">where-you-want-llvm-to-live</span></tt></li>
+<li><tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">svn</span> <span class="pre">co</span> <span class="pre">http://llvm.org/svn/llvm-project/llvm/trunk</span> <span class="pre">llvm</span></tt></li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li><p class="first">Checkout libc++:</p>
+<ul class="simple">
+<li><tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">cd</span> <span class="pre">where-you-want-llvm-to-live</span></tt></li>
+<li><tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">cd</span> <span class="pre">llvm/projects</span></tt></li>
+<li><tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">svn</span> <span class="pre">co</span> <span class="pre">http://llvm.org/svn/llvm-project/libcxx/trunk</span> <span class="pre">libcxx</span></tt></li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li><p class="first">Checkout libc++abi:</p>
+<ul class="simple">
+<li><tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">cd</span> <span class="pre">where-you-want-llvm-to-live</span></tt></li>
+<li><tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">cd</span> <span class="pre">llvm/projects</span></tt></li>
+<li><tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">svn</span> <span class="pre">co</span> <span class="pre">http://llvm.org/svn/llvm-project/libcxxabi/trunk</span> <span class="pre">libcxxabi</span></tt></li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li><p class="first">Configure and build libc++ with libc++abi:</p>
+<p>CMake is the only supported configuration system.</p>
+<p>Clang is the preferred compiler when building and using libc++.</p>
+<ul class="simple">
+<li><tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">cd</span> <span class="pre">where</span> <span class="pre">you</span> <span class="pre">want</span> <span class="pre">to</span> <span class="pre">build</span> <span class="pre">llvm</span></tt></li>
+<li><tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">mkdir</span> <span class="pre">build</span></tt></li>
+<li><tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">cd</span> <span class="pre">build</span></tt></li>
+<li><tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">cmake</span> <span class="pre">-G</span> <span class="pre"><generator></span> <span class="pre">[options]</span> <span class="pre"><path</span> <span class="pre">to</span> <span class="pre">llvm</span> <span class="pre">sources></span></tt></li>
+</ul>
+<p>For more information about configuring libc++ see <a class="reference internal" href="#cmake-options"><em>CMake Options</em></a>.</p>
+<ul class="simple">
+<li><tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">make</span> <span class="pre">cxx</span></tt> — will build libc++ and libc++abi.</li>
+<li><tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">make</span> <span class="pre">check-libcxx</span> <span class="pre">check-libcxxabi</span></tt> — will run the test suites.</li>
+</ul>
+<p>Shared libraries for libc++ and libc++ abi should now be present in llvm/build/lib.
+See <a class="reference internal" href="UsingLibcxx.html#alternate-libcxx"><em>using an alternate libc++ installation</em></a></p>
+</li>
+<li><p class="first"><strong>Optional</strong>: Install libc++ and libc++abi</p>
+<p>If your system already provides a libc++ installation it is important to be
+careful not to replace it. Remember Use the CMake option <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">CMAKE_INSTALL_PREFIX</span></tt> to
+select a safe place to install libc++.</p>
+<ul class="simple">
+<li><tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">make</span> <span class="pre">install-libcxx</span> <span class="pre">install-libcxxabi</span></tt> — Will install the libraries and the headers</li>
+</ul>
+<div class="admonition warning">
+<p class="first admonition-title">Warning</p>
+<ul class="last simple">
+<li>Replacing your systems libc++ installation could render the system non-functional.</li>
+<li>Mac OS X will not boot without a valid copy of <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">libc++.1.dylib</span></tt> in <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">/usr/lib</span></tt>.</li>
+</ul>
+</div>
+</li>
+</ol>
+<p>The instructions are for building libc++ on
+FreeBSD, Linux, or Mac using <a class="reference external" href="http://libcxxabi.llvm.org/">libc++abi</a> as the C++ ABI library.
+On Linux, it is also possible to use <a class="reference internal" href="#libsupcxx"><em>libsupc++</em></a> or libcxxrt.</p>
+<p>It is sometimes beneficial to build outside of the LLVM tree. An out-of-tree
+build would look like this:</p>
+<div class="highlight-bash"><div class="highlight"><pre><span class="nv">$ </span><span class="nb">cd </span>where-you-want-libcxx-to-live
+<span class="nv">$ </span><span class="c"># Check out llvm, libc++ and libc++abi.</span>
+<span class="nv">$ </span><span class="sb">``</span>svn co http://llvm.org/svn/llvm-project/llvm/trunk llvm<span class="sb">``</span>
+<span class="nv">$ </span><span class="sb">``</span>svn co http://llvm.org/svn/llvm-project/libcxx/trunk libcxx<span class="sb">``</span>
+<span class="nv">$ </span><span class="sb">``</span>svn co http://llvm.org/svn/llvm-project/libcxxabi/trunk libcxxabi<span class="sb">``</span>
+<span class="nv">$ </span><span class="nb">cd </span>where-you-want-to-build
+<span class="nv">$ </span>mkdir build <span class="o">&&</span> <span class="nb">cd </span>build
+<span class="nv">$ </span><span class="nb">export </span><span class="nv">CC</span><span class="o">=</span>clang <span class="nv">CXX</span><span class="o">=</span>clang++
+<span class="nv">$ </span>cmake -DLLVM_PATH<span class="o">=</span>path/to/llvm <span class="se">\</span>
+        -DLIBCXX_CXX_ABI<span class="o">=</span>libcxxabi <span class="se">\</span>
+        -DLIBCXX_CXX_ABI_INCLUDE_PATHS<span class="o">=</span>path/to/libcxxabi/include <span class="se">\</span>
+        path/to/libcxx
+<span class="nv">$ </span>make
+<span class="nv">$ </span>make check-libcxx <span class="c"># optional</span>
+</pre></div>
+</div>
+</div>
+<div class="section" id="cmake-options">
+<span id="id1"></span><h2><a class="toc-backref" href="#id5">CMake Options</a><a class="headerlink" href="#cmake-options" title="Permalink to this headline">¶</a></h2>
+<p>Here are some of the CMake variables that are used often, along with a
+brief explanation and LLVM-specific notes. For full documentation, check the
+CMake docs or execute <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">cmake</span> <span class="pre">--help-variable</span> <span class="pre">VARIABLE_NAME</span></tt>.</p>
+<dl class="docutils">
+<dt><strong>CMAKE_BUILD_TYPE</strong>:STRING</dt>
+<dd>Sets the build type for <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">make</span></tt> based generators. Possible values are
+Release, Debug, RelWithDebInfo and MinSizeRel. On systems like Visual Studio
+the user sets the build type with the IDE settings.</dd>
+<dt><strong>CMAKE_INSTALL_PREFIX</strong>:PATH</dt>
+<dd>Path where LLVM will be installed if “make install” is invoked or the
+“INSTALL” target is built.</dd>
+<dt><strong>CMAKE_CXX_COMPILER</strong>:STRING</dt>
+<dd>The C++ compiler to use when building and testing libc++.</dd>
+</dl>
+<div class="section" id="libc-specific-options">
+<span id="libcxx-specific-options"></span><h3><a class="toc-backref" href="#id6">libc++ specific options</a><a class="headerlink" href="#libc-specific-options" title="Permalink to this headline">¶</a></h3>
+<dl class="option">
+<dt id="cmdoption-arg-LIBCXX_INSTALL_LIBRARY">
+<tt class="descname">LIBCXX_INSTALL_LIBRARY</tt><tt class="descclassname">:BOOL</tt><a class="headerlink" href="#cmdoption-arg-LIBCXX_INSTALL_LIBRARY" title="Permalink to this definition">¶</a></dt>
+<dd><p><strong>Default</strong>: <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">ON</span></tt></p>
+<p>Toggle the installation of the library portion of libc++.</p>
+</dd></dl>
+
+<dl class="option">
+<dt id="cmdoption-arg-LIBCXX_INSTALL_HEADERS">
+<tt class="descname">LIBCXX_INSTALL_HEADERS</tt><tt class="descclassname">:BOOL</tt><a class="headerlink" href="#cmdoption-arg-LIBCXX_INSTALL_HEADERS" title="Permalink to this definition">¶</a></dt>
+<dd><p><strong>Default</strong>: <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">ON</span></tt></p>
+<p>Toggle the installation of the libc++ headers.</p>
+</dd></dl>
+
+<dl class="option">
+<dt id="cmdoption-arg-LIBCXX_ENABLE_ASSERTIONS">
+<tt class="descname">LIBCXX_ENABLE_ASSERTIONS</tt><tt class="descclassname">:BOOL</tt><a class="headerlink" href="#cmdoption-arg-LIBCXX_ENABLE_ASSERTIONS" title="Permalink to this definition">¶</a></dt>
+<dd><p><strong>Default</strong>: <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">ON</span></tt></p>
+<p>Build libc++ with assertions enabled.</p>
+</dd></dl>
+
+<dl class="option">
+<dt id="cmdoption-arg-LIBCXX_BUILD_32_BITS">
+<tt class="descname">LIBCXX_BUILD_32_BITS</tt><tt class="descclassname">:BOOL</tt><a class="headerlink" href="#cmdoption-arg-LIBCXX_BUILD_32_BITS" title="Permalink to this definition">¶</a></dt>
+<dd><p><strong>Default</strong>: <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">OFF</span></tt></p>
+<p>Build libc++ as a 32 bit library. Also see <a class="reference internal" href="#cmdoption-arg-LLVM_BUILD_32_BITS"><em class="xref std std-option">LLVM_BUILD_32_BITS</em></a>.</p>
+</dd></dl>
+
+<dl class="option">
+<dt id="cmdoption-arg-LIBCXX_ENABLE_SHARED">
+<tt class="descname">LIBCXX_ENABLE_SHARED</tt><tt class="descclassname">:BOOL</tt><a class="headerlink" href="#cmdoption-arg-LIBCXX_ENABLE_SHARED" title="Permalink to this definition">¶</a></dt>
+<dd><p><strong>Default</strong>: <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">ON</span></tt></p>
+<p>Build libc++ as a shared library. If <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">OFF</span></tt> is specified then libc++ is
+built as a static library.</p>
+</dd></dl>
+
+<dl class="option">
+<dt id="cmdoption-arg-LIBCXX_LIBDIR_SUFFIX">
+<tt class="descname">LIBCXX_LIBDIR_SUFFIX</tt><tt class="descclassname">:STRING</tt><a class="headerlink" href="#cmdoption-arg-LIBCXX_LIBDIR_SUFFIX" title="Permalink to this definition">¶</a></dt>
+<dd><p>Extra suffix to append to the directory where libraries are to be installed.
+This option overrides <a class="reference internal" href="#cmdoption-arg-LLVM_LIBDIR_SUFFIX"><em class="xref std std-option">LLVM_LIBDIR_SUFFIX</em></a>.</p>
+</dd></dl>
+
+</div>
+<div class="section" id="libc-experimental-specific-options">
+<span id="libc-experimental-options"></span><h3><a class="toc-backref" href="#id7">libc++experimental Specific Options</a><a class="headerlink" href="#libc-experimental-specific-options" title="Permalink to this headline">¶</a></h3>
+<dl class="option">
+<dt id="cmdoption-arg-LIBCXX_ENABLE_EXPERIMENTAL_LIBRARY">
+<tt class="descname">LIBCXX_ENABLE_EXPERIMENTAL_LIBRARY</tt><tt class="descclassname">:BOOL</tt><a class="headerlink" href="#cmdoption-arg-LIBCXX_ENABLE_EXPERIMENTAL_LIBRARY" title="Permalink to this definition">¶</a></dt>
+<dd><p><strong>Default</strong>: <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">ON</span></tt></p>
+<p>Build and test libc++experimental.a.</p>
+</dd></dl>
+
+<dl class="option">
+<dt id="cmdoption-arg-LIBCXX_INSTALL_EXPERIMENTAL_LIBRARY">
+<tt class="descname">LIBCXX_INSTALL_EXPERIMENTAL_LIBRARY</tt><tt class="descclassname">:BOOL</tt><a class="headerlink" href="#cmdoption-arg-LIBCXX_INSTALL_EXPERIMENTAL_LIBRARY" title="Permalink to this definition">¶</a></dt>
+<dd><p><strong>Default</strong>: <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">OFF</span></tt></p>
+<p>Install libc++experimental.a alongside libc++.</p>
+</dd></dl>
+
+<dl class="option">
+<dt id="cmdoption-arg-LIBCXX_ENABLE_FILESYSTEM">
+<tt class="descname">LIBCXX_ENABLE_FILESYSTEM</tt><tt class="descclassname">:BOOL</tt><a class="headerlink" href="#cmdoption-arg-LIBCXX_ENABLE_FILESYSTEM" title="Permalink to this definition">¶</a></dt>
+<dd><p><strong>Default</strong>: <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">LIBCXX_ENABLE_EXPERIMENTAL_LIBRARY</span></tt></p>
+<p>Build filesystem as part of libc++experimental.a. This allows filesystem
+to be disabled without turning off the entire experimental library.</p>
+</dd></dl>
+
+</div>
+<div class="section" id="abi-library-specific-options">
+<span id="id2"></span><h3><a class="toc-backref" href="#id8">ABI Library Specific Options</a><a class="headerlink" href="#abi-library-specific-options" title="Permalink to this headline">¶</a></h3>
+<dl class="option">
+<dt id="cmdoption-arg-LIBCXX_CXX_ABI">
+<tt class="descname">LIBCXX_CXX_ABI</tt><tt class="descclassname">:STRING</tt><a class="headerlink" href="#cmdoption-arg-LIBCXX_CXX_ABI" title="Permalink to this definition">¶</a></dt>
+<dd><p><strong>Values</strong>: <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">none</span></tt>, <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">libcxxabi</span></tt>, <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">libcxxrt</span></tt>, <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">libstdc++</span></tt>, <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">libsupc++</span></tt>.</p>
+<p>Select the ABI library to build libc++ against.</p>
+</dd></dl>
+
+<dl class="option">
+<dt id="cmdoption-arg-LIBCXX_CXX_ABI_INCLUDE_PATHS">
+<tt class="descname">LIBCXX_CXX_ABI_INCLUDE_PATHS</tt><tt class="descclassname">:PATHS</tt><a class="headerlink" href="#cmdoption-arg-LIBCXX_CXX_ABI_INCLUDE_PATHS" title="Permalink to this definition">¶</a></dt>
+<dd><p>Provide additional search paths for the ABI library headers.</p>
+</dd></dl>
+
+<dl class="option">
+<dt id="cmdoption-arg-LIBCXX_CXX_ABI_LIBRARY_PATH">
+<tt class="descname">LIBCXX_CXX_ABI_LIBRARY_PATH</tt><tt class="descclassname">:PATH</tt><a class="headerlink" href="#cmdoption-arg-LIBCXX_CXX_ABI_LIBRARY_PATH" title="Permalink to this definition">¶</a></dt>
+<dd><p>Provide the path to the ABI library that libc++ should link against.</p>
+</dd></dl>
+
+<dl class="option">
+<dt id="cmdoption-arg-LIBCXX_ENABLE_STATIC_ABI_LIBRARY">
+<tt class="descname">LIBCXX_ENABLE_STATIC_ABI_LIBRARY</tt><tt class="descclassname">:BOOL</tt><a class="headerlink" href="#cmdoption-arg-LIBCXX_ENABLE_STATIC_ABI_LIBRARY" title="Permalink to this definition">¶</a></dt>
+<dd><p><strong>Default</strong>: <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">OFF</span></tt></p>
+<p>If this option is enabled, libc++ will try and link the selected ABI library
+statically.</p>
+</dd></dl>
+
+<dl class="option">
+<dt id="cmdoption-arg-LIBCXX_ENABLE_ABI_LINKER_SCRIPT">
+<tt class="descname">LIBCXX_ENABLE_ABI_LINKER_SCRIPT</tt><tt class="descclassname">:BOOL</tt><a class="headerlink" href="#cmdoption-arg-LIBCXX_ENABLE_ABI_LINKER_SCRIPT" title="Permalink to this definition">¶</a></dt>
+<dd><p><strong>Default</strong>: <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">ON</span></tt> by default on UNIX platforms other than Apple unless
+‘LIBCXX_ENABLE_STATIC_ABI_LIBRARY’ is ON. Otherwise the default value is <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">OFF</span></tt>.</p>
+<p>This option generate and installs a linker script as <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">libc++.so</span></tt> which
+links the correct ABI library.</p>
+</dd></dl>
+
+<dl class="option">
+<dt id="cmdoption-arg-LIBCXXABI_USE_LLVM_UNWINDER">
+<tt class="descname">LIBCXXABI_USE_LLVM_UNWINDER</tt><tt class="descclassname">:BOOL</tt><a class="headerlink" href="#cmdoption-arg-LIBCXXABI_USE_LLVM_UNWINDER" title="Permalink to this definition">¶</a></dt>
+<dd><p><strong>Default</strong>: <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">OFF</span></tt></p>
+<p>Build and use the LLVM unwinder. Note: This option can only be used when
+libc++abi is the C++ ABI library used.</p>
+</dd></dl>
+
+</div>
+<div class="section" id="libc-feature-options">
+<h3><a class="toc-backref" href="#id9">libc++ Feature options</a><a class="headerlink" href="#libc-feature-options" title="Permalink to this headline">¶</a></h3>
+<dl class="option">
+<dt id="cmdoption-arg-LIBCXX_ENABLE_EXCEPTIONS">
+<tt class="descname">LIBCXX_ENABLE_EXCEPTIONS</tt><tt class="descclassname">:BOOL</tt><a class="headerlink" href="#cmdoption-arg-LIBCXX_ENABLE_EXCEPTIONS" title="Permalink to this definition">¶</a></dt>
+<dd><p><strong>Default</strong>: <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">ON</span></tt></p>
+<p>Build libc++ with exception support.</p>
+</dd></dl>
+
+<dl class="option">
+<dt id="cmdoption-arg-LIBCXX_ENABLE_RTTI">
+<tt class="descname">LIBCXX_ENABLE_RTTI</tt><tt class="descclassname">:BOOL</tt><a class="headerlink" href="#cmdoption-arg-LIBCXX_ENABLE_RTTI" title="Permalink to this definition">¶</a></dt>
+<dd><p><strong>Default</strong>: <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">ON</span></tt></p>
+<p>Build libc++ with run time type information.</p>
+</dd></dl>
+
+</div>
+<div class="section" id="id3">
+<h3><a class="toc-backref" href="#id10">libc++ Feature options</a><a class="headerlink" href="#id3" title="Permalink to this headline">¶</a></h3>
+<p>The following options allow building libc++ for a different ABI version.</p>
+<dl class="option">
+<dt id="cmdoption-arg-LIBCXX_ABI_VERSION">
+<tt class="descname">LIBCXX_ABI_VERSION</tt><tt class="descclassname">:STRING</tt><a class="headerlink" href="#cmdoption-arg-LIBCXX_ABI_VERSION" title="Permalink to this definition">¶</a></dt>
+<dd><p><strong>Default</strong>: <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">1</span></tt></p>
+<p>Defines the target ABI version of libc++.</p>
+</dd></dl>
+
+<dl class="option">
+<dt id="cmdoption-arg-LIBCXX_ABI_UNSTABLE">
+<tt class="descname">LIBCXX_ABI_UNSTABLE</tt><tt class="descclassname">:BOOL</tt><a class="headerlink" href="#cmdoption-arg-LIBCXX_ABI_UNSTABLE" title="Permalink to this definition">¶</a></dt>
+<dd><p><strong>Default</strong>: <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">OFF</span></tt></p>
+<p>Build the “unstable” ABI version of libc++. Includes all ABI changing features
+on top of the current stable version.</p>
+</dd></dl>
+
+</div>
+<div class="section" id="llvm-specific-options">
+<span id="llvm-specific-variables"></span><h3><a class="toc-backref" href="#id11">LLVM-specific options</a><a class="headerlink" href="#llvm-specific-options" title="Permalink to this headline">¶</a></h3>
+<dl class="option">
+<dt id="cmdoption-arg-LLVM_LIBDIR_SUFFIX">
+<tt class="descname">LLVM_LIBDIR_SUFFIX</tt><tt class="descclassname">:STRING</tt><a class="headerlink" href="#cmdoption-arg-LLVM_LIBDIR_SUFFIX" title="Permalink to this definition">¶</a></dt>
+<dd><p>Extra suffix to append to the directory where libraries are to be
+installed. On a 64-bit architecture, one could use <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">-DLLVM_LIBDIR_SUFFIX=64</span></tt>
+to install libraries to <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">/usr/lib64</span></tt>.</p>
+</dd></dl>
+
+<dl class="option">
+<dt id="cmdoption-arg-LLVM_BUILD_32_BITS">
+<tt class="descname">LLVM_BUILD_32_BITS</tt><tt class="descclassname">:BOOL</tt><a class="headerlink" href="#cmdoption-arg-LLVM_BUILD_32_BITS" title="Permalink to this definition">¶</a></dt>
+<dd><p>Build 32-bits executables and libraries on 64-bits systems. This option is
+available only on some 64-bits unix systems. Defaults to OFF.</p>
+</dd></dl>
+
+<dl class="option">
+<dt id="cmdoption-arg-LLVM_LIT_ARGS">
+<tt class="descname">LLVM_LIT_ARGS</tt><tt class="descclassname">:STRING</tt><a class="headerlink" href="#cmdoption-arg-LLVM_LIT_ARGS" title="Permalink to this definition">¶</a></dt>
+<dd><p>Arguments given to lit.  <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">make</span> <span class="pre">check</span></tt> and <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">make</span> <span class="pre">clang-test</span></tt> are affected.
+By default, <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">'-sv</span> <span class="pre">--no-progress-bar'</span></tt> on Visual C++ and Xcode, <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">'-sv'</span></tt> on
+others.</p>
+</dd></dl>
+
+</div>
+</div>
+<div class="section" id="using-alternate-abi-libraries">
+<h2><a class="toc-backref" href="#id12">Using Alternate ABI libraries</a><a class="headerlink" href="#using-alternate-abi-libraries" title="Permalink to this headline">¶</a></h2>
+<div class="section" id="using-libsupc-on-linux">
+<span id="libsupcxx"></span><h3><a class="toc-backref" href="#id13">Using libsupc++ on Linux</a><a class="headerlink" href="#using-libsupc-on-linux" title="Permalink to this headline">¶</a></h3>
+<p>You will need libstdc++ in order to provide libsupc++.</p>
+<p>Figure out where the libsupc++ headers are on your system. On Ubuntu this
+is <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">/usr/include/c++/<version></span></tt> and <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">/usr/include/c++/<version>/<target-triple></span></tt></p>
+<p>You can also figure this out by running</p>
+<div class="highlight-bash"><div class="highlight"><pre><span class="nv">$ </span><span class="nb">echo</span> | g++ -Wp,-v -x c++ - -fsyntax-only
+ignoring nonexistent directory <span class="s2">"/usr/local/include/x86_64-linux-gnu"</span>
+ignoring nonexistent directory <span class="s2">"/usr/lib/gcc/x86_64-linux-gnu/4.7/../../../../x86_64-linux-gnu/include"</span>
+<span class="c">#include "..." search starts here:</span>
+<span class="c">#include &lt;...&gt; search starts here:</span>
+/usr/include/c++/4.7
+/usr/include/c++/4.7/x86_64-linux-gnu
+/usr/include/c++/4.7/backward
+/usr/lib/gcc/x86_64-linux-gnu/4.7/include
+/usr/local/include
+/usr/lib/gcc/x86_64-linux-gnu/4.7/include-fixed
+/usr/include/x86_64-linux-gnu
+/usr/include
+End of search list.
+</pre></div>
+</div>
+<p>Note that the first two entries happen to be what we are looking for. This
+may not be correct on other platforms.</p>
+<p>We can now run CMake:</p>
+<div class="highlight-bash"><div class="highlight"><pre><span class="nv">$ CC</span><span class="o">=</span>clang <span class="nv">CXX</span><span class="o">=</span>clang++ cmake -G <span class="s2">"Unix Makefiles"</span> <span class="se">\</span>
+  -DLIBCXX_CXX_ABI<span class="o">=</span>libstdc++ <span class="se">\</span>
+  -DLIBCXX_CXX_ABI_INCLUDE_PATHS<span class="o">=</span><span class="s2">"/usr/include/c++/4.7/;/usr/include/c++/4.7/x86_64-linux-gnu/"</span> <span class="se">\</span>
+  -DCMAKE_BUILD_TYPE<span class="o">=</span>Release -DCMAKE_INSTALL_PREFIX<span class="o">=</span>/usr <span class="se">\</span>
+  <libc++-source-dir>
+</pre></div>
+</div>
+<p>You can also substitute <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">-DLIBCXX_CXX_ABI=libsupc++</span></tt>
+above, which will cause the library to be linked to libsupc++ instead
+of libstdc++, but this is only recommended if you know that you will
+never need to link against libstdc++ in the same executable as libc++.
+GCC ships libsupc++ separately but only as a static library.  If a
+program also needs to link against libstdc++, it will provide its
+own copy of libsupc++ and this can lead to subtle problems.</p>
+<div class="highlight-bash"><div class="highlight"><pre><span class="nv">$ </span>make cxx
+<span class="nv">$ </span>make install
+</pre></div>
+</div>
+<p>You can now run clang with -stdlib=libc++.</p>
+</div>
+<div class="section" id="using-libcxxrt-on-linux">
+<span id="libcxxrt-ref"></span><h3><a class="toc-backref" href="#id14">Using libcxxrt on Linux</a><a class="headerlink" href="#using-libcxxrt-on-linux" title="Permalink to this headline">¶</a></h3>
+<p>You will need to keep the source tree of <a class="reference external" href="https://github.com/pathscale/libcxxrt/">libcxxrt</a> available
+on your build machine and your copy of the libcxxrt shared library must
+be placed where your linker will find it.</p>
+<p>We can now run CMake like:</p>
+<div class="highlight-bash"><div class="highlight"><pre><span class="nv">$ CC</span><span class="o">=</span>clang <span class="nv">CXX</span><span class="o">=</span>clang++ cmake -G <span class="s2">"Unix Makefiles"</span> <span class="se">\</span>
+        -DLIBCXX_CXX_ABI<span class="o">=</span>libcxxrt <span class="se">\</span>
+        -DLIBCXX_CXX_ABI_INCLUDE_PATHS<span class="o">=</span>path/to/libcxxrt-sources/src <span class="se">\</span>
+              -DCMAKE_BUILD_TYPE<span class="o">=</span>Release <span class="se">\</span>
+              -DCMAKE_INSTALL_PREFIX<span class="o">=</span>/usr <span class="se">\</span>
+              <libc++-source-directory>
+<span class="nv">$ </span>make cxx
+<span class="nv">$ </span>make install
+</pre></div>
+</div>
+<p>Unfortunately you can’t simply run clang with “-stdlib=libc++” at this point, as
+clang is set up to link for libc++ linked to libsupc++.  To get around this
+you’ll have to set up your linker yourself (or patch clang).  For example,</p>
+<div class="highlight-bash"><div class="highlight"><pre><span class="nv">$ </span>clang++ -stdlib<span class="o">=</span>libc++ helloworld.cpp <span class="se">\</span>
+          -nodefaultlibs -lc++ -lcxxrt -lm -lc -lgcc_s -lgcc
+</pre></div>
+</div>
+<p>Alternately, you could just add libcxxrt to your libraries list, which in most
+situations will give the same result:</p>
+<div class="highlight-bash"><div class="highlight"><pre><span class="nv">$ </span>clang++ -stdlib<span class="o">=</span>libc++ helloworld.cpp -lcxxrt
+</pre></div>
+</div>
+</div>
+<div class="section" id="using-a-local-abi-library-installation">
+<h3><a class="toc-backref" href="#id15">Using a local ABI library installation</a><a class="headerlink" href="#using-a-local-abi-library-installation" title="Permalink to this headline">¶</a></h3>
+<div class="admonition warning">
+<p class="first admonition-title">Warning</p>
+<p class="last">This is not recommended in almost all cases.</p>
+</div>
+<p>These instructions should only be used when you can’t install your ABI library.</p>
+<p>Normally you must link libc++ against a ABI shared library that the
+linker can find.  If you want to build and test libc++ against an ABI
+library not in the linker’s path you needq to set
+<tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">-DLIBCXX_CXX_ABI_LIBRARY_PATH=/path/to/abi/lib</span></tt> when configuring CMake.</p>
+<p>An example build using libc++abi would look like:</p>
+<div class="highlight-bash"><div class="highlight"><pre><span class="nv">$ CC</span><span class="o">=</span>clang <span class="nv">CXX</span><span class="o">=</span>clang++ cmake <span class="se">\</span>
+            -DLIBCXX_CXX_ABI<span class="o">=</span>libc++abi  <span class="se">\</span>
+            -DLIBCXX_CXX_ABI_INCLUDE_PATHS<span class="o">=</span><span class="s2">"/path/to/libcxxabi/include"</span> <span class="se">\</span>
+            -DLIBCXX_CXX_ABI_LIBRARY_PATH<span class="o">=</span><span class="s2">"/path/to/libcxxabi-build/lib"</span> <span class="se">\</span>
+             path/to/libcxx
+<span class="nv">$ </span>make
+</pre></div>
+</div>
+<p>When testing libc++ LIT will automatically link against the proper ABI
+library.</p>
+</div>
+</div>
+</div>
+
+
+      </div>
+      <div class="bottomnav">
+      
+        <p>
+        «  <a href="UsingLibcxx.html">Using libc++</a>
+          ::  
+        <a class="uplink" href="index.html">Contents</a>
+          ::  
+        <a href="TestingLibcxx.html">Testing libc++</a>  Â»
+        </p>
+
+      </div>
+
+    <div class="footer">
+        © Copyright 2011-2016, LLVM Project.
+      Created using <a href="http://sphinx-doc.org/">Sphinx</a> 1.2.2.
+    </div>
+  </body>
+</html>
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+<!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD XHTML 1.0 Transitional//EN"
+  "http://www.w3.org/TR/xhtml1/DTD/xhtml1-transitional.dtd">
+
+
+<html xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml">
+  <head>
+    <meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=utf-8" />
+    
+    <title>Libc++ ABI stability — libc++ 3.9 documentation</title>
+    
+    <link rel="stylesheet" href="../_static/haiku.css" type="text/css" />
+    <link rel="stylesheet" href="../_static/pygments.css" type="text/css" />
+    
+    <script type="text/javascript">
+      var DOCUMENTATION_OPTIONS = {
+        URL_ROOT:    '../',
+        VERSION:     '3.9',
+        COLLAPSE_INDEX: false,
+        FILE_SUFFIX: '.html',
+        HAS_SOURCE:  true
+      };
+    </script>
+    <script type="text/javascript" src="../_static/jquery.js"></script>
+    <script type="text/javascript" src="../_static/underscore.js"></script>
+    <script type="text/javascript" src="../_static/doctools.js"></script>
+    <link rel="top" title="libc++ 3.9 documentation" href="../index.html" />
+    <link rel="prev" title="Capturing configuration information during installation" href="CapturingConfigInfo.html" /> 
+  </head>
+  <body>
+      <div class="header"><h1 class="heading"><a href="../index.html">
+          <span>libc++ 3.9 documentation</span></a></h1>
+        <h2 class="heading"><span>Libc++ ABI stability</span></h2>
+      </div>
+      <div class="topnav">
+      
+        <p>
+        «  <a href="CapturingConfigInfo.html">Capturing configuration information during installation</a>
+          ::  
+        <a class="uplink" href="../index.html">Contents</a>
+        </p>
+
+      </div>
+      <div class="content">
+        
+        
+  <div class="section" id="libc-abi-stability">
+<h1>Libc++ ABI stability<a class="headerlink" href="#libc-abi-stability" title="Permalink to this headline">¶</a></h1>
+<p>Libc++ aims to preserve stable ABI to avoid subtle bugs when code built to the old ABI
+is linked with the code build to the new ABI. At the same time, libc++ allows ABI-breaking
+improvements and bugfixes for the scenarios when ABI change is not a issue.</p>
+<p>To support both cases, libc++ allows specifying the ABI version at the
+build time.  The version is defined with a cmake option
+LIBCXX_ABI_VERSION. Another option LIBCXX_ABI_UNSTABLE can be used to
+include all present ABI breaking features. These options translate
+into C++ macro definitions _LIBCPP_ABI_VERSION, _LIBCPP_ABI_UNSTABLE.</p>
+<p>Any ABI-changing feature is placed under it’s own macro, _LIBCPP_ABI_XXX, which is enabled
+based on the value of _LIBCPP_ABI_VERSION. _LIBCPP_ABI_UNSTABLE, if set, enables all features at once.</p>
+</div>
+
+
+      </div>
+      <div class="bottomnav">
+      
+        <p>
+        «  <a href="CapturingConfigInfo.html">Capturing configuration information during installation</a>
+          ::  
+        <a class="uplink" href="../index.html">Contents</a>
+        </p>
+
+      </div>
+
+    <div class="footer">
+        © Copyright 2011-2016, LLVM Project.
+      Created using <a href="http://sphinx-doc.org/">Sphinx</a> 1.2.2.
+    </div>
+  </body>
+</html>
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+<!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD XHTML 1.0 Transitional//EN"
+  "http://www.w3.org/TR/xhtml1/DTD/xhtml1-transitional.dtd">
+
+
+<html xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml">
+  <head>
+    <meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=utf-8" />
+    
+    <title>Capturing configuration information during installation — libc++ 3.9 documentation</title>
+    
+    <link rel="stylesheet" href="../_static/haiku.css" type="text/css" />
+    <link rel="stylesheet" href="../_static/pygments.css" type="text/css" />
+    
+    <script type="text/javascript">
+      var DOCUMENTATION_OPTIONS = {
+        URL_ROOT:    '../',
+        VERSION:     '3.9',
+        COLLAPSE_INDEX: false,
+        FILE_SUFFIX: '.html',
+        HAS_SOURCE:  true
+      };
+    </script>
+    <script type="text/javascript" src="../_static/jquery.js"></script>
+    <script type="text/javascript" src="../_static/underscore.js"></script>
+    <script type="text/javascript" src="../_static/doctools.js"></script>
+    <link rel="top" title="libc++ 3.9 documentation" href="../index.html" />
+    <link rel="next" title="Libc++ ABI stability" href="ABIVersioning.html" />
+    <link rel="prev" title="Testing libc++" href="../TestingLibcxx.html" /> 
+  </head>
+  <body>
+      <div class="header"><h1 class="heading"><a href="../index.html">
+          <span>libc++ 3.9 documentation</span></a></h1>
+        <h2 class="heading"><span>Capturing configuration information during installation</span></h2>
+      </div>
+      <div class="topnav">
+      
+        <p>
+        «  <a href="../TestingLibcxx.html">Testing libc++</a>
+          ::  
+        <a class="uplink" href="../index.html">Contents</a>
+          ::  
+        <a href="ABIVersioning.html">Libc++ ABI stability</a>  Â»
+        </p>
+
+      </div>
+      <div class="content">
+        
+        
+  <div class="section" id="capturing-configuration-information-during-installation">
+<h1>Capturing configuration information during installation<a class="headerlink" href="#capturing-configuration-information-during-installation" title="Permalink to this headline">¶</a></h1>
+<div class="contents local topic" id="contents">
+<ul class="simple">
+<li><a class="reference internal" href="#the-problem" id="id1">The Problem</a></li>
+<li><a class="reference internal" href="#design-goals" id="id2">Design Goals</a></li>
+<li><a class="reference internal" href="#the-solution" id="id3">The Solution</a></li>
+</ul>
+</div>
+<div class="section" id="the-problem">
+<h2><a class="toc-backref" href="#id1">The Problem</a><a class="headerlink" href="#the-problem" title="Permalink to this headline">¶</a></h2>
+<p>Currently the libc++ supports building the library with a number of different
+configuration options.  Unfortunately all of that configuration information is
+lost when libc++ is installed. In order to support “persistent”
+configurations libc++ needs a mechanism to capture the configuration options
+in the INSTALLED headers.</p>
+</div>
+<div class="section" id="design-goals">
+<h2><a class="toc-backref" href="#id2">Design Goals</a><a class="headerlink" href="#design-goals" title="Permalink to this headline">¶</a></h2>
+<ul class="simple">
+<li>The solution should not INSTALL any additional headers. We don’t want an extra
+#include slowing everybody down.</li>
+<li>The solution should not unduly affect libc++ developers. The problem is limited
+to installed versions of libc++ and the solution should be as well.</li>
+<li>The solution should not modify any existing headers EXCEPT during installation.
+It makes developers lives harder if they have to regenerate the libc++ headers
+every time they are modified.</li>
+<li>The solution should not make any of the libc++ headers dependant on
+files generated by the build system. The headers should be able to compile
+out of the box without any modification.</li>
+<li>The solution should not have ANY effect on users who don’t need special
+configuration options. The vast majority of users will never need this so it
+shouldn’t cost them.</li>
+</ul>
+</div>
+<div class="section" id="the-solution">
+<h2><a class="toc-backref" href="#id3">The Solution</a><a class="headerlink" href="#the-solution" title="Permalink to this headline">¶</a></h2>
+<p>When you first configure libc++ using CMake we check to see if we need to
+capture any options. If we haven’t been given any “persistent” options then
+we do NOTHING.</p>
+<p>Otherwise we create a custom installation rule that modifies the installed __config
+header. The rule first generates a dummy “__config_site” header containing the required
+#defines. The contents of the dummy header are then prependend to the installed
+__config header. By manually prepending the files we avoid the cost of an
+extra #include and we allow the __config header to be ignorant of the extra
+configuration all together. An example “__config” header generated when
+-DLIBCXX_ENABLE_THREADS=OFF is given to CMake would look something like:</p>
+<div class="highlight-cpp"><div class="highlight"><pre><span class="c1">//===----------------------------------------------------------------------===//</span>
+<span class="c1">//</span>
+<span class="c1">//                     The LLVM Compiler Infrastructure</span>
+<span class="c1">//</span>
+<span class="c1">// This file is dual licensed under the MIT and the University of Illinois Open</span>
+<span class="c1">// Source Licenses. See LICENSE.TXT for details.</span>
+<span class="c1">//</span>
+<span class="c1">//===----------------------------------------------------------------------===//</span>
+
+<span class="cp">#ifndef _LIBCPP_CONFIG_SITE</span>
+<span class="cp">#define _LIBCPP_CONFIG_SITE</span>
+
+<span class="cm">/* #undef _LIBCPP_HAS_NO_GLOBAL_FILESYSTEM_NAMESPACE */</span>
+<span class="cm">/* #undef _LIBCPP_HAS_NO_STDIN */</span>
+<span class="cm">/* #undef _LIBCPP_HAS_NO_STDOUT */</span>
+<span class="cp">#define _LIBCPP_HAS_NO_THREADS</span>
+<span class="cm">/* #undef _LIBCPP_HAS_NO_MONOTONIC_CLOCK */</span>
+<span class="cm">/* #undef _LIBCPP_HAS_NO_THREAD_UNSAFE_C_FUNCTIONS */</span>
+
+<span class="cp">#endif</span>
+<span class="c1">// -*- C++ -*-</span>
+<span class="c1">//===--------------------------- __config ---------------------------------===//</span>
+<span class="c1">//</span>
+<span class="c1">//                     The LLVM Compiler Infrastructure</span>
+<span class="c1">//</span>
+<span class="c1">// This file is dual licensed under the MIT and the University of Illinois Open</span>
+<span class="c1">// Source Licenses. See LICENSE.TXT for details.</span>
+<span class="c1">//</span>
+<span class="c1">//===----------------------------------------------------------------------===//</span>
+
+<span class="cp">#ifndef _LIBCPP_CONFIG</span>
+<span class="cp">#define _LIBCPP_CONFIG</span>
+</pre></div>
+</div>
+</div>
+</div>
+
+
+      </div>
+      <div class="bottomnav">
+      
+        <p>
+        «  <a href="../TestingLibcxx.html">Testing libc++</a>
+          ::  
+        <a class="uplink" href="../index.html">Contents</a>
+          ::  
+        <a href="ABIVersioning.html">Libc++ ABI stability</a>  Â»
+        </p>
+
+      </div>
+
+    <div class="footer">
+        © Copyright 2011-2016, LLVM Project.
+      Created using <a href="http://sphinx-doc.org/">Sphinx</a> 1.2.2.
+    </div>
+  </body>
+</html>
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+<!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD XHTML 1.0 Transitional//EN"
+  "http://www.w3.org/TR/xhtml1/DTD/xhtml1-transitional.dtd">
+
+
+<html xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml">
+  <head>
+    <meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=utf-8" />
+    
+    <title>Testing libc++ — libc++ 3.9 documentation</title>
+    
+    <link rel="stylesheet" href="_static/haiku.css" type="text/css" />
+    <link rel="stylesheet" href="_static/pygments.css" type="text/css" />
+    
+    <script type="text/javascript">
+      var DOCUMENTATION_OPTIONS = {
+        URL_ROOT:    './',
+        VERSION:     '3.9',
+        COLLAPSE_INDEX: false,
+        FILE_SUFFIX: '.html',
+        HAS_SOURCE:  true
+      };
+    </script>
+    <script type="text/javascript" src="_static/jquery.js"></script>
+    <script type="text/javascript" src="_static/underscore.js"></script>
+    <script type="text/javascript" src="_static/doctools.js"></script>
+    <link rel="top" title="libc++ 3.9 documentation" href="index.html" />
+    <link rel="next" title="Capturing configuration information during installation" href="DesignDocs/CapturingConfigInfo.html" />
+    <link rel="prev" title="Building libc++" href="BuildingLibcxx.html" /> 
+  </head>
+  <body>
+      <div class="header"><h1 class="heading"><a href="index.html">
+          <span>libc++ 3.9 documentation</span></a></h1>
+        <h2 class="heading"><span>Testing libc++</span></h2>
+      </div>
+      <div class="topnav">
+      
+        <p>
+        «  <a href="BuildingLibcxx.html">Building libc++</a>
+          ::  
+        <a class="uplink" href="index.html">Contents</a>
+          ::  
+        <a href="DesignDocs/CapturingConfigInfo.html">Capturing configuration information during installation</a>  Â»
+        </p>
+
+      </div>
+      <div class="content">
+        
+        
+  <div class="section" id="testing-libc">
+<h1>Testing libc++<a class="headerlink" href="#testing-libc" title="Permalink to this headline">¶</a></h1>
+<div class="contents local topic" id="contents">
+<ul class="simple">
+<li><a class="reference internal" href="#getting-started" id="id1">Getting Started</a><ul>
+<li><a class="reference internal" href="#setting-up-the-environment" id="id2">Setting up the Environment</a></li>
+<li><a class="reference internal" href="#example-usage" id="id3">Example Usage</a></li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li><a class="reference internal" href="#lit-options" id="id4">LIT Options</a><ul>
+<li><a class="reference internal" href="#command-line-options" id="id5">Command Line Options</a></li>
+<li><a class="reference internal" href="#environment-variables" id="id6">Environment Variables</a></li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+</ul>
+</div>
+<div class="section" id="getting-started">
+<h2><a class="toc-backref" href="#id1">Getting Started</a><a class="headerlink" href="#getting-started" title="Permalink to this headline">¶</a></h2>
+<p>libc++ uses LIT to configure and run its tests. The primary way to run the
+libc++ tests is by using make check-libcxx. However since libc++ can be used
+in any number of possible configurations it is important to customize the way
+LIT builds and runs the tests. This guide provides information on how to use
+LIT directly to test libc++.</p>
+<p>Please see the <a class="reference external" href="http://llvm.org/docs/CommandGuide/lit.html">Lit Command Guide</a> for more information about LIT.</p>
+<div class="section" id="setting-up-the-environment">
+<h3><a class="toc-backref" href="#id2">Setting up the Environment</a><a class="headerlink" href="#setting-up-the-environment" title="Permalink to this headline">¶</a></h3>
+<p>After building libc++ you must setup your environment to test libc++ using
+LIT.</p>
+<ol class="arabic">
+<li><p class="first">Create a shortcut to the actual lit executable so that you can invoke it
+easily from the command line.</p>
+<div class="highlight-bash"><div class="highlight"><pre><span class="nv">$ </span><span class="nb">alias </span><span class="nv">lit</span><span class="o">=</span><span class="s1">'python path/to/llvm/utils/lit/lit.py'</span>
+</pre></div>
+</div>
+</li>
+<li><p class="first">Tell LIT where to find your build configuration.</p>
+<div class="highlight-bash"><div class="highlight"><pre><span class="nv">$ </span><span class="nb">export </span><span class="nv">LIBCXX_SITE_CONFIG</span><span class="o">=</span>path/to/build-libcxx/test/lit.site.cfg
+</pre></div>
+</div>
+</li>
+</ol>
+</div>
+<div class="section" id="example-usage">
+<h3><a class="toc-backref" href="#id3">Example Usage</a><a class="headerlink" href="#example-usage" title="Permalink to this headline">¶</a></h3>
+<p>Once you have your environment set up and you have built libc++ you can run
+parts of the libc++ test suite by simply running <cite>lit</cite> on a specified test or
+directory. For example:</p>
+<div class="highlight-bash"><div class="highlight"><pre><span class="nv">$ </span><span class="nb">cd </span>path/to/src/libcxx
+<span class="nv">$ </span>lit -sv <span class="nb">test</span>/std/re <span class="c"># Run all of the std::regex tests</span>
+<span class="nv">$ </span>lit -sv <span class="nb">test</span>/std/depr/depr.c.headers/stdlib_h.pass.cpp <span class="c"># Run a single test</span>
+<span class="nv">$ </span>lit -sv <span class="nb">test</span>/std/atomics <span class="nb">test</span>/std/threads <span class="c"># Test std::thread and std::atomic</span>
+</pre></div>
+</div>
+<p>Sometimes you’ll want to change the way LIT is running the tests. Custom options
+can be specified using the <cite>–param=<name>=<val></cite> flag. The most common option
+you’ll want to change is the standard dialect (ie -std=c++XX). By default the
+test suite will select the newest C++ dialect supported by the compiler and use
+that. However if you want to manually specify the option like so:</p>
+<div class="highlight-bash"><div class="highlight"><pre><span class="nv">$ </span>lit -sv <span class="nb">test</span>/std/containers <span class="c"># Run the tests with the newest -std</span>
+<span class="nv">$ </span>lit -sv --param<span class="o">=</span><span class="nv">std</span><span class="o">=</span>c++03 <span class="nb">test</span>/std/containers <span class="c"># Run the tests in C++03</span>
+</pre></div>
+</div>
+<p>Occasionally you’ll want to add extra compile or link flags when testing.
+You can do this as follows:</p>
+<div class="highlight-bash"><div class="highlight"><pre><span class="nv">$ </span>lit -sv --param<span class="o">=</span><span class="nv">compile_flags</span><span class="o">=</span><span class="s1">'-Wcustom-warning'</span>
+<span class="nv">$ </span>lit -sv --param<span class="o">=</span><span class="nv">link_flags</span><span class="o">=</span><span class="s1">'-L/custom/library/path'</span>
+</pre></div>
+</div>
+<p>Some other common examples include:</p>
+<div class="highlight-bash"><div class="highlight"><pre><span class="c"># Specify a custom compiler.</span>
+<span class="nv">$ </span>lit -sv --param<span class="o">=</span><span class="nv">cxx_under_test</span><span class="o">=</span>/opt/bin/g++ <span class="nb">test</span>/std
+
+<span class="c"># Enable warnings in the test suite</span>
+<span class="nv">$ </span>lit -sv --param<span class="o">=</span><span class="nv">enable_warnings</span><span class="o">=</span><span class="nb">true test</span>/std
+
+<span class="c"># Use UBSAN when running the tests.</span>
+<span class="nv">$ </span>lit -sv --param<span class="o">=</span><span class="nv">use_sanitizer</span><span class="o">=</span>Undefined
+</pre></div>
+</div>
+</div>
+</div>
+<div class="section" id="lit-options">
+<h2><a class="toc-backref" href="#id4">LIT Options</a><a class="headerlink" href="#lit-options" title="Permalink to this headline">¶</a></h2>
+<p><strong class="program">lit</strong> [<em>options</em>...] [<em>filenames</em>...]</p>
+<div class="section" id="command-line-options">
+<h3><a class="toc-backref" href="#id5">Command Line Options</a><a class="headerlink" href="#command-line-options" title="Permalink to this headline">¶</a></h3>
+<p>To use these options you pass them on the LIT command line as –param NAME or
+–param NAME=VALUE. Some options have default values specified during CMake’s
+configuration. Passing the option on the command line will override the default.</p>
+<dl class="option">
+<dt id="cmdoption-lit--cxx_under_test">
+<tt class="descname">--cxx_under_test</tt><tt class="descclassname">=<path/to/compiler></tt><a class="headerlink" href="#cmdoption-lit--cxx_under_test" title="Permalink to this definition">¶</a></dt>
+<dd><p>Specify the compiler used to build the tests.</p>
+</dd></dl>
+
+<dl class="option">
+<dt id="cmdoption-lit-arg-std">
+<tt class="descname">std</tt><tt class="descclassname">=<standard version></tt><a class="headerlink" href="#cmdoption-lit-arg-std" title="Permalink to this definition">¶</a></dt>
+<dd><p><strong>Values</strong>: c++98, c++03, c++11, c++14, c++1z</p>
+<p>Change the standard version used when building the tests.</p>
+</dd></dl>
+
+<dl class="option">
+<dt id="cmdoption-lit--libcxx_site_config">
+<tt class="descname">--libcxx_site_config</tt><tt class="descclassname">=<path/to/lit.site.cfg></tt><a class="headerlink" href="#cmdoption-lit--libcxx_site_config" title="Permalink to this definition">¶</a></dt>
+<dd><p>Specify the site configuration to use when running the tests.  This option
+overrides the enviroment variable LIBCXX_SITE_CONFIG.</p>
+</dd></dl>
+
+<dl class="option">
+<dt id="cmdoption-lit--libcxx_headers">
+<tt class="descname">--libcxx_headers</tt><tt class="descclassname">=<path/to/headers></tt><a class="headerlink" href="#cmdoption-lit--libcxx_headers" title="Permalink to this definition">¶</a></dt>
+<dd><p>Specify the libc++ headers that are tested. By default the headers in the
+source tree are used.</p>
+</dd></dl>
+
+<dl class="option">
+<dt id="cmdoption-lit--cxx_library_root">
+<tt class="descname">--cxx_library_root</tt><tt class="descclassname">=<path/to/lib/></tt><a class="headerlink" href="#cmdoption-lit--cxx_library_root" title="Permalink to this definition">¶</a></dt>
+<dd><p>Specify the directory of the libc++ library to be tested. By default the
+library folder of the build directory is used. This option cannot be used
+when use_system_lib is provided.</p>
+</dd></dl>
+
+<dl class="option">
+<dt id="cmdoption-lit--cxx_runtime_root">
+<tt class="descname">--cxx_runtime_root</tt><tt class="descclassname">=<path/to/lib/></tt><a class="headerlink" href="#cmdoption-lit--cxx_runtime_root" title="Permalink to this definition">¶</a></dt>
+<dd><p>Specify the directory of the libc++ library to use at runtime. This directory
+is not added to the linkers search path. This can be used to compile tests
+against one version of libc++ and run them using another. The default value
+for this option is <cite>cxx_library_root</cite>. This option cannot be used
+when use_system_lib is provided.</p>
+</dd></dl>
+
+<dl class="option">
+<dt id="cmdoption-lit--use_system_lib">
+<tt class="descname">--use_system_lib</tt><tt class="descclassname">=<bool></tt><a class="headerlink" href="#cmdoption-lit--use_system_lib" title="Permalink to this definition">¶</a></dt>
+<dd><p><strong>Default</strong>: False</p>
+<p>Enable or disable testing against the installed version of libc++ library.
+Note: This does not use the installed headers.</p>
+</dd></dl>
+
+<dl class="option">
+<dt id="cmdoption-lit--use_lit_shell">
+<tt class="descname">--use_lit_shell</tt><tt class="descclassname">=<bool></tt><a class="headerlink" href="#cmdoption-lit--use_lit_shell" title="Permalink to this definition">¶</a></dt>
+<dd><p>Enable or disable the use of LIT’s internal shell in ShTests. If the
+environment variable LIT_USE_INTERNAL_SHELL is present then that is used as
+the default value. Otherwise the default value is True on Windows and False
+on every other platform.</p>
+</dd></dl>
+
+<dl class="option">
+<dt id="cmdoption-lit--no_default_flags">
+<tt class="descname">--no_default_flags</tt><tt class="descclassname">=<bool></tt><a class="headerlink" href="#cmdoption-lit--no_default_flags" title="Permalink to this definition">¶</a></dt>
+<dd><p><strong>Default</strong>: False</p>
+<p>Disable all default compile and link flags from being added. When this
+option is used only flags specified using the compile_flags and link_flags
+will be used.</p>
+</dd></dl>
+
+<dl class="option">
+<dt id="cmdoption-lit--compile_flags">
+<tt class="descname">--compile_flags</tt><tt class="descclassname">="<list-of-args>"</tt><a class="headerlink" href="#cmdoption-lit--compile_flags" title="Permalink to this definition">¶</a></dt>
+<dd><p>Specify additional compile flags as a space delimited string.
+Note: This options should not be used to change the standard version used.</p>
+</dd></dl>
+
+<dl class="option">
+<dt id="cmdoption-lit--link_flags">
+<tt class="descname">--link_flags</tt><tt class="descclassname">="<list-of-args>"</tt><a class="headerlink" href="#cmdoption-lit--link_flags" title="Permalink to this definition">¶</a></dt>
+<dd><p>Specify additional link flags as a space delimited string.</p>
+</dd></dl>
+
+<dl class="option">
+<dt id="cmdoption-lit--debug_level">
+<tt class="descname">--debug_level</tt><tt class="descclassname">=<level></tt><a class="headerlink" href="#cmdoption-lit--debug_level" title="Permalink to this definition">¶</a></dt>
+<dd><p><strong>Values</strong>: 0, 1</p>
+<p>Enable the use of debug mode. Level 0 enables assertions and level 1 enables
+assertions and debugging of iterator misuse.</p>
+</dd></dl>
+
+<dl class="option">
+<dt id="cmdoption-lit-arg-use_sanitizer">
+<tt class="descname">use_sanitizer</tt><tt class="descclassname">=<sanitizer name></tt><a class="headerlink" href="#cmdoption-lit-arg-use_sanitizer" title="Permalink to this definition">¶</a></dt>
+<dd><p><strong>Values</strong>: Memory, MemoryWithOrigins, Address, Undefined</p>
+<p>Run the tests using the given sanitizer. If LLVM_USE_SANITIZER was given when
+building libc++ then that sanitizer will be used by default.</p>
+</dd></dl>
+
+<dl class="option">
+<dt id="cmdoption-lit-arg-color_diagnostics">
+<tt class="descname">color_diagnostics</tt><tt class="descclassname"></tt><a class="headerlink" href="#cmdoption-lit-arg-color_diagnostics" title="Permalink to this definition">¶</a></dt>
+<dd><p>Enable the use of colorized compile diagnostics. If the color_diagnostics
+option is specified or the environment variable LIBCXX_COLOR_DIAGNOSTICS is
+present then color diagnostics will be enabled.</p>
+</dd></dl>
+
+</div>
+<div class="section" id="environment-variables">
+<h3><a class="toc-backref" href="#id6">Environment Variables</a><a class="headerlink" href="#environment-variables" title="Permalink to this headline">¶</a></h3>
+<dl class="envvar">
+<dt id="envvar-LIBCXX_SITE_CONFIG=<path/to/lit.site.cfg>">
+<tt class="descname">LIBCXX_SITE_CONFIG=<path/to/lit.site.cfg></tt><a class="headerlink" href="#envvar-LIBCXX_SITE_CONFIG=<path/to/lit.site.cfg>" title="Permalink to this definition">¶</a></dt>
+<dd><p>Specify the site configuration to use when running the tests.
+Also see <em class="xref std std-option">libcxx_site_config</em>.</p>
+</dd></dl>
+
+<dl class="envvar">
+<dt id="envvar-LIBCXX_COLOR_DIAGNOSTICS">
+<tt class="descname">LIBCXX_COLOR_DIAGNOSTICS</tt><a class="headerlink" href="#envvar-LIBCXX_COLOR_DIAGNOSTICS" title="Permalink to this definition">¶</a></dt>
+<dd><p>If <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">LIBCXX_COLOR_DIAGNOSTICS</span></tt> is defined then the test suite will attempt
+to use color diagnostic outputs from the compiler.
+Also see <a class="reference internal" href="#cmdoption-lit-arg-color_diagnostics"><em class="xref std std-option">color_diagnostics</em></a>.</p>
+</dd></dl>
+
+</div>
+</div>
+</div>
+
+
+      </div>
+      <div class="bottomnav">
+      
+        <p>
+        «  <a href="BuildingLibcxx.html">Building libc++</a>
+          ::  
+        <a class="uplink" href="index.html">Contents</a>
+          ::  
+        <a href="DesignDocs/CapturingConfigInfo.html">Capturing configuration information during installation</a>  Â»
+        </p>
+
+      </div>
+
+    <div class="footer">
+        © Copyright 2011-2016, LLVM Project.
+      Created using <a href="http://sphinx-doc.org/">Sphinx</a> 1.2.2.
+    </div>
+  </body>
+</html>
\ No newline at end of file

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--- www-releases/trunk/3.9.0/projects/libcxx/docs/UsingLibcxx.html (added)
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@@ -0,0 +1,183 @@
+<!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD XHTML 1.0 Transitional//EN"
+  "http://www.w3.org/TR/xhtml1/DTD/xhtml1-transitional.dtd">
+
+
+<html xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml">
+  <head>
+    <meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=utf-8" />
+    
+    <title>Using libc++ — libc++ 3.9 documentation</title>
+    
+    <link rel="stylesheet" href="_static/haiku.css" type="text/css" />
+    <link rel="stylesheet" href="_static/pygments.css" type="text/css" />
+    
+    <script type="text/javascript">
+      var DOCUMENTATION_OPTIONS = {
+        URL_ROOT:    './',
+        VERSION:     '3.9',
+        COLLAPSE_INDEX: false,
+        FILE_SUFFIX: '.html',
+        HAS_SOURCE:  true
+      };
+    </script>
+    <script type="text/javascript" src="_static/jquery.js"></script>
+    <script type="text/javascript" src="_static/underscore.js"></script>
+    <script type="text/javascript" src="_static/doctools.js"></script>
+    <link rel="top" title="libc++ 3.9 documentation" href="index.html" />
+    <link rel="next" title="Building libc++" href="BuildingLibcxx.html" />
+    <link rel="prev" title="“libc++” C++ Standard Library" href="index.html" /> 
+  </head>
+  <body>
+      <div class="header"><h1 class="heading"><a href="index.html">
+          <span>libc++ 3.9 documentation</span></a></h1>
+        <h2 class="heading"><span>Using libc++</span></h2>
+      </div>
+      <div class="topnav">
+      
+        <p>
+        «  <a href="index.html">“libc++” C++ Standard Library</a>
+          ::  
+        <a class="uplink" href="index.html">Contents</a>
+          ::  
+        <a href="BuildingLibcxx.html">Building libc++</a>  Â»
+        </p>
+
+      </div>
+      <div class="content">
+        
+        
+  <div class="section" id="using-libc">
+<h1>Using libc++<a class="headerlink" href="#using-libc" title="Permalink to this headline">¶</a></h1>
+<div class="contents local topic" id="contents">
+<ul class="simple">
+<li><a class="reference internal" href="#getting-started" id="id1">Getting Started</a></li>
+<li><a class="reference internal" href="#using-libc-experimental-and-experimental" id="id2">Using libc++experimental and <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre"><experimental/...></span></tt></a></li>
+<li><a class="reference internal" href="#using-libc-on-linux" id="id3">Using libc++ on Linux</a><ul>
+<li><a class="reference internal" href="#using-libc-with-gcc" id="id4">Using libc++ with GCC</a></li>
+<li><a class="reference internal" href="#gdb-pretty-printers-for-libc" id="id5">GDB Pretty printers for libc++</a></li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+</ul>
+</div>
+<div class="section" id="getting-started">
+<h2><a class="toc-backref" href="#id1">Getting Started</a><a class="headerlink" href="#getting-started" title="Permalink to this headline">¶</a></h2>
+<p>If you already have libc++ installed you can use it with clang.</p>
+<div class="highlight-bash"><div class="highlight"><pre><span class="nv">$ </span>clang++ -stdlib<span class="o">=</span>libc++ test.cpp
+<span class="nv">$ </span>clang++ -std<span class="o">=</span>c++11 -stdlib<span class="o">=</span>libc++ test.cpp
+</pre></div>
+</div>
+<p>On OS X and FreeBSD libc++ is the default standard library
+and the <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">-stdlib=libc++</span></tt> is not required.</p>
+<p id="alternate-libcxx">If you want to select an alternate installation of libc++ you
+can use the following options.</p>
+<div class="highlight-bash"><div class="highlight"><pre><span class="nv">$ </span>clang++ -std<span class="o">=</span>c++11 -stdlib<span class="o">=</span>libc++ -nostdinc++ <span class="se">\</span>
+          -I<libcxx-install-prefix>/include/c++/v1 <span class="se">\</span>
+          -L<libcxx-install-prefix>/lib <span class="se">\</span>
+          -Wl,-rpath,<libcxx-install-prefix>/lib <span class="se">\</span>
+          test.cpp
+</pre></div>
+</div>
+<p>The option <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">-Wl,-rpath,<libcxx-install-prefix>/lib</span></tt> adds a runtime library
+search path. Meaning that the systems dynamic linker will look for libc++ in
+<tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre"><libcxx-install-prefix>/lib</span></tt> whenever the program is run. Alternatively the
+environment variable <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">LD_LIBRARY_PATH</span></tt> (<tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">DYLD_LIBRARY_PATH</span></tt> on OS X) can
+be used to change the dynamic linkers search paths after a program is compiled.</p>
+<p>An example of using <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">LD_LIBRARY_PATH</span></tt>:</p>
+<div class="highlight-bash"><div class="highlight"><pre><span class="nv">$ </span>clang++ -stdlib<span class="o">=</span>libc++ -nostdinc++ <span class="se">\</span>
+          -I<libcxx-install-prefix>/include/c++/v1
+          -L<libcxx-install-prefix>/lib <span class="se">\</span>
+          test.cpp -o
+<span class="nv">$ </span>./a.out <span class="c"># Searches for libc++ in the systems library paths.</span>
+<span class="nv">$ </span><span class="nb">export </span><span class="nv">LD_LIBRARY_PATH</span><span class="o">=</span><libcxx-install-prefix>/lib
+<span class="nv">$ </span>./a.out <span class="c"># Searches for libc++ along LD_LIBRARY_PATH</span>
+</pre></div>
+</div>
+</div>
+<div class="section" id="using-libc-experimental-and-experimental">
+<h2><a class="toc-backref" href="#id2">Using libc++experimental and <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre"><experimental/...></span></tt></a><a class="headerlink" href="#using-libc-experimental-and-experimental" title="Permalink to this headline">¶</a></h2>
+<p>Libc++ provides implementations of experimental technical specifications
+in a separate library, <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">libc++experimental.a</span></tt>. Users of <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre"><experimental/...></span></tt>
+headers may be required to link <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">-lc++experimental</span></tt>.</p>
+<div class="highlight-bash"><div class="highlight"><pre><span class="nv">$ </span>clang++ -std<span class="o">=</span>c++14 -stdlib<span class="o">=</span>libc++ test.cpp -lc++experimental
+</pre></div>
+</div>
+<p>Libc++experimental.a may not always be available, even when libc++ is already
+installed. For information on building libc++experimental from source see
+<a class="reference internal" href="BuildingLibcxx.html#build-instructions"><em>Building Libc++</em></a> and
+<a class="reference internal" href="BuildingLibcxx.html#libc-experimental-options"><em>libc++experimental CMake Options</em></a>.</p>
+<p>Also see the <a class="reference external" href="http://libcxx.llvm.org/ts1z_status.html">Experimental Library Implementation Status</a>
+page.</p>
+<div class="admonition warning">
+<p class="first admonition-title">Warning</p>
+<dl class="last docutils">
+<dt>Experimental libraries are Experimental.</dt>
+<dd><ul class="first last simple">
+<li>The contents of the <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre"><experimental/...></span></tt> headers and <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">libc++experimental.a</span></tt>
+library will not remain compatible between versions.</li>
+<li>No guarantees of API or ABI stability are provided.</li>
+</ul>
+</dd>
+</dl>
+</div>
+</div>
+<div class="section" id="using-libc-on-linux">
+<h2><a class="toc-backref" href="#id3">Using libc++ on Linux</a><a class="headerlink" href="#using-libc-on-linux" title="Permalink to this headline">¶</a></h2>
+<p>On Linux libc++ can typically be used with only ‘-stdlib=libc++’. However
+some libc++ installations require the user manually link libc++abi themselves.
+If you are running into linker errors when using libc++ try adding ‘-lc++abi’
+to the link line.  For example:</p>
+<div class="highlight-bash"><div class="highlight"><pre><span class="nv">$ </span>clang++ -stdlib<span class="o">=</span>libc++ test.cpp -lc++ -lc++abi -lm -lc -lgcc_s -lgcc
+</pre></div>
+</div>
+<p>Alternately, you could just add libc++abi to your libraries list, which in
+most situations will give the same result:</p>
+<div class="highlight-bash"><div class="highlight"><pre><span class="nv">$ </span>clang++ -stdlib<span class="o">=</span>libc++ test.cpp -lc++abi
+</pre></div>
+</div>
+<div class="section" id="using-libc-with-gcc">
+<h3><a class="toc-backref" href="#id4">Using libc++ with GCC</a><a class="headerlink" href="#using-libc-with-gcc" title="Permalink to this headline">¶</a></h3>
+<p>GCC does not provide a way to switch from libstdc++ to libc++. You must manually
+configure the compile and link commands.</p>
+<p>In particular you must tell GCC to remove the libstdc++ include directories
+using <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">-nostdinc++</span></tt> and to not link libstdc++.so using <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">-nodefaultlibs</span></tt>.</p>
+<p>Note that <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">-nodefaultlibs</span></tt> removes all of the standard system libraries and
+not just libstdc++ so they must be manually linked. For example:</p>
+<div class="highlight-bash"><div class="highlight"><pre><span class="nv">$ </span>g++ -nostdinc++ -I<libcxx-install-prefix>/include/c++/v1 <span class="se">\</span>
+       test.cpp -nodefaultlibs -lc++ -lc++abi -lm -lc -lgcc_s -lgcc
+</pre></div>
+</div>
+</div>
+<div class="section" id="gdb-pretty-printers-for-libc">
+<h3><a class="toc-backref" href="#id5">GDB Pretty printers for libc++</a><a class="headerlink" href="#gdb-pretty-printers-for-libc" title="Permalink to this headline">¶</a></h3>
+<p>GDB does not support pretty-printing of libc++ symbols by default. Unfortunately
+libc++ does not provide pretty-printers itself. However there are 3rd
+party implementations available and although they are not officially
+supported by libc++ they may be useful to users.</p>
+<p>Known 3rd Party Implementations Include:</p>
+<ul class="simple">
+<li><a class="reference external" href="https://github.com/koutheir/libcxx-pretty-printers">Koutheir’s libc++ pretty-printers</a>.</li>
+</ul>
+</div>
+</div>
+</div>
+
+
+      </div>
+      <div class="bottomnav">
+      
+        <p>
+        «  <a href="index.html">“libc++” C++ Standard Library</a>
+          ::  
+        <a class="uplink" href="index.html">Contents</a>
+          ::  
+        <a href="BuildingLibcxx.html">Building libc++</a>  Â»
+        </p>
+
+      </div>
+
+    <div class="footer">
+        © Copyright 2011-2016, LLVM Project.
+      Created using <a href="http://sphinx-doc.org/">Sphinx</a> 1.2.2.
+    </div>
+  </body>
+</html>
\ No newline at end of file

Added: www-releases/trunk/3.9.0/projects/libcxx/docs/_sources/BuildingLibcxx.txt
URL: http://llvm.org/viewvc/llvm-project/www-releases/trunk/3.9.0/projects/libcxx/docs/_sources/BuildingLibcxx.txt?rev=280493&view=auto
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--- www-releases/trunk/3.9.0/projects/libcxx/docs/_sources/BuildingLibcxx.txt (added)
+++ www-releases/trunk/3.9.0/projects/libcxx/docs/_sources/BuildingLibcxx.txt Fri Sep  2 10:56:46 2016
@@ -0,0 +1,416 @@
+.. _BuildingLibcxx:
+
+===============
+Building libc++
+===============
+
+.. contents::
+  :local:
+
+.. _build instructions:
+
+Getting Started
+===============
+
+On Mac OS 10.7 (Lion) and later, the easiest way to get this library is to install
+Xcode 4.2 or later.  However if you want to install tip-of-trunk from here
+(getting the bleeding edge), read on.
+
+The basic steps needed to build libc++ are:
+
+#. Checkout LLVM:
+
+   * ``cd where-you-want-llvm-to-live``
+   * ``svn co http://llvm.org/svn/llvm-project/llvm/trunk llvm``
+
+#. Checkout libc++:
+
+   * ``cd where-you-want-llvm-to-live``
+   * ``cd llvm/projects``
+   * ``svn co http://llvm.org/svn/llvm-project/libcxx/trunk libcxx``
+
+#. Checkout libc++abi:
+
+   * ``cd where-you-want-llvm-to-live``
+   * ``cd llvm/projects``
+   * ``svn co http://llvm.org/svn/llvm-project/libcxxabi/trunk libcxxabi``
+
+#. Configure and build libc++ with libc++abi:
+
+   CMake is the only supported configuration system.
+
+   Clang is the preferred compiler when building and using libc++.
+
+   * ``cd where you want to build llvm``
+   * ``mkdir build``
+   * ``cd build``
+   * ``cmake -G <generator> [options] <path to llvm sources>``
+
+   For more information about configuring libc++ see :ref:`CMake Options`.
+
+   * ``make cxx`` --- will build libc++ and libc++abi.
+   * ``make check-libcxx check-libcxxabi`` --- will run the test suites.
+
+   Shared libraries for libc++ and libc++ abi should now be present in llvm/build/lib.
+   See :ref:`using an alternate libc++ installation <alternate libcxx>`
+
+#. **Optional**: Install libc++ and libc++abi
+
+   If your system already provides a libc++ installation it is important to be
+   careful not to replace it. Remember Use the CMake option ``CMAKE_INSTALL_PREFIX`` to
+   select a safe place to install libc++.
+
+   * ``make install-libcxx install-libcxxabi`` --- Will install the libraries and the headers
+
+   .. warning::
+     * Replacing your systems libc++ installation could render the system non-functional.
+     * Mac OS X will not boot without a valid copy of ``libc++.1.dylib`` in ``/usr/lib``.
+
+
+The instructions are for building libc++ on
+FreeBSD, Linux, or Mac using `libc++abi`_ as the C++ ABI library.
+On Linux, it is also possible to use :ref:`libsupc++ <libsupcxx>` or libcxxrt.
+
+It is sometimes beneficial to build outside of the LLVM tree. An out-of-tree
+build would look like this:
+
+.. code-block:: bash
+
+  $ cd where-you-want-libcxx-to-live
+  $ # Check out llvm, libc++ and libc++abi.
+  $ ``svn co http://llvm.org/svn/llvm-project/llvm/trunk llvm``
+  $ ``svn co http://llvm.org/svn/llvm-project/libcxx/trunk libcxx``
+  $ ``svn co http://llvm.org/svn/llvm-project/libcxxabi/trunk libcxxabi``
+  $ cd where-you-want-to-build
+  $ mkdir build && cd build
+  $ export CC=clang CXX=clang++
+  $ cmake -DLLVM_PATH=path/to/llvm \
+          -DLIBCXX_CXX_ABI=libcxxabi \
+          -DLIBCXX_CXX_ABI_INCLUDE_PATHS=path/to/libcxxabi/include \
+          path/to/libcxx
+  $ make
+  $ make check-libcxx # optional
+
+
+.. _`libc++abi`: http://libcxxabi.llvm.org/
+
+
+.. _CMake Options:
+
+CMake Options
+=============
+
+Here are some of the CMake variables that are used often, along with a
+brief explanation and LLVM-specific notes. For full documentation, check the
+CMake docs or execute ``cmake --help-variable VARIABLE_NAME``.
+
+**CMAKE_BUILD_TYPE**:STRING
+  Sets the build type for ``make`` based generators. Possible values are
+  Release, Debug, RelWithDebInfo and MinSizeRel. On systems like Visual Studio
+  the user sets the build type with the IDE settings.
+
+**CMAKE_INSTALL_PREFIX**:PATH
+  Path where LLVM will be installed if "make install" is invoked or the
+  "INSTALL" target is built.
+
+**CMAKE_CXX_COMPILER**:STRING
+  The C++ compiler to use when building and testing libc++.
+
+
+.. _libcxx-specific options:
+
+libc++ specific options
+-----------------------
+
+.. option:: LIBCXX_INSTALL_LIBRARY:BOOL
+
+  **Default**: ``ON``
+
+  Toggle the installation of the library portion of libc++.
+
+.. option:: LIBCXX_INSTALL_HEADERS:BOOL
+
+  **Default**: ``ON``
+
+  Toggle the installation of the libc++ headers.
+
+.. option:: LIBCXX_ENABLE_ASSERTIONS:BOOL
+
+  **Default**: ``ON``
+
+  Build libc++ with assertions enabled.
+
+.. option:: LIBCXX_BUILD_32_BITS:BOOL
+
+  **Default**: ``OFF``
+
+  Build libc++ as a 32 bit library. Also see :option:`LLVM_BUILD_32_BITS`.
+
+.. option:: LIBCXX_ENABLE_SHARED:BOOL
+
+  **Default**: ``ON``
+
+  Build libc++ as a shared library. If ``OFF`` is specified then libc++ is
+  built as a static library.
+
+.. option:: LIBCXX_LIBDIR_SUFFIX:STRING
+
+  Extra suffix to append to the directory where libraries are to be installed.
+  This option overrides :option:`LLVM_LIBDIR_SUFFIX`.
+
+
+.. _libc++experimental options:
+
+libc++experimental Specific Options
+------------------------------------
+
+.. option:: LIBCXX_ENABLE_EXPERIMENTAL_LIBRARY:BOOL
+
+  **Default**: ``ON``
+
+  Build and test libc++experimental.a.
+
+.. option:: LIBCXX_INSTALL_EXPERIMENTAL_LIBRARY:BOOL
+
+  **Default**: ``OFF``
+
+  Install libc++experimental.a alongside libc++.
+
+
+.. option:: LIBCXX_ENABLE_FILESYSTEM:BOOL
+
+  **Default**: ``LIBCXX_ENABLE_EXPERIMENTAL_LIBRARY``
+
+  Build filesystem as part of libc++experimental.a. This allows filesystem
+  to be disabled without turning off the entire experimental library.
+
+
+.. _ABI Library Specific Options:
+
+ABI Library Specific Options
+----------------------------
+
+.. option:: LIBCXX_CXX_ABI:STRING
+
+  **Values**: ``none``, ``libcxxabi``, ``libcxxrt``, ``libstdc++``, ``libsupc++``.
+
+  Select the ABI library to build libc++ against.
+
+.. option:: LIBCXX_CXX_ABI_INCLUDE_PATHS:PATHS
+
+  Provide additional search paths for the ABI library headers.
+
+.. option:: LIBCXX_CXX_ABI_LIBRARY_PATH:PATH
+
+  Provide the path to the ABI library that libc++ should link against.
+
+.. option:: LIBCXX_ENABLE_STATIC_ABI_LIBRARY:BOOL
+
+  **Default**: ``OFF``
+
+  If this option is enabled, libc++ will try and link the selected ABI library
+  statically.
+
+.. option:: LIBCXX_ENABLE_ABI_LINKER_SCRIPT:BOOL
+
+  **Default**: ``ON`` by default on UNIX platforms other than Apple unless
+  'LIBCXX_ENABLE_STATIC_ABI_LIBRARY' is ON. Otherwise the default value is ``OFF``.
+
+  This option generate and installs a linker script as ``libc++.so`` which
+  links the correct ABI library.
+
+.. option:: LIBCXXABI_USE_LLVM_UNWINDER:BOOL
+
+  **Default**: ``OFF``
+
+  Build and use the LLVM unwinder. Note: This option can only be used when
+  libc++abi is the C++ ABI library used.
+
+
+libc++ Feature options
+----------------------
+
+.. option:: LIBCXX_ENABLE_EXCEPTIONS:BOOL
+
+  **Default**: ``ON``
+
+  Build libc++ with exception support.
+
+.. option:: LIBCXX_ENABLE_RTTI:BOOL
+
+  **Default**: ``ON``
+
+  Build libc++ with run time type information.
+
+
+libc++ Feature options
+----------------------
+
+The following options allow building libc++ for a different ABI version.
+
+.. option:: LIBCXX_ABI_VERSION:STRING
+
+  **Default**: ``1``
+
+  Defines the target ABI version of libc++.
+
+.. option:: LIBCXX_ABI_UNSTABLE:BOOL
+
+  **Default**: ``OFF``
+
+  Build the "unstable" ABI version of libc++. Includes all ABI changing features
+  on top of the current stable version.
+
+.. _LLVM-specific variables:
+
+LLVM-specific options
+---------------------
+
+.. option:: LLVM_LIBDIR_SUFFIX:STRING
+
+  Extra suffix to append to the directory where libraries are to be
+  installed. On a 64-bit architecture, one could use ``-DLLVM_LIBDIR_SUFFIX=64``
+  to install libraries to ``/usr/lib64``.
+
+.. option:: LLVM_BUILD_32_BITS:BOOL
+
+  Build 32-bits executables and libraries on 64-bits systems. This option is
+  available only on some 64-bits unix systems. Defaults to OFF.
+
+.. option:: LLVM_LIT_ARGS:STRING
+
+  Arguments given to lit.  ``make check`` and ``make clang-test`` are affected.
+  By default, ``'-sv --no-progress-bar'`` on Visual C++ and Xcode, ``'-sv'`` on
+  others.
+
+
+Using Alternate ABI libraries
+=============================
+
+
+.. _libsupcxx:
+
+Using libsupc++ on Linux
+------------------------
+
+You will need libstdc++ in order to provide libsupc++.
+
+Figure out where the libsupc++ headers are on your system. On Ubuntu this
+is ``/usr/include/c++/<version>`` and ``/usr/include/c++/<version>/<target-triple>``
+
+You can also figure this out by running
+
+.. code-block:: bash
+
+  $ echo | g++ -Wp,-v -x c++ - -fsyntax-only
+  ignoring nonexistent directory "/usr/local/include/x86_64-linux-gnu"
+  ignoring nonexistent directory "/usr/lib/gcc/x86_64-linux-gnu/4.7/../../../../x86_64-linux-gnu/include"
+  #include "..." search starts here:
+  #include <...> search starts here:
+  /usr/include/c++/4.7
+  /usr/include/c++/4.7/x86_64-linux-gnu
+  /usr/include/c++/4.7/backward
+  /usr/lib/gcc/x86_64-linux-gnu/4.7/include
+  /usr/local/include
+  /usr/lib/gcc/x86_64-linux-gnu/4.7/include-fixed
+  /usr/include/x86_64-linux-gnu
+  /usr/include
+  End of search list.
+
+Note that the first two entries happen to be what we are looking for. This
+may not be correct on other platforms.
+
+We can now run CMake:
+
+.. code-block:: bash
+
+  $ CC=clang CXX=clang++ cmake -G "Unix Makefiles" \
+    -DLIBCXX_CXX_ABI=libstdc++ \
+    -DLIBCXX_CXX_ABI_INCLUDE_PATHS="/usr/include/c++/4.7/;/usr/include/c++/4.7/x86_64-linux-gnu/" \
+    -DCMAKE_BUILD_TYPE=Release -DCMAKE_INSTALL_PREFIX=/usr \
+    <libc++-source-dir>
+
+
+You can also substitute ``-DLIBCXX_CXX_ABI=libsupc++``
+above, which will cause the library to be linked to libsupc++ instead
+of libstdc++, but this is only recommended if you know that you will
+never need to link against libstdc++ in the same executable as libc++.
+GCC ships libsupc++ separately but only as a static library.  If a
+program also needs to link against libstdc++, it will provide its
+own copy of libsupc++ and this can lead to subtle problems.
+
+.. code-block:: bash
+
+  $ make cxx
+  $ make install
+
+You can now run clang with -stdlib=libc++.
+
+
+.. _libcxxrt_ref:
+
+Using libcxxrt on Linux
+------------------------
+
+You will need to keep the source tree of `libcxxrt`_ available
+on your build machine and your copy of the libcxxrt shared library must
+be placed where your linker will find it.
+
+We can now run CMake like:
+
+.. code-block:: bash
+
+  $ CC=clang CXX=clang++ cmake -G "Unix Makefiles" \
+          -DLIBCXX_CXX_ABI=libcxxrt \
+          -DLIBCXX_CXX_ABI_INCLUDE_PATHS=path/to/libcxxrt-sources/src \
+                -DCMAKE_BUILD_TYPE=Release \
+                -DCMAKE_INSTALL_PREFIX=/usr \
+                <libc++-source-directory>
+  $ make cxx
+  $ make install
+
+Unfortunately you can't simply run clang with "-stdlib=libc++" at this point, as
+clang is set up to link for libc++ linked to libsupc++.  To get around this
+you'll have to set up your linker yourself (or patch clang).  For example,
+
+.. code-block:: bash
+
+  $ clang++ -stdlib=libc++ helloworld.cpp \
+            -nodefaultlibs -lc++ -lcxxrt -lm -lc -lgcc_s -lgcc
+
+Alternately, you could just add libcxxrt to your libraries list, which in most
+situations will give the same result:
+
+.. code-block:: bash
+
+  $ clang++ -stdlib=libc++ helloworld.cpp -lcxxrt
+
+.. _`libcxxrt`: https://github.com/pathscale/libcxxrt/
+
+
+Using a local ABI library installation
+---------------------------------------
+
+.. warning::
+  This is not recommended in almost all cases.
+
+These instructions should only be used when you can't install your ABI library.
+
+Normally you must link libc++ against a ABI shared library that the
+linker can find.  If you want to build and test libc++ against an ABI
+library not in the linker's path you needq to set
+``-DLIBCXX_CXX_ABI_LIBRARY_PATH=/path/to/abi/lib`` when configuring CMake.
+
+An example build using libc++abi would look like:
+
+.. code-block:: bash
+
+  $ CC=clang CXX=clang++ cmake \
+              -DLIBCXX_CXX_ABI=libc++abi  \
+              -DLIBCXX_CXX_ABI_INCLUDE_PATHS="/path/to/libcxxabi/include" \
+              -DLIBCXX_CXX_ABI_LIBRARY_PATH="/path/to/libcxxabi-build/lib" \
+               path/to/libcxx
+  $ make
+
+When testing libc++ LIT will automatically link against the proper ABI
+library.

Added: www-releases/trunk/3.9.0/projects/libcxx/docs/_sources/DesignDocs/ABIVersioning.txt
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@@ -0,0 +1,17 @@
+
+====================
+Libc++ ABI stability
+====================
+
+Libc++ aims to preserve stable ABI to avoid subtle bugs when code built to the old ABI
+is linked with the code build to the new ABI. At the same time, libc++ allows ABI-breaking
+improvements and bugfixes for the scenarios when ABI change is not a issue.
+
+To support both cases, libc++ allows specifying the ABI version at the
+build time.  The version is defined with a cmake option
+LIBCXX_ABI_VERSION. Another option LIBCXX_ABI_UNSTABLE can be used to
+include all present ABI breaking features. These options translate
+into C++ macro definitions _LIBCPP_ABI_VERSION, _LIBCPP_ABI_UNSTABLE.
+
+Any ABI-changing feature is placed under it's own macro, _LIBCPP_ABI_XXX, which is enabled
+based on the value of _LIBCPP_ABI_VERSION. _LIBCPP_ABI_UNSTABLE, if set, enables all features at once.

Added: www-releases/trunk/3.9.0/projects/libcxx/docs/_sources/DesignDocs/CapturingConfigInfo.txt
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+++ www-releases/trunk/3.9.0/projects/libcxx/docs/_sources/DesignDocs/CapturingConfigInfo.txt Fri Sep  2 10:56:46 2016
@@ -0,0 +1,88 @@
+=======================================================
+Capturing configuration information during installation
+=======================================================
+
+.. contents::
+   :local:
+
+The Problem
+===========
+
+Currently the libc++ supports building the library with a number of different
+configuration options.  Unfortunately all of that configuration information is
+lost when libc++ is installed. In order to support "persistent"
+configurations libc++ needs a mechanism to capture the configuration options
+in the INSTALLED headers.
+
+
+Design Goals
+============
+
+* The solution should not INSTALL any additional headers. We don't want an extra
+  #include slowing everybody down.
+
+* The solution should not unduly affect libc++ developers. The problem is limited
+  to installed versions of libc++ and the solution should be as well.
+
+* The solution should not modify any existing headers EXCEPT during installation.
+  It makes developers lives harder if they have to regenerate the libc++ headers
+  every time they are modified.
+
+* The solution should not make any of the libc++ headers dependant on
+  files generated by the build system. The headers should be able to compile
+  out of the box without any modification.
+
+* The solution should not have ANY effect on users who don't need special
+  configuration options. The vast majority of users will never need this so it
+  shouldn't cost them.
+
+
+The Solution
+============
+
+When you first configure libc++ using CMake we check to see if we need to
+capture any options. If we haven't been given any "persistent" options then
+we do NOTHING.
+
+Otherwise we create a custom installation rule that modifies the installed __config
+header. The rule first generates a dummy "__config_site" header containing the required
+#defines. The contents of the dummy header are then prependend to the installed
+__config header. By manually prepending the files we avoid the cost of an
+extra #include and we allow the __config header to be ignorant of the extra
+configuration all together. An example "__config" header generated when
+-DLIBCXX_ENABLE_THREADS=OFF is given to CMake would look something like:
+
+.. code-block:: cpp
+
+  //===----------------------------------------------------------------------===//
+  //
+  //                     The LLVM Compiler Infrastructure
+  //
+  // This file is dual licensed under the MIT and the University of Illinois Open
+  // Source Licenses. See LICENSE.TXT for details.
+  //
+  //===----------------------------------------------------------------------===//
+
+  #ifndef _LIBCPP_CONFIG_SITE
+  #define _LIBCPP_CONFIG_SITE
+
+  /* #undef _LIBCPP_HAS_NO_GLOBAL_FILESYSTEM_NAMESPACE */
+  /* #undef _LIBCPP_HAS_NO_STDIN */
+  /* #undef _LIBCPP_HAS_NO_STDOUT */
+  #define _LIBCPP_HAS_NO_THREADS
+  /* #undef _LIBCPP_HAS_NO_MONOTONIC_CLOCK */
+  /* #undef _LIBCPP_HAS_NO_THREAD_UNSAFE_C_FUNCTIONS */
+
+  #endif
+  // -*- C++ -*-
+  //===--------------------------- __config ---------------------------------===//
+  //
+  //                     The LLVM Compiler Infrastructure
+  //
+  // This file is dual licensed under the MIT and the University of Illinois Open
+  // Source Licenses. See LICENSE.TXT for details.
+  //
+  //===----------------------------------------------------------------------===//
+
+  #ifndef _LIBCPP_CONFIG
+  #define _LIBCPP_CONFIG

Added: www-releases/trunk/3.9.0/projects/libcxx/docs/_sources/TestingLibcxx.txt
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--- www-releases/trunk/3.9.0/projects/libcxx/docs/_sources/TestingLibcxx.txt (added)
+++ www-releases/trunk/3.9.0/projects/libcxx/docs/_sources/TestingLibcxx.txt Fri Sep  2 10:56:46 2016
@@ -0,0 +1,200 @@
+==============
+Testing libc++
+==============
+
+.. contents::
+  :local:
+
+Getting Started
+===============
+
+libc++ uses LIT to configure and run its tests. The primary way to run the
+libc++ tests is by using make check-libcxx. However since libc++ can be used
+in any number of possible configurations it is important to customize the way
+LIT builds and runs the tests. This guide provides information on how to use
+LIT directly to test libc++.
+
+Please see the `Lit Command Guide`_ for more information about LIT.
+
+.. _LIT Command Guide: http://llvm.org/docs/CommandGuide/lit.html
+
+Setting up the Environment
+--------------------------
+
+After building libc++ you must setup your environment to test libc++ using
+LIT.
+
+#. Create a shortcut to the actual lit executable so that you can invoke it
+   easily from the command line.
+
+   .. code-block:: bash
+
+     $ alias lit='python path/to/llvm/utils/lit/lit.py'
+
+#. Tell LIT where to find your build configuration.
+
+   .. code-block:: bash
+
+     $ export LIBCXX_SITE_CONFIG=path/to/build-libcxx/test/lit.site.cfg
+
+Example Usage
+-------------
+
+Once you have your environment set up and you have built libc++ you can run
+parts of the libc++ test suite by simply running `lit` on a specified test or
+directory. For example:
+
+.. code-block:: bash
+
+  $ cd path/to/src/libcxx
+  $ lit -sv test/std/re # Run all of the std::regex tests
+  $ lit -sv test/std/depr/depr.c.headers/stdlib_h.pass.cpp # Run a single test
+  $ lit -sv test/std/atomics test/std/threads # Test std::thread and std::atomic
+
+Sometimes you'll want to change the way LIT is running the tests. Custom options
+can be specified using the `--param=<name>=<val>` flag. The most common option
+you'll want to change is the standard dialect (ie -std=c++XX). By default the
+test suite will select the newest C++ dialect supported by the compiler and use
+that. However if you want to manually specify the option like so:
+
+.. code-block:: bash
+
+  $ lit -sv test/std/containers # Run the tests with the newest -std
+  $ lit -sv --param=std=c++03 test/std/containers # Run the tests in C++03
+
+Occasionally you'll want to add extra compile or link flags when testing.
+You can do this as follows:
+
+.. code-block:: bash
+
+  $ lit -sv --param=compile_flags='-Wcustom-warning'
+  $ lit -sv --param=link_flags='-L/custom/library/path'
+
+Some other common examples include:
+
+.. code-block:: bash
+
+  # Specify a custom compiler.
+  $ lit -sv --param=cxx_under_test=/opt/bin/g++ test/std
+
+  # Enable warnings in the test suite
+  $ lit -sv --param=enable_warnings=true test/std
+
+  # Use UBSAN when running the tests.
+  $ lit -sv --param=use_sanitizer=Undefined
+
+
+LIT Options
+===========
+
+:program:`lit` [*options*...] [*filenames*...]
+
+Command Line Options
+--------------------
+
+To use these options you pass them on the LIT command line as --param NAME or
+--param NAME=VALUE. Some options have default values specified during CMake's
+configuration. Passing the option on the command line will override the default.
+
+.. program:: lit
+
+.. option:: --cxx_under_test=<path/to/compiler>
+
+  Specify the compiler used to build the tests.
+
+.. option:: std=<standard version>
+
+  **Values**: c++98, c++03, c++11, c++14, c++1z
+
+  Change the standard version used when building the tests.
+
+.. option:: --libcxx_site_config=<path/to/lit.site.cfg>
+
+  Specify the site configuration to use when running the tests.  This option
+  overrides the enviroment variable LIBCXX_SITE_CONFIG.
+
+.. option:: --libcxx_headers=<path/to/headers>
+
+  Specify the libc++ headers that are tested. By default the headers in the
+  source tree are used.
+
+.. option:: --cxx_library_root=<path/to/lib/>
+
+  Specify the directory of the libc++ library to be tested. By default the
+  library folder of the build directory is used. This option cannot be used
+  when use_system_lib is provided.
+
+
+.. option:: --cxx_runtime_root=<path/to/lib/>
+
+  Specify the directory of the libc++ library to use at runtime. This directory
+  is not added to the linkers search path. This can be used to compile tests
+  against one version of libc++ and run them using another. The default value
+  for this option is `cxx_library_root`. This option cannot be used
+  when use_system_lib is provided.
+
+.. option:: --use_system_lib=<bool>
+
+  **Default**: False
+
+  Enable or disable testing against the installed version of libc++ library.
+  Note: This does not use the installed headers.
+
+.. option:: --use_lit_shell=<bool>
+
+  Enable or disable the use of LIT's internal shell in ShTests. If the
+  environment variable LIT_USE_INTERNAL_SHELL is present then that is used as
+  the default value. Otherwise the default value is True on Windows and False
+  on every other platform.
+
+.. option:: --no_default_flags=<bool>
+
+  **Default**: False
+
+  Disable all default compile and link flags from being added. When this
+  option is used only flags specified using the compile_flags and link_flags
+  will be used.
+
+.. option:: --compile_flags="<list-of-args>"
+
+  Specify additional compile flags as a space delimited string.
+  Note: This options should not be used to change the standard version used.
+
+.. option:: --link_flags="<list-of-args>"
+
+  Specify additional link flags as a space delimited string.
+
+.. option:: --debug_level=<level>
+
+  **Values**: 0, 1
+
+  Enable the use of debug mode. Level 0 enables assertions and level 1 enables
+  assertions and debugging of iterator misuse.
+
+.. option:: use_sanitizer=<sanitizer name>
+
+  **Values**: Memory, MemoryWithOrigins, Address, Undefined
+
+  Run the tests using the given sanitizer. If LLVM_USE_SANITIZER was given when
+  building libc++ then that sanitizer will be used by default.
+
+.. option:: color_diagnostics
+
+  Enable the use of colorized compile diagnostics. If the color_diagnostics
+  option is specified or the environment variable LIBCXX_COLOR_DIAGNOSTICS is
+  present then color diagnostics will be enabled.
+
+
+Environment Variables
+---------------------
+
+.. envvar:: LIBCXX_SITE_CONFIG=<path/to/lit.site.cfg>
+
+  Specify the site configuration to use when running the tests.
+  Also see :option:`libcxx_site_config`.
+
+.. envvar:: LIBCXX_COLOR_DIAGNOSTICS
+
+  If ``LIBCXX_COLOR_DIAGNOSTICS`` is defined then the test suite will attempt
+  to use color diagnostic outputs from the compiler.
+  Also see :option:`color_diagnostics`.

Added: www-releases/trunk/3.9.0/projects/libcxx/docs/_sources/UsingLibcxx.txt
URL: http://llvm.org/viewvc/llvm-project/www-releases/trunk/3.9.0/projects/libcxx/docs/_sources/UsingLibcxx.txt?rev=280493&view=auto
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--- www-releases/trunk/3.9.0/projects/libcxx/docs/_sources/UsingLibcxx.txt (added)
+++ www-releases/trunk/3.9.0/projects/libcxx/docs/_sources/UsingLibcxx.txt Fri Sep  2 10:56:46 2016
@@ -0,0 +1,125 @@
+============
+Using libc++
+============
+
+.. contents::
+  :local:
+
+Getting Started
+===============
+
+If you already have libc++ installed you can use it with clang.
+
+.. code-block:: bash
+
+    $ clang++ -stdlib=libc++ test.cpp
+    $ clang++ -std=c++11 -stdlib=libc++ test.cpp
+
+On OS X and FreeBSD libc++ is the default standard library
+and the ``-stdlib=libc++`` is not required.
+
+.. _alternate libcxx:
+
+If you want to select an alternate installation of libc++ you
+can use the following options.
+
+.. code-block:: bash
+
+  $ clang++ -std=c++11 -stdlib=libc++ -nostdinc++ \
+            -I<libcxx-install-prefix>/include/c++/v1 \
+            -L<libcxx-install-prefix>/lib \
+            -Wl,-rpath,<libcxx-install-prefix>/lib \
+            test.cpp
+
+The option ``-Wl,-rpath,<libcxx-install-prefix>/lib`` adds a runtime library
+search path. Meaning that the systems dynamic linker will look for libc++ in
+``<libcxx-install-prefix>/lib`` whenever the program is run. Alternatively the
+environment variable ``LD_LIBRARY_PATH`` (``DYLD_LIBRARY_PATH`` on OS X) can
+be used to change the dynamic linkers search paths after a program is compiled.
+
+An example of using ``LD_LIBRARY_PATH``:
+
+.. code-block:: bash
+
+  $ clang++ -stdlib=libc++ -nostdinc++ \
+            -I<libcxx-install-prefix>/include/c++/v1
+            -L<libcxx-install-prefix>/lib \
+            test.cpp -o
+  $ ./a.out # Searches for libc++ in the systems library paths.
+  $ export LD_LIBRARY_PATH=<libcxx-install-prefix>/lib
+  $ ./a.out # Searches for libc++ along LD_LIBRARY_PATH
+
+Using libc++experimental and ``<experimental/...>``
+=====================================================
+
+Libc++ provides implementations of experimental technical specifications
+in a separate library, ``libc++experimental.a``. Users of ``<experimental/...>``
+headers may be required to link ``-lc++experimental``.
+
+.. code-block:: bash
+
+  $ clang++ -std=c++14 -stdlib=libc++ test.cpp -lc++experimental
+
+Libc++experimental.a may not always be available, even when libc++ is already
+installed. For information on building libc++experimental from source see
+:ref:`Building Libc++ <build instructions>` and
+:ref:`libc++experimental CMake Options <libc++experimental options>`.
+
+Also see the `Experimental Library Implementation Status <http://libcxx.llvm.org/ts1z_status.html>`__
+page.
+
+.. warning::
+  Experimental libraries are Experimental.
+    * The contents of the ``<experimental/...>`` headers and ``libc++experimental.a``
+      library will not remain compatible between versions.
+    * No guarantees of API or ABI stability are provided.
+
+Using libc++ on Linux
+=====================
+
+On Linux libc++ can typically be used with only '-stdlib=libc++'. However
+some libc++ installations require the user manually link libc++abi themselves.
+If you are running into linker errors when using libc++ try adding '-lc++abi'
+to the link line.  For example:
+
+.. code-block:: bash
+
+  $ clang++ -stdlib=libc++ test.cpp -lc++ -lc++abi -lm -lc -lgcc_s -lgcc
+
+Alternately, you could just add libc++abi to your libraries list, which in
+most situations will give the same result:
+
+.. code-block:: bash
+
+  $ clang++ -stdlib=libc++ test.cpp -lc++abi
+
+
+Using libc++ with GCC
+---------------------
+
+GCC does not provide a way to switch from libstdc++ to libc++. You must manually
+configure the compile and link commands.
+
+In particular you must tell GCC to remove the libstdc++ include directories
+using ``-nostdinc++`` and to not link libstdc++.so using ``-nodefaultlibs``.
+
+Note that ``-nodefaultlibs`` removes all of the standard system libraries and
+not just libstdc++ so they must be manually linked. For example:
+
+.. code-block:: bash
+
+  $ g++ -nostdinc++ -I<libcxx-install-prefix>/include/c++/v1 \
+         test.cpp -nodefaultlibs -lc++ -lc++abi -lm -lc -lgcc_s -lgcc
+
+
+GDB Pretty printers for libc++
+------------------------------
+
+GDB does not support pretty-printing of libc++ symbols by default. Unfortunately
+libc++ does not provide pretty-printers itself. However there are 3rd
+party implementations available and although they are not officially
+supported by libc++ they may be useful to users.
+
+Known 3rd Party Implementations Include:
+
+* `Koutheir's libc++ pretty-printers <https://github.com/koutheir/libcxx-pretty-printers>`_.

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@@ -0,0 +1,185 @@
+.. _index:
+
+=============================
+"libc++" C++ Standard Library
+=============================
+
+Overview
+========
+
+libc++ is a new implementation of the C++ standard library, targeting C++11.
+
+* Features and Goals
+
+  * Correctness as defined by the C++11 standard.
+  * Fast execution.
+  * Minimal memory use.
+  * Fast compile times.
+  * ABI compatibility with gcc's libstdc++ for some low-level features
+    such as exception objects, rtti and memory allocation.
+  * Extensive unit tests.
+
+* Design and Implementation:
+
+  * Extensive unit tests
+  * Internal linker model can be dumped/read to textual format
+  * Additional linking features can be plugged in as "passes"
+  * OS specific and CPU specific code factored out
+
+
+Getting Started with libc++
+---------------------------
+
+.. toctree::
+   :maxdepth: 2
+
+   UsingLibcxx
+   BuildingLibcxx
+   TestingLibcxx
+
+
+Current Status
+--------------
+
+After its initial introduction, many people have asked "why start a new
+library instead of contributing to an existing library?" (like Apache's
+libstdcxx, GNU's libstdc++, STLport, etc).  There are many contributing
+reasons, but some of the major ones are:
+
+* From years of experience (including having implemented the standard
+  library before), we've learned many things about implementing
+  the standard containers which require ABI breakage and fundamental changes
+  to how they are implemented.  For example, it is generally accepted that
+  building std::string using the "short string optimization" instead of
+  using Copy On Write (COW) is a superior approach for multicore
+  machines (particularly in C++11, which has rvalue references).  Breaking
+  ABI compatibility with old versions of the library was
+  determined to be critical to achieving the performance goals of
+  libc++.
+
+* Mainline libstdc++ has switched to GPL3, a license which the developers
+  of libc++ cannot use.  libstdc++ 4.2 (the last GPL2 version) could be
+  independently extended to support C++11, but this would be a fork of the
+  codebase (which is often seen as worse for a project than starting a new
+  independent one).  Another problem with libstdc++ is that it is tightly
+  integrated with G++ development, tending to be tied fairly closely to the
+  matching version of G++.
+
+* STLport and the Apache libstdcxx library are two other popular
+  candidates, but both lack C++11 support.  Our experience (and the
+  experience of libstdc++ developers) is that adding support for C++11 (in
+  particular rvalue references and move-only types) requires changes to
+  almost every class and function, essentially amounting to a rewrite.
+  Faced with a rewrite, we decided to start from scratch and evaluate every
+  design decision from first principles based on experience.
+  Further, both projects are apparently abandoned: STLport 5.2.1 was
+  released in Oct'08, and STDCXX 4.2.1 in May'08.
+
+Platform and Compiler Support
+-----------------------------
+
+libc++ is known to work on the following platforms, using gcc-4.2 and
+clang  (lack of C++11 language support disables some functionality).
+Note that functionality provided by ``<atomic>`` is only functional with clang
+and GCC.
+
+============ ==================== ============ ========================
+OS           Arch                 Compilers    ABI Library
+============ ==================== ============ ========================
+Mac OS X     i386, x86_64         Clang, GCC   libc++abi
+FreeBSD 10+  i386, x86_64, ARM    Clang, GCC   libcxxrt, libc++abi
+Linux        i386, x86_64         Clang, GCC   libc++abi
+============ ==================== ============ ========================
+
+The following minimum compiler versions are strongly recommended.
+
+* Clang 3.5 and above
+* GCC 4.7 and above.
+
+Anything older *may* work.
+
+C++ Dialect Support
+---------------------
+
+* C++11 - Complete
+* `C++14 - Complete <http://libcxx.llvm.org/cxx1y_status.html>`__
+* `C++1z - In Progress <http://libcxx.llvm.org/cxx1z_status.html>`__
+* `Post C++14 Technical Specifications - In Progress <http://libcxx.llvm.org/ts1z_status.html>`__
+
+Notes and Known Issues
+----------------------
+
+This list contains known issues with libc++
+
+* Building libc++ with ``-fno-rtti`` is not supported. However
+  linking against it with ``-fno-rtti`` is supported.
+* On OS X v10.8 and older the CMake option ``-DLIBCXX_LIBCPPABI_VERSION=""``
+  must be used during configuration.
+
+
+A full list of currently open libc++ bugs can be `found here`__.
+
+.. __:  https://llvm.org/bugs/buglist.cgi?component=All%20Bugs&product=libc%2B%2B&query_format=advanced&resolution=---&order=changeddate%20DESC%2Cassigned_to%20DESC%2Cbug_status%2Cpriority%2Cbug_id&list_id=74184
+
+Design Documents
+----------------
+
+.. toctree::
+   :maxdepth: 1
+
+   DesignDocs/CapturingConfigInfo
+   DesignDocs/ABIVersioning
+
+
+* `<atomic> design <http://libcxx.llvm.org/atomic_design.html>`_
+* `<type_traits> design <http://libcxx.llvm.org/type_traits_design.html>`_
+* `Status of debug mode <http://libcxx.llvm.org/debug_mode.html>`_
+* `Notes by Marshall Clow`__
+
+.. __: https://cplusplusmusings.wordpress.com/2012/07/05/clang-and-standard-libraries-on-mac-os-x/
+
+Build Bots and Test Coverage
+----------------------------
+
+* `LLVM Buildbot Builders <http://lab.llvm.org:8011/console>`_
+* `Apple Jenkins Builders <http://lab.llvm.org:8080/green/view/Libcxx/>`_
+* `EricWF's Nightly Builders <http://ds2.efcs.ca:8080/console>`_
+* `Code Coverage Results <http://efcs.ca/libcxx-coverage>`_
+
+Getting Involved
+================
+
+First please review our `Developer's Policy <http://llvm.org/docs/DeveloperPolicy.html>`__
+and `Getting started with LLVM <http://llvm.org/docs/GettingStarted.html>`__.
+
+**Bug Reports**
+
+If you think you've found a bug in libc++, please report it using
+the `LLVM Bugzilla`_. If you're not sure, you
+can post a message to the `cfe-dev mailing list`_ or on IRC.
+Please include "libc++" in your subject.
+
+**Patches**
+
+If you want to contribute a patch to libc++, the best place for that is
+`Phabricator <http://llvm.org/docs/Phabricator.html>`_. Please include [libcxx] in the subject and
+add `cfe-commits` as a subscriber. Also make sure you are subscribed to the
+`cfe-commits mailing list <http://lists.llvm.org/mailman/listinfo/cfe-commits>`_.
+
+**Discussion and Questions**
+
+Send discussions and questions to the
+`cfe-dev mailing list <http://lists.llvm.org/mailman/listinfo/cfe-dev>`_.
+Please include [libcxx] in the subject.
+
+
+
+Quick Links
+===========
+* `LLVM Homepage <http://llvm.org/>`_
+* `libc++abi Homepage <http://libcxxabi.llvm.org/>`_
+* `LLVM Bugzilla <http://llvm.org/bugs/>`_
+* `cfe-commits Mailing List`_
+* `cfe-dev Mailing List`_
+* `Browse libc++ -- SVN <http://llvm.org/svn/llvm-project/libcxx/trunk/>`_
+* `Browse libc++ -- ViewVC <http://llvm.org/viewvc/llvm-project/libcxx/trunk/>`_

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+
+div.modindex-jumpbox {
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+ * Sphinx JavaScript utilities for all documentation.
+ *
+ * :copyright: Copyright 2007-2014 by the Sphinx team, see AUTHORS.
+ * :license: BSD, see LICENSE for details.
+ *
+ */
+
+/**
+ * select a different prefix for underscore
+ */
+$u = _.noConflict();
+
+/**
+ * make the code below compatible with browsers without
+ * an installed firebug like debugger
+if (!window.console || !console.firebug) {
+  var names = ["log", "debug", "info", "warn", "error", "assert", "dir",
+    "dirxml", "group", "groupEnd", "time", "timeEnd", "count", "trace",
+    "profile", "profileEnd"];
+  window.console = {};
+  for (var i = 0; i < names.length; ++i)
+    window.console[names[i]] = function() {};
+}
+ */
+
+/**
+ * small helper function to urldecode strings
+ */
+jQuery.urldecode = function(x) {
+  return decodeURIComponent(x).replace(/\+/g, ' ');
+};
+
+/**
+ * small helper function to urlencode strings
+ */
+jQuery.urlencode = encodeURIComponent;
+
+/**
+ * This function returns the parsed url parameters of the
+ * current request. Multiple values per key are supported,
+ * it will always return arrays of strings for the value parts.
+ */
+jQuery.getQueryParameters = function(s) {
+  if (typeof s == 'undefined')
+    s = document.location.search;
+  var parts = s.substr(s.indexOf('?') + 1).split('&');
+  var result = {};
+  for (var i = 0; i < parts.length; i++) {
+    var tmp = parts[i].split('=', 2);
+    var key = jQuery.urldecode(tmp[0]);
+    var value = jQuery.urldecode(tmp[1]);
+    if (key in result)
+      result[key].push(value);
+    else
+      result[key] = [value];
+  }
+  return result;
+};
+
+/**
+ * highlight a given string on a jquery object by wrapping it in
+ * span elements with the given class name.
+ */
+jQuery.fn.highlightText = function(text, className) {
+  function highlight(node) {
+    if (node.nodeType == 3) {
+      var val = node.nodeValue;
+      var pos = val.toLowerCase().indexOf(text);
+      if (pos >= 0 && !jQuery(node.parentNode).hasClass(className)) {
+        var span = document.createElement("span");
+        span.className = className;
+        span.appendChild(document.createTextNode(val.substr(pos, text.length)));
+        node.parentNode.insertBefore(span, node.parentNode.insertBefore(
+          document.createTextNode(val.substr(pos + text.length)),
+          node.nextSibling));
+        node.nodeValue = val.substr(0, pos);
+      }
+    }
+    else if (!jQuery(node).is("button, select, textarea")) {
+      jQuery.each(node.childNodes, function() {
+        highlight(this);
+      });
+    }
+  }
+  return this.each(function() {
+    highlight(this);
+  });
+};
+
+/**
+ * Small JavaScript module for the documentation.
+ */
+var Documentation = {
+
+  init : function() {
+    this.fixFirefoxAnchorBug();
+    this.highlightSearchWords();
+    this.initIndexTable();
+  },
+
+  /**
+   * i18n support
+   */
+  TRANSLATIONS : {},
+  PLURAL_EXPR : function(n) { return n == 1 ? 0 : 1; },
+  LOCALE : 'unknown',
+
+  // gettext and ngettext don't access this so that the functions
+  // can safely bound to a different name (_ = Documentation.gettext)
+  gettext : function(string) {
+    var translated = Documentation.TRANSLATIONS[string];
+    if (typeof translated == 'undefined')
+      return string;
+    return (typeof translated == 'string') ? translated : translated[0];
+  },
+
+  ngettext : function(singular, plural, n) {
+    var translated = Documentation.TRANSLATIONS[singular];
+    if (typeof translated == 'undefined')
+      return (n == 1) ? singular : plural;
+    return translated[Documentation.PLURALEXPR(n)];
+  },
+
+  addTranslations : function(catalog) {
+    for (var key in catalog.messages)
+      this.TRANSLATIONS[key] = catalog.messages[key];
+    this.PLURAL_EXPR = new Function('n', 'return +(' + catalog.plural_expr + ')');
+    this.LOCALE = catalog.locale;
+  },
+
+  /**
+   * add context elements like header anchor links
+   */
+  addContextElements : function() {
+    $('div[id] > :header:first').each(function() {
+      $('<a class="headerlink">\u00B6</a>').
+      attr('href', '#' + this.id).
+      attr('title', _('Permalink to this headline')).
+      appendTo(this);
+    });
+    $('dt[id]').each(function() {
+      $('<a class="headerlink">\u00B6</a>').
+      attr('href', '#' + this.id).
+      attr('title', _('Permalink to this definition')).
+      appendTo(this);
+    });
+  },
+
+  /**
+   * workaround a firefox stupidity
+   */
+  fixFirefoxAnchorBug : function() {
+    if (document.location.hash && $.browser.mozilla)
+      window.setTimeout(function() {
+        document.location.href += '';
+      }, 10);
+  },
+
+  /**
+   * highlight the search words provided in the url in the text
+   */
+  highlightSearchWords : function() {
+    var params = $.getQueryParameters();
+    var terms = (params.highlight) ? params.highlight[0].split(/\s+/) : [];
+    if (terms.length) {
+      var body = $('div.body');
+      if (!body.length) {
+        body = $('body');
+      }
+      window.setTimeout(function() {
+        $.each(terms, function() {
+          body.highlightText(this.toLowerCase(), 'highlighted');
+        });
+      }, 10);
+      $('<p class="highlight-link"><a href="javascript:Documentation.' +
+        'hideSearchWords()">' + _('Hide Search Matches') + '</a></p>')
+          .appendTo($('#searchbox'));
+    }
+  },
+
+  /**
+   * init the domain index toggle buttons
+   */
+  initIndexTable : function() {
+    var togglers = $('img.toggler').click(function() {
+      var src = $(this).attr('src');
+      var idnum = $(this).attr('id').substr(7);
+      $('tr.cg-' + idnum).toggle();
+      if (src.substr(-9) == 'minus.png')
+        $(this).attr('src', src.substr(0, src.length-9) + 'plus.png');
+      else
+        $(this).attr('src', src.substr(0, src.length-8) + 'minus.png');
+    }).css('display', '');
+    if (DOCUMENTATION_OPTIONS.COLLAPSE_INDEX) {
+        togglers.click();
+    }
+  },
+
+  /**
+   * helper function to hide the search marks again
+   */
+  hideSearchWords : function() {
+    $('#searchbox .highlight-link').fadeOut(300);
+    $('span.highlighted').removeClass('highlighted');
+  },
+
+  /**
+   * make the url absolute
+   */
+  makeURL : function(relativeURL) {
+    return DOCUMENTATION_OPTIONS.URL_ROOT + '/' + relativeURL;
+  },
+
+  /**
+   * get the current relative url
+   */
+  getCurrentURL : function() {
+    var path = document.location.pathname;
+    var parts = path.split(/\//);
+    $.each(DOCUMENTATION_OPTIONS.URL_ROOT.split(/\//), function() {
+      if (this == '..')
+        parts.pop();
+    });
+    var url = parts.join('/');
+    return path.substring(url.lastIndexOf('/') + 1, path.length - 1);
+  }
+};
+
+// quick alias for translations
+_ = Documentation.gettext;
+
+$(document).ready(function() {
+  Documentation.init();
+});

Added: www-releases/trunk/3.9.0/projects/libcxx/docs/_static/down-pressed.png
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Added: www-releases/trunk/3.9.0/projects/libcxx/docs/_static/haiku.css
URL: http://llvm.org/viewvc/llvm-project/www-releases/trunk/3.9.0/projects/libcxx/docs/_static/haiku.css?rev=280493&view=auto
==============================================================================
--- www-releases/trunk/3.9.0/projects/libcxx/docs/_static/haiku.css (added)
+++ www-releases/trunk/3.9.0/projects/libcxx/docs/_static/haiku.css Fri Sep  2 10:56:46 2016
@@ -0,0 +1,371 @@
+/*
+ * haiku.css_t
+ * ~~~~~~~~~~~
+ *
+ * Sphinx stylesheet -- haiku theme.
+ *
+ * Adapted from http://haiku-os.org/docs/Haiku-doc.css.
+ * Original copyright message:
+ *
+ *     Copyright 2008-2009, Haiku. All rights reserved.
+ *     Distributed under the terms of the MIT License.
+ *
+ *     Authors:
+ *              Francois Revol <revol at free.fr>
+ *              Stephan Assmus <superstippi at gmx.de>
+ *              Braden Ewing <brewin at gmail.com>
+ *              Humdinger <humdingerb at gmail.com>
+ *
+ * :copyright: Copyright 2007-2014 by the Sphinx team, see AUTHORS.
+ * :license: BSD, see LICENSE for details.
+ *
+ */
+
+ at import url("basic.css");
+
+html {
+    margin: 0px;
+    padding: 0px;
+    background: #FFF url(bg-page.png) top left repeat-x;
+}
+
+body {
+    line-height: 1.5;
+    margin: auto;
+    padding: 0px;
+    font-family: "DejaVu Sans", Arial, Helvetica, sans-serif;
+    min-width: 59em;
+    max-width: 70em;
+    color: #333333;
+}
+
+div.footer {
+    padding: 8px;
+    font-size: 11px;
+    text-align: center;
+    letter-spacing: 0.5px;
+}
+
+/* link colors and text decoration */
+
+a:link {
+    font-weight: bold;
+    text-decoration: none;
+    color: #dc3c01;
+}
+
+a:visited {
+    font-weight: bold;
+    text-decoration: none;
+    color: #892601;
+}
+
+a:hover, a:active {
+    text-decoration: underline;
+    color: #ff4500;
+}
+
+/* Some headers act as anchors, don't give them a hover effect */
+
+h1 a:hover, a:active {
+    text-decoration: none;
+    color: #0c3762;
+}
+
+h2 a:hover, a:active {
+    text-decoration: none;
+    color: #0c3762;
+}
+
+h3 a:hover, a:active {
+    text-decoration: none;
+    color: #0c3762;
+}
+
+h4 a:hover, a:active {
+    text-decoration: none;
+    color: #0c3762;
+}
+
+a.headerlink {
+    color: #a7ce38;
+    padding-left: 5px;
+}
+
+a.headerlink:hover {
+    color: #a7ce38;
+}
+
+/* basic text elements */
+
+div.content {
+    margin-top: 20px;
+    margin-left: 40px;
+    margin-right: 40px;
+    margin-bottom: 50px;
+    font-size: 0.9em;
+}
+
+/* heading and navigation */
+
+div.header {
+    position: relative;
+    left: 0px;
+    top: 0px;
+    height: 85px;
+    /* background: #eeeeee; */
+    padding: 0 40px;
+}
+div.header h1 {
+    font-size: 1.6em;
+    font-weight: normal;
+    letter-spacing: 1px;
+    color: #0c3762;
+    border: 0;
+    margin: 0;
+    padding-top: 15px;
+}
+div.header h1 a {
+    font-weight: normal;
+    color: #0c3762;
+}
+div.header h2 {
+    font-size: 1.3em;
+    font-weight: normal;
+    letter-spacing: 1px;
+    text-transform: uppercase;
+    color: #aaa;
+    border: 0;
+    margin-top: -3px;
+    padding: 0;
+}
+
+div.header img.rightlogo {
+    float: right;
+}
+
+
+div.title {
+    font-size: 1.3em;
+    font-weight: bold;
+    color: #0c3762;
+    border-bottom: dotted thin #e0e0e0;
+    margin-bottom: 25px;
+}
+div.topnav {
+    /* background: #e0e0e0; */
+}
+div.topnav p {
+    margin-top: 0;
+    margin-left: 40px;
+    margin-right: 40px;
+    margin-bottom: 0px;
+    text-align: right;
+    font-size: 0.8em;
+}
+div.bottomnav {
+    background: #eeeeee;
+}
+div.bottomnav p {
+    margin-right: 40px;
+    text-align: right;
+    font-size: 0.8em;
+}
+
+a.uplink {
+    font-weight: normal;
+}
+
+
+/* contents box */
+
+table.index {
+    margin: 0px 0px 30px 30px;
+    padding: 1px;
+    border-width: 1px;
+    border-style: dotted;
+    border-color: #e0e0e0;
+}
+table.index tr.heading {
+    background-color: #e0e0e0;
+    text-align: center;
+    font-weight: bold;
+    font-size: 1.1em;
+}
+table.index tr.index {
+    background-color: #eeeeee;
+}
+table.index td {
+    padding: 5px 20px;
+}
+
+table.index a:link, table.index a:visited {
+    font-weight: normal;
+    text-decoration: none;
+    color: #dc3c01;
+}
+table.index a:hover, table.index a:active {
+    text-decoration: underline;
+    color: #ff4500;
+}
+
+
+/* Haiku User Guide styles and layout */
+
+/* Rounded corner boxes */
+/* Common declarations */
+div.admonition {
+    -webkit-border-radius: 10px;
+    -khtml-border-radius: 10px;
+    -moz-border-radius: 10px;
+    border-radius: 10px;
+    border-style: dotted;
+    border-width: thin;
+    border-color: #dcdcdc;
+    padding: 10px 15px 10px 15px;
+    margin-bottom: 15px;
+    margin-top: 15px;
+}
+div.note {
+    padding: 10px 15px 10px 80px;
+    background: #e4ffde url(alert_info_32.png) 15px 15px no-repeat;
+    min-height: 42px;
+}
+div.warning {
+    padding: 10px 15px 10px 80px;
+    background: #fffbc6 url(alert_warning_32.png) 15px 15px no-repeat;
+    min-height: 42px;
+}
+div.seealso {
+    background: #e4ffde;
+}
+
+/* More layout and styles */
+h1 {
+    font-size: 1.3em;
+    font-weight: bold;
+    color: #0c3762;
+    border-bottom: dotted thin #e0e0e0;
+    margin-top: 30px;
+}
+
+h2 {
+    font-size: 1.2em;
+    font-weight: normal;
+    color: #0c3762;
+    border-bottom: dotted thin #e0e0e0;
+    margin-top: 30px;
+}
+
+h3 {
+    font-size: 1.1em;
+    font-weight: normal;
+    color: #0c3762;
+    margin-top: 30px;
+}
+
+h4 {
+    font-size: 1.0em;
+    font-weight: normal;
+    color: #0c3762;
+    margin-top: 30px;
+}
+
+p {
+    text-align: justify;
+}
+
+p.last {
+    margin-bottom: 0;
+}
+
+ol {
+    padding-left: 20px;
+}
+
+ul {
+    padding-left: 5px;
+    margin-top: 3px;
+}
+
+li {
+    line-height: 1.3;
+}
+
+div.content ul > li {
+    -moz-background-clip:border;
+    -moz-background-inline-policy:continuous;
+    -moz-background-origin:padding;
+    background: transparent url(bullet_orange.png) no-repeat scroll left 0.45em;
+    list-style-image: none;
+    list-style-type: none;
+    padding: 0 0 0 1.666em;
+    margin-bottom: 3px;
+}
+
+td {
+    vertical-align: top;
+}
+
+tt {
+    background-color: #e2e2e2;
+    font-size: 1.0em;
+    font-family: monospace;
+}
+
+pre {
+    border-color: #0c3762;
+    border-style: dotted;
+    border-width: thin;
+    margin: 0 0 12px 0;
+    padding: 0.8em;
+    background-color: #f0f0f0;
+}
+
+hr {
+    border-top: 1px solid #ccc;
+    border-bottom: 0;
+    border-right: 0;
+    border-left: 0;
+    margin-bottom: 10px;
+    margin-top: 20px;
+}
+
+/* printer only pretty stuff */
+ at media print {
+    .noprint {
+        display: none;
+    }
+    /* for acronyms we want their definitions inlined at print time */
+    acronym[title]:after {
+        font-size: small;
+        content: " (" attr(title) ")";
+        font-style: italic;
+    }
+    /* and not have mozilla dotted underline */
+    acronym {
+        border: none;
+    }
+    div.topnav, div.bottomnav, div.header, table.index {
+        display: none;
+    }
+    div.content {
+        margin: 0px;
+        padding: 0px;
+    }
+    html {
+        background: #FFF;
+    }
+}
+
+.viewcode-back {
+    font-family: "DejaVu Sans", Arial, Helvetica, sans-serif;
+}
+
+div.viewcode-block:target {
+    background-color: #f4debf;
+    border-top: 1px solid #ac9;
+    border-bottom: 1px solid #ac9;
+    margin: -1px -10px;
+    padding: 0 12px;
+}
\ No newline at end of file

Added: www-releases/trunk/3.9.0/projects/libcxx/docs/_static/jquery.js
URL: http://llvm.org/viewvc/llvm-project/www-releases/trunk/3.9.0/projects/libcxx/docs/_static/jquery.js?rev=280493&view=auto
==============================================================================
--- www-releases/trunk/3.9.0/projects/libcxx/docs/_static/jquery.js (added)
+++ www-releases/trunk/3.9.0/projects/libcxx/docs/_static/jquery.js Fri Sep  2 10:56:46 2016
@@ -0,0 +1,9404 @@
+/*!
+ * jQuery JavaScript Library v1.7.2
+ * http://jquery.com/
+ *
+ * Copyright 2011, John Resig
+ * Dual licensed under the MIT or GPL Version 2 licenses.
+ * http://jquery.org/license
+ *
+ * Includes Sizzle.js
+ * http://sizzlejs.com/
+ * Copyright 2011, The Dojo Foundation
+ * Released under the MIT, BSD, and GPL Licenses.
+ *
+ * Date: Fri Jul  5 14:07:58 UTC 2013
+ */
+(function( window, undefined ) {
+
+// Use the correct document accordingly with window argument (sandbox)
+var document = window.document,
+	navigator = window.navigator,
+	location = window.location;
+var jQuery = (function() {
+
+// Define a local copy of jQuery
+var jQuery = function( selector, context ) {
+		// The jQuery object is actually just the init constructor 'enhanced'
+		return new jQuery.fn.init( selector, context, rootjQuery );
+	},
+
+	// Map over jQuery in case of overwrite
+	_jQuery = window.jQuery,
+
+	// Map over the $ in case of overwrite
+	_$ = window.$,
+
+	// A central reference to the root jQuery(document)
+	rootjQuery,
+
+	// A simple way to check for HTML strings or ID strings
+	// Prioritize #id over <tag> to avoid XSS via location.hash (#9521)
+	quickExpr = /^(?:[^#<]*(<[\w\W]+>)[^>]*$|#([\w\-]*)$)/,
+
+	// Check if a string has a non-whitespace character in it
+	rnotwhite = /\S/,
+
+	// Used for trimming whitespace
+	trimLeft = /^\s+/,
+	trimRight = /\s+$/,
+
+	// Match a standalone tag
+	rsingleTag = /^<(\w+)\s*\/?>(?:<\/\1>)?$/,
+
+	// JSON RegExp
+	rvalidchars = /^[\],:{}\s]*$/,
+	rvalidescape = /\\(?:["\\\/bfnrt]|u[0-9a-fA-F]{4})/g,
+	rvalidtokens = /"[^"\\\n\r]*"|true|false|null|-?\d+(?:\.\d*)?(?:[eE][+\-]?\d+)?/g,
+	rvalidbraces = /(?:^|:|,)(?:\s*\[)+/g,
+
+	// Useragent RegExp
+	rwebkit = /(webkit)[ \/]([\w.]+)/,
+	ropera = /(opera)(?:.*version)?[ \/]([\w.]+)/,
+	rmsie = /(msie) ([\w.]+)/,
+	rmozilla = /(mozilla)(?:.*? rv:([\w.]+))?/,
+
+	// Matches dashed string for camelizing
+	rdashAlpha = /-([a-z]|[0-9])/ig,
+	rmsPrefix = /^-ms-/,
+
+	// Used by jQuery.camelCase as callback to replace()
+	fcamelCase = function( all, letter ) {
+		return ( letter + "" ).toUpperCase();
+	},
+
+	// Keep a UserAgent string for use with jQuery.browser
+	userAgent = navigator.userAgent,
+
+	// For matching the engine and version of the browser
+	browserMatch,
+
+	// The deferred used on DOM ready
+	readyList,
+
+	// The ready event handler
+	DOMContentLoaded,
+
+	// Save a reference to some core methods
+	toString = Object.prototype.toString,
+	hasOwn = Object.prototype.hasOwnProperty,
+	push = Array.prototype.push,
+	slice = Array.prototype.slice,
+	trim = String.prototype.trim,
+	indexOf = Array.prototype.indexOf,
+
+	// [[Class]] -> type pairs
+	class2type = {};
+
+jQuery.fn = jQuery.prototype = {
+	constructor: jQuery,
+	init: function( selector, context, rootjQuery ) {
+		var match, elem, ret, doc;
+
+		// Handle $(""), $(null), or $(undefined)
+		if ( !selector ) {
+			return this;
+		}
+
+		// Handle $(DOMElement)
+		if ( selector.nodeType ) {
+			this.context = this[0] = selector;
+			this.length = 1;
+			return this;
+		}
+
+		// The body element only exists once, optimize finding it
+		if ( selector === "body" && !context && document.body ) {
+			this.context = document;
+			this[0] = document.body;
+			this.selector = selector;
+			this.length = 1;
+			return this;
+		}
+
+		// Handle HTML strings
+		if ( typeof selector === "string" ) {
+			// Are we dealing with HTML string or an ID?
+			if ( selector.charAt(0) === "<" && selector.charAt( selector.length - 1 ) === ">" && selector.length >= 3 ) {
+				// Assume that strings that start and end with <> are HTML and skip the regex check
+				match = [ null, selector, null ];
+
+			} else {
+				match = quickExpr.exec( selector );
+			}
+
+			// Verify a match, and that no context was specified for #id
+			if ( match && (match[1] || !context) ) {
+
+				// HANDLE: $(html) -> $(array)
+				if ( match[1] ) {
+					context = context instanceof jQuery ? context[0] : context;
+					doc = ( context ? context.ownerDocument || context : document );
+
+					// If a single string is passed in and it's a single tag
+					// just do a createElement and skip the rest
+					ret = rsingleTag.exec( selector );
+
+					if ( ret ) {
+						if ( jQuery.isPlainObject( context ) ) {
+							selector = [ document.createElement( ret[1] ) ];
+							jQuery.fn.attr.call( selector, context, true );
+
+						} else {
+							selector = [ doc.createElement( ret[1] ) ];
+						}
+
+					} else {
+						ret = jQuery.buildFragment( [ match[1] ], [ doc ] );
+						selector = ( ret.cacheable ? jQuery.clone(ret.fragment) : ret.fragment ).childNodes;
+					}
+
+					return jQuery.merge( this, selector );
+
+				// HANDLE: $("#id")
+				} else {
+					elem = document.getElementById( match[2] );
+
+					// Check parentNode to catch when Blackberry 4.6 returns
+					// nodes that are no longer in the document #6963
+					if ( elem && elem.parentNode ) {
+						// Handle the case where IE and Opera return items
+						// by name instead of ID
+						if ( elem.id !== match[2] ) {
+							return rootjQuery.find( selector );
+						}
+
+						// Otherwise, we inject the element directly into the jQuery object
+						this.length = 1;
+						this[0] = elem;
+					}
+
+					this.context = document;
+					this.selector = selector;
+					return this;
+				}
+
+			// HANDLE: $(expr, $(...))
+			} else if ( !context || context.jquery ) {
+				return ( context || rootjQuery ).find( selector );
+
+			// HANDLE: $(expr, context)
+			// (which is just equivalent to: $(context).find(expr)
+			} else {
+				return this.constructor( context ).find( selector );
+			}
+
+		// HANDLE: $(function)
+		// Shortcut for document ready
+		} else if ( jQuery.isFunction( selector ) ) {
+			return rootjQuery.ready( selector );
+		}
+
+		if ( selector.selector !== undefined ) {
+			this.selector = selector.selector;
+			this.context = selector.context;
+		}
+
+		return jQuery.makeArray( selector, this );
+	},
+
+	// Start with an empty selector
+	selector: "",
+
+	// The current version of jQuery being used
+	jquery: "1.7.2",
+
+	// The default length of a jQuery object is 0
+	length: 0,
+
+	// The number of elements contained in the matched element set
+	size: function() {
+		return this.length;
+	},
+
+	toArray: function() {
+		return slice.call( this, 0 );
+	},
+
+	// Get the Nth element in the matched element set OR
+	// Get the whole matched element set as a clean array
+	get: function( num ) {
+		return num == null ?
+
+			// Return a 'clean' array
+			this.toArray() :
+
+			// Return just the object
+			( num < 0 ? this[ this.length + num ] : this[ num ] );
+	},
+
+	// Take an array of elements and push it onto the stack
+	// (returning the new matched element set)
+	pushStack: function( elems, name, selector ) {
+		// Build a new jQuery matched element set
+		var ret = this.constructor();
+
+		if ( jQuery.isArray( elems ) ) {
+			push.apply( ret, elems );
+
+		} else {
+			jQuery.merge( ret, elems );
+		}
+
+		// Add the old object onto the stack (as a reference)
+		ret.prevObject = this;
+
+		ret.context = this.context;
+
+		if ( name === "find" ) {
+			ret.selector = this.selector + ( this.selector ? " " : "" ) + selector;
+		} else if ( name ) {
+			ret.selector = this.selector + "." + name + "(" + selector + ")";
+		}
+
+		// Return the newly-formed element set
+		return ret;
+	},
+
+	// Execute a callback for every element in the matched set.
+	// (You can seed the arguments with an array of args, but this is
+	// only used internally.)
+	each: function( callback, args ) {
+		return jQuery.each( this, callback, args );
+	},
+
+	ready: function( fn ) {
+		// Attach the listeners
+		jQuery.bindReady();
+
+		// Add the callback
+		readyList.add( fn );
+
+		return this;
+	},
+
+	eq: function( i ) {
+		i = +i;
+		return i === -1 ?
+			this.slice( i ) :
+			this.slice( i, i + 1 );
+	},
+
+	first: function() {
+		return this.eq( 0 );
+	},
+
+	last: function() {
+		return this.eq( -1 );
+	},
+
+	slice: function() {
+		return this.pushStack( slice.apply( this, arguments ),
+			"slice", slice.call(arguments).join(",") );
+	},
+
+	map: function( callback ) {
+		return this.pushStack( jQuery.map(this, function( elem, i ) {
+			return callback.call( elem, i, elem );
+		}));
+	},
+
+	end: function() {
+		return this.prevObject || this.constructor(null);
+	},
+
+	// For internal use only.
+	// Behaves like an Array's method, not like a jQuery method.
+	push: push,
+	sort: [].sort,
+	splice: [].splice
+};
+
+// Give the init function the jQuery prototype for later instantiation
+jQuery.fn.init.prototype = jQuery.fn;
+
+jQuery.extend = jQuery.fn.extend = function() {
+	var options, name, src, copy, copyIsArray, clone,
+		target = arguments[0] || {},
+		i = 1,
+		length = arguments.length,
+		deep = false;
+
+	// Handle a deep copy situation
+	if ( typeof target === "boolean" ) {
+		deep = target;
+		target = arguments[1] || {};
+		// skip the boolean and the target
+		i = 2;
+	}
+
+	// Handle case when target is a string or something (possible in deep copy)
+	if ( typeof target !== "object" && !jQuery.isFunction(target) ) {
+		target = {};
+	}
+
+	// extend jQuery itself if only one argument is passed
+	if ( length === i ) {
+		target = this;
+		--i;
+	}
+
+	for ( ; i < length; i++ ) {
+		// Only deal with non-null/undefined values
+		if ( (options = arguments[ i ]) != null ) {
+			// Extend the base object
+			for ( name in options ) {
+				src = target[ name ];
+				copy = options[ name ];
+
+				// Prevent never-ending loop
+				if ( target === copy ) {
+					continue;
+				}
+
+				// Recurse if we're merging plain objects or arrays
+				if ( deep && copy && ( jQuery.isPlainObject(copy) || (copyIsArray = jQuery.isArray(copy)) ) ) {
+					if ( copyIsArray ) {
+						copyIsArray = false;
+						clone = src && jQuery.isArray(src) ? src : [];
+
+					} else {
+						clone = src && jQuery.isPlainObject(src) ? src : {};
+					}
+
+					// Never move original objects, clone them
+					target[ name ] = jQuery.extend( deep, clone, copy );
+
+				// Don't bring in undefined values
+				} else if ( copy !== undefined ) {
+					target[ name ] = copy;
+				}
+			}
+		}
+	}
+
+	// Return the modified object
+	return target;
+};
+
+jQuery.extend({
+	noConflict: function( deep ) {
+		if ( window.$ === jQuery ) {
+			window.$ = _$;
+		}
+
+		if ( deep && window.jQuery === jQuery ) {
+			window.jQuery = _jQuery;
+		}
+
+		return jQuery;
+	},
+
+	// Is the DOM ready to be used? Set to true once it occurs.
+	isReady: false,
+
+	// A counter to track how many items to wait for before
+	// the ready event fires. See #6781
+	readyWait: 1,
+
+	// Hold (or release) the ready event
+	holdReady: function( hold ) {
+		if ( hold ) {
+			jQuery.readyWait++;
+		} else {
+			jQuery.ready( true );
+		}
+	},
+
+	// Handle when the DOM is ready
+	ready: function( wait ) {
+		// Either a released hold or an DOMready/load event and not yet ready
+		if ( (wait === true && !--jQuery.readyWait) || (wait !== true && !jQuery.isReady) ) {
+			// Make sure body exists, at least, in case IE gets a little overzealous (ticket #5443).
+			if ( !document.body ) {
+				return setTimeout( jQuery.ready, 1 );
+			}
+
+			// Remember that the DOM is ready
+			jQuery.isReady = true;
+
+			// If a normal DOM Ready event fired, decrement, and wait if need be
+			if ( wait !== true && --jQuery.readyWait > 0 ) {
+				return;
+			}
+
+			// If there are functions bound, to execute
+			readyList.fireWith( document, [ jQuery ] );
+
+			// Trigger any bound ready events
+			if ( jQuery.fn.trigger ) {
+				jQuery( document ).trigger( "ready" ).off( "ready" );
+			}
+		}
+	},
+
+	bindReady: function() {
+		if ( readyList ) {
+			return;
+		}
+
+		readyList = jQuery.Callbacks( "once memory" );
+
+		// Catch cases where $(document).ready() is called after the
+		// browser event has already occurred.
+		if ( document.readyState === "complete" ) {
+			// Handle it asynchronously to allow scripts the opportunity to delay ready
+			return setTimeout( jQuery.ready, 1 );
+		}
+
+		// Mozilla, Opera and webkit nightlies currently support this event
+		if ( document.addEventListener ) {
+			// Use the handy event callback
+			document.addEventListener( "DOMContentLoaded", DOMContentLoaded, false );
+
+			// A fallback to window.onload, that will always work
+			window.addEventListener( "load", jQuery.ready, false );
+
+		// If IE event model is used
+		} else if ( document.attachEvent ) {
+			// ensure firing before onload,
+			// maybe late but safe also for iframes
+			document.attachEvent( "onreadystatechange", DOMContentLoaded );
+
+			// A fallback to window.onload, that will always work
+			window.attachEvent( "onload", jQuery.ready );
+
+			// If IE and not a frame
+			// continually check to see if the document is ready
+			var toplevel = false;
+
+			try {
+				toplevel = window.frameElement == null;
+			} catch(e) {}
+
+			if ( document.documentElement.doScroll && toplevel ) {
+				doScrollCheck();
+			}
+		}
+	},
+
+	// See test/unit/core.js for details concerning isFunction.
+	// Since version 1.3, DOM methods and functions like alert
+	// aren't supported. They return false on IE (#2968).
+	isFunction: function( obj ) {
+		return jQuery.type(obj) === "function";
+	},
+
+	isArray: Array.isArray || function( obj ) {
+		return jQuery.type(obj) === "array";
+	},
+
+	isWindow: function( obj ) {
+		return obj != null && obj == obj.window;
+	},
+
+	isNumeric: function( obj ) {
+		return !isNaN( parseFloat(obj) ) && isFinite( obj );
+	},
+
+	type: function( obj ) {
+		return obj == null ?
+			String( obj ) :
+			class2type[ toString.call(obj) ] || "object";
+	},
+
+	isPlainObject: function( obj ) {
+		// Must be an Object.
+		// Because of IE, we also have to check the presence of the constructor property.
+		// Make sure that DOM nodes and window objects don't pass through, as well
+		if ( !obj || jQuery.type(obj) !== "object" || obj.nodeType || jQuery.isWindow( obj ) ) {
+			return false;
+		}
+
+		try {
+			// Not own constructor property must be Object
+			if ( obj.constructor &&
+				!hasOwn.call(obj, "constructor") &&
+				!hasOwn.call(obj.constructor.prototype, "isPrototypeOf") ) {
+				return false;
+			}
+		} catch ( e ) {
+			// IE8,9 Will throw exceptions on certain host objects #9897
+			return false;
+		}
+
+		// Own properties are enumerated firstly, so to speed up,
+		// if last one is own, then all properties are own.
+
+		var key;
+		for ( key in obj ) {}
+
+		return key === undefined || hasOwn.call( obj, key );
+	},
+
+	isEmptyObject: function( obj ) {
+		for ( var name in obj ) {
+			return false;
+		}
+		return true;
+	},
+
+	error: function( msg ) {
+		throw new Error( msg );
+	},
+
+	parseJSON: function( data ) {
+		if ( typeof data !== "string" || !data ) {
+			return null;
+		}
+
+		// Make sure leading/trailing whitespace is removed (IE can't handle it)
+		data = jQuery.trim( data );
+
+		// Attempt to parse using the native JSON parser first
+		if ( window.JSON && window.JSON.parse ) {
+			return window.JSON.parse( data );
+		}
+
+		// Make sure the incoming data is actual JSON
+		// Logic borrowed from http://json.org/json2.js
+		if ( rvalidchars.test( data.replace( rvalidescape, "@" )
+			.replace( rvalidtokens, "]" )
+			.replace( rvalidbraces, "")) ) {
+
+			return ( new Function( "return " + data ) )();
+
+		}
+		jQuery.error( "Invalid JSON: " + data );
+	},
+
+	// Cross-browser xml parsing
+	parseXML: function( data ) {
+		if ( typeof data !== "string" || !data ) {
+			return null;
+		}
+		var xml, tmp;
+		try {
+			if ( window.DOMParser ) { // Standard
+				tmp = new DOMParser();
+				xml = tmp.parseFromString( data , "text/xml" );
+			} else { // IE
+				xml = new ActiveXObject( "Microsoft.XMLDOM" );
+				xml.async = "false";
+				xml.loadXML( data );
+			}
+		} catch( e ) {
+			xml = undefined;
+		}
+		if ( !xml || !xml.documentElement || xml.getElementsByTagName( "parsererror" ).length ) {
+			jQuery.error( "Invalid XML: " + data );
+		}
+		return xml;
+	},
+
+	noop: function() {},
+
+	// Evaluates a script in a global context
+	// Workarounds based on findings by Jim Driscoll
+	// http://weblogs.java.net/blog/driscoll/archive/2009/09/08/eval-javascript-global-context
+	globalEval: function( data ) {
+		if ( data && rnotwhite.test( data ) ) {
+			// We use execScript on Internet Explorer
+			// We use an anonymous function so that context is window
+			// rather than jQuery in Firefox
+			( window.execScript || function( data ) {
+				window[ "eval" ].call( window, data );
+			} )( data );
+		}
+	},
+
+	// Convert dashed to camelCase; used by the css and data modules
+	// Microsoft forgot to hump their vendor prefix (#9572)
+	camelCase: function( string ) {
+		return string.replace( rmsPrefix, "ms-" ).replace( rdashAlpha, fcamelCase );
+	},
+
+	nodeName: function( elem, name ) {
+		return elem.nodeName && elem.nodeName.toUpperCase() === name.toUpperCase();
+	},
+
+	// args is for internal usage only
+	each: function( object, callback, args ) {
+		var name, i = 0,
+			length = object.length,
+			isObj = length === undefined || jQuery.isFunction( object );
+
+		if ( args ) {
+			if ( isObj ) {
+				for ( name in object ) {
+					if ( callback.apply( object[ name ], args ) === false ) {
+						break;
+					}
+				}
+			} else {
+				for ( ; i < length; ) {
+					if ( callback.apply( object[ i++ ], args ) === false ) {
+						break;
+					}
+				}
+			}
+
+		// A special, fast, case for the most common use of each
+		} else {
+			if ( isObj ) {
+				for ( name in object ) {
+					if ( callback.call( object[ name ], name, object[ name ] ) === false ) {
+						break;
+					}
+				}
+			} else {
+				for ( ; i < length; ) {
+					if ( callback.call( object[ i ], i, object[ i++ ] ) === false ) {
+						break;
+					}
+				}
+			}
+		}
+
+		return object;
+	},
+
+	// Use native String.trim function wherever possible
+	trim: trim ?
+		function( text ) {
+			return text == null ?
+				"" :
+				trim.call( text );
+		} :
+
+		// Otherwise use our own trimming functionality
+		function( text ) {
+			return text == null ?
+				"" :
+				text.toString().replace( trimLeft, "" ).replace( trimRight, "" );
+		},
+
+	// results is for internal usage only
+	makeArray: function( array, results ) {
+		var ret = results || [];
+
+		if ( array != null ) {
+			// The window, strings (and functions) also have 'length'
+			// Tweaked logic slightly to handle Blackberry 4.7 RegExp issues #6930
+			var type = jQuery.type( array );
+
+			if ( array.length == null || type === "string" || type === "function" || type === "regexp" || jQuery.isWindow( array ) ) {
+				push.call( ret, array );
+			} else {
+				jQuery.merge( ret, array );
+			}
+		}
+
+		return ret;
+	},
+
+	inArray: function( elem, array, i ) {
+		var len;
+
+		if ( array ) {
+			if ( indexOf ) {
+				return indexOf.call( array, elem, i );
+			}
+
+			len = array.length;
+			i = i ? i < 0 ? Math.max( 0, len + i ) : i : 0;
+
+			for ( ; i < len; i++ ) {
+				// Skip accessing in sparse arrays
+				if ( i in array && array[ i ] === elem ) {
+					return i;
+				}
+			}
+		}
+
+		return -1;
+	},
+
+	merge: function( first, second ) {
+		var i = first.length,
+			j = 0;
+
+		if ( typeof second.length === "number" ) {
+			for ( var l = second.length; j < l; j++ ) {
+				first[ i++ ] = second[ j ];
+			}
+
+		} else {
+			while ( second[j] !== undefined ) {
+				first[ i++ ] = second[ j++ ];
+			}
+		}
+
+		first.length = i;
+
+		return first;
+	},
+
+	grep: function( elems, callback, inv ) {
+		var ret = [], retVal;
+		inv = !!inv;
+
+		// Go through the array, only saving the items
+		// that pass the validator function
+		for ( var i = 0, length = elems.length; i < length; i++ ) {
+			retVal = !!callback( elems[ i ], i );
+			if ( inv !== retVal ) {
+				ret.push( elems[ i ] );
+			}
+		}
+
+		return ret;
+	},
+
+	// arg is for internal usage only
+	map: function( elems, callback, arg ) {
+		var value, key, ret = [],
+			i = 0,
+			length = elems.length,
+			// jquery objects are treated as arrays
+			isArray = elems instanceof jQuery || length !== undefined && typeof length === "number" && ( ( length > 0 && elems[ 0 ] && elems[ length -1 ] ) || length === 0 || jQuery.isArray( elems ) ) ;
+
+		// Go through the array, translating each of the items to their
+		if ( isArray ) {
+			for ( ; i < length; i++ ) {
+				value = callback( elems[ i ], i, arg );
+
+				if ( value != null ) {
+					ret[ ret.length ] = value;
+				}
+			}
+
+		// Go through every key on the object,
+		} else {
+			for ( key in elems ) {
+				value = callback( elems[ key ], key, arg );
+
+				if ( value != null ) {
+					ret[ ret.length ] = value;
+				}
+			}
+		}
+
+		// Flatten any nested arrays
+		return ret.concat.apply( [], ret );
+	},
+
+	// A global GUID counter for objects
+	guid: 1,
+
+	// Bind a function to a context, optionally partially applying any
+	// arguments.
+	proxy: function( fn, context ) {
+		if ( typeof context === "string" ) {
+			var tmp = fn[ context ];
+			context = fn;
+			fn = tmp;
+		}
+
+		// Quick check to determine if target is callable, in the spec
+		// this throws a TypeError, but we will just return undefined.
+		if ( !jQuery.isFunction( fn ) ) {
+			return undefined;
+		}
+
+		// Simulated bind
+		var args = slice.call( arguments, 2 ),
+			proxy = function() {
+				return fn.apply( context, args.concat( slice.call( arguments ) ) );
+			};
+
+		// Set the guid of unique handler to the same of original handler, so it can be removed
+		proxy.guid = fn.guid = fn.guid || proxy.guid || jQuery.guid++;
+
+		return proxy;
+	},
+
+	// Mutifunctional method to get and set values to a collection
+	// The value/s can optionally be executed if it's a function
+	access: function( elems, fn, key, value, chainable, emptyGet, pass ) {
+		var exec,
+			bulk = key == null,
+			i = 0,
+			length = elems.length;
+
+		// Sets many values
+		if ( key && typeof key === "object" ) {
+			for ( i in key ) {
+				jQuery.access( elems, fn, i, key[i], 1, emptyGet, value );
+			}
+			chainable = 1;
+
+		// Sets one value
+		} else if ( value !== undefined ) {
+			// Optionally, function values get executed if exec is true
+			exec = pass === undefined && jQuery.isFunction( value );
+
+			if ( bulk ) {
+				// Bulk operations only iterate when executing function values
+				if ( exec ) {
+					exec = fn;
+					fn = function( elem, key, value ) {
+						return exec.call( jQuery( elem ), value );
+					};
+
+				// Otherwise they run against the entire set
+				} else {
+					fn.call( elems, value );
+					fn = null;
+				}
+			}
+
+			if ( fn ) {
+				for (; i < length; i++ ) {
+					fn( elems[i], key, exec ? value.call( elems[i], i, fn( elems[i], key ) ) : value, pass );
+				}
+			}
+
+			chainable = 1;
+		}
+
+		return chainable ?
+			elems :
+
+			// Gets
+			bulk ?
+				fn.call( elems ) :
+				length ? fn( elems[0], key ) : emptyGet;
+	},
+
+	now: function() {
+		return ( new Date() ).getTime();
+	},
+
+	// Use of jQuery.browser is frowned upon.
+	// More details: http://docs.jquery.com/Utilities/jQuery.browser
+	uaMatch: function( ua ) {
+		ua = ua.toLowerCase();
+
+		var match = rwebkit.exec( ua ) ||
+			ropera.exec( ua ) ||
+			rmsie.exec( ua ) ||
+			ua.indexOf("compatible") < 0 && rmozilla.exec( ua ) ||
+			[];
+
+		return { browser: match[1] || "", version: match[2] || "0" };
+	},
+
+	sub: function() {
+		function jQuerySub( selector, context ) {
+			return new jQuerySub.fn.init( selector, context );
+		}
+		jQuery.extend( true, jQuerySub, this );
+		jQuerySub.superclass = this;
+		jQuerySub.fn = jQuerySub.prototype = this();
+		jQuerySub.fn.constructor = jQuerySub;
+		jQuerySub.sub = this.sub;
+		jQuerySub.fn.init = function init( selector, context ) {
+			if ( context && context instanceof jQuery && !(context instanceof jQuerySub) ) {
+				context = jQuerySub( context );
+			}
+
+			return jQuery.fn.init.call( this, selector, context, rootjQuerySub );
+		};
+		jQuerySub.fn.init.prototype = jQuerySub.fn;
+		var rootjQuerySub = jQuerySub(document);
+		return jQuerySub;
+	},
+
+	browser: {}
+});
+
+// Populate the class2type map
+jQuery.each("Boolean Number String Function Array Date RegExp Object".split(" "), function(i, name) {
+	class2type[ "[object " + name + "]" ] = name.toLowerCase();
+});
+
+browserMatch = jQuery.uaMatch( userAgent );
+if ( browserMatch.browser ) {
+	jQuery.browser[ browserMatch.browser ] = true;
+	jQuery.browser.version = browserMatch.version;
+}
+
+// Deprecated, use jQuery.browser.webkit instead
+if ( jQuery.browser.webkit ) {
+	jQuery.browser.safari = true;
+}
+
+// IE doesn't match non-breaking spaces with \s
+if ( rnotwhite.test( "\xA0" ) ) {
+	trimLeft = /^[\s\xA0]+/;
+	trimRight = /[\s\xA0]+$/;
+}
+
+// All jQuery objects should point back to these
+rootjQuery = jQuery(document);
+
+// Cleanup functions for the document ready method
+if ( document.addEventListener ) {
+	DOMContentLoaded = function() {
+		document.removeEventListener( "DOMContentLoaded", DOMContentLoaded, false );
+		jQuery.ready();
+	};
+
+} else if ( document.attachEvent ) {
+	DOMContentLoaded = function() {
+		// Make sure body exists, at least, in case IE gets a little overzealous (ticket #5443).
+		if ( document.readyState === "complete" ) {
+			document.detachEvent( "onreadystatechange", DOMContentLoaded );
+			jQuery.ready();
+		}
+	};
+}
+
+// The DOM ready check for Internet Explorer
+function doScrollCheck() {
+	if ( jQuery.isReady ) {
+		return;
+	}
+
+	try {
+		// If IE is used, use the trick by Diego Perini
+		// http://javascript.nwbox.com/IEContentLoaded/
+		document.documentElement.doScroll("left");
+	} catch(e) {
+		setTimeout( doScrollCheck, 1 );
+		return;
+	}
+
+	// and execute any waiting functions
+	jQuery.ready();
+}
+
+return jQuery;
+
+})();
+
+
+// String to Object flags format cache
+var flagsCache = {};
+
+// Convert String-formatted flags into Object-formatted ones and store in cache
+function createFlags( flags ) {
+	var object = flagsCache[ flags ] = {},
+		i, length;
+	flags = flags.split( /\s+/ );
+	for ( i = 0, length = flags.length; i < length; i++ ) {
+		object[ flags[i] ] = true;
+	}
+	return object;
+}
+
+/*
+ * Create a callback list using the following parameters:
+ *
+ *	flags:	an optional list of space-separated flags that will change how
+ *			the callback list behaves
+ *
+ * By default a callback list will act like an event callback list and can be
+ * "fired" multiple times.
+ *
+ * Possible flags:
+ *
+ *	once:			will ensure the callback list can only be fired once (like a Deferred)
+ *
+ *	memory:			will keep track of previous values and will call any callback added
+ *					after the list has been fired right away with the latest "memorized"
+ *					values (like a Deferred)
+ *
+ *	unique:			will ensure a callback can only be added once (no duplicate in the list)
+ *
+ *	stopOnFalse:	interrupt callings when a callback returns false
+ *
+ */
+jQuery.Callbacks = function( flags ) {
+
+	// Convert flags from String-formatted to Object-formatted
+	// (we check in cache first)
+	flags = flags ? ( flagsCache[ flags ] || createFlags( flags ) ) : {};
+
+	var // Actual callback list
+		list = [],
+		// Stack of fire calls for repeatable lists
+		stack = [],
+		// Last fire value (for non-forgettable lists)
+		memory,
+		// Flag to know if list was already fired
+		fired,
+		// Flag to know if list is currently firing
+		firing,
+		// First callback to fire (used internally by add and fireWith)
+		firingStart,
+		// End of the loop when firing
+		firingLength,
+		// Index of currently firing callback (modified by remove if needed)
+		firingIndex,
+		// Add one or several callbacks to the list
+		add = function( args ) {
+			var i,
+				length,
+				elem,
+				type,
+				actual;
+			for ( i = 0, length = args.length; i < length; i++ ) {
+				elem = args[ i ];
+				type = jQuery.type( elem );
+				if ( type === "array" ) {
+					// Inspect recursively
+					add( elem );
+				} else if ( type === "function" ) {
+					// Add if not in unique mode and callback is not in
+					if ( !flags.unique || !self.has( elem ) ) {
+						list.push( elem );
+					}
+				}
+			}
+		},
+		// Fire callbacks
+		fire = function( context, args ) {
+			args = args || [];
+			memory = !flags.memory || [ context, args ];
+			fired = true;
+			firing = true;
+			firingIndex = firingStart || 0;
+			firingStart = 0;
+			firingLength = list.length;
+			for ( ; list && firingIndex < firingLength; firingIndex++ ) {
+				if ( list[ firingIndex ].apply( context, args ) === false && flags.stopOnFalse ) {
+					memory = true; // Mark as halted
+					break;
+				}
+			}
+			firing = false;
+			if ( list ) {
+				if ( !flags.once ) {
+					if ( stack && stack.length ) {
+						memory = stack.shift();
+						self.fireWith( memory[ 0 ], memory[ 1 ] );
+					}
+				} else if ( memory === true ) {
+					self.disable();
+				} else {
+					list = [];
+				}
+			}
+		},
+		// Actual Callbacks object
+		self = {
+			// Add a callback or a collection of callbacks to the list
+			add: function() {
+				if ( list ) {
+					var length = list.length;
+					add( arguments );
+					// Do we need to add the callbacks to the
+					// current firing batch?
+					if ( firing ) {
+						firingLength = list.length;
+					// With memory, if we're not firing then
+					// we should call right away, unless previous
+					// firing was halted (stopOnFalse)
+					} else if ( memory && memory !== true ) {
+						firingStart = length;
+						fire( memory[ 0 ], memory[ 1 ] );
+					}
+				}
+				return this;
+			},
+			// Remove a callback from the list
+			remove: function() {
+				if ( list ) {
+					var args = arguments,
+						argIndex = 0,
+						argLength = args.length;
+					for ( ; argIndex < argLength ; argIndex++ ) {
+						for ( var i = 0; i < list.length; i++ ) {
+							if ( args[ argIndex ] === list[ i ] ) {
+								// Handle firingIndex and firingLength
+								if ( firing ) {
+									if ( i <= firingLength ) {
+										firingLength--;
+										if ( i <= firingIndex ) {
+											firingIndex--;
+										}
+									}
+								}
+								// Remove the element
+								list.splice( i--, 1 );
+								// If we have some unicity property then
+								// we only need to do this once
+								if ( flags.unique ) {
+									break;
+								}
+							}
+						}
+					}
+				}
+				return this;
+			},
+			// Control if a given callback is in the list
+			has: function( fn ) {
+				if ( list ) {
+					var i = 0,
+						length = list.length;
+					for ( ; i < length; i++ ) {
+						if ( fn === list[ i ] ) {
+							return true;
+						}
+					}
+				}
+				return false;
+			},
+			// Remove all callbacks from the list
+			empty: function() {
+				list = [];
+				return this;
+			},
+			// Have the list do nothing anymore
+			disable: function() {
+				list = stack = memory = undefined;
+				return this;
+			},
+			// Is it disabled?
+			disabled: function() {
+				return !list;
+			},
+			// Lock the list in its current state
+			lock: function() {
+				stack = undefined;
+				if ( !memory || memory === true ) {
+					self.disable();
+				}
+				return this;
+			},
+			// Is it locked?
+			locked: function() {
+				return !stack;
+			},
+			// Call all callbacks with the given context and arguments
+			fireWith: function( context, args ) {
+				if ( stack ) {
+					if ( firing ) {
+						if ( !flags.once ) {
+							stack.push( [ context, args ] );
+						}
+					} else if ( !( flags.once && memory ) ) {
+						fire( context, args );
+					}
+				}
+				return this;
+			},
+			// Call all the callbacks with the given arguments
+			fire: function() {
+				self.fireWith( this, arguments );
+				return this;
+			},
+			// To know if the callbacks have already been called at least once
+			fired: function() {
+				return !!fired;
+			}
+		};
+
+	return self;
+};
+
+
+
+
+var // Static reference to slice
+	sliceDeferred = [].slice;
+
+jQuery.extend({
+
+	Deferred: function( func ) {
+		var doneList = jQuery.Callbacks( "once memory" ),
+			failList = jQuery.Callbacks( "once memory" ),
+			progressList = jQuery.Callbacks( "memory" ),
+			state = "pending",
+			lists = {
+				resolve: doneList,
+				reject: failList,
+				notify: progressList
+			},
+			promise = {
+				done: doneList.add,
+				fail: failList.add,
+				progress: progressList.add,
+
+				state: function() {
+					return state;
+				},
+
+				// Deprecated
+				isResolved: doneList.fired,
+				isRejected: failList.fired,
+
+				then: function( doneCallbacks, failCallbacks, progressCallbacks ) {
+					deferred.done( doneCallbacks ).fail( failCallbacks ).progress( progressCallbacks );
+					return this;
+				},
+				always: function() {
+					deferred.done.apply( deferred, arguments ).fail.apply( deferred, arguments );
+					return this;
+				},
+				pipe: function( fnDone, fnFail, fnProgress ) {
+					return jQuery.Deferred(function( newDefer ) {
+						jQuery.each( {
+							done: [ fnDone, "resolve" ],
+							fail: [ fnFail, "reject" ],
+							progress: [ fnProgress, "notify" ]
+						}, function( handler, data ) {
+							var fn = data[ 0 ],
+								action = data[ 1 ],
+								returned;
+							if ( jQuery.isFunction( fn ) ) {
+								deferred[ handler ](function() {
+									returned = fn.apply( this, arguments );
+									if ( returned && jQuery.isFunction( returned.promise ) ) {
+										returned.promise().then( newDefer.resolve, newDefer.reject, newDefer.notify );
+									} else {
+										newDefer[ action + "With" ]( this === deferred ? newDefer : this, [ returned ] );
+									}
+								});
+							} else {
+								deferred[ handler ]( newDefer[ action ] );
+							}
+						});
+					}).promise();
+				},
+				// Get a promise for this deferred
+				// If obj is provided, the promise aspect is added to the object
+				promise: function( obj ) {
+					if ( obj == null ) {
+						obj = promise;
+					} else {
+						for ( var key in promise ) {
+							obj[ key ] = promise[ key ];
+						}
+					}
+					return obj;
+				}
+			},
+			deferred = promise.promise({}),
+			key;
+
+		for ( key in lists ) {
+			deferred[ key ] = lists[ key ].fire;
+			deferred[ key + "With" ] = lists[ key ].fireWith;
+		}
+
+		// Handle state
+		deferred.done( function() {
+			state = "resolved";
+		}, failList.disable, progressList.lock ).fail( function() {
+			state = "rejected";
+		}, doneList.disable, progressList.lock );
+
+		// Call given func if any
+		if ( func ) {
+			func.call( deferred, deferred );
+		}
+
+		// All done!
+		return deferred;
+	},
+
+	// Deferred helper
+	when: function( firstParam ) {
+		var args = sliceDeferred.call( arguments, 0 ),
+			i = 0,
+			length = args.length,
+			pValues = new Array( length ),
+			count = length,
+			pCount = length,
+			deferred = length <= 1 && firstParam && jQuery.isFunction( firstParam.promise ) ?
+				firstParam :
+				jQuery.Deferred(),
+			promise = deferred.promise();
+		function resolveFunc( i ) {
+			return function( value ) {
+				args[ i ] = arguments.length > 1 ? sliceDeferred.call( arguments, 0 ) : value;
+				if ( !( --count ) ) {
+					deferred.resolveWith( deferred, args );
+				}
+			};
+		}
+		function progressFunc( i ) {
+			return function( value ) {
+				pValues[ i ] = arguments.length > 1 ? sliceDeferred.call( arguments, 0 ) : value;
+				deferred.notifyWith( promise, pValues );
+			};
+		}
+		if ( length > 1 ) {
+			for ( ; i < length; i++ ) {
+				if ( args[ i ] && args[ i ].promise && jQuery.isFunction( args[ i ].promise ) ) {
+					args[ i ].promise().then( resolveFunc(i), deferred.reject, progressFunc(i) );
+				} else {
+					--count;
+				}
+			}
+			if ( !count ) {
+				deferred.resolveWith( deferred, args );
+			}
+		} else if ( deferred !== firstParam ) {
+			deferred.resolveWith( deferred, length ? [ firstParam ] : [] );
+		}
+		return promise;
+	}
+});
+
+
+
+
+jQuery.support = (function() {
+
+	var support,
+		all,
+		a,
+		select,
+		opt,
+		input,
+		fragment,
+		tds,
+		events,
+		eventName,
+		i,
+		isSupported,
+		div = document.createElement( "div" ),
+		documentElement = document.documentElement;
+
+	// Preliminary tests
+	div.setAttribute("className", "t");
+	div.innerHTML = "   <link/><table></table><a href='/a' style='top:1px;float:left;opacity:.55;'>a</a><input type='checkbox'/>";
+
+	all = div.getElementsByTagName( "*" );
+	a = div.getElementsByTagName( "a" )[ 0 ];
+
+	// Can't get basic test support
+	if ( !all || !all.length || !a ) {
+		return {};
+	}
+
+	// First batch of supports tests
+	select = document.createElement( "select" );
+	opt = select.appendChild( document.createElement("option") );
+	input = div.getElementsByTagName( "input" )[ 0 ];
+
+	support = {
+		// IE strips leading whitespace when .innerHTML is used
+		leadingWhitespace: ( div.firstChild.nodeType === 3 ),
+
+		// Make sure that tbody elements aren't automatically inserted
+		// IE will insert them into empty tables
+		tbody: !div.getElementsByTagName("tbody").length,
+
+		// Make sure that link elements get serialized correctly by innerHTML
+		// This requires a wrapper element in IE
+		htmlSerialize: !!div.getElementsByTagName("link").length,
+
+		// Get the style information from getAttribute
+		// (IE uses .cssText instead)
+		style: /top/.test( a.getAttribute("style") ),
+
+		// Make sure that URLs aren't manipulated
+		// (IE normalizes it by default)
+		hrefNormalized: ( a.getAttribute("href") === "/a" ),
+
+		// Make sure that element opacity exists
+		// (IE uses filter instead)
+		// Use a regex to work around a WebKit issue. See #5145
+		opacity: /^0.55/.test( a.style.opacity ),
+
+		// Verify style float existence
+		// (IE uses styleFloat instead of cssFloat)
+		cssFloat: !!a.style.cssFloat,
+
+		// Make sure that if no value is specified for a checkbox
+		// that it defaults to "on".
+		// (WebKit defaults to "" instead)
+		checkOn: ( input.value === "on" ),
+
+		// Make sure that a selected-by-default option has a working selected property.
+		// (WebKit defaults to false instead of true, IE too, if it's in an optgroup)
+		optSelected: opt.selected,
+
+		// Test setAttribute on camelCase class. If it works, we need attrFixes when doing get/setAttribute (ie6/7)
+		getSetAttribute: div.className !== "t",
+
+		// Tests for enctype support on a form(#6743)
+		enctype: !!document.createElement("form").enctype,
+
+		// Makes sure cloning an html5 element does not cause problems
+		// Where outerHTML is undefined, this still works
+		html5Clone: document.createElement("nav").cloneNode( true ).outerHTML !== "<:nav></:nav>",
+
+		// Will be defined later
+		submitBubbles: true,
+		changeBubbles: true,
+		focusinBubbles: false,
+		deleteExpando: true,
+		noCloneEvent: true,
+		inlineBlockNeedsLayout: false,
+		shrinkWrapBlocks: false,
+		reliableMarginRight: true,
+		pixelMargin: true
+	};
+
+	// jQuery.boxModel DEPRECATED in 1.3, use jQuery.support.boxModel instead
+	jQuery.boxModel = support.boxModel = (document.compatMode === "CSS1Compat");
+
+	// Make sure checked status is properly cloned
+	input.checked = true;
+	support.noCloneChecked = input.cloneNode( true ).checked;
+
+	// Make sure that the options inside disabled selects aren't marked as disabled
+	// (WebKit marks them as disabled)
+	select.disabled = true;
+	support.optDisabled = !opt.disabled;
+
+	// Test to see if it's possible to delete an expando from an element
+	// Fails in Internet Explorer
+	try {
+		delete div.test;
+	} catch( e ) {
+		support.deleteExpando = false;
+	}
+
+	if ( !div.addEventListener && div.attachEvent && div.fireEvent ) {
+		div.attachEvent( "onclick", function() {
+			// Cloning a node shouldn't copy over any
+			// bound event handlers (IE does this)
+			support.noCloneEvent = false;
+		});
+		div.cloneNode( true ).fireEvent( "onclick" );
+	}
+
+	// Check if a radio maintains its value
+	// after being appended to the DOM
+	input = document.createElement("input");
+	input.value = "t";
+	input.setAttribute("type", "radio");
+	support.radioValue = input.value === "t";
+
+	input.setAttribute("checked", "checked");
+
+	// #11217 - WebKit loses check when the name is after the checked attribute
+	input.setAttribute( "name", "t" );
+
+	div.appendChild( input );
+	fragment = document.createDocumentFragment();
+	fragment.appendChild( div.lastChild );
+
+	// WebKit doesn't clone checked state correctly in fragments
+	support.checkClone = fragment.cloneNode( true ).cloneNode( true ).lastChild.checked;
+
+	// Check if a disconnected checkbox will retain its checked
+	// value of true after appended to the DOM (IE6/7)
+	support.appendChecked = input.checked;
+
+	fragment.removeChild( input );
+	fragment.appendChild( div );
+
+	// Technique from Juriy Zaytsev
+	// http://perfectionkills.com/detecting-event-support-without-browser-sniffing/
+	// We only care about the case where non-standard event systems
+	// are used, namely in IE. Short-circuiting here helps us to
+	// avoid an eval call (in setAttribute) which can cause CSP
+	// to go haywire. See: https://developer.mozilla.org/en/Security/CSP
+	if ( div.attachEvent ) {
+		for ( i in {
+			submit: 1,
+			change: 1,
+			focusin: 1
+		}) {
+			eventName = "on" + i;
+			isSupported = ( eventName in div );
+			if ( !isSupported ) {
+				div.setAttribute( eventName, "return;" );
+				isSupported = ( typeof div[ eventName ] === "function" );
+			}
+			support[ i + "Bubbles" ] = isSupported;
+		}
+	}
+
+	fragment.removeChild( div );
+
+	// Null elements to avoid leaks in IE
+	fragment = select = opt = div = input = null;
+
+	// Run tests that need a body at doc ready
+	jQuery(function() {
+		var container, outer, inner, table, td, offsetSupport,
+			marginDiv, conMarginTop, style, html, positionTopLeftWidthHeight,
+			paddingMarginBorderVisibility, paddingMarginBorder,
+			body = document.getElementsByTagName("body")[0];
+
+		if ( !body ) {
+			// Return for frameset docs that don't have a body
+			return;
+		}
+
+		conMarginTop = 1;
+		paddingMarginBorder = "padding:0;margin:0;border:";
+		positionTopLeftWidthHeight = "position:absolute;top:0;left:0;width:1px;height:1px;";
+		paddingMarginBorderVisibility = paddingMarginBorder + "0;visibility:hidden;";
+		style = "style='" + positionTopLeftWidthHeight + paddingMarginBorder + "5px solid #000;";
+		html = "<div " + style + "display:block;'><div style='" + paddingMarginBorder + "0;display:block;overflow:hidden;'></div></div>" +
+			"<table " + style + "' cellpadding='0' cellspacing='0'>" +
+			"<tr><td></td></tr></table>";
+
+		container = document.createElement("div");
+		container.style.cssText = paddingMarginBorderVisibility + "width:0;height:0;position:static;top:0;margin-top:" + conMarginTop + "px";
+		body.insertBefore( container, body.firstChild );
+
+		// Construct the test element
+		div = document.createElement("div");
+		container.appendChild( div );
+
+		// Check if table cells still have offsetWidth/Height when they are set
+		// to display:none and there are still other visible table cells in a
+		// table row; if so, offsetWidth/Height are not reliable for use when
+		// determining if an element has been hidden directly using
+		// display:none (it is still safe to use offsets if a parent element is
+		// hidden; don safety goggles and see bug #4512 for more information).
+		// (only IE 8 fails this test)
+		div.innerHTML = "<table><tr><td style='" + paddingMarginBorder + "0;display:none'></td><td>t</td></tr></table>";
+		tds = div.getElementsByTagName( "td" );
+		isSupported = ( tds[ 0 ].offsetHeight === 0 );
+
+		tds[ 0 ].style.display = "";
+		tds[ 1 ].style.display = "none";
+
+		// Check if empty table cells still have offsetWidth/Height
+		// (IE <= 8 fail this test)
+		support.reliableHiddenOffsets = isSupported && ( tds[ 0 ].offsetHeight === 0 );
+
+		// Check if div with explicit width and no margin-right incorrectly
+		// gets computed margin-right based on width of container. For more
+		// info see bug #3333
+		// Fails in WebKit before Feb 2011 nightlies
+		// WebKit Bug 13343 - getComputedStyle returns wrong value for margin-right
+		if ( window.getComputedStyle ) {
+			div.innerHTML = "";
+			marginDiv = document.createElement( "div" );
+			marginDiv.style.width = "0";
+			marginDiv.style.marginRight = "0";
+			div.style.width = "2px";
+			div.appendChild( marginDiv );
+			support.reliableMarginRight =
+				( parseInt( ( window.getComputedStyle( marginDiv, null ) || { marginRight: 0 } ).marginRight, 10 ) || 0 ) === 0;
+		}
+
+		if ( typeof div.style.zoom !== "undefined" ) {
+			// Check if natively block-level elements act like inline-block
+			// elements when setting their display to 'inline' and giving
+			// them layout
+			// (IE < 8 does this)
+			div.innerHTML = "";
+			div.style.width = div.style.padding = "1px";
+			div.style.border = 0;
+			div.style.overflow = "hidden";
+			div.style.display = "inline";
+			div.style.zoom = 1;
+			support.inlineBlockNeedsLayout = ( div.offsetWidth === 3 );
+
+			// Check if elements with layout shrink-wrap their children
+			// (IE 6 does this)
+			div.style.display = "block";
+			div.style.overflow = "visible";
+			div.innerHTML = "<div style='width:5px;'></div>";
+			support.shrinkWrapBlocks = ( div.offsetWidth !== 3 );
+		}
+
+		div.style.cssText = positionTopLeftWidthHeight + paddingMarginBorderVisibility;
+		div.innerHTML = html;
+
+		outer = div.firstChild;
+		inner = outer.firstChild;
+		td = outer.nextSibling.firstChild.firstChild;
+
+		offsetSupport = {
+			doesNotAddBorder: ( inner.offsetTop !== 5 ),
+			doesAddBorderForTableAndCells: ( td.offsetTop === 5 )
+		};
+
+		inner.style.position = "fixed";
+		inner.style.top = "20px";
+
+		// safari subtracts parent border width here which is 5px
+		offsetSupport.fixedPosition = ( inner.offsetTop === 20 || inner.offsetTop === 15 );
+		inner.style.position = inner.style.top = "";
+
+		outer.style.overflow = "hidden";
+		outer.style.position = "relative";
+
+		offsetSupport.subtractsBorderForOverflowNotVisible = ( inner.offsetTop === -5 );
+		offsetSupport.doesNotIncludeMarginInBodyOffset = ( body.offsetTop !== conMarginTop );
+
+		if ( window.getComputedStyle ) {
+			div.style.marginTop = "1%";
+			support.pixelMargin = ( window.getComputedStyle( div, null ) || { marginTop: 0 } ).marginTop !== "1%";
+		}
+
+		if ( typeof container.style.zoom !== "undefined" ) {
+			container.style.zoom = 1;
+		}
+
+		body.removeChild( container );
+		marginDiv = div = container = null;
+
+		jQuery.extend( support, offsetSupport );
+	});
+
+	return support;
+})();
+
+
+
+
+var rbrace = /^(?:\{.*\}|\[.*\])$/,
+	rmultiDash = /([A-Z])/g;
+
+jQuery.extend({
+	cache: {},
+
+	// Please use with caution
+	uuid: 0,
+
+	// Unique for each copy of jQuery on the page
+	// Non-digits removed to match rinlinejQuery
+	expando: "jQuery" + ( jQuery.fn.jquery + Math.random() ).replace( /\D/g, "" ),
+
+	// The following elements throw uncatchable exceptions if you
+	// attempt to add expando properties to them.
+	noData: {
+		"embed": true,
+		// Ban all objects except for Flash (which handle expandos)
+		"object": "clsid:D27CDB6E-AE6D-11cf-96B8-444553540000",
+		"applet": true
+	},
+
+	hasData: function( elem ) {
+		elem = elem.nodeType ? jQuery.cache[ elem[jQuery.expando] ] : elem[ jQuery.expando ];
+		return !!elem && !isEmptyDataObject( elem );
+	},
+
+	data: function( elem, name, data, pvt /* Internal Use Only */ ) {
+		if ( !jQuery.acceptData( elem ) ) {
+			return;
+		}
+
+		var privateCache, thisCache, ret,
+			internalKey = jQuery.expando,
+			getByName = typeof name === "string",
+
+			// We have to handle DOM nodes and JS objects differently because IE6-7
+			// can't GC object references properly across the DOM-JS boundary
+			isNode = elem.nodeType,
+
+			// Only DOM nodes need the global jQuery cache; JS object data is
+			// attached directly to the object so GC can occur automatically
+			cache = isNode ? jQuery.cache : elem,
+
+			// Only defining an ID for JS objects if its cache already exists allows
+			// the code to shortcut on the same path as a DOM node with no cache
+			id = isNode ? elem[ internalKey ] : elem[ internalKey ] && internalKey,
+			isEvents = name === "events";
+
+		// Avoid doing any more work than we need to when trying to get data on an
+		// object that has no data at all
+		if ( (!id || !cache[id] || (!isEvents && !pvt && !cache[id].data)) && getByName && data === undefined ) {
+			return;
+		}
+
+		if ( !id ) {
+			// Only DOM nodes need a new unique ID for each element since their data
+			// ends up in the global cache
+			if ( isNode ) {
+				elem[ internalKey ] = id = ++jQuery.uuid;
+			} else {
+				id = internalKey;
+			}
+		}
+
+		if ( !cache[ id ] ) {
+			cache[ id ] = {};
+
+			// Avoids exposing jQuery metadata on plain JS objects when the object
+			// is serialized using JSON.stringify
+			if ( !isNode ) {
+				cache[ id ].toJSON = jQuery.noop;
+			}
+		}
+
+		// An object can be passed to jQuery.data instead of a key/value pair; this gets
+		// shallow copied over onto the existing cache
+		if ( typeof name === "object" || typeof name === "function" ) {
+			if ( pvt ) {
+				cache[ id ] = jQuery.extend( cache[ id ], name );
+			} else {
+				cache[ id ].data = jQuery.extend( cache[ id ].data, name );
+			}
+		}
+
+		privateCache = thisCache = cache[ id ];
+
+		// jQuery data() is stored in a separate object inside the object's internal data
+		// cache in order to avoid key collisions between internal data and user-defined
+		// data.
+		if ( !pvt ) {
+			if ( !thisCache.data ) {
+				thisCache.data = {};
+			}
+
+			thisCache = thisCache.data;
+		}
+
+		if ( data !== undefined ) {
+			thisCache[ jQuery.camelCase( name ) ] = data;
+		}
+
+		// Users should not attempt to inspect the internal events object using jQuery.data,
+		// it is undocumented and subject to change. But does anyone listen? No.
+		if ( isEvents && !thisCache[ name ] ) {
+			return privateCache.events;
+		}
+
+		// Check for both converted-to-camel and non-converted data property names
+		// If a data property was specified
+		if ( getByName ) {
+
+			// First Try to find as-is property data
+			ret = thisCache[ name ];
+
+			// Test for null|undefined property data
+			if ( ret == null ) {
+
+				// Try to find the camelCased property
+				ret = thisCache[ jQuery.camelCase( name ) ];
+			}
+		} else {
+			ret = thisCache;
+		}
+
+		return ret;
+	},
+
+	removeData: function( elem, name, pvt /* Internal Use Only */ ) {
+		if ( !jQuery.acceptData( elem ) ) {
+			return;
+		}
+
+		var thisCache, i, l,
+
+			// Reference to internal data cache key
+			internalKey = jQuery.expando,
+
+			isNode = elem.nodeType,
+
+			// See jQuery.data for more information
+			cache = isNode ? jQuery.cache : elem,
+
+			// See jQuery.data for more information
+			id = isNode ? elem[ internalKey ] : internalKey;
+
+		// If there is already no cache entry for this object, there is no
+		// purpose in continuing
+		if ( !cache[ id ] ) {
+			return;
+		}
+
+		if ( name ) {
+
+			thisCache = pvt ? cache[ id ] : cache[ id ].data;
+
+			if ( thisCache ) {
+
+				// Support array or space separated string names for data keys
+				if ( !jQuery.isArray( name ) ) {
+
+					// try the string as a key before any manipulation
+					if ( name in thisCache ) {
+						name = [ name ];
+					} else {
+
+						// split the camel cased version by spaces unless a key with the spaces exists
+						name = jQuery.camelCase( name );
+						if ( name in thisCache ) {
+							name = [ name ];
+						} else {
+							name = name.split( " " );
+						}
+					}
+				}
+
+				for ( i = 0, l = name.length; i < l; i++ ) {
+					delete thisCache[ name[i] ];
+				}
+
+				// If there is no data left in the cache, we want to continue
+				// and let the cache object itself get destroyed
+				if ( !( pvt ? isEmptyDataObject : jQuery.isEmptyObject )( thisCache ) ) {
+					return;
+				}
+			}
+		}
+
+		// See jQuery.data for more information
+		if ( !pvt ) {
+			delete cache[ id ].data;
+
+			// Don't destroy the parent cache unless the internal data object
+			// had been the only thing left in it
+			if ( !isEmptyDataObject(cache[ id ]) ) {
+				return;
+			}
+		}
+
+		// Browsers that fail expando deletion also refuse to delete expandos on
+		// the window, but it will allow it on all other JS objects; other browsers
+		// don't care
+		// Ensure that `cache` is not a window object #10080
+		if ( jQuery.support.deleteExpando || !cache.setInterval ) {
+			delete cache[ id ];
+		} else {
+			cache[ id ] = null;
+		}
+
+		// We destroyed the cache and need to eliminate the expando on the node to avoid
+		// false lookups in the cache for entries that no longer exist
+		if ( isNode ) {
+			// IE does not allow us to delete expando properties from nodes,
+			// nor does it have a removeAttribute function on Document nodes;
+			// we must handle all of these cases
+			if ( jQuery.support.deleteExpando ) {
+				delete elem[ internalKey ];
+			} else if ( elem.removeAttribute ) {
+				elem.removeAttribute( internalKey );
+			} else {
+				elem[ internalKey ] = null;
+			}
+		}
+	},
+
+	// For internal use only.
+	_data: function( elem, name, data ) {
+		return jQuery.data( elem, name, data, true );
+	},
+
+	// A method for determining if a DOM node can handle the data expando
+	acceptData: function( elem ) {
+		if ( elem.nodeName ) {
+			var match = jQuery.noData[ elem.nodeName.toLowerCase() ];
+
+			if ( match ) {
+				return !(match === true || elem.getAttribute("classid") !== match);
+			}
+		}
+
+		return true;
+	}
+});
+
+jQuery.fn.extend({
+	data: function( key, value ) {
+		var parts, part, attr, name, l,
+			elem = this[0],
+			i = 0,
+			data = null;
+
+		// Gets all values
+		if ( key === undefined ) {
+			if ( this.length ) {
+				data = jQuery.data( elem );
+
+				if ( elem.nodeType === 1 && !jQuery._data( elem, "parsedAttrs" ) ) {
+					attr = elem.attributes;
+					for ( l = attr.length; i < l; i++ ) {
+						name = attr[i].name;
+
+						if ( name.indexOf( "data-" ) === 0 ) {
+							name = jQuery.camelCase( name.substring(5) );
+
+							dataAttr( elem, name, data[ name ] );
+						}
+					}
+					jQuery._data( elem, "parsedAttrs", true );
+				}
+			}
+
+			return data;
+		}
+
+		// Sets multiple values
+		if ( typeof key === "object" ) {
+			return this.each(function() {
+				jQuery.data( this, key );
+			});
+		}
+
+		parts = key.split( ".", 2 );
+		parts[1] = parts[1] ? "." + parts[1] : "";
+		part = parts[1] + "!";
+
+		return jQuery.access( this, function( value ) {
+
+			if ( value === undefined ) {
+				data = this.triggerHandler( "getData" + part, [ parts[0] ] );
+
+				// Try to fetch any internally stored data first
+				if ( data === undefined && elem ) {
+					data = jQuery.data( elem, key );
+					data = dataAttr( elem, key, data );
+				}
+
+				return data === undefined && parts[1] ?
+					this.data( parts[0] ) :
+					data;
+			}
+
+			parts[1] = value;
+			this.each(function() {
+				var self = jQuery( this );
+
+				self.triggerHandler( "setData" + part, parts );
+				jQuery.data( this, key, value );
+				self.triggerHandler( "changeData" + part, parts );
+			});
+		}, null, value, arguments.length > 1, null, false );
+	},
+
+	removeData: function( key ) {
+		return this.each(function() {
+			jQuery.removeData( this, key );
+		});
+	}
+});
+
+function dataAttr( elem, key, data ) {
+	// If nothing was found internally, try to fetch any
+	// data from the HTML5 data-* attribute
+	if ( data === undefined && elem.nodeType === 1 ) {
+
+		var name = "data-" + key.replace( rmultiDash, "-$1" ).toLowerCase();
+
+		data = elem.getAttribute( name );
+
+		if ( typeof data === "string" ) {
+			try {
+				data = data === "true" ? true :
+				data === "false" ? false :
+				data === "null" ? null :
+				jQuery.isNumeric( data ) ? +data :
+					rbrace.test( data ) ? jQuery.parseJSON( data ) :
+					data;
+			} catch( e ) {}
+
+			// Make sure we set the data so it isn't changed later
+			jQuery.data( elem, key, data );
+
+		} else {
+			data = undefined;
+		}
+	}
+
+	return data;
+}
+
+// checks a cache object for emptiness
+function isEmptyDataObject( obj ) {
+	for ( var name in obj ) {
+
+		// if the public data object is empty, the private is still empty
+		if ( name === "data" && jQuery.isEmptyObject( obj[name] ) ) {
+			continue;
+		}
+		if ( name !== "toJSON" ) {
+			return false;
+		}
+	}
+
+	return true;
+}
+
+
+
+
+function handleQueueMarkDefer( elem, type, src ) {
+	var deferDataKey = type + "defer",
+		queueDataKey = type + "queue",
+		markDataKey = type + "mark",
+		defer = jQuery._data( elem, deferDataKey );
+	if ( defer &&
+		( src === "queue" || !jQuery._data(elem, queueDataKey) ) &&
+		( src === "mark" || !jQuery._data(elem, markDataKey) ) ) {
+		// Give room for hard-coded callbacks to fire first
+		// and eventually mark/queue something else on the element
+		setTimeout( function() {
+			if ( !jQuery._data( elem, queueDataKey ) &&
+				!jQuery._data( elem, markDataKey ) ) {
+				jQuery.removeData( elem, deferDataKey, true );
+				defer.fire();
+			}
+		}, 0 );
+	}
+}
+
+jQuery.extend({
+
+	_mark: function( elem, type ) {
+		if ( elem ) {
+			type = ( type || "fx" ) + "mark";
+			jQuery._data( elem, type, (jQuery._data( elem, type ) || 0) + 1 );
+		}
+	},
+
+	_unmark: function( force, elem, type ) {
+		if ( force !== true ) {
+			type = elem;
+			elem = force;
+			force = false;
+		}
+		if ( elem ) {
+			type = type || "fx";
+			var key = type + "mark",
+				count = force ? 0 : ( (jQuery._data( elem, key ) || 1) - 1 );
+			if ( count ) {
+				jQuery._data( elem, key, count );
+			} else {
+				jQuery.removeData( elem, key, true );
+				handleQueueMarkDefer( elem, type, "mark" );
+			}
+		}
+	},
+
+	queue: function( elem, type, data ) {
+		var q;
+		if ( elem ) {
+			type = ( type || "fx" ) + "queue";
+			q = jQuery._data( elem, type );
+
+			// Speed up dequeue by getting out quickly if this is just a lookup
+			if ( data ) {
+				if ( !q || jQuery.isArray(data) ) {
+					q = jQuery._data( elem, type, jQuery.makeArray(data) );
+				} else {
+					q.push( data );
+				}
+			}
+			return q || [];
+		}
+	},
+
+	dequeue: function( elem, type ) {
+		type = type || "fx";
+
+		var queue = jQuery.queue( elem, type ),
+			fn = queue.shift(),
+			hooks = {};
+
+		// If the fx queue is dequeued, always remove the progress sentinel
+		if ( fn === "inprogress" ) {
+			fn = queue.shift();
+		}
+
+		if ( fn ) {
+			// Add a progress sentinel to prevent the fx queue from being
+			// automatically dequeued
+			if ( type === "fx" ) {
+				queue.unshift( "inprogress" );
+			}
+
+			jQuery._data( elem, type + ".run", hooks );
+			fn.call( elem, function() {
+				jQuery.dequeue( elem, type );
+			}, hooks );
+		}
+
+		if ( !queue.length ) {
+			jQuery.removeData( elem, type + "queue " + type + ".run", true );
+			handleQueueMarkDefer( elem, type, "queue" );
+		}
+	}
+});
+
+jQuery.fn.extend({
+	queue: function( type, data ) {
+		var setter = 2;
+
+		if ( typeof type !== "string" ) {
+			data = type;
+			type = "fx";
+			setter--;
+		}
+
+		if ( arguments.length < setter ) {
+			return jQuery.queue( this[0], type );
+		}
+
+		return data === undefined ?
+			this :
+			this.each(function() {
+				var queue = jQuery.queue( this, type, data );
+
+				if ( type === "fx" && queue[0] !== "inprogress" ) {
+					jQuery.dequeue( this, type );
+				}
+			});
+	},
+	dequeue: function( type ) {
+		return this.each(function() {
+			jQuery.dequeue( this, type );
+		});
+	},
+	// Based off of the plugin by Clint Helfers, with permission.
+	// http://blindsignals.com/index.php/2009/07/jquery-delay/
+	delay: function( time, type ) {
+		time = jQuery.fx ? jQuery.fx.speeds[ time ] || time : time;
+		type = type || "fx";
+
+		return this.queue( type, function( next, hooks ) {
+			var timeout = setTimeout( next, time );
+			hooks.stop = function() {
+				clearTimeout( timeout );
+			};
+		});
+	},
+	clearQueue: function( type ) {
+		return this.queue( type || "fx", [] );
+	},
+	// Get a promise resolved when queues of a certain type
+	// are emptied (fx is the type by default)
+	promise: function( type, object ) {
+		if ( typeof type !== "string" ) {
+			object = type;
+			type = undefined;
+		}
+		type = type || "fx";
+		var defer = jQuery.Deferred(),
+			elements = this,
+			i = elements.length,
+			count = 1,
+			deferDataKey = type + "defer",
+			queueDataKey = type + "queue",
+			markDataKey = type + "mark",
+			tmp;
+		function resolve() {
+			if ( !( --count ) ) {
+				defer.resolveWith( elements, [ elements ] );
+			}
+		}
+		while( i-- ) {
+			if (( tmp = jQuery.data( elements[ i ], deferDataKey, undefined, true ) ||
+					( jQuery.data( elements[ i ], queueDataKey, undefined, true ) ||
+						jQuery.data( elements[ i ], markDataKey, undefined, true ) ) &&
+					jQuery.data( elements[ i ], deferDataKey, jQuery.Callbacks( "once memory" ), true ) )) {
+				count++;
+				tmp.add( resolve );
+			}
+		}
+		resolve();
+		return defer.promise( object );
+	}
+});
+
+
+
+
+var rclass = /[\n\t\r]/g,
+	rspace = /\s+/,
+	rreturn = /\r/g,
+	rtype = /^(?:button|input)$/i,
+	rfocusable = /^(?:button|input|object|select|textarea)$/i,
+	rclickable = /^a(?:rea)?$/i,
+	rboolean = /^(?:autofocus|autoplay|async|checked|controls|defer|disabled|hidden|loop|multiple|open|readonly|required|scoped|selected)$/i,
+	getSetAttribute = jQuery.support.getSetAttribute,
+	nodeHook, boolHook, fixSpecified;
+
+jQuery.fn.extend({
+	attr: function( name, value ) {
+		return jQuery.access( this, jQuery.attr, name, value, arguments.length > 1 );
+	},
+
+	removeAttr: function( name ) {
+		return this.each(function() {
+			jQuery.removeAttr( this, name );
+		});
+	},
+
+	prop: function( name, value ) {
+		return jQuery.access( this, jQuery.prop, name, value, arguments.length > 1 );
+	},
+
+	removeProp: function( name ) {
+		name = jQuery.propFix[ name ] || name;
+		return this.each(function() {
+			// try/catch handles cases where IE balks (such as removing a property on window)
+			try {
+				this[ name ] = undefined;
+				delete this[ name ];
+			} catch( e ) {}
+		});
+	},
+
+	addClass: function( value ) {
+		var classNames, i, l, elem,
+			setClass, c, cl;
+
+		if ( jQuery.isFunction( value ) ) {
+			return this.each(function( j ) {
+				jQuery( this ).addClass( value.call(this, j, this.className) );
+			});
+		}
+
+		if ( value && typeof value === "string" ) {
+			classNames = value.split( rspace );
+
+			for ( i = 0, l = this.length; i < l; i++ ) {
+				elem = this[ i ];
+
+				if ( elem.nodeType === 1 ) {
+					if ( !elem.className && classNames.length === 1 ) {
+						elem.className = value;
+
+					} else {
+						setClass = " " + elem.className + " ";
+
+						for ( c = 0, cl = classNames.length; c < cl; c++ ) {
+							if ( !~setClass.indexOf( " " + classNames[ c ] + " " ) ) {
+								setClass += classNames[ c ] + " ";
+							}
+						}
+						elem.className = jQuery.trim( setClass );
+					}
+				}
+			}
+		}
+
+		return this;
+	},
+
+	removeClass: function( value ) {
+		var classNames, i, l, elem, className, c, cl;
+
+		if ( jQuery.isFunction( value ) ) {
+			return this.each(function( j ) {
+				jQuery( this ).removeClass( value.call(this, j, this.className) );
+			});
+		}
+
+		if ( (value && typeof value === "string") || value === undefined ) {
+			classNames = ( value || "" ).split( rspace );
+
+			for ( i = 0, l = this.length; i < l; i++ ) {
+				elem = this[ i ];
+
+				if ( elem.nodeType === 1 && elem.className ) {
+					if ( value ) {
+						className = (" " + elem.className + " ").replace( rclass, " " );
+						for ( c = 0, cl = classNames.length; c < cl; c++ ) {
+							className = className.replace(" " + classNames[ c ] + " ", " ");
+						}
+						elem.className = jQuery.trim( className );
+
+					} else {
+						elem.className = "";
+					}
+				}
+			}
+		}
+
+		return this;
+	},
+
+	toggleClass: function( value, stateVal ) {
+		var type = typeof value,
+			isBool = typeof stateVal === "boolean";
+
+		if ( jQuery.isFunction( value ) ) {
+			return this.each(function( i ) {
+				jQuery( this ).toggleClass( value.call(this, i, this.className, stateVal), stateVal );
+			});
+		}
+
+		return this.each(function() {
+			if ( type === "string" ) {
+				// toggle individual class names
+				var className,
+					i = 0,
+					self = jQuery( this ),
+					state = stateVal,
+					classNames = value.split( rspace );
+
+				while ( (className = classNames[ i++ ]) ) {
+					// check each className given, space seperated list
+					state = isBool ? state : !self.hasClass( className );
+					self[ state ? "addClass" : "removeClass" ]( className );
+				}
+
+			} else if ( type === "undefined" || type === "boolean" ) {
+				if ( this.className ) {
+					// store className if set
+					jQuery._data( this, "__className__", this.className );
+				}
+
+				// toggle whole className
+				this.className = this.className || value === false ? "" : jQuery._data( this, "__className__" ) || "";
+			}
+		});
+	},
+
+	hasClass: function( selector ) {
+		var className = " " + selector + " ",
+			i = 0,
+			l = this.length;
+		for ( ; i < l; i++ ) {
+			if ( this[i].nodeType === 1 && (" " + this[i].className + " ").replace(rclass, " ").indexOf( className ) > -1 ) {
+				return true;
+			}
+		}
+
+		return false;
+	},
+
+	val: function( value ) {
+		var hooks, ret, isFunction,
+			elem = this[0];
+
+		if ( !arguments.length ) {
+			if ( elem ) {
+				hooks = jQuery.valHooks[ elem.type ] || jQuery.valHooks[ elem.nodeName.toLowerCase() ];
+
+				if ( hooks && "get" in hooks && (ret = hooks.get( elem, "value" )) !== undefined ) {
+					return ret;
+				}
+
+				ret = elem.value;
+
+				return typeof ret === "string" ?
+					// handle most common string cases
+					ret.replace(rreturn, "") :
+					// handle cases where value is null/undef or number
+					ret == null ? "" : ret;
+			}
+
+			return;
+		}
+
+		isFunction = jQuery.isFunction( value );
+
+		return this.each(function( i ) {
+			var self = jQuery(this), val;
+
+			if ( this.nodeType !== 1 ) {
+				return;
+			}
+
+			if ( isFunction ) {
+				val = value.call( this, i, self.val() );
+			} else {
+				val = value;
+			}
+
+			// Treat null/undefined as ""; convert numbers to string
+			if ( val == null ) {
+				val = "";
+			} else if ( typeof val === "number" ) {
+				val += "";
+			} else if ( jQuery.isArray( val ) ) {
+				val = jQuery.map(val, function ( value ) {
+					return value == null ? "" : value + "";
+				});
+			}
+
+			hooks = jQuery.valHooks[ this.type ] || jQuery.valHooks[ this.nodeName.toLowerCase() ];
+
+			// If set returns undefined, fall back to normal setting
+			if ( !hooks || !("set" in hooks) || hooks.set( this, val, "value" ) === undefined ) {
+				this.value = val;
+			}
+		});
+	}
+});
+
+jQuery.extend({
+	valHooks: {
+		option: {
+			get: function( elem ) {
+				// attributes.value is undefined in Blackberry 4.7 but
+				// uses .value. See #6932
+				var val = elem.attributes.value;
+				return !val || val.specified ? elem.value : elem.text;
+			}
+		},
+		select: {
+			get: function( elem ) {
+				var value, i, max, option,
+					index = elem.selectedIndex,
+					values = [],
+					options = elem.options,
+					one = elem.type === "select-one";
+
+				// Nothing was selected
+				if ( index < 0 ) {
+					return null;
+				}
+
+				// Loop through all the selected options
+				i = one ? index : 0;
+				max = one ? index + 1 : options.length;
+				for ( ; i < max; i++ ) {
+					option = options[ i ];
+
+					// Don't return options that are disabled or in a disabled optgroup
+					if ( option.selected && (jQuery.support.optDisabled ? !option.disabled : option.getAttribute("disabled") === null) &&
+							(!option.parentNode.disabled || !jQuery.nodeName( option.parentNode, "optgroup" )) ) {
+
+						// Get the specific value for the option
+						value = jQuery( option ).val();
+
+						// We don't need an array for one selects
+						if ( one ) {
+							return value;
+						}
+
+						// Multi-Selects return an array
+						values.push( value );
+					}
+				}
+
+				// Fixes Bug #2551 -- select.val() broken in IE after form.reset()
+				if ( one && !values.length && options.length ) {
+					return jQuery( options[ index ] ).val();
+				}
+
+				return values;
+			},
+
+			set: function( elem, value ) {
+				var values = jQuery.makeArray( value );
+
+				jQuery(elem).find("option").each(function() {
+					this.selected = jQuery.inArray( jQuery(this).val(), values ) >= 0;
+				});
+
+				if ( !values.length ) {
+					elem.selectedIndex = -1;
+				}
+				return values;
+			}
+		}
+	},
+
+	attrFn: {
+		val: true,
+		css: true,
+		html: true,
+		text: true,
+		data: true,
+		width: true,
+		height: true,
+		offset: true
+	},
+
+	attr: function( elem, name, value, pass ) {
+		var ret, hooks, notxml,
+			nType = elem.nodeType;
+
+		// don't get/set attributes on text, comment and attribute nodes
+		if ( !elem || nType === 3 || nType === 8 || nType === 2 ) {
+			return;
+		}
+
+		if ( pass && name in jQuery.attrFn ) {
+			return jQuery( elem )[ name ]( value );
+		}
+
+		// Fallback to prop when attributes are not supported
+		if ( typeof elem.getAttribute === "undefined" ) {
+			return jQuery.prop( elem, name, value );
+		}
+
+		notxml = nType !== 1 || !jQuery.isXMLDoc( elem );
+
+		// All attributes are lowercase
+		// Grab necessary hook if one is defined
+		if ( notxml ) {
+			name = name.toLowerCase();
+			hooks = jQuery.attrHooks[ name ] || ( rboolean.test( name ) ? boolHook : nodeHook );
+		}
+
+		if ( value !== undefined ) {
+
+			if ( value === null ) {
+				jQuery.removeAttr( elem, name );
+				return;
+
+			} else if ( hooks && "set" in hooks && notxml && (ret = hooks.set( elem, value, name )) !== undefined ) {
+				return ret;
+
+			} else {
+				elem.setAttribute( name, "" + value );
+				return value;
+			}
+
+		} else if ( hooks && "get" in hooks && notxml && (ret = hooks.get( elem, name )) !== null ) {
+			return ret;
+
+		} else {
+
+			ret = elem.getAttribute( name );
+
+			// Non-existent attributes return null, we normalize to undefined
+			return ret === null ?
+				undefined :
+				ret;
+		}
+	},
+
+	removeAttr: function( elem, value ) {
+		var propName, attrNames, name, l, isBool,
+			i = 0;
+
+		if ( value && elem.nodeType === 1 ) {
+			attrNames = value.toLowerCase().split( rspace );
+			l = attrNames.length;
+
+			for ( ; i < l; i++ ) {
+				name = attrNames[ i ];
+
+				if ( name ) {
+					propName = jQuery.propFix[ name ] || name;
+					isBool = rboolean.test( name );
+
+					// See #9699 for explanation of this approach (setting first, then removal)
+					// Do not do this for boolean attributes (see #10870)
+					if ( !isBool ) {
+						jQuery.attr( elem, name, "" );
+					}
+					elem.removeAttribute( getSetAttribute ? name : propName );
+
+					// Set corresponding property to false for boolean attributes
+					if ( isBool && propName in elem ) {
+						elem[ propName ] = false;
+					}
+				}
+			}
+		}
+	},
+
+	attrHooks: {
+		type: {
+			set: function( elem, value ) {
+				// We can't allow the type property to be changed (since it causes problems in IE)
+				if ( rtype.test( elem.nodeName ) && elem.parentNode ) {
+					jQuery.error( "type property can't be changed" );
+				} else if ( !jQuery.support.radioValue && value === "radio" && jQuery.nodeName(elem, "input") ) {
+					// Setting the type on a radio button after the value resets the value in IE6-9
+					// Reset value to it's default in case type is set after value
+					// This is for element creation
+					var val = elem.value;
+					elem.setAttribute( "type", value );
+					if ( val ) {
+						elem.value = val;
+					}
+					return value;
+				}
+			}
+		},
+		// Use the value property for back compat
+		// Use the nodeHook for button elements in IE6/7 (#1954)
+		value: {
+			get: function( elem, name ) {
+				if ( nodeHook && jQuery.nodeName( elem, "button" ) ) {
+					return nodeHook.get( elem, name );
+				}
+				return name in elem ?
+					elem.value :
+					null;
+			},
+			set: function( elem, value, name ) {
+				if ( nodeHook && jQuery.nodeName( elem, "button" ) ) {
+					return nodeHook.set( elem, value, name );
+				}
+				// Does not return so that setAttribute is also used
+				elem.value = value;
+			}
+		}
+	},
+
+	propFix: {
+		tabindex: "tabIndex",
+		readonly: "readOnly",
+		"for": "htmlFor",
+		"class": "className",
+		maxlength: "maxLength",
+		cellspacing: "cellSpacing",
+		cellpadding: "cellPadding",
+		rowspan: "rowSpan",
+		colspan: "colSpan",
+		usemap: "useMap",
+		frameborder: "frameBorder",
+		contenteditable: "contentEditable"
+	},
+
+	prop: function( elem, name, value ) {
+		var ret, hooks, notxml,
+			nType = elem.nodeType;
+
+		// don't get/set properties on text, comment and attribute nodes
+		if ( !elem || nType === 3 || nType === 8 || nType === 2 ) {
+			return;
+		}
+
+		notxml = nType !== 1 || !jQuery.isXMLDoc( elem );
+
+		if ( notxml ) {
+			// Fix name and attach hooks
+			name = jQuery.propFix[ name ] || name;
+			hooks = jQuery.propHooks[ name ];
+		}
+
+		if ( value !== undefined ) {
+			if ( hooks && "set" in hooks && (ret = hooks.set( elem, value, name )) !== undefined ) {
+				return ret;
+
+			} else {
+				return ( elem[ name ] = value );
+			}
+
+		} else {
+			if ( hooks && "get" in hooks && (ret = hooks.get( elem, name )) !== null ) {
+				return ret;
+
+			} else {
+				return elem[ name ];
+			}
+		}
+	},
+
+	propHooks: {
+		tabIndex: {
+			get: function( elem ) {
+				// elem.tabIndex doesn't always return the correct value when it hasn't been explicitly set
+				// http://fluidproject.org/blog/2008/01/09/getting-setting-and-removing-tabindex-values-with-javascript/
+				var attributeNode = elem.getAttributeNode("tabindex");
+
+				return attributeNode && attributeNode.specified ?
+					parseInt( attributeNode.value, 10 ) :
+					rfocusable.test( elem.nodeName ) || rclickable.test( elem.nodeName ) && elem.href ?
+						0 :
+						undefined;
+			}
+		}
+	}
+});
+
+// Add the tabIndex propHook to attrHooks for back-compat (different case is intentional)
+jQuery.attrHooks.tabindex = jQuery.propHooks.tabIndex;
+
+// Hook for boolean attributes
+boolHook = {
+	get: function( elem, name ) {
+		// Align boolean attributes with corresponding properties
+		// Fall back to attribute presence where some booleans are not supported
+		var attrNode,
+			property = jQuery.prop( elem, name );
+		return property === true || typeof property !== "boolean" && ( attrNode = elem.getAttributeNode(name) ) && attrNode.nodeValue !== false ?
+			name.toLowerCase() :
+			undefined;
+	},
+	set: function( elem, value, name ) {
+		var propName;
+		if ( value === false ) {
+			// Remove boolean attributes when set to false
+			jQuery.removeAttr( elem, name );
+		} else {
+			// value is true since we know at this point it's type boolean and not false
+			// Set boolean attributes to the same name and set the DOM property
+			propName = jQuery.propFix[ name ] || name;
+			if ( propName in elem ) {
+				// Only set the IDL specifically if it already exists on the element
+				elem[ propName ] = true;
+			}
+
+			elem.setAttribute( name, name.toLowerCase() );
+		}
+		return name;
+	}
+};
+
+// IE6/7 do not support getting/setting some attributes with get/setAttribute
+if ( !getSetAttribute ) {
+
+	fixSpecified = {
+		name: true,
+		id: true,
+		coords: true
+	};
+
+	// Use this for any attribute in IE6/7
+	// This fixes almost every IE6/7 issue
+	nodeHook = jQuery.valHooks.button = {
+		get: function( elem, name ) {
+			var ret;
+			ret = elem.getAttributeNode( name );
+			return ret && ( fixSpecified[ name ] ? ret.nodeValue !== "" : ret.specified ) ?
+				ret.nodeValue :
+				undefined;
+		},
+		set: function( elem, value, name ) {
+			// Set the existing or create a new attribute node
+			var ret = elem.getAttributeNode( name );
+			if ( !ret ) {
+				ret = document.createAttribute( name );
+				elem.setAttributeNode( ret );
+			}
+			return ( ret.nodeValue = value + "" );
+		}
+	};
+
+	// Apply the nodeHook to tabindex
+	jQuery.attrHooks.tabindex.set = nodeHook.set;
+
+	// Set width and height to auto instead of 0 on empty string( Bug #8150 )
+	// This is for removals
+	jQuery.each([ "width", "height" ], function( i, name ) {
+		jQuery.attrHooks[ name ] = jQuery.extend( jQuery.attrHooks[ name ], {
+			set: function( elem, value ) {
+				if ( value === "" ) {
+					elem.setAttribute( name, "auto" );
+					return value;
+				}
+			}
+		});
+	});
+
+	// Set contenteditable to false on removals(#10429)
+	// Setting to empty string throws an error as an invalid value
+	jQuery.attrHooks.contenteditable = {
+		get: nodeHook.get,
+		set: function( elem, value, name ) {
+			if ( value === "" ) {
+				value = "false";
+			}
+			nodeHook.set( elem, value, name );
+		}
+	};
+}
+
+
+// Some attributes require a special call on IE
+if ( !jQuery.support.hrefNormalized ) {
+	jQuery.each([ "href", "src", "width", "height" ], function( i, name ) {
+		jQuery.attrHooks[ name ] = jQuery.extend( jQuery.attrHooks[ name ], {
+			get: function( elem ) {
+				var ret = elem.getAttribute( name, 2 );
+				return ret === null ? undefined : ret;
+			}
+		});
+	});
+}
+
+if ( !jQuery.support.style ) {
+	jQuery.attrHooks.style = {
+		get: function( elem ) {
+			// Return undefined in the case of empty string
+			// Normalize to lowercase since IE uppercases css property names
+			return elem.style.cssText.toLowerCase() || undefined;
+		},
+		set: function( elem, value ) {
+			return ( elem.style.cssText = "" + value );
+		}
+	};
+}
+
+// Safari mis-reports the default selected property of an option
+// Accessing the parent's selectedIndex property fixes it
+if ( !jQuery.support.optSelected ) {
+	jQuery.propHooks.selected = jQuery.extend( jQuery.propHooks.selected, {
+		get: function( elem ) {
+			var parent = elem.parentNode;
+
+			if ( parent ) {
+				parent.selectedIndex;
+
+				// Make sure that it also works with optgroups, see #5701
+				if ( parent.parentNode ) {
+					parent.parentNode.selectedIndex;
+				}
+			}
+			return null;
+		}
+	});
+}
+
+// IE6/7 call enctype encoding
+if ( !jQuery.support.enctype ) {
+	jQuery.propFix.enctype = "encoding";
+}
+
+// Radios and checkboxes getter/setter
+if ( !jQuery.support.checkOn ) {
+	jQuery.each([ "radio", "checkbox" ], function() {
+		jQuery.valHooks[ this ] = {
+			get: function( elem ) {
+				// Handle the case where in Webkit "" is returned instead of "on" if a value isn't specified
+				return elem.getAttribute("value") === null ? "on" : elem.value;
+			}
+		};
+	});
+}
+jQuery.each([ "radio", "checkbox" ], function() {
+	jQuery.valHooks[ this ] = jQuery.extend( jQuery.valHooks[ this ], {
+		set: function( elem, value ) {
+			if ( jQuery.isArray( value ) ) {
+				return ( elem.checked = jQuery.inArray( jQuery(elem).val(), value ) >= 0 );
+			}
+		}
+	});
+});
+
+
+
+
+var rformElems = /^(?:textarea|input|select)$/i,
+	rtypenamespace = /^([^\.]*)?(?:\.(.+))?$/,
+	rhoverHack = /(?:^|\s)hover(\.\S+)?\b/,
+	rkeyEvent = /^key/,
+	rmouseEvent = /^(?:mouse|contextmenu)|click/,
+	rfocusMorph = /^(?:focusinfocus|focusoutblur)$/,
+	rquickIs = /^(\w*)(?:#([\w\-]+))?(?:\.([\w\-]+))?$/,
+	quickParse = function( selector ) {
+		var quick = rquickIs.exec( selector );
+		if ( quick ) {
+			//   0  1    2   3
+			// [ _, tag, id, class ]
+			quick[1] = ( quick[1] || "" ).toLowerCase();
+			quick[3] = quick[3] && new RegExp( "(?:^|\\s)" + quick[3] + "(?:\\s|$)" );
+		}
+		return quick;
+	},
+	quickIs = function( elem, m ) {
+		var attrs = elem.attributes || {};
+		return (
+			(!m[1] || elem.nodeName.toLowerCase() === m[1]) &&
+			(!m[2] || (attrs.id || {}).value === m[2]) &&
+			(!m[3] || m[3].test( (attrs[ "class" ] || {}).value ))
+		);
+	},
+	hoverHack = function( events ) {
+		return jQuery.event.special.hover ? events : events.replace( rhoverHack, "mouseenter$1 mouseleave$1" );
+	};
+
+/*
+ * Helper functions for managing events -- not part of the public interface.
+ * Props to Dean Edwards' addEvent library for many of the ideas.
+ */
+jQuery.event = {
+
+	add: function( elem, types, handler, data, selector ) {
+
+		var elemData, eventHandle, events,
+			t, tns, type, namespaces, handleObj,
+			handleObjIn, quick, handlers, special;
+
+		// Don't attach events to noData or text/comment nodes (allow plain objects tho)
+		if ( elem.nodeType === 3 || elem.nodeType === 8 || !types || !handler || !(elemData = jQuery._data( elem )) ) {
+			return;
+		}
+
+		// Caller can pass in an object of custom data in lieu of the handler
+		if ( handler.handler ) {
+			handleObjIn = handler;
+			handler = handleObjIn.handler;
+			selector = handleObjIn.selector;
+		}
+
+		// Make sure that the handler has a unique ID, used to find/remove it later
+		if ( !handler.guid ) {
+			handler.guid = jQuery.guid++;
+		}
+
+		// Init the element's event structure and main handler, if this is the first
+		events = elemData.events;
+		if ( !events ) {
+			elemData.events = events = {};
+		}
+		eventHandle = elemData.handle;
+		if ( !eventHandle ) {
+			elemData.handle = eventHandle = function( e ) {
+				// Discard the second event of a jQuery.event.trigger() and
+				// when an event is called after a page has unloaded
+				return typeof jQuery !== "undefined" && (!e || jQuery.event.triggered !== e.type) ?
+					jQuery.event.dispatch.apply( eventHandle.elem, arguments ) :
+					undefined;
+			};
+			// Add elem as a property of the handle fn to prevent a memory leak with IE non-native events
+			eventHandle.elem = elem;
+		}
+
+		// Handle multiple events separated by a space
+		// jQuery(...).bind("mouseover mouseout", fn);
+		types = jQuery.trim( hoverHack(types) ).split( " " );
+		for ( t = 0; t < types.length; t++ ) {
+
+			tns = rtypenamespace.exec( types[t] ) || [];
+			type = tns[1];
+			namespaces = ( tns[2] || "" ).split( "." ).sort();
+
+			// If event changes its type, use the special event handlers for the changed type
+			special = jQuery.event.special[ type ] || {};
+
+			// If selector defined, determine special event api type, otherwise given type
+			type = ( selector ? special.delegateType : special.bindType ) || type;
+
+			// Update special based on newly reset type
+			special = jQuery.event.special[ type ] || {};
+
+			// handleObj is passed to all event handlers
+			handleObj = jQuery.extend({
+				type: type,
+				origType: tns[1],
+				data: data,
+				handler: handler,
+				guid: handler.guid,
+				selector: selector,
+				quick: selector && quickParse( selector ),
+				namespace: namespaces.join(".")
+			}, handleObjIn );
+
+			// Init the event handler queue if we're the first
+			handlers = events[ type ];
+			if ( !handlers ) {
+				handlers = events[ type ] = [];
+				handlers.delegateCount = 0;
+
+				// Only use addEventListener/attachEvent if the special events handler returns false
+				if ( !special.setup || special.setup.call( elem, data, namespaces, eventHandle ) === false ) {
+					// Bind the global event handler to the element
+					if ( elem.addEventListener ) {
+						elem.addEventListener( type, eventHandle, false );
+
+					} else if ( elem.attachEvent ) {
+						elem.attachEvent( "on" + type, eventHandle );
+					}
+				}
+			}
+
+			if ( special.add ) {
+				special.add.call( elem, handleObj );
+
+				if ( !handleObj.handler.guid ) {
+					handleObj.handler.guid = handler.guid;
+				}
+			}
+
+			// Add to the element's handler list, delegates in front
+			if ( selector ) {
+				handlers.splice( handlers.delegateCount++, 0, handleObj );
+			} else {
+				handlers.push( handleObj );
+			}
+
+			// Keep track of which events have ever been used, for event optimization
+			jQuery.event.global[ type ] = true;
+		}
+
+		// Nullify elem to prevent memory leaks in IE
+		elem = null;
+	},
+
+	global: {},
+
+	// Detach an event or set of events from an element
+	remove: function( elem, types, handler, selector, mappedTypes ) {
+
+		var elemData = jQuery.hasData( elem ) && jQuery._data( elem ),
+			t, tns, type, origType, namespaces, origCount,
+			j, events, special, handle, eventType, handleObj;
+
+		if ( !elemData || !(events = elemData.events) ) {
+			return;
+		}
+
+		// Once for each type.namespace in types; type may be omitted
+		types = jQuery.trim( hoverHack( types || "" ) ).split(" ");
+		for ( t = 0; t < types.length; t++ ) {
+			tns = rtypenamespace.exec( types[t] ) || [];
+			type = origType = tns[1];
+			namespaces = tns[2];
+
+			// Unbind all events (on this namespace, if provided) for the element
+			if ( !type ) {
+				for ( type in events ) {
+					jQuery.event.remove( elem, type + types[ t ], handler, selector, true );
+				}
+				continue;
+			}
+
+			special = jQuery.event.special[ type ] || {};
+			type = ( selector? special.delegateType : special.bindType ) || type;
+			eventType = events[ type ] || [];
+			origCount = eventType.length;
+			namespaces = namespaces ? new RegExp("(^|\\.)" + namespaces.split(".").sort().join("\\.(?:.*\\.)?") + "(\\.|$)") : null;
+
+			// Remove matching events
+			for ( j = 0; j < eventType.length; j++ ) {
+				handleObj = eventType[ j ];
+
+				if ( ( mappedTypes || origType === handleObj.origType ) &&
+					 ( !handler || handler.guid === handleObj.guid ) &&
+					 ( !namespaces || namespaces.test( handleObj.namespace ) ) &&
+					 ( !selector || selector === handleObj.selector || selector === "**" && handleObj.selector ) ) {
+					eventType.splice( j--, 1 );
+
+					if ( handleObj.selector ) {
+						eventType.delegateCount--;
+					}
+					if ( special.remove ) {
+						special.remove.call( elem, handleObj );
+					}
+				}
+			}
+
+			// Remove generic event handler if we removed something and no more handlers exist
+			// (avoids potential for endless recursion during removal of special event handlers)
+			if ( eventType.length === 0 && origCount !== eventType.length ) {
+				if ( !special.teardown || special.teardown.call( elem, namespaces ) === false ) {
+					jQuery.removeEvent( elem, type, elemData.handle );
+				}
+
+				delete events[ type ];
+			}
+		}
+
+		// Remove the expando if it's no longer used
+		if ( jQuery.isEmptyObject( events ) ) {
+			handle = elemData.handle;
+			if ( handle ) {
+				handle.elem = null;
+			}
+
+			// removeData also checks for emptiness and clears the expando if empty
+			// so use it instead of delete
+			jQuery.removeData( elem, [ "events", "handle" ], true );
+		}
+	},
+
+	// Events that are safe to short-circuit if no handlers are attached.
+	// Native DOM events should not be added, they may have inline handlers.
+	customEvent: {
+		"getData": true,
+		"setData": true,
+		"changeData": true
+	},
+
+	trigger: function( event, data, elem, onlyHandlers ) {
+		// Don't do events on text and comment nodes
+		if ( elem && (elem.nodeType === 3 || elem.nodeType === 8) ) {
+			return;
+		}
+
+		// Event object or event type
+		var type = event.type || event,
+			namespaces = [],
+			cache, exclusive, i, cur, old, ontype, special, handle, eventPath, bubbleType;
+
+		// focus/blur morphs to focusin/out; ensure we're not firing them right now
+		if ( rfocusMorph.test( type + jQuery.event.triggered ) ) {
+			return;
+		}
+
+		if ( type.indexOf( "!" ) >= 0 ) {
+			// Exclusive events trigger only for the exact event (no namespaces)
+			type = type.slice(0, -1);
+			exclusive = true;
+		}
+
+		if ( type.indexOf( "." ) >= 0 ) {
+			// Namespaced trigger; create a regexp to match event type in handle()
+			namespaces = type.split(".");
+			type = namespaces.shift();
+			namespaces.sort();
+		}
+
+		if ( (!elem || jQuery.event.customEvent[ type ]) && !jQuery.event.global[ type ] ) {
+			// No jQuery handlers for this event type, and it can't have inline handlers
+			return;
+		}
+
+		// Caller can pass in an Event, Object, or just an event type string
+		event = typeof event === "object" ?
+			// jQuery.Event object
+			event[ jQuery.expando ] ? event :
+			// Object literal
+			new jQuery.Event( type, event ) :
+			// Just the event type (string)
+			new jQuery.Event( type );
+
+		event.type = type;
+		event.isTrigger = true;
+		event.exclusive = exclusive;
+		event.namespace = namespaces.join( "." );
+		event.namespace_re = event.namespace? new RegExp("(^|\\.)" + namespaces.join("\\.(?:.*\\.)?") + "(\\.|$)") : null;
+		ontype = type.indexOf( ":" ) < 0 ? "on" + type : "";
+
+		// Handle a global trigger
+		if ( !elem ) {
+
+			// TODO: Stop taunting the data cache; remove global events and always attach to document
+			cache = jQuery.cache;
+			for ( i in cache ) {
+				if ( cache[ i ].events && cache[ i ].events[ type ] ) {
+					jQuery.event.trigger( event, data, cache[ i ].handle.elem, true );
+				}
+			}
+			return;
+		}
+
+		// Clean up the event in case it is being reused
+		event.result = undefined;
+		if ( !event.target ) {
+			event.target = elem;
+		}
+
+		// Clone any incoming data and prepend the event, creating the handler arg list
+		data = data != null ? jQuery.makeArray( data ) : [];
+		data.unshift( event );
+
+		// Allow special events to draw outside the lines
+		special = jQuery.event.special[ type ] || {};
+		if ( special.trigger && special.trigger.apply( elem, data ) === false ) {
+			return;
+		}
+
+		// Determine event propagation path in advance, per W3C events spec (#9951)
+		// Bubble up to document, then to window; watch for a global ownerDocument var (#9724)
+		eventPath = [[ elem, special.bindType || type ]];
+		if ( !onlyHandlers && !special.noBubble && !jQuery.isWindow( elem ) ) {
+
+			bubbleType = special.delegateType || type;
+			cur = rfocusMorph.test( bubbleType + type ) ? elem : elem.parentNode;
+			old = null;
+			for ( ; cur; cur = cur.parentNode ) {
+				eventPath.push([ cur, bubbleType ]);
+				old = cur;
+			}
+
+			// Only add window if we got to document (e.g., not plain obj or detached DOM)
+			if ( old && old === elem.ownerDocument ) {
+				eventPath.push([ old.defaultView || old.parentWindow || window, bubbleType ]);
+			}
+		}
+
+		// Fire handlers on the event path
+		for ( i = 0; i < eventPath.length && !event.isPropagationStopped(); i++ ) {
+
+			cur = eventPath[i][0];
+			event.type = eventPath[i][1];
+
+			handle = ( jQuery._data( cur, "events" ) || {} )[ event.type ] && jQuery._data( cur, "handle" );
+			if ( handle ) {
+				handle.apply( cur, data );
+			}
+			// Note that this is a bare JS function and not a jQuery handler
+			handle = ontype && cur[ ontype ];
+			if ( handle && jQuery.acceptData( cur ) && handle.apply( cur, data ) === false ) {
+				event.preventDefault();
+			}
+		}
+		event.type = type;
+
+		// If nobody prevented the default action, do it now
+		if ( !onlyHandlers && !event.isDefaultPrevented() ) {
+
+			if ( (!special._default || special._default.apply( elem.ownerDocument, data ) === false) &&
+				!(type === "click" && jQuery.nodeName( elem, "a" )) && jQuery.acceptData( elem ) ) {
+
+				// Call a native DOM method on the target with the same name name as the event.
+				// Can't use an .isFunction() check here because IE6/7 fails that test.
+				// Don't do default actions on window, that's where global variables be (#6170)
+				// IE<9 dies on focus/blur to hidden element (#1486)
+				if ( ontype && elem[ type ] && ((type !== "focus" && type !== "blur") || event.target.offsetWidth !== 0) && !jQuery.isWindow( elem ) ) {
+
+					// Don't re-trigger an onFOO event when we call its FOO() method
+					old = elem[ ontype ];
+
+					if ( old ) {
+						elem[ ontype ] = null;
+					}
+
+					// Prevent re-triggering of the same event, since we already bubbled it above
+					jQuery.event.triggered = type;
+					elem[ type ]();
+					jQuery.event.triggered = undefined;
+
+					if ( old ) {
+						elem[ ontype ] = old;
+					}
+				}
+			}
+		}
+
+		return event.result;
+	},
+
+	dispatch: function( event ) {
+
+		// Make a writable jQuery.Event from the native event object
+		event = jQuery.event.fix( event || window.event );
+
+		var handlers = ( (jQuery._data( this, "events" ) || {} )[ event.type ] || []),
+			delegateCount = handlers.delegateCount,
+			args = [].slice.call( arguments, 0 ),
+			run_all = !event.exclusive && !event.namespace,
+			special = jQuery.event.special[ event.type ] || {},
+			handlerQueue = [],
+			i, j, cur, jqcur, ret, selMatch, matched, matches, handleObj, sel, related;
+
+		// Use the fix-ed jQuery.Event rather than the (read-only) native event
+		args[0] = event;
+		event.delegateTarget = this;
+
+		// Call the preDispatch hook for the mapped type, and let it bail if desired
+		if ( special.preDispatch && special.preDispatch.call( this, event ) === false ) {
+			return;
+		}
+
+		// Determine handlers that should run if there are delegated events
+		// Avoid non-left-click bubbling in Firefox (#3861)
+		if ( delegateCount && !(event.button && event.type === "click") ) {
+
+			// Pregenerate a single jQuery object for reuse with .is()
+			jqcur = jQuery(this);
+			jqcur.context = this.ownerDocument || this;
+
+			for ( cur = event.target; cur != this; cur = cur.parentNode || this ) {
+
+				// Don't process events on disabled elements (#6911, #8165)
+				if ( cur.disabled !== true ) {
+					selMatch = {};
+					matches = [];
+					jqcur[0] = cur;
+					for ( i = 0; i < delegateCount; i++ ) {
+						handleObj = handlers[ i ];
+						sel = handleObj.selector;
+
+						if ( selMatch[ sel ] === undefined ) {
+							selMatch[ sel ] = (
+								handleObj.quick ? quickIs( cur, handleObj.quick ) : jqcur.is( sel )
+							);
+						}
+						if ( selMatch[ sel ] ) {
+							matches.push( handleObj );
+						}
+					}
+					if ( matches.length ) {
+						handlerQueue.push({ elem: cur, matches: matches });
+					}
+				}
+			}
+		}
+
+		// Add the remaining (directly-bound) handlers
+		if ( handlers.length > delegateCount ) {
+			handlerQueue.push({ elem: this, matches: handlers.slice( delegateCount ) });
+		}
+
+		// Run delegates first; they may want to stop propagation beneath us
+		for ( i = 0; i < handlerQueue.length && !event.isPropagationStopped(); i++ ) {
+			matched = handlerQueue[ i ];
+			event.currentTarget = matched.elem;
+
+			for ( j = 0; j < matched.matches.length && !event.isImmediatePropagationStopped(); j++ ) {
+				handleObj = matched.matches[ j ];
+
+				// Triggered event must either 1) be non-exclusive and have no namespace, or
+				// 2) have namespace(s) a subset or equal to those in the bound event (both can have no namespace).
+				if ( run_all || (!event.namespace && !handleObj.namespace) || event.namespace_re && event.namespace_re.test( handleObj.namespace ) ) {
+
+					event.data = handleObj.data;
+					event.handleObj = handleObj;
+
+					ret = ( (jQuery.event.special[ handleObj.origType ] || {}).handle || handleObj.handler )
+							.apply( matched.elem, args );
+
+					if ( ret !== undefined ) {
+						event.result = ret;
+						if ( ret === false ) {
+							event.preventDefault();
+							event.stopPropagation();
+						}
+					}
+				}
+			}
+		}
+
+		// Call the postDispatch hook for the mapped type
+		if ( special.postDispatch ) {
+			special.postDispatch.call( this, event );
+		}
+
+		return event.result;
+	},
+
+	// Includes some event props shared by KeyEvent and MouseEvent
+	// *** attrChange attrName relatedNode srcElement  are not normalized, non-W3C, deprecated, will be removed in 1.8 ***
+	props: "attrChange attrName relatedNode srcElement altKey bubbles cancelable ctrlKey currentTarget eventPhase metaKey relatedTarget shiftKey target timeStamp view which".split(" "),
+
+	fixHooks: {},
+
+	keyHooks: {
+		props: "char charCode key keyCode".split(" "),
+		filter: function( event, original ) {
+
+			// Add which for key events
+			if ( event.which == null ) {
+				event.which = original.charCode != null ? original.charCode : original.keyCode;
+			}
+
+			return event;
+		}
+	},
+
+	mouseHooks: {
+		props: "button buttons clientX clientY fromElement offsetX offsetY pageX pageY screenX screenY toElement".split(" "),
+		filter: function( event, original ) {
+			var eventDoc, doc, body,
+				button = original.button,
+				fromElement = original.fromElement;
+
+			// Calculate pageX/Y if missing and clientX/Y available
+			if ( event.pageX == null && original.clientX != null ) {
+				eventDoc = event.target.ownerDocument || document;
+				doc = eventDoc.documentElement;
+				body = eventDoc.body;
+
+				event.pageX = original.clientX + ( doc && doc.scrollLeft || body && body.scrollLeft || 0 ) - ( doc && doc.clientLeft || body && body.clientLeft || 0 );
+				event.pageY = original.clientY + ( doc && doc.scrollTop  || body && body.scrollTop  || 0 ) - ( doc && doc.clientTop  || body && body.clientTop  || 0 );
+			}
+
+			// Add relatedTarget, if necessary
+			if ( !event.relatedTarget && fromElement ) {
+				event.relatedTarget = fromElement === event.target ? original.toElement : fromElement;
+			}
+
+			// Add which for click: 1 === left; 2 === middle; 3 === right
+			// Note: button is not normalized, so don't use it
+			if ( !event.which && button !== undefined ) {
+				event.which = ( button & 1 ? 1 : ( button & 2 ? 3 : ( button & 4 ? 2 : 0 ) ) );
+			}
+
+			return event;
+		}
+	},
+
+	fix: function( event ) {
+		if ( event[ jQuery.expando ] ) {
+			return event;
+		}
+
+		// Create a writable copy of the event object and normalize some properties
+		var i, prop,
+			originalEvent = event,
+			fixHook = jQuery.event.fixHooks[ event.type ] || {},
+			copy = fixHook.props ? this.props.concat( fixHook.props ) : this.props;
+
+		event = jQuery.Event( originalEvent );
+
+		for ( i = copy.length; i; ) {
+			prop = copy[ --i ];
+			event[ prop ] = originalEvent[ prop ];
+		}
+
+		// Fix target property, if necessary (#1925, IE 6/7/8 & Safari2)
+		if ( !event.target ) {
+			event.target = originalEvent.srcElement || document;
+		}
+
+		// Target should not be a text node (#504, Safari)
+		if ( event.target.nodeType === 3 ) {
+			event.target = event.target.parentNode;
+		}
+
+		// For mouse/key events; add metaKey if it's not there (#3368, IE6/7/8)
+		if ( event.metaKey === undefined ) {
+			event.metaKey = event.ctrlKey;
+		}
+
+		return fixHook.filter? fixHook.filter( event, originalEvent ) : event;
+	},
+
+	special: {
+		ready: {
+			// Make sure the ready event is setup
+			setup: jQuery.bindReady
+		},
+
+		load: {
+			// Prevent triggered image.load events from bubbling to window.load
+			noBubble: true
+		},
+
+		focus: {
+			delegateType: "focusin"
+		},
+		blur: {
+			delegateType: "focusout"
+		},
+
+		beforeunload: {
+			setup: function( data, namespaces, eventHandle ) {
+				// We only want to do this special case on windows
+				if ( jQuery.isWindow( this ) ) {
+					this.onbeforeunload = eventHandle;
+				}
+			},
+
+			teardown: function( namespaces, eventHandle ) {
+				if ( this.onbeforeunload === eventHandle ) {
+					this.onbeforeunload = null;
+				}
+			}
+		}
+	},
+
+	simulate: function( type, elem, event, bubble ) {
+		// Piggyback on a donor event to simulate a different one.
+		// Fake originalEvent to avoid donor's stopPropagation, but if the
+		// simulated event prevents default then we do the same on the donor.
+		var e = jQuery.extend(
+			new jQuery.Event(),
+			event,
+			{ type: type,
+				isSimulated: true,
+				originalEvent: {}
+			}
+		);
+		if ( bubble ) {
+			jQuery.event.trigger( e, null, elem );
+		} else {
+			jQuery.event.dispatch.call( elem, e );
+		}
+		if ( e.isDefaultPrevented() ) {
+			event.preventDefault();
+		}
+	}
+};
+
+// Some plugins are using, but it's undocumented/deprecated and will be removed.
+// The 1.7 special event interface should provide all the hooks needed now.
+jQuery.event.handle = jQuery.event.dispatch;
+
+jQuery.removeEvent = document.removeEventListener ?
+	function( elem, type, handle ) {
+		if ( elem.removeEventListener ) {
+			elem.removeEventListener( type, handle, false );
+		}
+	} :
+	function( elem, type, handle ) {
+		if ( elem.detachEvent ) {
+			elem.detachEvent( "on" + type, handle );
+		}
+	};
+
+jQuery.Event = function( src, props ) {
+	// Allow instantiation without the 'new' keyword
+	if ( !(this instanceof jQuery.Event) ) {
+		return new jQuery.Event( src, props );
+	}
+
+	// Event object
+	if ( src && src.type ) {
+		this.originalEvent = src;
+		this.type = src.type;
+
+		// Events bubbling up the document may have been marked as prevented
+		// by a handler lower down the tree; reflect the correct value.
+		this.isDefaultPrevented = ( src.defaultPrevented || src.returnValue === false ||
+			src.getPreventDefault && src.getPreventDefault() ) ? returnTrue : returnFalse;
+
+	// Event type
+	} else {
+		this.type = src;
+	}
+
+	// Put explicitly provided properties onto the event object
+	if ( props ) {
+		jQuery.extend( this, props );
+	}
+
+	// Create a timestamp if incoming event doesn't have one
+	this.timeStamp = src && src.timeStamp || jQuery.now();
+
+	// Mark it as fixed
+	this[ jQuery.expando ] = true;
+};
+
+function returnFalse() {
+	return false;
+}
+function returnTrue() {
+	return true;
+}
+
+// jQuery.Event is based on DOM3 Events as specified by the ECMAScript Language Binding
+// http://www.w3.org/TR/2003/WD-DOM-Level-3-Events-20030331/ecma-script-binding.html
+jQuery.Event.prototype = {
+	preventDefault: function() {
+		this.isDefaultPrevented = returnTrue;
+
+		var e = this.originalEvent;
+		if ( !e ) {
+			return;
+		}
+
+		// if preventDefault exists run it on the original event
+		if ( e.preventDefault ) {
+			e.preventDefault();
+
+		// otherwise set the returnValue property of the original event to false (IE)
+		} else {
+			e.returnValue = false;
+		}
+	},
+	stopPropagation: function() {
+		this.isPropagationStopped = returnTrue;
+
+		var e = this.originalEvent;
+		if ( !e ) {
+			return;
+		}
+		// if stopPropagation exists run it on the original event
+		if ( e.stopPropagation ) {
+			e.stopPropagation();
+		}
+		// otherwise set the cancelBubble property of the original event to true (IE)
+		e.cancelBubble = true;
+	},
+	stopImmediatePropagation: function() {
+		this.isImmediatePropagationStopped = returnTrue;
+		this.stopPropagation();
+	},
+	isDefaultPrevented: returnFalse,
+	isPropagationStopped: returnFalse,
+	isImmediatePropagationStopped: returnFalse
+};
+
+// Create mouseenter/leave events using mouseover/out and event-time checks
+jQuery.each({
+	mouseenter: "mouseover",
+	mouseleave: "mouseout"
+}, function( orig, fix ) {
+	jQuery.event.special[ orig ] = {
+		delegateType: fix,
+		bindType: fix,
+
+		handle: function( event ) {
+			var target = this,
+				related = event.relatedTarget,
+				handleObj = event.handleObj,
+				selector = handleObj.selector,
+				ret;
+
+			// For mousenter/leave call the handler if related is outside the target.
+			// NB: No relatedTarget if the mouse left/entered the browser window
+			if ( !related || (related !== target && !jQuery.contains( target, related )) ) {
+				event.type = handleObj.origType;
+				ret = handleObj.handler.apply( this, arguments );
+				event.type = fix;
+			}
+			return ret;
+		}
+	};
+});
+
+// IE submit delegation
+if ( !jQuery.support.submitBubbles ) {
+
+	jQuery.event.special.submit = {
+		setup: function() {
+			// Only need this for delegated form submit events
+			if ( jQuery.nodeName( this, "form" ) ) {
+				return false;
+			}
+
+			// Lazy-add a submit handler when a descendant form may potentially be submitted
+			jQuery.event.add( this, "click._submit keypress._submit", function( e ) {
+				// Node name check avoids a VML-related crash in IE (#9807)
+				var elem = e.target,
+					form = jQuery.nodeName( elem, "input" ) || jQuery.nodeName( elem, "button" ) ? elem.form : undefined;
+				if ( form && !form._submit_attached ) {
+					jQuery.event.add( form, "submit._submit", function( event ) {
+						event._submit_bubble = true;
+					});
+					form._submit_attached = true;
+				}
+			});
+			// return undefined since we don't need an event listener
+		},
+		
+		postDispatch: function( event ) {
+			// If form was submitted by the user, bubble the event up the tree
+			if ( event._submit_bubble ) {
+				delete event._submit_bubble;
+				if ( this.parentNode && !event.isTrigger ) {
+					jQuery.event.simulate( "submit", this.parentNode, event, true );
+				}
+			}
+		},
+
+		teardown: function() {
+			// Only need this for delegated form submit events
+			if ( jQuery.nodeName( this, "form" ) ) {
+				return false;
+			}
+
+			// Remove delegated handlers; cleanData eventually reaps submit handlers attached above
+			jQuery.event.remove( this, "._submit" );
+		}
+	};
+}
+
+// IE change delegation and checkbox/radio fix
+if ( !jQuery.support.changeBubbles ) {
+
+	jQuery.event.special.change = {
+
+		setup: function() {
+
+			if ( rformElems.test( this.nodeName ) ) {
+				// IE doesn't fire change on a check/radio until blur; trigger it on click
+				// after a propertychange. Eat the blur-change in special.change.handle.
+				// This still fires onchange a second time for check/radio after blur.
+				if ( this.type === "checkbox" || this.type === "radio" ) {
+					jQuery.event.add( this, "propertychange._change", function( event ) {
+						if ( event.originalEvent.propertyName === "checked" ) {
+							this._just_changed = true;
+						}
+					});
+					jQuery.event.add( this, "click._change", function( event ) {
+						if ( this._just_changed && !event.isTrigger ) {
+							this._just_changed = false;
+							jQuery.event.simulate( "change", this, event, true );
+						}
+					});
+				}
+				return false;
+			}
+			// Delegated event; lazy-add a change handler on descendant inputs
+			jQuery.event.add( this, "beforeactivate._change", function( e ) {
+				var elem = e.target;
+
+				if ( rformElems.test( elem.nodeName ) && !elem._change_attached ) {
+					jQuery.event.add( elem, "change._change", function( event ) {
+						if ( this.parentNode && !event.isSimulated && !event.isTrigger ) {
+							jQuery.event.simulate( "change", this.parentNode, event, true );
+						}
+					});
+					elem._change_attached = true;
+				}
+			});
+		},
+
+		handle: function( event ) {
+			var elem = event.target;
+
+			// Swallow native change events from checkbox/radio, we already triggered them above
+			if ( this !== elem || event.isSimulated || event.isTrigger || (elem.type !== "radio" && elem.type !== "checkbox") ) {
+				return event.handleObj.handler.apply( this, arguments );
+			}
+		},
+
+		teardown: function() {
+			jQuery.event.remove( this, "._change" );
+
+			return rformElems.test( this.nodeName );
+		}
+	};
+}
+
+// Create "bubbling" focus and blur events
+if ( !jQuery.support.focusinBubbles ) {
+	jQuery.each({ focus: "focusin", blur: "focusout" }, function( orig, fix ) {
+
+		// Attach a single capturing handler while someone wants focusin/focusout
+		var attaches = 0,
+			handler = function( event ) {
+				jQuery.event.simulate( fix, event.target, jQuery.event.fix( event ), true );
+			};
+
+		jQuery.event.special[ fix ] = {
+			setup: function() {
+				if ( attaches++ === 0 ) {
+					document.addEventListener( orig, handler, true );
+				}
+			},
+			teardown: function() {
+				if ( --attaches === 0 ) {
+					document.removeEventListener( orig, handler, true );
+				}
+			}
+		};
+	});
+}
+
+jQuery.fn.extend({
+
+	on: function( types, selector, data, fn, /*INTERNAL*/ one ) {
+		var origFn, type;
+
+		// Types can be a map of types/handlers
+		if ( typeof types === "object" ) {
+			// ( types-Object, selector, data )
+			if ( typeof selector !== "string" ) { // && selector != null
+				// ( types-Object, data )
+				data = data || selector;
+				selector = undefined;
+			}
+			for ( type in types ) {
+				this.on( type, selector, data, types[ type ], one );
+			}
+			return this;
+		}
+
+		if ( data == null && fn == null ) {
+			// ( types, fn )
+			fn = selector;
+			data = selector = undefined;
+		} else if ( fn == null ) {
+			if ( typeof selector === "string" ) {
+				// ( types, selector, fn )
+				fn = data;
+				data = undefined;
+			} else {
+				// ( types, data, fn )
+				fn = data;
+				data = selector;
+				selector = undefined;
+			}
+		}
+		if ( fn === false ) {
+			fn = returnFalse;
+		} else if ( !fn ) {
+			return this;
+		}
+
+		if ( one === 1 ) {
+			origFn = fn;
+			fn = function( event ) {
+				// Can use an empty set, since event contains the info
+				jQuery().off( event );
+				return origFn.apply( this, arguments );
+			};
+			// Use same guid so caller can remove using origFn
+			fn.guid = origFn.guid || ( origFn.guid = jQuery.guid++ );
+		}
+		return this.each( function() {
+			jQuery.event.add( this, types, fn, data, selector );
+		});
+	},
+	one: function( types, selector, data, fn ) {
+		return this.on( types, selector, data, fn, 1 );
+	},
+	off: function( types, selector, fn ) {
+		if ( types && types.preventDefault && types.handleObj ) {
+			// ( event )  dispatched jQuery.Event
+			var handleObj = types.handleObj;
+			jQuery( types.delegateTarget ).off(
+				handleObj.namespace ? handleObj.origType + "." + handleObj.namespace : handleObj.origType,
+				handleObj.selector,
+				handleObj.handler
+			);
+			return this;
+		}
+		if ( typeof types === "object" ) {
+			// ( types-object [, selector] )
+			for ( var type in types ) {
+				this.off( type, selector, types[ type ] );
+			}
+			return this;
+		}
+		if ( selector === false || typeof selector === "function" ) {
+			// ( types [, fn] )
+			fn = selector;
+			selector = undefined;
+		}
+		if ( fn === false ) {
+			fn = returnFalse;
+		}
+		return this.each(function() {
+			jQuery.event.remove( this, types, fn, selector );
+		});
+	},
+
+	bind: function( types, data, fn ) {
+		return this.on( types, null, data, fn );
+	},
+	unbind: function( types, fn ) {
+		return this.off( types, null, fn );
+	},
+
+	live: function( types, data, fn ) {
+		jQuery( this.context ).on( types, this.selector, data, fn );
+		return this;
+	},
+	die: function( types, fn ) {
+		jQuery( this.context ).off( types, this.selector || "**", fn );
+		return this;
+	},
+
+	delegate: function( selector, types, data, fn ) {
+		return this.on( types, selector, data, fn );
+	},
+	undelegate: function( selector, types, fn ) {
+		// ( namespace ) or ( selector, types [, fn] )
+		return arguments.length == 1? this.off( selector, "**" ) : this.off( types, selector, fn );
+	},
+
+	trigger: function( type, data ) {
+		return this.each(function() {
+			jQuery.event.trigger( type, data, this );
+		});
+	},
+	triggerHandler: function( type, data ) {
+		if ( this[0] ) {
+			return jQuery.event.trigger( type, data, this[0], true );
+		}
+	},
+
+	toggle: function( fn ) {
+		// Save reference to arguments for access in closure
+		var args = arguments,
+			guid = fn.guid || jQuery.guid++,
+			i = 0,
+			toggler = function( event ) {
+				// Figure out which function to execute
+				var lastToggle = ( jQuery._data( this, "lastToggle" + fn.guid ) || 0 ) % i;
+				jQuery._data( this, "lastToggle" + fn.guid, lastToggle + 1 );
+
+				// Make sure that clicks stop
+				event.preventDefault();
+
+				// and execute the function
+				return args[ lastToggle ].apply( this, arguments ) || false;
+			};
+
+		// link all the functions, so any of them can unbind this click handler
+		toggler.guid = guid;
+		while ( i < args.length ) {
+			args[ i++ ].guid = guid;
+		}
+
+		return this.click( toggler );
+	},
+
+	hover: function( fnOver, fnOut ) {
+		return this.mouseenter( fnOver ).mouseleave( fnOut || fnOver );
+	}
+});
+
+jQuery.each( ("blur focus focusin focusout load resize scroll unload click dblclick " +
+	"mousedown mouseup mousemove mouseover mouseout mouseenter mouseleave " +
+	"change select submit keydown keypress keyup error contextmenu").split(" "), function( i, name ) {
+
+	// Handle event binding
+	jQuery.fn[ name ] = function( data, fn ) {
+		if ( fn == null ) {
+			fn = data;
+			data = null;
+		}
+
+		return arguments.length > 0 ?
+			this.on( name, null, data, fn ) :
+			this.trigger( name );
+	};
+
+	if ( jQuery.attrFn ) {
+		jQuery.attrFn[ name ] = true;
+	}
+
+	if ( rkeyEvent.test( name ) ) {
+		jQuery.event.fixHooks[ name ] = jQuery.event.keyHooks;
+	}
+
+	if ( rmouseEvent.test( name ) ) {
+		jQuery.event.fixHooks[ name ] = jQuery.event.mouseHooks;
+	}
+});
+
+
+
+/*!
+ * Sizzle CSS Selector Engine
+ *  Copyright 2011, The Dojo Foundation
+ *  Released under the MIT, BSD, and GPL Licenses.
+ *  More information: http://sizzlejs.com/
+ */
+(function(){
+
+var chunker = /((?:\((?:\([^()]+\)|[^()]+)+\)|\[(?:\[[^\[\]]*\]|['"][^'"]*['"]|[^\[\]'"]+)+\]|\\.|[^ >+~,(\[\\]+)+|[>+~])(\s*,\s*)?((?:.|\r|\n)*)/g,
+	expando = "sizcache" + (Math.random() + '').replace('.', ''),
+	done = 0,
+	toString = Object.prototype.toString,
+	hasDuplicate = false,
+	baseHasDuplicate = true,
+	rBackslash = /\\/g,
+	rReturn = /\r\n/g,
+	rNonWord = /\W/;
+
+// Here we check if the JavaScript engine is using some sort of
+// optimization where it does not always call our comparision
+// function. If that is the case, discard the hasDuplicate value.
+//   Thus far that includes Google Chrome.
+[0, 0].sort(function() {
+	baseHasDuplicate = false;
+	return 0;
+});
+
+var Sizzle = function( selector, context, results, seed ) {
+	results = results || [];
+	context = context || document;
+
+	var origContext = context;
+
+	if ( context.nodeType !== 1 && context.nodeType !== 9 ) {
+		return [];
+	}
+
+	if ( !selector || typeof selector !== "string" ) {
+		return results;
+	}
+
+	var m, set, checkSet, extra, ret, cur, pop, i,
+		prune = true,
+		contextXML = Sizzle.isXML( context ),
+		parts = [],
+		soFar = selector;
+
+	// Reset the position of the chunker regexp (start from head)
+	do {
+		chunker.exec( "" );
+		m = chunker.exec( soFar );
+
+		if ( m ) {
+			soFar = m[3];
+
+			parts.push( m[1] );
+
+			if ( m[2] ) {
+				extra = m[3];
+				break;
+			}
+		}
+	} while ( m );
+
+	if ( parts.length > 1 && origPOS.exec( selector ) ) {
+
+		if ( parts.length === 2 && Expr.relative[ parts[0] ] ) {
+			set = posProcess( parts[0] + parts[1], context, seed );
+
+		} else {
+			set = Expr.relative[ parts[0] ] ?
+				[ context ] :
+				Sizzle( parts.shift(), context );
+
+			while ( parts.length ) {
+				selector = parts.shift();
+
+				if ( Expr.relative[ selector ] ) {
+					selector += parts.shift();
+				}
+
+				set = posProcess( selector, set, seed );
+			}
+		}
+
+	} else {
+		// Take a shortcut and set the context if the root selector is an ID
+		// (but not if it'll be faster if the inner selector is an ID)
+		if ( !seed && parts.length > 1 && context.nodeType === 9 && !contextXML &&
+				Expr.match.ID.test(parts[0]) && !Expr.match.ID.test(parts[parts.length - 1]) ) {
+
+			ret = Sizzle.find( parts.shift(), context, contextXML );
+			context = ret.expr ?
+				Sizzle.filter( ret.expr, ret.set )[0] :
+				ret.set[0];
+		}
+
+		if ( context ) {
+			ret = seed ?
+				{ expr: parts.pop(), set: makeArray(seed) } :
+				Sizzle.find( parts.pop(), parts.length === 1 && (parts[0] === "~" || parts[0] === "+") && context.parentNode ? context.parentNode : context, contextXML );
+
+			set = ret.expr ?
+				Sizzle.filter( ret.expr, ret.set ) :
+				ret.set;
+
+			if ( parts.length > 0 ) {
+				checkSet = makeArray( set );
+
+			} else {
+				prune = false;
+			}
+
+			while ( parts.length ) {
+				cur = parts.pop();
+				pop = cur;
+
+				if ( !Expr.relative[ cur ] ) {
+					cur = "";
+				} else {
+					pop = parts.pop();
+				}
+
+				if ( pop == null ) {
+					pop = context;
+				}
+
+				Expr.relative[ cur ]( checkSet, pop, contextXML );
+			}
+
+		} else {
+			checkSet = parts = [];
+		}
+	}
+
+	if ( !checkSet ) {
+		checkSet = set;
+	}
+
+	if ( !checkSet ) {
+		Sizzle.error( cur || selector );
+	}
+
+	if ( toString.call(checkSet) === "[object Array]" ) {
+		if ( !prune ) {
+			results.push.apply( results, checkSet );
+
+		} else if ( context && context.nodeType === 1 ) {
+			for ( i = 0; checkSet[i] != null; i++ ) {
+				if ( checkSet[i] && (checkSet[i] === true || checkSet[i].nodeType === 1 && Sizzle.contains(context, checkSet[i])) ) {
+					results.push( set[i] );
+				}
+			}
+
+		} else {
+			for ( i = 0; checkSet[i] != null; i++ ) {
+				if ( checkSet[i] && checkSet[i].nodeType === 1 ) {
+					results.push( set[i] );
+				}
+			}
+		}
+
+	} else {
+		makeArray( checkSet, results );
+	}
+
+	if ( extra ) {
+		Sizzle( extra, origContext, results, seed );
+		Sizzle.uniqueSort( results );
+	}
+
+	return results;
+};
+
+Sizzle.uniqueSort = function( results ) {
+	if ( sortOrder ) {
+		hasDuplicate = baseHasDuplicate;
+		results.sort( sortOrder );
+
+		if ( hasDuplicate ) {
+			for ( var i = 1; i < results.length; i++ ) {
+				if ( results[i] === results[ i - 1 ] ) {
+					results.splice( i--, 1 );
+				}
+			}
+		}
+	}
+
+	return results;
+};
+
+Sizzle.matches = function( expr, set ) {
+	return Sizzle( expr, null, null, set );
+};
+
+Sizzle.matchesSelector = function( node, expr ) {
+	return Sizzle( expr, null, null, [node] ).length > 0;
+};
+
+Sizzle.find = function( expr, context, isXML ) {
+	var set, i, len, match, type, left;
+
+	if ( !expr ) {
+		return [];
+	}
+
+	for ( i = 0, len = Expr.order.length; i < len; i++ ) {
+		type = Expr.order[i];
+
+		if ( (match = Expr.leftMatch[ type ].exec( expr )) ) {
+			left = match[1];
+			match.splice( 1, 1 );
+
+			if ( left.substr( left.length - 1 ) !== "\\" ) {
+				match[1] = (match[1] || "").replace( rBackslash, "" );
+				set = Expr.find[ type ]( match, context, isXML );
+
+				if ( set != null ) {
+					expr = expr.replace( Expr.match[ type ], "" );
+					break;
+				}
+			}
+		}
+	}
+
+	if ( !set ) {
+		set = typeof context.getElementsByTagName !== "undefined" ?
+			context.getElementsByTagName( "*" ) :
+			[];
+	}
+
+	return { set: set, expr: expr };
+};
+
+Sizzle.filter = function( expr, set, inplace, not ) {
+	var match, anyFound,
+		type, found, item, filter, left,
+		i, pass,
+		old = expr,
+		result = [],
+		curLoop = set,
+		isXMLFilter = set && set[0] && Sizzle.isXML( set[0] );
+
+	while ( expr && set.length ) {
+		for ( type in Expr.filter ) {
+			if ( (match = Expr.leftMatch[ type ].exec( expr )) != null && match[2] ) {
+				filter = Expr.filter[ type ];
+				left = match[1];
+
+				anyFound = false;
+
+				match.splice(1,1);
+
+				if ( left.substr( left.length - 1 ) === "\\" ) {
+					continue;
+				}
+
+				if ( curLoop === result ) {
+					result = [];
+				}
+
+				if ( Expr.preFilter[ type ] ) {
+					match = Expr.preFilter[ type ]( match, curLoop, inplace, result, not, isXMLFilter );
+
+					if ( !match ) {
+						anyFound = found = true;
+
+					} else if ( match === true ) {
+						continue;
+					}
+				}
+
+				if ( match ) {
+					for ( i = 0; (item = curLoop[i]) != null; i++ ) {
+						if ( item ) {
+							found = filter( item, match, i, curLoop );
+							pass = not ^ found;
+
+							if ( inplace && found != null ) {
+								if ( pass ) {
+									anyFound = true;
+
+								} else {
+									curLoop[i] = false;
+								}
+
+							} else if ( pass ) {
+								result.push( item );
+								anyFound = true;
+							}
+						}
+					}
+				}
+
+				if ( found !== undefined ) {
+					if ( !inplace ) {
+						curLoop = result;
+					}
+
+					expr = expr.replace( Expr.match[ type ], "" );
+
+					if ( !anyFound ) {
+						return [];
+					}
+
+					break;
+				}
+			}
+		}
+
+		// Improper expression
+		if ( expr === old ) {
+			if ( anyFound == null ) {
+				Sizzle.error( expr );
+
+			} else {
+				break;
+			}
+		}
+
+		old = expr;
+	}
+
+	return curLoop;
+};
+
+Sizzle.error = function( msg ) {
+	throw new Error( "Syntax error, unrecognized expression: " + msg );
+};
+
+/**
+ * Utility function for retreiving the text value of an array of DOM nodes
+ * @param {Array|Element} elem
+ */
+var getText = Sizzle.getText = function( elem ) {
+    var i, node,
+		nodeType = elem.nodeType,
+		ret = "";
+
+	if ( nodeType ) {
+		if ( nodeType === 1 || nodeType === 9 || nodeType === 11 ) {
+			// Use textContent || innerText for elements
+			if ( typeof elem.textContent === 'string' ) {
+				return elem.textContent;
+			} else if ( typeof elem.innerText === 'string' ) {
+				// Replace IE's carriage returns
+				return elem.innerText.replace( rReturn, '' );
+			} else {
+				// Traverse it's children
+				for ( elem = elem.firstChild; elem; elem = elem.nextSibling) {
+					ret += getText( elem );
+				}
+			}
+		} else if ( nodeType === 3 || nodeType === 4 ) {
+			return elem.nodeValue;
+		}
+	} else {
+
+		// If no nodeType, this is expected to be an array
+		for ( i = 0; (node = elem[i]); i++ ) {
+			// Do not traverse comment nodes
+			if ( node.nodeType !== 8 ) {
+				ret += getText( node );
+			}
+		}
+	}
+	return ret;
+};
+
+var Expr = Sizzle.selectors = {
+	order: [ "ID", "NAME", "TAG" ],
+
+	match: {
+		ID: /#((?:[\w\u00c0-\uFFFF\-]|\\.)+)/,
+		CLASS: /\.((?:[\w\u00c0-\uFFFF\-]|\\.)+)/,
+		NAME: /\[name=['"]*((?:[\w\u00c0-\uFFFF\-]|\\.)+)['"]*\]/,
+		ATTR: /\[\s*((?:[\w\u00c0-\uFFFF\-]|\\.)+)\s*(?:(\S?=)\s*(?:(['"])(.*?)\3|(#?(?:[\w\u00c0-\uFFFF\-]|\\.)*)|)|)\s*\]/,
+		TAG: /^((?:[\w\u00c0-\uFFFF\*\-]|\\.)+)/,
+		CHILD: /:(only|nth|last|first)-child(?:\(\s*(even|odd|(?:[+\-]?\d+|(?:[+\-]?\d*)?n\s*(?:[+\-]\s*\d+)?))\s*\))?/,
+		POS: /:(nth|eq|gt|lt|first|last|even|odd)(?:\((\d*)\))?(?=[^\-]|$)/,
+		PSEUDO: /:((?:[\w\u00c0-\uFFFF\-]|\\.)+)(?:\((['"]?)((?:\([^\)]+\)|[^\(\)]*)+)\2\))?/
+	},
+
+	leftMatch: {},
+
+	attrMap: {
+		"class": "className",
+		"for": "htmlFor"
+	},
+
+	attrHandle: {
+		href: function( elem ) {
+			return elem.getAttribute( "href" );
+		},
+		type: function( elem ) {
+			return elem.getAttribute( "type" );
+		}
+	},
+
+	relative: {
+		"+": function(checkSet, part){
+			var isPartStr = typeof part === "string",
+				isTag = isPartStr && !rNonWord.test( part ),
+				isPartStrNotTag = isPartStr && !isTag;
+
+			if ( isTag ) {
+				part = part.toLowerCase();
+			}
+
+			for ( var i = 0, l = checkSet.length, elem; i < l; i++ ) {
+				if ( (elem = checkSet[i]) ) {
+					while ( (elem = elem.previousSibling) && elem.nodeType !== 1 ) {}
+
+					checkSet[i] = isPartStrNotTag || elem && elem.nodeName.toLowerCase() === part ?
+						elem || false :
+						elem === part;
+				}
+			}
+
+			if ( isPartStrNotTag ) {
+				Sizzle.filter( part, checkSet, true );
+			}
+		},
+
+		">": function( checkSet, part ) {
+			var elem,
+				isPartStr = typeof part === "string",
+				i = 0,
+				l = checkSet.length;
+
+			if ( isPartStr && !rNonWord.test( part ) ) {
+				part = part.toLowerCase();
+
+				for ( ; i < l; i++ ) {
+					elem = checkSet[i];
+
+					if ( elem ) {
+						var parent = elem.parentNode;
+						checkSet[i] = parent.nodeName.toLowerCase() === part ? parent : false;
+					}
+				}
+
+			} else {
+				for ( ; i < l; i++ ) {
+					elem = checkSet[i];
+
+					if ( elem ) {
+						checkSet[i] = isPartStr ?
+							elem.parentNode :
+							elem.parentNode === part;
+					}
+				}
+
+				if ( isPartStr ) {
+					Sizzle.filter( part, checkSet, true );
+				}
+			}
+		},
+
+		"": function(checkSet, part, isXML){
+			var nodeCheck,
+				doneName = done++,
+				checkFn = dirCheck;
+
+			if ( typeof part === "string" && !rNonWord.test( part ) ) {
+				part = part.toLowerCase();
+				nodeCheck = part;
+				checkFn = dirNodeCheck;
+			}
+
+			checkFn( "parentNode", part, doneName, checkSet, nodeCheck, isXML );
+		},
+
+		"~": function( checkSet, part, isXML ) {
+			var nodeCheck,
+				doneName = done++,
+				checkFn = dirCheck;
+
+			if ( typeof part === "string" && !rNonWord.test( part ) ) {
+				part = part.toLowerCase();
+				nodeCheck = part;
+				checkFn = dirNodeCheck;
+			}
+
+			checkFn( "previousSibling", part, doneName, checkSet, nodeCheck, isXML );
+		}
+	},
+
+	find: {
+		ID: function( match, context, isXML ) {
+			if ( typeof context.getElementById !== "undefined" && !isXML ) {
+				var m = context.getElementById(match[1]);
+				// Check parentNode to catch when Blackberry 4.6 returns
+				// nodes that are no longer in the document #6963
+				return m && m.parentNode ? [m] : [];
+			}
+		},
+
+		NAME: function( match, context ) {
+			if ( typeof context.getElementsByName !== "undefined" ) {
+				var ret = [],
+					results = context.getElementsByName( match[1] );
+
+				for ( var i = 0, l = results.length; i < l; i++ ) {
+					if ( results[i].getAttribute("name") === match[1] ) {
+						ret.push( results[i] );
+					}
+				}
+
+				return ret.length === 0 ? null : ret;
+			}
+		},
+
+		TAG: function( match, context ) {
+			if ( typeof context.getElementsByTagName !== "undefined" ) {
+				return context.getElementsByTagName( match[1] );
+			}
+		}
+	},
+	preFilter: {
+		CLASS: function( match, curLoop, inplace, result, not, isXML ) {
+			match = " " + match[1].replace( rBackslash, "" ) + " ";
+
+			if ( isXML ) {
+				return match;
+			}
+
+			for ( var i = 0, elem; (elem = curLoop[i]) != null; i++ ) {
+				if ( elem ) {
+					if ( not ^ (elem.className && (" " + elem.className + " ").replace(/[\t\n\r]/g, " ").indexOf(match) >= 0) ) {
+						if ( !inplace ) {
+							result.push( elem );
+						}
+
+					} else if ( inplace ) {
+						curLoop[i] = false;
+					}
+				}
+			}
+
+			return false;
+		},
+
+		ID: function( match ) {
+			return match[1].replace( rBackslash, "" );
+		},
+
+		TAG: function( match, curLoop ) {
+			return match[1].replace( rBackslash, "" ).toLowerCase();
+		},
+
+		CHILD: function( match ) {
+			if ( match[1] === "nth" ) {
+				if ( !match[2] ) {
+					Sizzle.error( match[0] );
+				}
+
+				match[2] = match[2].replace(/^\+|\s*/g, '');
+
+				// parse equations like 'even', 'odd', '5', '2n', '3n+2', '4n-1', '-n+6'
+				var test = /(-?)(\d*)(?:n([+\-]?\d*))?/.exec(
+					match[2] === "even" && "2n" || match[2] === "odd" && "2n+1" ||
+					!/\D/.test( match[2] ) && "0n+" + match[2] || match[2]);
+
+				// calculate the numbers (first)n+(last) including if they are negative
+				match[2] = (test[1] + (test[2] || 1)) - 0;
+				match[3] = test[3] - 0;
+			}
+			else if ( match[2] ) {
+				Sizzle.error( match[0] );
+			}
+
+			// TODO: Move to normal caching system
+			match[0] = done++;
+
+			return match;
+		},
+
+		ATTR: function( match, curLoop, inplace, result, not, isXML ) {
+			var name = match[1] = match[1].replace( rBackslash, "" );
+
+			if ( !isXML && Expr.attrMap[name] ) {
+				match[1] = Expr.attrMap[name];
+			}
+
+			// Handle if an un-quoted value was used
+			match[4] = ( match[4] || match[5] || "" ).replace( rBackslash, "" );
+
+			if ( match[2] === "~=" ) {
+				match[4] = " " + match[4] + " ";
+			}
+
+			return match;
+		},
+
+		PSEUDO: function( match, curLoop, inplace, result, not ) {
+			if ( match[1] === "not" ) {
+				// If we're dealing with a complex expression, or a simple one
+				if ( ( chunker.exec(match[3]) || "" ).length > 1 || /^\w/.test(match[3]) ) {
+					match[3] = Sizzle(match[3], null, null, curLoop);
+
+				} else {
+					var ret = Sizzle.filter(match[3], curLoop, inplace, true ^ not);
+
+					if ( !inplace ) {
+						result.push.apply( result, ret );
+					}
+
+					return false;
+				}
+
+			} else if ( Expr.match.POS.test( match[0] ) || Expr.match.CHILD.test( match[0] ) ) {
+				return true;
+			}
+
+			return match;
+		},
+
+		POS: function( match ) {
+			match.unshift( true );
+
+			return match;
+		}
+	},
+
+	filters: {
+		enabled: function( elem ) {
+			return elem.disabled === false && elem.type !== "hidden";
+		},
+
+		disabled: function( elem ) {
+			return elem.disabled === true;
+		},
+
+		checked: function( elem ) {
+			return elem.checked === true;
+		},
+
+		selected: function( elem ) {
+			// Accessing this property makes selected-by-default
+			// options in Safari work properly
+			if ( elem.parentNode ) {
+				elem.parentNode.selectedIndex;
+			}
+
+			return elem.selected === true;
+		},
+
+		parent: function( elem ) {
+			return !!elem.firstChild;
+		},
+
+		empty: function( elem ) {
+			return !elem.firstChild;
+		},
+
+		has: function( elem, i, match ) {
+			return !!Sizzle( match[3], elem ).length;
+		},
+
+		header: function( elem ) {
+			return (/h\d/i).test( elem.nodeName );
+		},
+
+		text: function( elem ) {
+			var attr = elem.getAttribute( "type" ), type = elem.type;
+			// IE6 and 7 will map elem.type to 'text' for new HTML5 types (search, etc)
+			// use getAttribute instead to test this case
+			return elem.nodeName.toLowerCase() === "input" && "text" === type && ( attr === type || attr === null );
+		},
+
+		radio: function( elem ) {
+			return elem.nodeName.toLowerCase() === "input" && "radio" === elem.type;
+		},
+
+		checkbox: function( elem ) {
+			return elem.nodeName.toLowerCase() === "input" && "checkbox" === elem.type;
+		},
+
+		file: function( elem ) {
+			return elem.nodeName.toLowerCase() === "input" && "file" === elem.type;
+		},
+
+		password: function( elem ) {
+			return elem.nodeName.toLowerCase() === "input" && "password" === elem.type;
+		},
+
+		submit: function( elem ) {
+			var name = elem.nodeName.toLowerCase();
+			return (name === "input" || name === "button") && "submit" === elem.type;
+		},
+
+		image: function( elem ) {
+			return elem.nodeName.toLowerCase() === "input" && "image" === elem.type;
+		},
+
+		reset: function( elem ) {
+			var name = elem.nodeName.toLowerCase();
+			return (name === "input" || name === "button") && "reset" === elem.type;
+		},
+
+		button: function( elem ) {
+			var name = elem.nodeName.toLowerCase();
+			return name === "input" && "button" === elem.type || name === "button";
+		},
+
+		input: function( elem ) {
+			return (/input|select|textarea|button/i).test( elem.nodeName );
+		},
+
+		focus: function( elem ) {
+			return elem === elem.ownerDocument.activeElement;
+		}
+	},
+	setFilters: {
+		first: function( elem, i ) {
+			return i === 0;
+		},
+
+		last: function( elem, i, match, array ) {
+			return i === array.length - 1;
+		},
+
+		even: function( elem, i ) {
+			return i % 2 === 0;
+		},
+
+		odd: function( elem, i ) {
+			return i % 2 === 1;
+		},
+
+		lt: function( elem, i, match ) {
+			return i < match[3] - 0;
+		},
+
+		gt: function( elem, i, match ) {
+			return i > match[3] - 0;
+		},
+
+		nth: function( elem, i, match ) {
+			return match[3] - 0 === i;
+		},
+
+		eq: function( elem, i, match ) {
+			return match[3] - 0 === i;
+		}
+	},
+	filter: {
+		PSEUDO: function( elem, match, i, array ) {
+			var name = match[1],
+				filter = Expr.filters[ name ];
+
+			if ( filter ) {
+				return filter( elem, i, match, array );
+
+			} else if ( name === "contains" ) {
+				return (elem.textContent || elem.innerText || getText([ elem ]) || "").indexOf(match[3]) >= 0;
+
+			} else if ( name === "not" ) {
+				var not = match[3];
+
+				for ( var j = 0, l = not.length; j < l; j++ ) {
+					if ( not[j] === elem ) {
+						return false;
+					}
+				}
+
+				return true;
+
+			} else {
+				Sizzle.error( name );
+			}
+		},
+
+		CHILD: function( elem, match ) {
+			var first, last,
+				doneName, parent, cache,
+				count, diff,
+				type = match[1],
+				node = elem;
+
+			switch ( type ) {
+				case "only":
+				case "first":
+					while ( (node = node.previousSibling) ) {
+						if ( node.nodeType === 1 ) {
+							return false;
+						}
+					}
+
+					if ( type === "first" ) {
+						return true;
+					}
+
+					node = elem;
+
+					/* falls through */
+				case "last":
+					while ( (node = node.nextSibling) ) {
+						if ( node.nodeType === 1 ) {
+							return false;
+						}
+					}
+
+					return true;
+
+				case "nth":
+					first = match[2];
+					last = match[3];
+
+					if ( first === 1 && last === 0 ) {
+						return true;
+					}
+
+					doneName = match[0];
+					parent = elem.parentNode;
+
+					if ( parent && (parent[ expando ] !== doneName || !elem.nodeIndex) ) {
+						count = 0;
+
+						for ( node = parent.firstChild; node; node = node.nextSibling ) {
+							if ( node.nodeType === 1 ) {
+								node.nodeIndex = ++count;
+							}
+						}
+
+						parent[ expando ] = doneName;
+					}
+
+					diff = elem.nodeIndex - last;
+
+					if ( first === 0 ) {
+						return diff === 0;
+
+					} else {
+						return ( diff % first === 0 && diff / first >= 0 );
+					}
+			}
+		},
+
+		ID: function( elem, match ) {
+			return elem.nodeType === 1 && elem.getAttribute("id") === match;
+		},
+
+		TAG: function( elem, match ) {
+			return (match === "*" && elem.nodeType === 1) || !!elem.nodeName && elem.nodeName.toLowerCase() === match;
+		},
+
+		CLASS: function( elem, match ) {
+			return (" " + (elem.className || elem.getAttribute("class")) + " ")
+				.indexOf( match ) > -1;
+		},
+
+		ATTR: function( elem, match ) {
+			var name = match[1],
+				result = Sizzle.attr ?
+					Sizzle.attr( elem, name ) :
+					Expr.attrHandle[ name ] ?
+					Expr.attrHandle[ name ]( elem ) :
+					elem[ name ] != null ?
+						elem[ name ] :
+						elem.getAttribute( name ),
+				value = result + "",
+				type = match[2],
+				check = match[4];
+
+			return result == null ?
+				type === "!=" :
+				!type && Sizzle.attr ?
+				result != null :
+				type === "=" ?
+				value === check :
+				type === "*=" ?
+				value.indexOf(check) >= 0 :
+				type === "~=" ?
+				(" " + value + " ").indexOf(check) >= 0 :
+				!check ?
+				value && result !== false :
+				type === "!=" ?
+				value !== check :
+				type === "^=" ?
+				value.indexOf(check) === 0 :
+				type === "$=" ?
+				value.substr(value.length - check.length) === check :
+				type === "|=" ?
+				value === check || value.substr(0, check.length + 1) === check + "-" :
+				false;
+		},
+
+		POS: function( elem, match, i, array ) {
+			var name = match[2],
+				filter = Expr.setFilters[ name ];
+
+			if ( filter ) {
+				return filter( elem, i, match, array );
+			}
+		}
+	}
+};
+
+var origPOS = Expr.match.POS,
+	fescape = function(all, num){
+		return "\\" + (num - 0 + 1);
+	};
+
+for ( var type in Expr.match ) {
+	Expr.match[ type ] = new RegExp( Expr.match[ type ].source + (/(?![^\[]*\])(?![^\(]*\))/.source) );
+	Expr.leftMatch[ type ] = new RegExp( /(^(?:.|\r|\n)*?)/.source + Expr.match[ type ].source.replace(/\\(\d+)/g, fescape) );
+}
+// Expose origPOS
+// "global" as in regardless of relation to brackets/parens
+Expr.match.globalPOS = origPOS;
+
+var makeArray = function( array, results ) {
+	array = Array.prototype.slice.call( array, 0 );
+
+	if ( results ) {
+		results.push.apply( results, array );
+		return results;
+	}
+
+	return array;
+};
+
+// Perform a simple check to determine if the browser is capable of
+// converting a NodeList to an array using builtin methods.
+// Also verifies that the returned array holds DOM nodes
+// (which is not the case in the Blackberry browser)
+try {
+	Array.prototype.slice.call( document.documentElement.childNodes, 0 )[0].nodeType;
+
+// Provide a fallback method if it does not work
+} catch( e ) {
+	makeArray = function( array, results ) {
+		var i = 0,
+			ret = results || [];
+
+		if ( toString.call(array) === "[object Array]" ) {
+			Array.prototype.push.apply( ret, array );
+
+		} else {
+			if ( typeof array.length === "number" ) {
+				for ( var l = array.length; i < l; i++ ) {
+					ret.push( array[i] );
+				}
+
+			} else {
+				for ( ; array[i]; i++ ) {
+					ret.push( array[i] );
+				}
+			}
+		}
+
+		return ret;
+	};
+}
+
+var sortOrder, siblingCheck;
+
+if ( document.documentElement.compareDocumentPosition ) {
+	sortOrder = function( a, b ) {
+		if ( a === b ) {
+			hasDuplicate = true;
+			return 0;
+		}
+
+		if ( !a.compareDocumentPosition || !b.compareDocumentPosition ) {
+			return a.compareDocumentPosition ? -1 : 1;
+		}
+
+		return a.compareDocumentPosition(b) & 4 ? -1 : 1;
+	};
+
+} else {
+	sortOrder = function( a, b ) {
+		// The nodes are identical, we can exit early
+		if ( a === b ) {
+			hasDuplicate = true;
+			return 0;
+
+		// Fallback to using sourceIndex (in IE) if it's available on both nodes
+		} else if ( a.sourceIndex && b.sourceIndex ) {
+			return a.sourceIndex - b.sourceIndex;
+		}
+
+		var al, bl,
+			ap = [],
+			bp = [],
+			aup = a.parentNode,
+			bup = b.parentNode,
+			cur = aup;
+
+		// If the nodes are siblings (or identical) we can do a quick check
+		if ( aup === bup ) {
+			return siblingCheck( a, b );
+
+		// If no parents were found then the nodes are disconnected
+		} else if ( !aup ) {
+			return -1;
+
+		} else if ( !bup ) {
+			return 1;
+		}
+
+		// Otherwise they're somewhere else in the tree so we need
+		// to build up a full list of the parentNodes for comparison
+		while ( cur ) {
+			ap.unshift( cur );
+			cur = cur.parentNode;
+		}
+
+		cur = bup;
+
+		while ( cur ) {
+			bp.unshift( cur );
+			cur = cur.parentNode;
+		}
+
+		al = ap.length;
+		bl = bp.length;
+
+		// Start walking down the tree looking for a discrepancy
+		for ( var i = 0; i < al && i < bl; i++ ) {
+			if ( ap[i] !== bp[i] ) {
+				return siblingCheck( ap[i], bp[i] );
+			}
+		}
+
+		// We ended someplace up the tree so do a sibling check
+		return i === al ?
+			siblingCheck( a, bp[i], -1 ) :
+			siblingCheck( ap[i], b, 1 );
+	};
+
+	siblingCheck = function( a, b, ret ) {
+		if ( a === b ) {
+			return ret;
+		}
+
+		var cur = a.nextSibling;
+
+		while ( cur ) {
+			if ( cur === b ) {
+				return -1;
+			}
+
+			cur = cur.nextSibling;
+		}
+
+		return 1;
+	};
+}
+
+// Check to see if the browser returns elements by name when
+// querying by getElementById (and provide a workaround)
+(function(){
+	// We're going to inject a fake input element with a specified name
+	var form = document.createElement("div"),
+		id = "script" + (new Date()).getTime(),
+		root = document.documentElement;
+
+	form.innerHTML = "<a name='" + id + "'/>";
+
+	// Inject it into the root element, check its status, and remove it quickly
+	root.insertBefore( form, root.firstChild );
+
+	// The workaround has to do additional checks after a getElementById
+	// Which slows things down for other browsers (hence the branching)
+	if ( document.getElementById( id ) ) {
+		Expr.find.ID = function( match, context, isXML ) {
+			if ( typeof context.getElementById !== "undefined" && !isXML ) {
+				var m = context.getElementById(match[1]);
+
+				return m ?
+					m.id === match[1] || typeof m.getAttributeNode !== "undefined" && m.getAttributeNode("id").nodeValue === match[1] ?
+						[m] :
+						undefined :
+					[];
+			}
+		};
+
+		Expr.filter.ID = function( elem, match ) {
+			var node = typeof elem.getAttributeNode !== "undefined" && elem.getAttributeNode("id");
+
+			return elem.nodeType === 1 && node && node.nodeValue === match;
+		};
+	}
+
+	root.removeChild( form );
+
+	// release memory in IE
+	root = form = null;
+})();
+
+(function(){
+	// Check to see if the browser returns only elements
+	// when doing getElementsByTagName("*")
+
+	// Create a fake element
+	var div = document.createElement("div");
+	div.appendChild( document.createComment("") );
+
+	// Make sure no comments are found
+	if ( div.getElementsByTagName("*").length > 0 ) {
+		Expr.find.TAG = function( match, context ) {
+			var results = context.getElementsByTagName( match[1] );
+
+			// Filter out possible comments
+			if ( match[1] === "*" ) {
+				var tmp = [];
+
+				for ( var i = 0; results[i]; i++ ) {
+					if ( results[i].nodeType === 1 ) {
+						tmp.push( results[i] );
+					}
+				}
+
+				results = tmp;
+			}
+
+			return results;
+		};
+	}
+
+	// Check to see if an attribute returns normalized href attributes
+	div.innerHTML = "<a href='#'></a>";
+
+	if ( div.firstChild && typeof div.firstChild.getAttribute !== "undefined" &&
+			div.firstChild.getAttribute("href") !== "#" ) {
+
+		Expr.attrHandle.href = function( elem ) {
+			return elem.getAttribute( "href", 2 );
+		};
+	}
+
+	// release memory in IE
+	div = null;
+})();
+
+if ( document.querySelectorAll ) {
+	(function(){
+		var oldSizzle = Sizzle,
+			div = document.createElement("div"),
+			id = "__sizzle__";
+
+		div.innerHTML = "<p class='TEST'></p>";
+
+		// Safari can't handle uppercase or unicode characters when
+		// in quirks mode.
+		if ( div.querySelectorAll && div.querySelectorAll(".TEST").length === 0 ) {
+			return;
+		}
+
+		Sizzle = function( query, context, extra, seed ) {
+			context = context || document;
+
+			// Only use querySelectorAll on non-XML documents
+			// (ID selectors don't work in non-HTML documents)
+			if ( !seed && !Sizzle.isXML(context) ) {
+				// See if we find a selector to speed up
+				var match = /^(\w+$)|^\.([\w\-]+$)|^#([\w\-]+$)/.exec( query );
+
+				if ( match && (context.nodeType === 1 || context.nodeType === 9) ) {
+					// Speed-up: Sizzle("TAG")
+					if ( match[1] ) {
+						return makeArray( context.getElementsByTagName( query ), extra );
+
+					// Speed-up: Sizzle(".CLASS")
+					} else if ( match[2] && Expr.find.CLASS && context.getElementsByClassName ) {
+						return makeArray( context.getElementsByClassName( match[2] ), extra );
+					}
+				}
+
+				if ( context.nodeType === 9 ) {
+					// Speed-up: Sizzle("body")
+					// The body element only exists once, optimize finding it
+					if ( query === "body" && context.body ) {
+						return makeArray( [ context.body ], extra );
+
+					// Speed-up: Sizzle("#ID")
+					} else if ( match && match[3] ) {
+						var elem = context.getElementById( match[3] );
+
+						// Check parentNode to catch when Blackberry 4.6 returns
+						// nodes that are no longer in the document #6963
+						if ( elem && elem.parentNode ) {
+							// Handle the case where IE and Opera return items
+							// by name instead of ID
+							if ( elem.id === match[3] ) {
+								return makeArray( [ elem ], extra );
+							}
+
+						} else {
+							return makeArray( [], extra );
+						}
+					}
+
+					try {
+						return makeArray( context.querySelectorAll(query), extra );
+					} catch(qsaError) {}
+
+				// qSA works strangely on Element-rooted queries
+				// We can work around this by specifying an extra ID on the root
+				// and working up from there (Thanks to Andrew Dupont for the technique)
+				// IE 8 doesn't work on object elements
+				} else if ( context.nodeType === 1 && context.nodeName.toLowerCase() !== "object" ) {
+					var oldContext = context,
+						old = context.getAttribute( "id" ),
+						nid = old || id,
+						hasParent = context.parentNode,
+						relativeHierarchySelector = /^\s*[+~]/.test( query );
+
+					if ( !old ) {
+						context.setAttribute( "id", nid );
+					} else {
+						nid = nid.replace( /'/g, "\\$&" );
+					}
+					if ( relativeHierarchySelector && hasParent ) {
+						context = context.parentNode;
+					}
+
+					try {
+						if ( !relativeHierarchySelector || hasParent ) {
+							return makeArray( context.querySelectorAll( "[id='" + nid + "'] " + query ), extra );
+						}
+
+					} catch(pseudoError) {
+					} finally {
+						if ( !old ) {
+							oldContext.removeAttribute( "id" );
+						}
+					}
+				}
+			}
+
+			return oldSizzle(query, context, extra, seed);
+		};
+
+		for ( var prop in oldSizzle ) {
+			Sizzle[ prop ] = oldSizzle[ prop ];
+		}
+
+		// release memory in IE
+		div = null;
+	})();
+}
+
+(function(){
+	var html = document.documentElement,
+		matches = html.matchesSelector || html.mozMatchesSelector || html.webkitMatchesSelector || html.msMatchesSelector;
+
+	if ( matches ) {
+		// Check to see if it's possible to do matchesSelector
+		// on a disconnected node (IE 9 fails this)
+		var disconnectedMatch = !matches.call( document.createElement( "div" ), "div" ),
+			pseudoWorks = false;
+
+		try {
+			// This should fail with an exception
+			// Gecko does not error, returns false instead
+			matches.call( document.documentElement, "[test!='']:sizzle" );
+
+		} catch( pseudoError ) {
+			pseudoWorks = true;
+		}
+
+		Sizzle.matchesSelector = function( node, expr ) {
+			// Make sure that attribute selectors are quoted
+			expr = expr.replace(/\=\s*([^'"\]]*)\s*\]/g, "='$1']");
+
+			if ( !Sizzle.isXML( node ) ) {
+				try {
+					if ( pseudoWorks || !Expr.match.PSEUDO.test( expr ) && !/!=/.test( expr ) ) {
+						var ret = matches.call( node, expr );
+
+						// IE 9's matchesSelector returns false on disconnected nodes
+						if ( ret || !disconnectedMatch ||
+								// As well, disconnected nodes are said to be in a document
+								// fragment in IE 9, so check for that
+								node.document && node.document.nodeType !== 11 ) {
+							return ret;
+						}
+					}
+				} catch(e) {}
+			}
+
+			return Sizzle(expr, null, null, [node]).length > 0;
+		};
+	}
+})();
+
+(function(){
+	var div = document.createElement("div");
+
+	div.innerHTML = "<div class='test e'></div><div class='test'></div>";
+
+	// Opera can't find a second classname (in 9.6)
+	// Also, make sure that getElementsByClassName actually exists
+	if ( !div.getElementsByClassName || div.getElementsByClassName("e").length === 0 ) {
+		return;
+	}
+
+	// Safari caches class attributes, doesn't catch changes (in 3.2)
+	div.lastChild.className = "e";
+
+	if ( div.getElementsByClassName("e").length === 1 ) {
+		return;
+	}
+
+	Expr.order.splice(1, 0, "CLASS");
+	Expr.find.CLASS = function( match, context, isXML ) {
+		if ( typeof context.getElementsByClassName !== "undefined" && !isXML ) {
+			return context.getElementsByClassName(match[1]);
+		}
+	};
+
+	// release memory in IE
+	div = null;
+})();
+
+function dirNodeCheck( dir, cur, doneName, checkSet, nodeCheck, isXML ) {
+	for ( var i = 0, l = checkSet.length; i < l; i++ ) {
+		var elem = checkSet[i];
+
+		if ( elem ) {
+			var match = false;
+
+			elem = elem[dir];
+
+			while ( elem ) {
+				if ( elem[ expando ] === doneName ) {
+					match = checkSet[elem.sizset];
+					break;
+				}
+
+				if ( elem.nodeType === 1 && !isXML ){
+					elem[ expando ] = doneName;
+					elem.sizset = i;
+				}
+
+				if ( elem.nodeName.toLowerCase() === cur ) {
+					match = elem;
+					break;
+				}
+
+				elem = elem[dir];
+			}
+
+			checkSet[i] = match;
+		}
+	}
+}
+
+function dirCheck( dir, cur, doneName, checkSet, nodeCheck, isXML ) {
+	for ( var i = 0, l = checkSet.length; i < l; i++ ) {
+		var elem = checkSet[i];
+
+		if ( elem ) {
+			var match = false;
+
+			elem = elem[dir];
+
+			while ( elem ) {
+				if ( elem[ expando ] === doneName ) {
+					match = checkSet[elem.sizset];
+					break;
+				}
+
+				if ( elem.nodeType === 1 ) {
+					if ( !isXML ) {
+						elem[ expando ] = doneName;
+						elem.sizset = i;
+					}
+
+					if ( typeof cur !== "string" ) {
+						if ( elem === cur ) {
+							match = true;
+							break;
+						}
+
+					} else if ( Sizzle.filter( cur, [elem] ).length > 0 ) {
+						match = elem;
+						break;
+					}
+				}
+
+				elem = elem[dir];
+			}
+
+			checkSet[i] = match;
+		}
+	}
+}
+
+if ( document.documentElement.contains ) {
+	Sizzle.contains = function( a, b ) {
+		return a !== b && (a.contains ? a.contains(b) : true);
+	};
+
+} else if ( document.documentElement.compareDocumentPosition ) {
+	Sizzle.contains = function( a, b ) {
+		return !!(a.compareDocumentPosition(b) & 16);
+	};
+
+} else {
+	Sizzle.contains = function() {
+		return false;
+	};
+}
+
+Sizzle.isXML = function( elem ) {
+	// documentElement is verified for cases where it doesn't yet exist
+	// (such as loading iframes in IE - #4833)
+	var documentElement = (elem ? elem.ownerDocument || elem : 0).documentElement;
+
+	return documentElement ? documentElement.nodeName !== "HTML" : false;
+};
+
+var posProcess = function( selector, context, seed ) {
+	var match,
+		tmpSet = [],
+		later = "",
+		root = context.nodeType ? [context] : context;
+
+	// Position selectors must be done after the filter
+	// And so must :not(positional) so we move all PSEUDOs to the end
+	while ( (match = Expr.match.PSEUDO.exec( selector )) ) {
+		later += match[0];
+		selector = selector.replace( Expr.match.PSEUDO, "" );
+	}
+
+	selector = Expr.relative[selector] ? selector + "*" : selector;
+
+	for ( var i = 0, l = root.length; i < l; i++ ) {
+		Sizzle( selector, root[i], tmpSet, seed );
+	}
+
+	return Sizzle.filter( later, tmpSet );
+};
+
+// EXPOSE
+// Override sizzle attribute retrieval
+Sizzle.attr = jQuery.attr;
+Sizzle.selectors.attrMap = {};
+jQuery.find = Sizzle;
+jQuery.expr = Sizzle.selectors;
+jQuery.expr[":"] = jQuery.expr.filters;
+jQuery.unique = Sizzle.uniqueSort;
+jQuery.text = Sizzle.getText;
+jQuery.isXMLDoc = Sizzle.isXML;
+jQuery.contains = Sizzle.contains;
+
+
+})();
+
+
+var runtil = /Until$/,
+	rparentsprev = /^(?:parents|prevUntil|prevAll)/,
+	// Note: This RegExp should be improved, or likely pulled from Sizzle
+	rmultiselector = /,/,
+	isSimple = /^.[^:#\[\.,]*$/,
+	slice = Array.prototype.slice,
+	POS = jQuery.expr.match.globalPOS,
+	// methods guaranteed to produce a unique set when starting from a unique set
+	guaranteedUnique = {
+		children: true,
+		contents: true,
+		next: true,
+		prev: true
+	};
+
+jQuery.fn.extend({
+	find: function( selector ) {
+		var self = this,
+			i, l;
+
+		if ( typeof selector !== "string" ) {
+			return jQuery( selector ).filter(function() {
+				for ( i = 0, l = self.length; i < l; i++ ) {
+					if ( jQuery.contains( self[ i ], this ) ) {
+						return true;
+					}
+				}
+			});
+		}
+
+		var ret = this.pushStack( "", "find", selector ),
+			length, n, r;
+
+		for ( i = 0, l = this.length; i < l; i++ ) {
+			length = ret.length;
+			jQuery.find( selector, this[i], ret );
+
+			if ( i > 0 ) {
+				// Make sure that the results are unique
+				for ( n = length; n < ret.length; n++ ) {
+					for ( r = 0; r < length; r++ ) {
+						if ( ret[r] === ret[n] ) {
+							ret.splice(n--, 1);
+							break;
+						}
+					}
+				}
+			}
+		}
+
+		return ret;
+	},
+
+	has: function( target ) {
+		var targets = jQuery( target );
+		return this.filter(function() {
+			for ( var i = 0, l = targets.length; i < l; i++ ) {
+				if ( jQuery.contains( this, targets[i] ) ) {
+					return true;
+				}
+			}
+		});
+	},
+
+	not: function( selector ) {
+		return this.pushStack( winnow(this, selector, false), "not", selector);
+	},
+
+	filter: function( selector ) {
+		return this.pushStack( winnow(this, selector, true), "filter", selector );
+	},
+
+	is: function( selector ) {
+		return !!selector && (
+			typeof selector === "string" ?
+				// If this is a positional selector, check membership in the returned set
+				// so $("p:first").is("p:last") won't return true for a doc with two "p".
+				POS.test( selector ) ?
+					jQuery( selector, this.context ).index( this[0] ) >= 0 :
+					jQuery.filter( selector, this ).length > 0 :
+				this.filter( selector ).length > 0 );
+	},
+
+	closest: function( selectors, context ) {
+		var ret = [], i, l, cur = this[0];
+
+		// Array (deprecated as of jQuery 1.7)
+		if ( jQuery.isArray( selectors ) ) {
+			var level = 1;
+
+			while ( cur && cur.ownerDocument && cur !== context ) {
+				for ( i = 0; i < selectors.length; i++ ) {
+
+					if ( jQuery( cur ).is( selectors[ i ] ) ) {
+						ret.push({ selector: selectors[ i ], elem: cur, level: level });
+					}
+				}
+
+				cur = cur.parentNode;
+				level++;
+			}
+
+			return ret;
+		}
+
+		// String
+		var pos = POS.test( selectors ) || typeof selectors !== "string" ?
+				jQuery( selectors, context || this.context ) :
+				0;
+
+		for ( i = 0, l = this.length; i < l; i++ ) {
+			cur = this[i];
+
+			while ( cur ) {
+				if ( pos ? pos.index(cur) > -1 : jQuery.find.matchesSelector(cur, selectors) ) {
+					ret.push( cur );
+					break;
+
+				} else {
+					cur = cur.parentNode;
+					if ( !cur || !cur.ownerDocument || cur === context || cur.nodeType === 11 ) {
+						break;
+					}
+				}
+			}
+		}
+
+		ret = ret.length > 1 ? jQuery.unique( ret ) : ret;
+
+		return this.pushStack( ret, "closest", selectors );
+	},
+
+	// Determine the position of an element within
+	// the matched set of elements
+	index: function( elem ) {
+
+		// No argument, return index in parent
+		if ( !elem ) {
+			return ( this[0] && this[0].parentNode ) ? this.prevAll().length : -1;
+		}
+
+		// index in selector
+		if ( typeof elem === "string" ) {
+			return jQuery.inArray( this[0], jQuery( elem ) );
+		}
+
+		// Locate the position of the desired element
+		return jQuery.inArray(
+			// If it receives a jQuery object, the first element is used
+			elem.jquery ? elem[0] : elem, this );
+	},
+
+	add: function( selector, context ) {
+		var set = typeof selector === "string" ?
+				jQuery( selector, context ) :
+				jQuery.makeArray( selector && selector.nodeType ? [ selector ] : selector ),
+			all = jQuery.merge( this.get(), set );
+
+		return this.pushStack( isDisconnected( set[0] ) || isDisconnected( all[0] ) ?
+			all :
+			jQuery.unique( all ) );
+	},
+
+	andSelf: function() {
+		return this.add( this.prevObject );
+	}
+});
+
+// A painfully simple check to see if an element is disconnected
+// from a document (should be improved, where feasible).
+function isDisconnected( node ) {
+	return !node || !node.parentNode || node.parentNode.nodeType === 11;
+}
+
+jQuery.each({
+	parent: function( elem ) {
+		var parent = elem.parentNode;
+		return parent && parent.nodeType !== 11 ? parent : null;
+	},
+	parents: function( elem ) {
+		return jQuery.dir( elem, "parentNode" );
+	},
+	parentsUntil: function( elem, i, until ) {
+		return jQuery.dir( elem, "parentNode", until );
+	},
+	next: function( elem ) {
+		return jQuery.nth( elem, 2, "nextSibling" );
+	},
+	prev: function( elem ) {
+		return jQuery.nth( elem, 2, "previousSibling" );
+	},
+	nextAll: function( elem ) {
+		return jQuery.dir( elem, "nextSibling" );
+	},
+	prevAll: function( elem ) {
+		return jQuery.dir( elem, "previousSibling" );
+	},
+	nextUntil: function( elem, i, until ) {
+		return jQuery.dir( elem, "nextSibling", until );
+	},
+	prevUntil: function( elem, i, until ) {
+		return jQuery.dir( elem, "previousSibling", until );
+	},
+	siblings: function( elem ) {
+		return jQuery.sibling( ( elem.parentNode || {} ).firstChild, elem );
+	},
+	children: function( elem ) {
+		return jQuery.sibling( elem.firstChild );
+	},
+	contents: function( elem ) {
+		return jQuery.nodeName( elem, "iframe" ) ?
+			elem.contentDocument || elem.contentWindow.document :
+			jQuery.makeArray( elem.childNodes );
+	}
+}, function( name, fn ) {
+	jQuery.fn[ name ] = function( until, selector ) {
+		var ret = jQuery.map( this, fn, until );
+
+		if ( !runtil.test( name ) ) {
+			selector = until;
+		}
+
+		if ( selector && typeof selector === "string" ) {
+			ret = jQuery.filter( selector, ret );
+		}
+
+		ret = this.length > 1 && !guaranteedUnique[ name ] ? jQuery.unique( ret ) : ret;
+
+		if ( (this.length > 1 || rmultiselector.test( selector )) && rparentsprev.test( name ) ) {
+			ret = ret.reverse();
+		}
+
+		return this.pushStack( ret, name, slice.call( arguments ).join(",") );
+	};
+});
+
+jQuery.extend({
+	filter: function( expr, elems, not ) {
+		if ( not ) {
+			expr = ":not(" + expr + ")";
+		}
+
+		return elems.length === 1 ?
+			jQuery.find.matchesSelector(elems[0], expr) ? [ elems[0] ] : [] :
+			jQuery.find.matches(expr, elems);
+	},
+
+	dir: function( elem, dir, until ) {
+		var matched = [],
+			cur = elem[ dir ];
+
+		while ( cur && cur.nodeType !== 9 && (until === undefined || cur.nodeType !== 1 || !jQuery( cur ).is( until )) ) {
+			if ( cur.nodeType === 1 ) {
+				matched.push( cur );
+			}
+			cur = cur[dir];
+		}
+		return matched;
+	},
+
+	nth: function( cur, result, dir, elem ) {
+		result = result || 1;
+		var num = 0;
+
+		for ( ; cur; cur = cur[dir] ) {
+			if ( cur.nodeType === 1 && ++num === result ) {
+				break;
+			}
+		}
+
+		return cur;
+	},
+
+	sibling: function( n, elem ) {
+		var r = [];
+
+		for ( ; n; n = n.nextSibling ) {
+			if ( n.nodeType === 1 && n !== elem ) {
+				r.push( n );
+			}
+		}
+
+		return r;
+	}
+});
+
+// Implement the identical functionality for filter and not
+function winnow( elements, qualifier, keep ) {
+
+	// Can't pass null or undefined to indexOf in Firefox 4
+	// Set to 0 to skip string check
+	qualifier = qualifier || 0;
+
+	if ( jQuery.isFunction( qualifier ) ) {
+		return jQuery.grep(elements, function( elem, i ) {
+			var retVal = !!qualifier.call( elem, i, elem );
+			return retVal === keep;
+		});
+
+	} else if ( qualifier.nodeType ) {
+		return jQuery.grep(elements, function( elem, i ) {
+			return ( elem === qualifier ) === keep;
+		});
+
+	} else if ( typeof qualifier === "string" ) {
+		var filtered = jQuery.grep(elements, function( elem ) {
+			return elem.nodeType === 1;
+		});
+
+		if ( isSimple.test( qualifier ) ) {
+			return jQuery.filter(qualifier, filtered, !keep);
+		} else {
+			qualifier = jQuery.filter( qualifier, filtered );
+		}
+	}
+
+	return jQuery.grep(elements, function( elem, i ) {
+		return ( jQuery.inArray( elem, qualifier ) >= 0 ) === keep;
+	});
+}
+
+
+
+
+function createSafeFragment( document ) {
+	var list = nodeNames.split( "|" ),
+	safeFrag = document.createDocumentFragment();
+
+	if ( safeFrag.createElement ) {
+		while ( list.length ) {
+			safeFrag.createElement(
+				list.pop()
+			);
+		}
+	}
+	return safeFrag;
+}
+
+var nodeNames = "abbr|article|aside|audio|bdi|canvas|data|datalist|details|figcaption|figure|footer|" +
+		"header|hgroup|mark|meter|nav|output|progress|section|summary|time|video",
+	rinlinejQuery = / jQuery\d+="(?:\d+|null)"/g,
+	rleadingWhitespace = /^\s+/,
+	rxhtmlTag = /<(?!area|br|col|embed|hr|img|input|link|meta|param)(([\w:]+)[^>]*)\/>/ig,
+	rtagName = /<([\w:]+)/,
+	rtbody = /<tbody/i,
+	rhtml = /<|&#?\w+;/,
+	rnoInnerhtml = /<(?:script|style)/i,
+	rnocache = /<(?:script|object|embed|option|style)/i,
+	rnoshimcache = new RegExp("<(?:" + nodeNames + ")[\\s/>]", "i"),
+	// checked="checked" or checked
+	rchecked = /checked\s*(?:[^=]|=\s*.checked.)/i,
+	rscriptType = /\/(java|ecma)script/i,
+	rcleanScript = /^\s*<!(?:\[CDATA\[|\-\-)/,
+	wrapMap = {
+		option: [ 1, "<select multiple='multiple'>", "</select>" ],
+		legend: [ 1, "<fieldset>", "</fieldset>" ],
+		thead: [ 1, "<table>", "</table>" ],
+		tr: [ 2, "<table><tbody>", "</tbody></table>" ],
+		td: [ 3, "<table><tbody><tr>", "</tr></tbody></table>" ],
+		col: [ 2, "<table><tbody></tbody><colgroup>", "</colgroup></table>" ],
+		area: [ 1, "<map>", "</map>" ],
+		_default: [ 0, "", "" ]
+	},
+	safeFragment = createSafeFragment( document );
+
+wrapMap.optgroup = wrapMap.option;
+wrapMap.tbody = wrapMap.tfoot = wrapMap.colgroup = wrapMap.caption = wrapMap.thead;
+wrapMap.th = wrapMap.td;
+
+// IE can't serialize <link> and <script> tags normally
+if ( !jQuery.support.htmlSerialize ) {
+	wrapMap._default = [ 1, "div<div>", "</div>" ];
+}
+
+jQuery.fn.extend({
+	text: function( value ) {
+		return jQuery.access( this, function( value ) {
+			return value === undefined ?
+				jQuery.text( this ) :
+				this.empty().append( ( this[0] && this[0].ownerDocument || document ).createTextNode( value ) );
+		}, null, value, arguments.length );
+	},
+
+	wrapAll: function( html ) {
+		if ( jQuery.isFunction( html ) ) {
+			return this.each(function(i) {
+				jQuery(this).wrapAll( html.call(this, i) );
+			});
+		}
+
+		if ( this[0] ) {
+			// The elements to wrap the target around
+			var wrap = jQuery( html, this[0].ownerDocument ).eq(0).clone(true);
+
+			if ( this[0].parentNode ) {
+				wrap.insertBefore( this[0] );
+			}
+
+			wrap.map(function() {
+				var elem = this;
+
+				while ( elem.firstChild && elem.firstChild.nodeType === 1 ) {
+					elem = elem.firstChild;
+				}
+
+				return elem;
+			}).append( this );
+		}
+
+		return this;
+	},
+
+	wrapInner: function( html ) {
+		if ( jQuery.isFunction( html ) ) {
+			return this.each(function(i) {
+				jQuery(this).wrapInner( html.call(this, i) );
+			});
+		}
+
+		return this.each(function() {
+			var self = jQuery( this ),
+				contents = self.contents();
+
+			if ( contents.length ) {
+				contents.wrapAll( html );
+
+			} else {
+				self.append( html );
+			}
+		});
+	},
+
+	wrap: function( html ) {
+		var isFunction = jQuery.isFunction( html );
+
+		return this.each(function(i) {
+			jQuery( this ).wrapAll( isFunction ? html.call(this, i) : html );
+		});
+	},
+
+	unwrap: function() {
+		return this.parent().each(function() {
+			if ( !jQuery.nodeName( this, "body" ) ) {
+				jQuery( this ).replaceWith( this.childNodes );
+			}
+		}).end();
+	},
+
+	append: function() {
+		return this.domManip(arguments, true, function( elem ) {
+			if ( this.nodeType === 1 ) {
+				this.appendChild( elem );
+			}
+		});
+	},
+
+	prepend: function() {
+		return this.domManip(arguments, true, function( elem ) {
+			if ( this.nodeType === 1 ) {
+				this.insertBefore( elem, this.firstChild );
+			}
+		});
+	},
+
+	before: function() {
+		if ( this[0] && this[0].parentNode ) {
+			return this.domManip(arguments, false, function( elem ) {
+				this.parentNode.insertBefore( elem, this );
+			});
+		} else if ( arguments.length ) {
+			var set = jQuery.clean( arguments );
+			set.push.apply( set, this.toArray() );
+			return this.pushStack( set, "before", arguments );
+		}
+	},
+
+	after: function() {
+		if ( this[0] && this[0].parentNode ) {
+			return this.domManip(arguments, false, function( elem ) {
+				this.parentNode.insertBefore( elem, this.nextSibling );
+			});
+		} else if ( arguments.length ) {
+			var set = this.pushStack( this, "after", arguments );
+			set.push.apply( set, jQuery.clean(arguments) );
+			return set;
+		}
+	},
+
+	// keepData is for internal use only--do not document
+	remove: function( selector, keepData ) {
+		for ( var i = 0, elem; (elem = this[i]) != null; i++ ) {
+			if ( !selector || jQuery.filter( selector, [ elem ] ).length ) {
+				if ( !keepData && elem.nodeType === 1 ) {
+					jQuery.cleanData( elem.getElementsByTagName("*") );
+					jQuery.cleanData( [ elem ] );
+				}
+
+				if ( elem.parentNode ) {
+					elem.parentNode.removeChild( elem );
+				}
+			}
+		}
+
+		return this;
+	},
+
+	empty: function() {
+		for ( var i = 0, elem; (elem = this[i]) != null; i++ ) {
+			// Remove element nodes and prevent memory leaks
+			if ( elem.nodeType === 1 ) {
+				jQuery.cleanData( elem.getElementsByTagName("*") );
+			}
+
+			// Remove any remaining nodes
+			while ( elem.firstChild ) {
+				elem.removeChild( elem.firstChild );
+			}
+		}
+
+		return this;
+	},
+
+	clone: function( dataAndEvents, deepDataAndEvents ) {
+		dataAndEvents = dataAndEvents == null ? false : dataAndEvents;
+		deepDataAndEvents = deepDataAndEvents == null ? dataAndEvents : deepDataAndEvents;
+
+		return this.map( function () {
+			return jQuery.clone( this, dataAndEvents, deepDataAndEvents );
+		});
+	},
+
+	html: function( value ) {
+		return jQuery.access( this, function( value ) {
+			var elem = this[0] || {},
+				i = 0,
+				l = this.length;
+
+			if ( value === undefined ) {
+				return elem.nodeType === 1 ?
+					elem.innerHTML.replace( rinlinejQuery, "" ) :
+					null;
+			}
+
+
+			if ( typeof value === "string" && !rnoInnerhtml.test( value ) &&
+				( jQuery.support.leadingWhitespace || !rleadingWhitespace.test( value ) ) &&
+				!wrapMap[ ( rtagName.exec( value ) || ["", ""] )[1].toLowerCase() ] ) {
+
+				value = value.replace( rxhtmlTag, "<$1></$2>" );
+
+				try {
+					for (; i < l; i++ ) {
+						// Remove element nodes and prevent memory leaks
+						elem = this[i] || {};
+						if ( elem.nodeType === 1 ) {
+							jQuery.cleanData( elem.getElementsByTagName( "*" ) );
+							elem.innerHTML = value;
+						}
+					}
+
+					elem = 0;
+
+				// If using innerHTML throws an exception, use the fallback method
+				} catch(e) {}
+			}
+
+			if ( elem ) {
+				this.empty().append( value );
+			}
+		}, null, value, arguments.length );
+	},
+
+	replaceWith: function( value ) {
+		if ( this[0] && this[0].parentNode ) {
+			// Make sure that the elements are removed from the DOM before they are inserted
+			// this can help fix replacing a parent with child elements
+			if ( jQuery.isFunction( value ) ) {
+				return this.each(function(i) {
+					var self = jQuery(this), old = self.html();
+					self.replaceWith( value.call( this, i, old ) );
+				});
+			}
+
+			if ( typeof value !== "string" ) {
+				value = jQuery( value ).detach();
+			}
+
+			return this.each(function() {
+				var next = this.nextSibling,
+					parent = this.parentNode;
+
+				jQuery( this ).remove();
+
+				if ( next ) {
+					jQuery(next).before( value );
+				} else {
+					jQuery(parent).append( value );
+				}
+			});
+		} else {
+			return this.length ?
+				this.pushStack( jQuery(jQuery.isFunction(value) ? value() : value), "replaceWith", value ) :
+				this;
+		}
+	},
+
+	detach: function( selector ) {
+		return this.remove( selector, true );
+	},
+
+	domManip: function( args, table, callback ) {
+		var results, first, fragment, parent,
+			value = args[0],
+			scripts = [];
+
+		// We can't cloneNode fragments that contain checked, in WebKit
+		if ( !jQuery.support.checkClone && arguments.length === 3 && typeof value === "string" && rchecked.test( value ) ) {
+			return this.each(function() {
+				jQuery(this).domManip( args, table, callback, true );
+			});
+		}
+
+		if ( jQuery.isFunction(value) ) {
+			return this.each(function(i) {
+				var self = jQuery(this);
+				args[0] = value.call(this, i, table ? self.html() : undefined);
+				self.domManip( args, table, callback );
+			});
+		}
+
+		if ( this[0] ) {
+			parent = value && value.parentNode;
+
+			// If we're in a fragment, just use that instead of building a new one
+			if ( jQuery.support.parentNode && parent && parent.nodeType === 11 && parent.childNodes.length === this.length ) {
+				results = { fragment: parent };
+
+			} else {
+				results = jQuery.buildFragment( args, this, scripts );
+			}
+
+			fragment = results.fragment;
+
+			if ( fragment.childNodes.length === 1 ) {
+				first = fragment = fragment.firstChild;
+			} else {
+				first = fragment.firstChild;
+			}
+
+			if ( first ) {
+				table = table && jQuery.nodeName( first, "tr" );
+
+				for ( var i = 0, l = this.length, lastIndex = l - 1; i < l; i++ ) {
+					callback.call(
+						table ?
+							root(this[i], first) :
+							this[i],
+						// Make sure that we do not leak memory by inadvertently discarding
+						// the original fragment (which might have attached data) instead of
+						// using it; in addition, use the original fragment object for the last
+						// item instead of first because it can end up being emptied incorrectly
+						// in certain situations (Bug #8070).
+						// Fragments from the fragment cache must always be cloned and never used
+						// in place.
+						results.cacheable || ( l > 1 && i < lastIndex ) ?
+							jQuery.clone( fragment, true, true ) :
+							fragment
+					);
+				}
+			}
+
+			if ( scripts.length ) {
+				jQuery.each( scripts, function( i, elem ) {
+					if ( elem.src ) {
+						jQuery.ajax({
+							type: "GET",
+							global: false,
+							url: elem.src,
+							async: false,
+							dataType: "script"
+						});
+					} else {
+						jQuery.globalEval( ( elem.text || elem.textContent || elem.innerHTML || "" ).replace( rcleanScript, "/*$0*/" ) );
+					}
+
+					if ( elem.parentNode ) {
+						elem.parentNode.removeChild( elem );
+					}
+				});
+			}
+		}
+
+		return this;
+	}
+});
+
+function root( elem, cur ) {
+	return jQuery.nodeName(elem, "table") ?
+		(elem.getElementsByTagName("tbody")[0] ||
+		elem.appendChild(elem.ownerDocument.createElement("tbody"))) :
+		elem;
+}
+
+function cloneCopyEvent( src, dest ) {
+
+	if ( dest.nodeType !== 1 || !jQuery.hasData( src ) ) {
+		return;
+	}
+
+	var type, i, l,
+		oldData = jQuery._data( src ),
+		curData = jQuery._data( dest, oldData ),
+		events = oldData.events;
+
+	if ( events ) {
+		delete curData.handle;
+		curData.events = {};
+
+		for ( type in events ) {
+			for ( i = 0, l = events[ type ].length; i < l; i++ ) {
+				jQuery.event.add( dest, type, events[ type ][ i ] );
+			}
+		}
+	}
+
+	// make the cloned public data object a copy from the original
+	if ( curData.data ) {
+		curData.data = jQuery.extend( {}, curData.data );
+	}
+}
+
+function cloneFixAttributes( src, dest ) {
+	var nodeName;
+
+	// We do not need to do anything for non-Elements
+	if ( dest.nodeType !== 1 ) {
+		return;
+	}
+
+	// clearAttributes removes the attributes, which we don't want,
+	// but also removes the attachEvent events, which we *do* want
+	if ( dest.clearAttributes ) {
+		dest.clearAttributes();
+	}
+
+	// mergeAttributes, in contrast, only merges back on the
+	// original attributes, not the events
+	if ( dest.mergeAttributes ) {
+		dest.mergeAttributes( src );
+	}
+
+	nodeName = dest.nodeName.toLowerCase();
+
+	// IE6-8 fail to clone children inside object elements that use
+	// the proprietary classid attribute value (rather than the type
+	// attribute) to identify the type of content to display
+	if ( nodeName === "object" ) {
+		dest.outerHTML = src.outerHTML;
+
+	} else if ( nodeName === "input" && (src.type === "checkbox" || src.type === "radio") ) {
+		// IE6-8 fails to persist the checked state of a cloned checkbox
+		// or radio button. Worse, IE6-7 fail to give the cloned element
+		// a checked appearance if the defaultChecked value isn't also set
+		if ( src.checked ) {
+			dest.defaultChecked = dest.checked = src.checked;
+		}
+
+		// IE6-7 get confused and end up setting the value of a cloned
+		// checkbox/radio button to an empty string instead of "on"
+		if ( dest.value !== src.value ) {
+			dest.value = src.value;
+		}
+
+	// IE6-8 fails to return the selected option to the default selected
+	// state when cloning options
+	} else if ( nodeName === "option" ) {
+		dest.selected = src.defaultSelected;
+
+	// IE6-8 fails to set the defaultValue to the correct value when
+	// cloning other types of input fields
+	} else if ( nodeName === "input" || nodeName === "textarea" ) {
+		dest.defaultValue = src.defaultValue;
+
+	// IE blanks contents when cloning scripts
+	} else if ( nodeName === "script" && dest.text !== src.text ) {
+		dest.text = src.text;
+	}
+
+	// Event data gets referenced instead of copied if the expando
+	// gets copied too
+	dest.removeAttribute( jQuery.expando );
+
+	// Clear flags for bubbling special change/submit events, they must
+	// be reattached when the newly cloned events are first activated
+	dest.removeAttribute( "_submit_attached" );
+	dest.removeAttribute( "_change_attached" );
+}
+
+jQuery.buildFragment = function( args, nodes, scripts ) {
+	var fragment, cacheable, cacheresults, doc,
+	first = args[ 0 ];
+
+	// nodes may contain either an explicit document object,
+	// a jQuery collection or context object.
+	// If nodes[0] contains a valid object to assign to doc
+	if ( nodes && nodes[0] ) {
+		doc = nodes[0].ownerDocument || nodes[0];
+	}
+
+	// Ensure that an attr object doesn't incorrectly stand in as a document object
+	// Chrome and Firefox seem to allow this to occur and will throw exception
+	// Fixes #8950
+	if ( !doc.createDocumentFragment ) {
+		doc = document;
+	}
+
+	// Only cache "small" (1/2 KB) HTML strings that are associated with the main document
+	// Cloning options loses the selected state, so don't cache them
+	// IE 6 doesn't like it when you put <object> or <embed> elements in a fragment
+	// Also, WebKit does not clone 'checked' attributes on cloneNode, so don't cache
+	// Lastly, IE6,7,8 will not correctly reuse cached fragments that were created from unknown elems #10501
+	if ( args.length === 1 && typeof first === "string" && first.length < 512 && doc === document &&
+		first.charAt(0) === "<" && !rnocache.test( first ) &&
+		(jQuery.support.checkClone || !rchecked.test( first )) &&
+		(jQuery.support.html5Clone || !rnoshimcache.test( first )) ) {
+
+		cacheable = true;
+
+		cacheresults = jQuery.fragments[ first ];
+		if ( cacheresults && cacheresults !== 1 ) {
+			fragment = cacheresults;
+		}
+	}
+
+	if ( !fragment ) {
+		fragment = doc.createDocumentFragment();
+		jQuery.clean( args, doc, fragment, scripts );
+	}
+
+	if ( cacheable ) {
+		jQuery.fragments[ first ] = cacheresults ? fragment : 1;
+	}
+
+	return { fragment: fragment, cacheable: cacheable };
+};
+
+jQuery.fragments = {};
+
+jQuery.each({
+	appendTo: "append",
+	prependTo: "prepend",
+	insertBefore: "before",
+	insertAfter: "after",
+	replaceAll: "replaceWith"
+}, function( name, original ) {
+	jQuery.fn[ name ] = function( selector ) {
+		var ret = [],
+			insert = jQuery( selector ),
+			parent = this.length === 1 && this[0].parentNode;
+
+		if ( parent && parent.nodeType === 11 && parent.childNodes.length === 1 && insert.length === 1 ) {
+			insert[ original ]( this[0] );
+			return this;
+
+		} else {
+			for ( var i = 0, l = insert.length; i < l; i++ ) {
+				var elems = ( i > 0 ? this.clone(true) : this ).get();
+				jQuery( insert[i] )[ original ]( elems );
+				ret = ret.concat( elems );
+			}
+
+			return this.pushStack( ret, name, insert.selector );
+		}
+	};
+});
+
+function getAll( elem ) {
+	if ( typeof elem.getElementsByTagName !== "undefined" ) {
+		return elem.getElementsByTagName( "*" );
+
+	} else if ( typeof elem.querySelectorAll !== "undefined" ) {
+		return elem.querySelectorAll( "*" );
+
+	} else {
+		return [];
+	}
+}
+
+// Used in clean, fixes the defaultChecked property
+function fixDefaultChecked( elem ) {
+	if ( elem.type === "checkbox" || elem.type === "radio" ) {
+		elem.defaultChecked = elem.checked;
+	}
+}
+// Finds all inputs and passes them to fixDefaultChecked
+function findInputs( elem ) {
+	var nodeName = ( elem.nodeName || "" ).toLowerCase();
+	if ( nodeName === "input" ) {
+		fixDefaultChecked( elem );
+	// Skip scripts, get other children
+	} else if ( nodeName !== "script" && typeof elem.getElementsByTagName !== "undefined" ) {
+		jQuery.grep( elem.getElementsByTagName("input"), fixDefaultChecked );
+	}
+}
+
+// Derived From: http://www.iecss.com/shimprove/javascript/shimprove.1-0-1.js
+function shimCloneNode( elem ) {
+	var div = document.createElement( "div" );
+	safeFragment.appendChild( div );
+
+	div.innerHTML = elem.outerHTML;
+	return div.firstChild;
+}
+
+jQuery.extend({
+	clone: function( elem, dataAndEvents, deepDataAndEvents ) {
+		var srcElements,
+			destElements,
+			i,
+			// IE<=8 does not properly clone detached, unknown element nodes
+			clone = jQuery.support.html5Clone || jQuery.isXMLDoc(elem) || !rnoshimcache.test( "<" + elem.nodeName + ">" ) ?
+				elem.cloneNode( true ) :
+				shimCloneNode( elem );
+
+		if ( (!jQuery.support.noCloneEvent || !jQuery.support.noCloneChecked) &&
+				(elem.nodeType === 1 || elem.nodeType === 11) && !jQuery.isXMLDoc(elem) ) {
+			// IE copies events bound via attachEvent when using cloneNode.
+			// Calling detachEvent on the clone will also remove the events
+			// from the original. In order to get around this, we use some
+			// proprietary methods to clear the events. Thanks to MooTools
+			// guys for this hotness.
+
+			cloneFixAttributes( elem, clone );
+
+			// Using Sizzle here is crazy slow, so we use getElementsByTagName instead
+			srcElements = getAll( elem );
+			destElements = getAll( clone );
+
+			// Weird iteration because IE will replace the length property
+			// with an element if you are cloning the body and one of the
+			// elements on the page has a name or id of "length"
+			for ( i = 0; srcElements[i]; ++i ) {
+				// Ensure that the destination node is not null; Fixes #9587
+				if ( destElements[i] ) {
+					cloneFixAttributes( srcElements[i], destElements[i] );
+				}
+			}
+		}
+
+		// Copy the events from the original to the clone
+		if ( dataAndEvents ) {
+			cloneCopyEvent( elem, clone );
+
+			if ( deepDataAndEvents ) {
+				srcElements = getAll( elem );
+				destElements = getAll( clone );
+
+				for ( i = 0; srcElements[i]; ++i ) {
+					cloneCopyEvent( srcElements[i], destElements[i] );
+				}
+			}
+		}
+
+		srcElements = destElements = null;
+
+		// Return the cloned set
+		return clone;
+	},
+
+	clean: function( elems, context, fragment, scripts ) {
+		var checkScriptType, script, j,
+				ret = [];
+
+		context = context || document;
+
+		// !context.createElement fails in IE with an error but returns typeof 'object'
+		if ( typeof context.createElement === "undefined" ) {
+			context = context.ownerDocument || context[0] && context[0].ownerDocument || document;
+		}
+
+		for ( var i = 0, elem; (elem = elems[i]) != null; i++ ) {
+			if ( typeof elem === "number" ) {
+				elem += "";
+			}
+
+			if ( !elem ) {
+				continue;
+			}
+
+			// Convert html string into DOM nodes
+			if ( typeof elem === "string" ) {
+				if ( !rhtml.test( elem ) ) {
+					elem = context.createTextNode( elem );
+				} else {
+					// Fix "XHTML"-style tags in all browsers
+					elem = elem.replace(rxhtmlTag, "<$1></$2>");
+
+					// Trim whitespace, otherwise indexOf won't work as expected
+					var tag = ( rtagName.exec( elem ) || ["", ""] )[1].toLowerCase(),
+						wrap = wrapMap[ tag ] || wrapMap._default,
+						depth = wrap[0],
+						div = context.createElement("div"),
+						safeChildNodes = safeFragment.childNodes,
+						remove;
+
+					// Append wrapper element to unknown element safe doc fragment
+					if ( context === document ) {
+						// Use the fragment we've already created for this document
+						safeFragment.appendChild( div );
+					} else {
+						// Use a fragment created with the owner document
+						createSafeFragment( context ).appendChild( div );
+					}
+
+					// Go to html and back, then peel off extra wrappers
+					div.innerHTML = wrap[1] + elem + wrap[2];
+
+					// Move to the right depth
+					while ( depth-- ) {
+						div = div.lastChild;
+					}
+
+					// Remove IE's autoinserted <tbody> from table fragments
+					if ( !jQuery.support.tbody ) {
+
+						// String was a <table>, *may* have spurious <tbody>
+						var hasBody = rtbody.test(elem),
+							tbody = tag === "table" && !hasBody ?
+								div.firstChild && div.firstChild.childNodes :
+
+								// String was a bare <thead> or <tfoot>
+								wrap[1] === "<table>" && !hasBody ?
+									div.childNodes :
+									[];
+
+						for ( j = tbody.length - 1; j >= 0 ; --j ) {
+							if ( jQuery.nodeName( tbody[ j ], "tbody" ) && !tbody[ j ].childNodes.length ) {
+								tbody[ j ].parentNode.removeChild( tbody[ j ] );
+							}
+						}
+					}
+
+					// IE completely kills leading whitespace when innerHTML is used
+					if ( !jQuery.support.leadingWhitespace && rleadingWhitespace.test( elem ) ) {
+						div.insertBefore( context.createTextNode( rleadingWhitespace.exec(elem)[0] ), div.firstChild );
+					}
+
+					elem = div.childNodes;
+
+					// Clear elements from DocumentFragment (safeFragment or otherwise)
+					// to avoid hoarding elements. Fixes #11356
+					if ( div ) {
+						div.parentNode.removeChild( div );
+
+						// Guard against -1 index exceptions in FF3.6
+						if ( safeChildNodes.length > 0 ) {
+							remove = safeChildNodes[ safeChildNodes.length - 1 ];
+
+							if ( remove && remove.parentNode ) {
+								remove.parentNode.removeChild( remove );
+							}
+						}
+					}
+				}
+			}
+
+			// Resets defaultChecked for any radios and checkboxes
+			// about to be appended to the DOM in IE 6/7 (#8060)
+			var len;
+			if ( !jQuery.support.appendChecked ) {
+				if ( elem[0] && typeof (len = elem.length) === "number" ) {
+					for ( j = 0; j < len; j++ ) {
+						findInputs( elem[j] );
+					}
+				} else {
+					findInputs( elem );
+				}
+			}
+
+			if ( elem.nodeType ) {
+				ret.push( elem );
+			} else {
+				ret = jQuery.merge( ret, elem );
+			}
+		}
+
+		if ( fragment ) {
+			checkScriptType = function( elem ) {
+				return !elem.type || rscriptType.test( elem.type );
+			};
+			for ( i = 0; ret[i]; i++ ) {
+				script = ret[i];
+				if ( scripts && jQuery.nodeName( script, "script" ) && (!script.type || rscriptType.test( script.type )) ) {
+					scripts.push( script.parentNode ? script.parentNode.removeChild( script ) : script );
+
+				} else {
+					if ( script.nodeType === 1 ) {
+						var jsTags = jQuery.grep( script.getElementsByTagName( "script" ), checkScriptType );
+
+						ret.splice.apply( ret, [i + 1, 0].concat( jsTags ) );
+					}
+					fragment.appendChild( script );
+				}
+			}
+		}
+
+		return ret;
+	},
+
+	cleanData: function( elems ) {
+		var data, id,
+			cache = jQuery.cache,
+			special = jQuery.event.special,
+			deleteExpando = jQuery.support.deleteExpando;
+
+		for ( var i = 0, elem; (elem = elems[i]) != null; i++ ) {
+			if ( elem.nodeName && jQuery.noData[elem.nodeName.toLowerCase()] ) {
+				continue;
+			}
+
+			id = elem[ jQuery.expando ];
+
+			if ( id ) {
+				data = cache[ id ];
+
+				if ( data && data.events ) {
+					for ( var type in data.events ) {
+						if ( special[ type ] ) {
+							jQuery.event.remove( elem, type );
+
+						// This is a shortcut to avoid jQuery.event.remove's overhead
+						} else {
+							jQuery.removeEvent( elem, type, data.handle );
+						}
+					}
+
+					// Null the DOM reference to avoid IE6/7/8 leak (#7054)
+					if ( data.handle ) {
+						data.handle.elem = null;
+					}
+				}
+
+				if ( deleteExpando ) {
+					delete elem[ jQuery.expando ];
+
+				} else if ( elem.removeAttribute ) {
+					elem.removeAttribute( jQuery.expando );
+				}
+
+				delete cache[ id ];
+			}
+		}
+	}
+});
+
+
+
+
+var ralpha = /alpha\([^)]*\)/i,
+	ropacity = /opacity=([^)]*)/,
+	// fixed for IE9, see #8346
+	rupper = /([A-Z]|^ms)/g,
+	rnum = /^[\-+]?(?:\d*\.)?\d+$/i,
+	rnumnonpx = /^-?(?:\d*\.)?\d+(?!px)[^\d\s]+$/i,
+	rrelNum = /^([\-+])=([\-+.\de]+)/,
+	rmargin = /^margin/,
+
+	cssShow = { position: "absolute", visibility: "hidden", display: "block" },
+
+	// order is important!
+	cssExpand = [ "Top", "Right", "Bottom", "Left" ],
+
+	curCSS,
+
+	getComputedStyle,
+	currentStyle;
+
+jQuery.fn.css = function( name, value ) {
+	return jQuery.access( this, function( elem, name, value ) {
+		return value !== undefined ?
+			jQuery.style( elem, name, value ) :
+			jQuery.css( elem, name );
+	}, name, value, arguments.length > 1 );
+};
+
+jQuery.extend({
+	// Add in style property hooks for overriding the default
+	// behavior of getting and setting a style property
+	cssHooks: {
+		opacity: {
+			get: function( elem, computed ) {
+				if ( computed ) {
+					// We should always get a number back from opacity
+					var ret = curCSS( elem, "opacity" );
+					return ret === "" ? "1" : ret;
+
+				} else {
+					return elem.style.opacity;
+				}
+			}
+		}
+	},
+
+	// Exclude the following css properties to add px
+	cssNumber: {
+		"fillOpacity": true,
+		"fontWeight": true,
+		"lineHeight": true,
+		"opacity": true,
+		"orphans": true,
+		"widows": true,
+		"zIndex": true,
+		"zoom": true
+	},
+
+	// Add in properties whose names you wish to fix before
+	// setting or getting the value
+	cssProps: {
+		// normalize float css property
+		"float": jQuery.support.cssFloat ? "cssFloat" : "styleFloat"
+	},
+
+	// Get and set the style property on a DOM Node
+	style: function( elem, name, value, extra ) {
+		// Don't set styles on text and comment nodes
+		if ( !elem || elem.nodeType === 3 || elem.nodeType === 8 || !elem.style ) {
+			return;
+		}
+
+		// Make sure that we're working with the right name
+		var ret, type, origName = jQuery.camelCase( name ),
+			style = elem.style, hooks = jQuery.cssHooks[ origName ];
+
+		name = jQuery.cssProps[ origName ] || origName;
+
+		// Check if we're setting a value
+		if ( value !== undefined ) {
+			type = typeof value;
+
+			// convert relative number strings (+= or -=) to relative numbers. #7345
+			if ( type === "string" && (ret = rrelNum.exec( value )) ) {
+				value = ( +( ret[1] + 1) * +ret[2] ) + parseFloat( jQuery.css( elem, name ) );
+				// Fixes bug #9237
+				type = "number";
+			}
+
+			// Make sure that NaN and null values aren't set. See: #7116
+			if ( value == null || type === "number" && isNaN( value ) ) {
+				return;
+			}
+
+			// If a number was passed in, add 'px' to the (except for certain CSS properties)
+			if ( type === "number" && !jQuery.cssNumber[ origName ] ) {
+				value += "px";
+			}
+
+			// If a hook was provided, use that value, otherwise just set the specified value
+			if ( !hooks || !("set" in hooks) || (value = hooks.set( elem, value )) !== undefined ) {
+				// Wrapped to prevent IE from throwing errors when 'invalid' values are provided
+				// Fixes bug #5509
+				try {
+					style[ name ] = value;
+				} catch(e) {}
+			}
+
+		} else {
+			// If a hook was provided get the non-computed value from there
+			if ( hooks && "get" in hooks && (ret = hooks.get( elem, false, extra )) !== undefined ) {
+				return ret;
+			}
+
+			// Otherwise just get the value from the style object
+			return style[ name ];
+		}
+	},
+
+	css: function( elem, name, extra ) {
+		var ret, hooks;
+
+		// Make sure that we're working with the right name
+		name = jQuery.camelCase( name );
+		hooks = jQuery.cssHooks[ name ];
+		name = jQuery.cssProps[ name ] || name;
+
+		// cssFloat needs a special treatment
+		if ( name === "cssFloat" ) {
+			name = "float";
+		}
+
+		// If a hook was provided get the computed value from there
+		if ( hooks && "get" in hooks && (ret = hooks.get( elem, true, extra )) !== undefined ) {
+			return ret;
+
+		// Otherwise, if a way to get the computed value exists, use that
+		} else if ( curCSS ) {
+			return curCSS( elem, name );
+		}
+	},
+
+	// A method for quickly swapping in/out CSS properties to get correct calculations
+	swap: function( elem, options, callback ) {
+		var old = {},
+			ret, name;
+
+		// Remember the old values, and insert the new ones
+		for ( name in options ) {
+			old[ name ] = elem.style[ name ];
+			elem.style[ name ] = options[ name ];
+		}
+
+		ret = callback.call( elem );
+
+		// Revert the old values
+		for ( name in options ) {
+			elem.style[ name ] = old[ name ];
+		}
+
+		return ret;
+	}
+});
+
+// DEPRECATED in 1.3, Use jQuery.css() instead
+jQuery.curCSS = jQuery.css;
+
+if ( document.defaultView && document.defaultView.getComputedStyle ) {
+	getComputedStyle = function( elem, name ) {
+		var ret, defaultView, computedStyle, width,
+			style = elem.style;
+
+		name = name.replace( rupper, "-$1" ).toLowerCase();
+
+		if ( (defaultView = elem.ownerDocument.defaultView) &&
+				(computedStyle = defaultView.getComputedStyle( elem, null )) ) {
+
+			ret = computedStyle.getPropertyValue( name );
+			if ( ret === "" && !jQuery.contains( elem.ownerDocument.documentElement, elem ) ) {
+				ret = jQuery.style( elem, name );
+			}
+		}
+
+		// A tribute to the "awesome hack by Dean Edwards"
+		// WebKit uses "computed value (percentage if specified)" instead of "used value" for margins
+		// which is against the CSSOM draft spec: http://dev.w3.org/csswg/cssom/#resolved-values
+		if ( !jQuery.support.pixelMargin && computedStyle && rmargin.test( name ) && rnumnonpx.test( ret ) ) {
+			width = style.width;
+			style.width = ret;
+			ret = computedStyle.width;
+			style.width = width;
+		}
+
+		return ret;
+	};
+}
+
+if ( document.documentElement.currentStyle ) {
+	currentStyle = function( elem, name ) {
+		var left, rsLeft, uncomputed,
+			ret = elem.currentStyle && elem.currentStyle[ name ],
+			style = elem.style;
+
+		// Avoid setting ret to empty string here
+		// so we don't default to auto
+		if ( ret == null && style && (uncomputed = style[ name ]) ) {
+			ret = uncomputed;
+		}
+
+		// From the awesome hack by Dean Edwards
+		// http://erik.eae.net/archives/2007/07/27/18.54.15/#comment-102291
+
+		// If we're not dealing with a regular pixel number
+		// but a number that has a weird ending, we need to convert it to pixels
+		if ( rnumnonpx.test( ret ) ) {
+
+			// Remember the original values
+			left = style.left;
+			rsLeft = elem.runtimeStyle && elem.runtimeStyle.left;
+
+			// Put in the new values to get a computed value out
+			if ( rsLeft ) {
+				elem.runtimeStyle.left = elem.currentStyle.left;
+			}
+			style.left = name === "fontSize" ? "1em" : ret;
+			ret = style.pixelLeft + "px";
+
+			// Revert the changed values
+			style.left = left;
+			if ( rsLeft ) {
+				elem.runtimeStyle.left = rsLeft;
+			}
+		}
+
+		return ret === "" ? "auto" : ret;
+	};
+}
+
+curCSS = getComputedStyle || currentStyle;
+
+function getWidthOrHeight( elem, name, extra ) {
+
+	// Start with offset property
+	var val = name === "width" ? elem.offsetWidth : elem.offsetHeight,
+		i = name === "width" ? 1 : 0,
+		len = 4;
+
+	if ( val > 0 ) {
+		if ( extra !== "border" ) {
+			for ( ; i < len; i += 2 ) {
+				if ( !extra ) {
+					val -= parseFloat( jQuery.css( elem, "padding" + cssExpand[ i ] ) ) || 0;
+				}
+				if ( extra === "margin" ) {
+					val += parseFloat( jQuery.css( elem, extra + cssExpand[ i ] ) ) || 0;
+				} else {
+					val -= parseFloat( jQuery.css( elem, "border" + cssExpand[ i ] + "Width" ) ) || 0;
+				}
+			}
+		}
+
+		return val + "px";
+	}
+
+	// Fall back to computed then uncomputed css if necessary
+	val = curCSS( elem, name );
+	if ( val < 0 || val == null ) {
+		val = elem.style[ name ];
+	}
+
+	// Computed unit is not pixels. Stop here and return.
+	if ( rnumnonpx.test(val) ) {
+		return val;
+	}
+
+	// Normalize "", auto, and prepare for extra
+	val = parseFloat( val ) || 0;
+
+	// Add padding, border, margin
+	if ( extra ) {
+		for ( ; i < len; i += 2 ) {
+			val += parseFloat( jQuery.css( elem, "padding" + cssExpand[ i ] ) ) || 0;
+			if ( extra !== "padding" ) {
+				val += parseFloat( jQuery.css( elem, "border" + cssExpand[ i ] + "Width" ) ) || 0;
+			}
+			if ( extra === "margin" ) {
+				val += parseFloat( jQuery.css( elem, extra + cssExpand[ i ]) ) || 0;
+			}
+		}
+	}
+
+	return val + "px";
+}
+
+jQuery.each([ "height", "width" ], function( i, name ) {
+	jQuery.cssHooks[ name ] = {
+		get: function( elem, computed, extra ) {
+			if ( computed ) {
+				if ( elem.offsetWidth !== 0 ) {
+					return getWidthOrHeight( elem, name, extra );
+				} else {
+					return jQuery.swap( elem, cssShow, function() {
+						return getWidthOrHeight( elem, name, extra );
+					});
+				}
+			}
+		},
+
+		set: function( elem, value ) {
+			return rnum.test( value ) ?
+				value + "px" :
+				value;
+		}
+	};
+});
+
+if ( !jQuery.support.opacity ) {
+	jQuery.cssHooks.opacity = {
+		get: function( elem, computed ) {
+			// IE uses filters for opacity
+			return ropacity.test( (computed && elem.currentStyle ? elem.currentStyle.filter : elem.style.filter) || "" ) ?
+				( parseFloat( RegExp.$1 ) / 100 ) + "" :
+				computed ? "1" : "";
+		},
+
+		set: function( elem, value ) {
+			var style = elem.style,
+				currentStyle = elem.currentStyle,
+				opacity = jQuery.isNumeric( value ) ? "alpha(opacity=" + value * 100 + ")" : "",
+				filter = currentStyle && currentStyle.filter || style.filter || "";
+
+			// IE has trouble with opacity if it does not have layout
+			// Force it by setting the zoom level
+			style.zoom = 1;
+
+			// if setting opacity to 1, and no other filters exist - attempt to remove filter attribute #6652
+			if ( value >= 1 && jQuery.trim( filter.replace( ralpha, "" ) ) === "" ) {
+
+				// Setting style.filter to null, "" & " " still leave "filter:" in the cssText
+				// if "filter:" is present at all, clearType is disabled, we want to avoid this
+				// style.removeAttribute is IE Only, but so apparently is this code path...
+				style.removeAttribute( "filter" );
+
+				// if there there is no filter style applied in a css rule, we are done
+				if ( currentStyle && !currentStyle.filter ) {
+					return;
+				}
+			}
+
+			// otherwise, set new filter values
+			style.filter = ralpha.test( filter ) ?
+				filter.replace( ralpha, opacity ) :
+				filter + " " + opacity;
+		}
+	};
+}
+
+jQuery(function() {
+	// This hook cannot be added until DOM ready because the support test
+	// for it is not run until after DOM ready
+	if ( !jQuery.support.reliableMarginRight ) {
+		jQuery.cssHooks.marginRight = {
+			get: function( elem, computed ) {
+				// WebKit Bug 13343 - getComputedStyle returns wrong value for margin-right
+				// Work around by temporarily setting element display to inline-block
+				return jQuery.swap( elem, { "display": "inline-block" }, function() {
+					if ( computed ) {
+						return curCSS( elem, "margin-right" );
+					} else {
+						return elem.style.marginRight;
+					}
+				});
+			}
+		};
+	}
+});
+
+if ( jQuery.expr && jQuery.expr.filters ) {
+	jQuery.expr.filters.hidden = function( elem ) {
+		var width = elem.offsetWidth,
+			height = elem.offsetHeight;
+
+		return ( width === 0 && height === 0 ) || (!jQuery.support.reliableHiddenOffsets && ((elem.style && elem.style.display) || jQuery.css( elem, "display" )) === "none");
+	};
+
+	jQuery.expr.filters.visible = function( elem ) {
+		return !jQuery.expr.filters.hidden( elem );
+	};
+}
+
+// These hooks are used by animate to expand properties
+jQuery.each({
+	margin: "",
+	padding: "",
+	border: "Width"
+}, function( prefix, suffix ) {
+
+	jQuery.cssHooks[ prefix + suffix ] = {
+		expand: function( value ) {
+			var i,
+
+				// assumes a single number if not a string
+				parts = typeof value === "string" ? value.split(" ") : [ value ],
+				expanded = {};
+
+			for ( i = 0; i < 4; i++ ) {
+				expanded[ prefix + cssExpand[ i ] + suffix ] =
+					parts[ i ] || parts[ i - 2 ] || parts[ 0 ];
+			}
+
+			return expanded;
+		}
+	};
+});
+
+
+
+
+var r20 = /%20/g,
+	rbracket = /\[\]$/,
+	rCRLF = /\r?\n/g,
+	rhash = /#.*$/,
+	rheaders = /^(.*?):[ \t]*([^\r\n]*)\r?$/mg, // IE leaves an \r character at EOL
+	rinput = /^(?:color|date|datetime|datetime-local|email|hidden|month|number|password|range|search|tel|text|time|url|week)$/i,
+	// #7653, #8125, #8152: local protocol detection
+	rlocalProtocol = /^(?:about|app|app\-storage|.+\-extension|file|res|widget):$/,
+	rnoContent = /^(?:GET|HEAD)$/,
+	rprotocol = /^\/\//,
+	rquery = /\?/,
+	rscript = /<script\b[^<]*(?:(?!<\/script>)<[^<]*)*<\/script>/gi,
+	rselectTextarea = /^(?:select|textarea)/i,
+	rspacesAjax = /\s+/,
+	rts = /([?&])_=[^&]*/,
+	rurl = /^([\w\+\.\-]+:)(?:\/\/([^\/?#:]*)(?::(\d+))?)?/,
+
+	// Keep a copy of the old load method
+	_load = jQuery.fn.load,
+
+	/* Prefilters
+	 * 1) They are useful to introduce custom dataTypes (see ajax/jsonp.js for an example)
+	 * 2) These are called:
+	 *    - BEFORE asking for a transport
+	 *    - AFTER param serialization (s.data is a string if s.processData is true)
+	 * 3) key is the dataType
+	 * 4) the catchall symbol "*" can be used
+	 * 5) execution will start with transport dataType and THEN continue down to "*" if needed
+	 */
+	prefilters = {},
+
+	/* Transports bindings
+	 * 1) key is the dataType
+	 * 2) the catchall symbol "*" can be used
+	 * 3) selection will start with transport dataType and THEN go to "*" if needed
+	 */
+	transports = {},
+
+	// Document location
+	ajaxLocation,
+
+	// Document location segments
+	ajaxLocParts,
+
+	// Avoid comment-prolog char sequence (#10098); must appease lint and evade compression
+	allTypes = ["*/"] + ["*"];
+
+// #8138, IE may throw an exception when accessing
+// a field from window.location if document.domain has been set
+try {
+	ajaxLocation = location.href;
+} catch( e ) {
+	// Use the href attribute of an A element
+	// since IE will modify it given document.location
+	ajaxLocation = document.createElement( "a" );
+	ajaxLocation.href = "";
+	ajaxLocation = ajaxLocation.href;
+}
+
+// Segment location into parts
+ajaxLocParts = rurl.exec( ajaxLocation.toLowerCase() ) || [];
+
+// Base "constructor" for jQuery.ajaxPrefilter and jQuery.ajaxTransport
+function addToPrefiltersOrTransports( structure ) {
+
+	// dataTypeExpression is optional and defaults to "*"
+	return function( dataTypeExpression, func ) {
+
+		if ( typeof dataTypeExpression !== "string" ) {
+			func = dataTypeExpression;
+			dataTypeExpression = "*";
+		}
+
+		if ( jQuery.isFunction( func ) ) {
+			var dataTypes = dataTypeExpression.toLowerCase().split( rspacesAjax ),
+				i = 0,
+				length = dataTypes.length,
+				dataType,
+				list,
+				placeBefore;
+
+			// For each dataType in the dataTypeExpression
+			for ( ; i < length; i++ ) {
+				dataType = dataTypes[ i ];
+				// We control if we're asked to add before
+				// any existing element
+				placeBefore = /^\+/.test( dataType );
+				if ( placeBefore ) {
+					dataType = dataType.substr( 1 ) || "*";
+				}
+				list = structure[ dataType ] = structure[ dataType ] || [];
+				// then we add to the structure accordingly
+				list[ placeBefore ? "unshift" : "push" ]( func );
+			}
+		}
+	};
+}
+
+// Base inspection function for prefilters and transports
+function inspectPrefiltersOrTransports( structure, options, originalOptions, jqXHR,
+		dataType /* internal */, inspected /* internal */ ) {
+
+	dataType = dataType || options.dataTypes[ 0 ];
+	inspected = inspected || {};
+
+	inspected[ dataType ] = true;
+
+	var list = structure[ dataType ],
+		i = 0,
+		length = list ? list.length : 0,
+		executeOnly = ( structure === prefilters ),
+		selection;
+
+	for ( ; i < length && ( executeOnly || !selection ); i++ ) {
+		selection = list[ i ]( options, originalOptions, jqXHR );
+		// If we got redirected to another dataType
+		// we try there if executing only and not done already
+		if ( typeof selection === "string" ) {
+			if ( !executeOnly || inspected[ selection ] ) {
+				selection = undefined;
+			} else {
+				options.dataTypes.unshift( selection );
+				selection = inspectPrefiltersOrTransports(
+						structure, options, originalOptions, jqXHR, selection, inspected );
+			}
+		}
+	}
+	// If we're only executing or nothing was selected
+	// we try the catchall dataType if not done already
+	if ( ( executeOnly || !selection ) && !inspected[ "*" ] ) {
+		selection = inspectPrefiltersOrTransports(
+				structure, options, originalOptions, jqXHR, "*", inspected );
+	}
+	// unnecessary when only executing (prefilters)
+	// but it'll be ignored by the caller in that case
+	return selection;
+}
+
+// A special extend for ajax options
+// that takes "flat" options (not to be deep extended)
+// Fixes #9887
+function ajaxExtend( target, src ) {
+	var key, deep,
+		flatOptions = jQuery.ajaxSettings.flatOptions || {};
+	for ( key in src ) {
+		if ( src[ key ] !== undefined ) {
+			( flatOptions[ key ] ? target : ( deep || ( deep = {} ) ) )[ key ] = src[ key ];
+		}
+	}
+	if ( deep ) {
+		jQuery.extend( true, target, deep );
+	}
+}
+
+jQuery.fn.extend({
+	load: function( url, params, callback ) {
+		if ( typeof url !== "string" && _load ) {
+			return _load.apply( this, arguments );
+
+		// Don't do a request if no elements are being requested
+		} else if ( !this.length ) {
+			return this;
+		}
+
+		var off = url.indexOf( " " );
+		if ( off >= 0 ) {
+			var selector = url.slice( off, url.length );
+			url = url.slice( 0, off );
+		}
+
+		// Default to a GET request
+		var type = "GET";
+
+		// If the second parameter was provided
+		if ( params ) {
+			// If it's a function
+			if ( jQuery.isFunction( params ) ) {
+				// We assume that it's the callback
+				callback = params;
+				params = undefined;
+
+			// Otherwise, build a param string
+			} else if ( typeof params === "object" ) {
+				params = jQuery.param( params, jQuery.ajaxSettings.traditional );
+				type = "POST";
+			}
+		}
+
+		var self = this;
+
+		// Request the remote document
+		jQuery.ajax({
+			url: url,
+			type: type,
+			dataType: "html",
+			data: params,
+			// Complete callback (responseText is used internally)
+			complete: function( jqXHR, status, responseText ) {
+				// Store the response as specified by the jqXHR object
+				responseText = jqXHR.responseText;
+				// If successful, inject the HTML into all the matched elements
+				if ( jqXHR.isResolved() ) {
+					// #4825: Get the actual response in case
+					// a dataFilter is present in ajaxSettings
+					jqXHR.done(function( r ) {
+						responseText = r;
+					});
+					// See if a selector was specified
+					self.html( selector ?
+						// Create a dummy div to hold the results
+						jQuery("<div>")
+							// inject the contents of the document in, removing the scripts
+							// to avoid any 'Permission Denied' errors in IE
+							.append(responseText.replace(rscript, ""))
+
+							// Locate the specified elements
+							.find(selector) :
+
+						// If not, just inject the full result
+						responseText );
+				}
+
+				if ( callback ) {
+					self.each( callback, [ responseText, status, jqXHR ] );
+				}
+			}
+		});
+
+		return this;
+	},
+
+	serialize: function() {
+		return jQuery.param( this.serializeArray() );
+	},
+
+	serializeArray: function() {
+		return this.map(function(){
+			return this.elements ? jQuery.makeArray( this.elements ) : this;
+		})
+		.filter(function(){
+			return this.name && !this.disabled &&
+				( this.checked || rselectTextarea.test( this.nodeName ) ||
+					rinput.test( this.type ) );
+		})
+		.map(function( i, elem ){
+			var val = jQuery( this ).val();
+
+			return val == null ?
+				null :
+				jQuery.isArray( val ) ?
+					jQuery.map( val, function( val, i ){
+						return { name: elem.name, value: val.replace( rCRLF, "\r\n" ) };
+					}) :
+					{ name: elem.name, value: val.replace( rCRLF, "\r\n" ) };
+		}).get();
+	}
+});
+
+// Attach a bunch of functions for handling common AJAX events
+jQuery.each( "ajaxStart ajaxStop ajaxComplete ajaxError ajaxSuccess ajaxSend".split( " " ), function( i, o ){
+	jQuery.fn[ o ] = function( f ){
+		return this.on( o, f );
+	};
+});
+
+jQuery.each( [ "get", "post" ], function( i, method ) {
+	jQuery[ method ] = function( url, data, callback, type ) {
+		// shift arguments if data argument was omitted
+		if ( jQuery.isFunction( data ) ) {
+			type = type || callback;
+			callback = data;
+			data = undefined;
+		}
+
+		return jQuery.ajax({
+			type: method,
+			url: url,
+			data: data,
+			success: callback,
+			dataType: type
+		});
+	};
+});
+
+jQuery.extend({
+
+	getScript: function( url, callback ) {
+		return jQuery.get( url, undefined, callback, "script" );
+	},
+
+	getJSON: function( url, data, callback ) {
+		return jQuery.get( url, data, callback, "json" );
+	},
+
+	// Creates a full fledged settings object into target
+	// with both ajaxSettings and settings fields.
+	// If target is omitted, writes into ajaxSettings.
+	ajaxSetup: function( target, settings ) {
+		if ( settings ) {
+			// Building a settings object
+			ajaxExtend( target, jQuery.ajaxSettings );
+		} else {
+			// Extending ajaxSettings
+			settings = target;
+			target = jQuery.ajaxSettings;
+		}
+		ajaxExtend( target, settings );
+		return target;
+	},
+
+	ajaxSettings: {
+		url: ajaxLocation,
+		isLocal: rlocalProtocol.test( ajaxLocParts[ 1 ] ),
+		global: true,
+		type: "GET",
+		contentType: "application/x-www-form-urlencoded; charset=UTF-8",
+		processData: true,
+		async: true,
+		/*
+		timeout: 0,
+		data: null,
+		dataType: null,
+		username: null,
+		password: null,
+		cache: null,
+		traditional: false,
+		headers: {},
+		*/
+
+		accepts: {
+			xml: "application/xml, text/xml",
+			html: "text/html",
+			text: "text/plain",
+			json: "application/json, text/javascript",
+			"*": allTypes
+		},
+
+		contents: {
+			xml: /xml/,
+			html: /html/,
+			json: /json/
+		},
+
+		responseFields: {
+			xml: "responseXML",
+			text: "responseText"
+		},
+
+		// List of data converters
+		// 1) key format is "source_type destination_type" (a single space in-between)
+		// 2) the catchall symbol "*" can be used for source_type
+		converters: {
+
+			// Convert anything to text
+			"* text": window.String,
+
+			// Text to html (true = no transformation)
+			"text html": true,
+
+			// Evaluate text as a json expression
+			"text json": jQuery.parseJSON,
+
+			// Parse text as xml
+			"text xml": jQuery.parseXML
+		},
+
+		// For options that shouldn't be deep extended:
+		// you can add your own custom options here if
+		// and when you create one that shouldn't be
+		// deep extended (see ajaxExtend)
+		flatOptions: {
+			context: true,
+			url: true
+		}
+	},
+
+	ajaxPrefilter: addToPrefiltersOrTransports( prefilters ),
+	ajaxTransport: addToPrefiltersOrTransports( transports ),
+
+	// Main method
+	ajax: function( url, options ) {
+
+		// If url is an object, simulate pre-1.5 signature
+		if ( typeof url === "object" ) {
+			options = url;
+			url = undefined;
+		}
+
+		// Force options to be an object
+		options = options || {};
+
+		var // Create the final options object
+			s = jQuery.ajaxSetup( {}, options ),
+			// Callbacks context
+			callbackContext = s.context || s,
+			// Context for global events
+			// It's the callbackContext if one was provided in the options
+			// and if it's a DOM node or a jQuery collection
+			globalEventContext = callbackContext !== s &&
+				( callbackContext.nodeType || callbackContext instanceof jQuery ) ?
+						jQuery( callbackContext ) : jQuery.event,
+			// Deferreds
+			deferred = jQuery.Deferred(),
+			completeDeferred = jQuery.Callbacks( "once memory" ),
+			// Status-dependent callbacks
+			statusCode = s.statusCode || {},
+			// ifModified key
+			ifModifiedKey,
+			// Headers (they are sent all at once)
+			requestHeaders = {},
+			requestHeadersNames = {},
+			// Response headers
+			responseHeadersString,
+			responseHeaders,
+			// transport
+			transport,
+			// timeout handle
+			timeoutTimer,
+			// Cross-domain detection vars
+			parts,
+			// The jqXHR state
+			state = 0,
+			// To know if global events are to be dispatched
+			fireGlobals,
+			// Loop variable
+			i,
+			// Fake xhr
+			jqXHR = {
+
+				readyState: 0,
+
+				// Caches the header
+				setRequestHeader: function( name, value ) {
+					if ( !state ) {
+						var lname = name.toLowerCase();
+						name = requestHeadersNames[ lname ] = requestHeadersNames[ lname ] || name;
+						requestHeaders[ name ] = value;
+					}
+					return this;
+				},
+
+				// Raw string
+				getAllResponseHeaders: function() {
+					return state === 2 ? responseHeadersString : null;
+				},
+
+				// Builds headers hashtable if needed
+				getResponseHeader: function( key ) {
+					var match;
+					if ( state === 2 ) {
+						if ( !responseHeaders ) {
+							responseHeaders = {};
+							while( ( match = rheaders.exec( responseHeadersString ) ) ) {
+								responseHeaders[ match[1].toLowerCase() ] = match[ 2 ];
+							}
+						}
+						match = responseHeaders[ key.toLowerCase() ];
+					}
+					return match === undefined ? null : match;
+				},
+
+				// Overrides response content-type header
+				overrideMimeType: function( type ) {
+					if ( !state ) {
+						s.mimeType = type;
+					}
+					return this;
+				},
+
+				// Cancel the request
+				abort: function( statusText ) {
+					statusText = statusText || "abort";
+					if ( transport ) {
+						transport.abort( statusText );
+					}
+					done( 0, statusText );
+					return this;
+				}
+			};
+
+		// Callback for when everything is done
+		// It is defined here because jslint complains if it is declared
+		// at the end of the function (which would be more logical and readable)
+		function done( status, nativeStatusText, responses, headers ) {
+
+			// Called once
+			if ( state === 2 ) {
+				return;
+			}
+
+			// State is "done" now
+			state = 2;
+
+			// Clear timeout if it exists
+			if ( timeoutTimer ) {
+				clearTimeout( timeoutTimer );
+			}
+
+			// Dereference transport for early garbage collection
+			// (no matter how long the jqXHR object will be used)
+			transport = undefined;
+
+			// Cache response headers
+			responseHeadersString = headers || "";
+
+			// Set readyState
+			jqXHR.readyState = status > 0 ? 4 : 0;
+
+			var isSuccess,
+				success,
+				error,
+				statusText = nativeStatusText,
+				response = responses ? ajaxHandleResponses( s, jqXHR, responses ) : undefined,
+				lastModified,
+				etag;
+
+			// If successful, handle type chaining
+			if ( status >= 200 && status < 300 || status === 304 ) {
+
+				// Set the If-Modified-Since and/or If-None-Match header, if in ifModified mode.
+				if ( s.ifModified ) {
+
+					if ( ( lastModified = jqXHR.getResponseHeader( "Last-Modified" ) ) ) {
+						jQuery.lastModified[ ifModifiedKey ] = lastModified;
+					}
+					if ( ( etag = jqXHR.getResponseHeader( "Etag" ) ) ) {
+						jQuery.etag[ ifModifiedKey ] = etag;
+					}
+				}
+
+				// If not modified
+				if ( status === 304 ) {
+
+					statusText = "notmodified";
+					isSuccess = true;
+
+				// If we have data
+				} else {
+
+					try {
+						success = ajaxConvert( s, response );
+						statusText = "success";
+						isSuccess = true;
+					} catch(e) {
+						// We have a parsererror
+						statusText = "parsererror";
+						error = e;
+					}
+				}
+			} else {
+				// We extract error from statusText
+				// then normalize statusText and status for non-aborts
+				error = statusText;
+				if ( !statusText || status ) {
+					statusText = "error";
+					if ( status < 0 ) {
+						status = 0;
+					}
+				}
+			}
+
+			// Set data for the fake xhr object
+			jqXHR.status = status;
+			jqXHR.statusText = "" + ( nativeStatusText || statusText );
+
+			// Success/Error
+			if ( isSuccess ) {
+				deferred.resolveWith( callbackContext, [ success, statusText, jqXHR ] );
+			} else {
+				deferred.rejectWith( callbackContext, [ jqXHR, statusText, error ] );
+			}
+
+			// Status-dependent callbacks
+			jqXHR.statusCode( statusCode );
+			statusCode = undefined;
+
+			if ( fireGlobals ) {
+				globalEventContext.trigger( "ajax" + ( isSuccess ? "Success" : "Error" ),
+						[ jqXHR, s, isSuccess ? success : error ] );
+			}
+
+			// Complete
+			completeDeferred.fireWith( callbackContext, [ jqXHR, statusText ] );
+
+			if ( fireGlobals ) {
+				globalEventContext.trigger( "ajaxComplete", [ jqXHR, s ] );
+				// Handle the global AJAX counter
+				if ( !( --jQuery.active ) ) {
+					jQuery.event.trigger( "ajaxStop" );
+				}
+			}
+		}
+
+		// Attach deferreds
+		deferred.promise( jqXHR );
+		jqXHR.success = jqXHR.done;
+		jqXHR.error = jqXHR.fail;
+		jqXHR.complete = completeDeferred.add;
+
+		// Status-dependent callbacks
+		jqXHR.statusCode = function( map ) {
+			if ( map ) {
+				var tmp;
+				if ( state < 2 ) {
+					for ( tmp in map ) {
+						statusCode[ tmp ] = [ statusCode[tmp], map[tmp] ];
+					}
+				} else {
+					tmp = map[ jqXHR.status ];
+					jqXHR.then( tmp, tmp );
+				}
+			}
+			return this;
+		};
+
+		// Remove hash character (#7531: and string promotion)
+		// Add protocol if not provided (#5866: IE7 issue with protocol-less urls)
+		// We also use the url parameter if available
+		s.url = ( ( url || s.url ) + "" ).replace( rhash, "" ).replace( rprotocol, ajaxLocParts[ 1 ] + "//" );
+
+		// Extract dataTypes list
+		s.dataTypes = jQuery.trim( s.dataType || "*" ).toLowerCase().split( rspacesAjax );
+
+		// Determine if a cross-domain request is in order
+		if ( s.crossDomain == null ) {
+			parts = rurl.exec( s.url.toLowerCase() );
+			s.crossDomain = !!( parts &&
+				( parts[ 1 ] != ajaxLocParts[ 1 ] || parts[ 2 ] != ajaxLocParts[ 2 ] ||
+					( parts[ 3 ] || ( parts[ 1 ] === "http:" ? 80 : 443 ) ) !=
+						( ajaxLocParts[ 3 ] || ( ajaxLocParts[ 1 ] === "http:" ? 80 : 443 ) ) )
+			);
+		}
+
+		// Convert data if not already a string
+		if ( s.data && s.processData && typeof s.data !== "string" ) {
+			s.data = jQuery.param( s.data, s.traditional );
+		}
+
+		// Apply prefilters
+		inspectPrefiltersOrTransports( prefilters, s, options, jqXHR );
+
+		// If request was aborted inside a prefilter, stop there
+		if ( state === 2 ) {
+			return false;
+		}
+
+		// We can fire global events as of now if asked to
+		fireGlobals = s.global;
+
+		// Uppercase the type
+		s.type = s.type.toUpperCase();
+
+		// Determine if request has content
+		s.hasContent = !rnoContent.test( s.type );
+
+		// Watch for a new set of requests
+		if ( fireGlobals && jQuery.active++ === 0 ) {
+			jQuery.event.trigger( "ajaxStart" );
+		}
+
+		// More options handling for requests with no content
+		if ( !s.hasContent ) {
+
+			// If data is available, append data to url
+			if ( s.data ) {
+				s.url += ( rquery.test( s.url ) ? "&" : "?" ) + s.data;
+				// #9682: remove data so that it's not used in an eventual retry
+				delete s.data;
+			}
+
+			// Get ifModifiedKey before adding the anti-cache parameter
+			ifModifiedKey = s.url;
+
+			// Add anti-cache in url if needed
+			if ( s.cache === false ) {
+
+				var ts = jQuery.now(),
+					// try replacing _= if it is there
+					ret = s.url.replace( rts, "$1_=" + ts );
+
+				// if nothing was replaced, add timestamp to the end
+				s.url = ret + ( ( ret === s.url ) ? ( rquery.test( s.url ) ? "&" : "?" ) + "_=" + ts : "" );
+			}
+		}
+
+		// Set the correct header, if data is being sent
+		if ( s.data && s.hasContent && s.contentType !== false || options.contentType ) {
+			jqXHR.setRequestHeader( "Content-Type", s.contentType );
+		}
+
+		// Set the If-Modified-Since and/or If-None-Match header, if in ifModified mode.
+		if ( s.ifModified ) {
+			ifModifiedKey = ifModifiedKey || s.url;
+			if ( jQuery.lastModified[ ifModifiedKey ] ) {
+				jqXHR.setRequestHeader( "If-Modified-Since", jQuery.lastModified[ ifModifiedKey ] );
+			}
+			if ( jQuery.etag[ ifModifiedKey ] ) {
+				jqXHR.setRequestHeader( "If-None-Match", jQuery.etag[ ifModifiedKey ] );
+			}
+		}
+
+		// Set the Accepts header for the server, depending on the dataType
+		jqXHR.setRequestHeader(
+			"Accept",
+			s.dataTypes[ 0 ] && s.accepts[ s.dataTypes[0] ] ?
+				s.accepts[ s.dataTypes[0] ] + ( s.dataTypes[ 0 ] !== "*" ? ", " + allTypes + "; q=0.01" : "" ) :
+				s.accepts[ "*" ]
+		);
+
+		// Check for headers option
+		for ( i in s.headers ) {
+			jqXHR.setRequestHeader( i, s.headers[ i ] );
+		}
+
+		// Allow custom headers/mimetypes and early abort
+		if ( s.beforeSend && ( s.beforeSend.call( c