[www-releases] r225855 - Fix 3.5.1 docs

Tom Stellard thomas.stellard at amd.com
Tue Jan 13 15:58:21 PST 2015


Added: www-releases/trunk/3.5.1/tools/clang/docs/LanguageExtensions.html
URL: http://llvm.org/viewvc/llvm-project/www-releases/trunk/3.5.1/tools/clang/docs/LanguageExtensions.html?rev=225855&view=auto
==============================================================================
--- www-releases/trunk/3.5.1/tools/clang/docs/LanguageExtensions.html (added)
+++ www-releases/trunk/3.5.1/tools/clang/docs/LanguageExtensions.html Tue Jan 13 17:58:20 2015
@@ -0,0 +1,1687 @@
+
+
+<!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD XHTML 1.0 Transitional//EN"
+  "http://www.w3.org/TR/xhtml1/DTD/xhtml1-transitional.dtd">
+
+
+<html xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml">
+  <head>
+    <meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=utf-8" />
+    
+    <title>Clang Language Extensions — Clang 3.5 documentation</title>
+    
+    <link rel="stylesheet" href="_static/haiku.css" type="text/css" />
+    <link rel="stylesheet" href="_static/pygments.css" type="text/css" />
+    <link rel="stylesheet" href="_static/print.css" type="text/css" />
+    
+    <script type="text/javascript">
+      var DOCUMENTATION_OPTIONS = {
+        URL_ROOT:    '',
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+        HAS_SOURCE:  true
+      };
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+    <link rel="top" title="Clang 3.5 documentation" href="index.html" />
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+  </head>
+  <body>
+      <div class="header"><h1 class="heading"><a href="index.html">
+          <span>Clang 3.5 documentation</span></a></h1>
+        <h2 class="heading"><span>Clang Language Extensions</span></h2>
+      </div>
+      <div class="topnav">
+      
+        <p>
+        «  <a href="UsersManual.html">Clang Compiler User’s Manual</a>
+          ::  
+        <a class="uplink" href="index.html">Contents</a>
+          ::  
+        <a href="ObjectiveCLiterals.html">Objective-C Literals</a>  Â»
+        </p>
+
+      </div>
+      <div class="content">
+        
+        
+  <div class="section" id="clang-language-extensions">
+<h1>Clang Language Extensions<a class="headerlink" href="#clang-language-extensions" title="Permalink to this headline">¶</a></h1>
+<div class="contents local topic" id="contents">
+<ul class="simple">
+<li><a class="reference internal" href="#introduction" id="id1">Introduction</a></li>
+<li><a class="reference internal" href="#feature-checking-macros" id="id2">Feature Checking Macros</a></li>
+<li><a class="reference internal" href="#include-file-checking-macros" id="id3">Include File Checking Macros</a></li>
+<li><a class="reference internal" href="#builtin-macros" id="id4">Builtin Macros</a></li>
+<li><a class="reference internal" href="#vectors-and-extended-vectors" id="id5">Vectors and Extended Vectors</a></li>
+<li><a class="reference internal" href="#messages-on-deprecated-and-unavailable-attributes" id="id6">Messages on <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">deprecated</span></tt> and <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">unavailable</span></tt> Attributes</a></li>
+<li><a class="reference internal" href="#attributes-on-enumerators" id="id7">Attributes on Enumerators</a></li>
+<li><a class="reference internal" href="#user-specified-system-frameworks" id="id8">‘User-Specified’ System Frameworks</a></li>
+<li><a class="reference internal" href="#checks-for-standard-language-features" id="id9">Checks for Standard Language Features</a></li>
+<li><a class="reference internal" href="#checks-for-type-trait-primitives" id="id10">Checks for Type Trait Primitives</a></li>
+<li><a class="reference internal" href="#blocks" id="id11">Blocks</a></li>
+<li><a class="reference internal" href="#objective-c-features" id="id12">Objective-C Features</a></li>
+<li><a class="reference internal" href="#initializer-lists-for-complex-numbers-in-c" id="id13">Initializer lists for complex numbers in C</a></li>
+<li><a class="reference internal" href="#builtin-functions" id="id14">Builtin Functions</a></li>
+<li><a class="reference internal" href="#non-standard-c-11-attributes" id="id15">Non-standard C++11 Attributes</a></li>
+<li><a class="reference internal" href="#target-specific-extensions" id="id16">Target-Specific Extensions</a></li>
+<li><a class="reference internal" href="#extensions-for-static-analysis" id="id17">Extensions for Static Analysis</a></li>
+<li><a class="reference internal" href="#extensions-for-dynamic-analysis" id="id18">Extensions for Dynamic Analysis</a></li>
+<li><a class="reference internal" href="#extensions-for-selectively-disabling-optimization" id="id19">Extensions for selectively disabling optimization</a></li>
+<li><a class="reference internal" href="#extensions-for-loop-hint-optimizations" id="id20">Extensions for loop hint optimizations</a></li>
+</ul>
+</div>
+<div class="toctree-wrapper compound">
+</div>
+<div class="section" id="introduction">
+<h2><a class="toc-backref" href="#id1">Introduction</a><a class="headerlink" href="#introduction" title="Permalink to this headline">¶</a></h2>
+<p>This document describes the language extensions provided by Clang.  In addition
+to the language extensions listed here, Clang aims to support a broad range of
+GCC extensions.  Please see the <a class="reference external" href="http://gcc.gnu.org/onlinedocs/gcc/C-Extensions.html">GCC manual</a> for more information on
+these extensions.</p>
+</div>
+<div class="section" id="feature-checking-macros">
+<span id="langext-feature-check"></span><h2><a class="toc-backref" href="#id2">Feature Checking Macros</a><a class="headerlink" href="#feature-checking-macros" title="Permalink to this headline">¶</a></h2>
+<p>Language extensions can be very useful, but only if you know you can depend on
+them.  In order to allow fine-grain features checks, we support three builtin
+function-like macros.  This allows you to directly test for a feature in your
+code without having to resort to something like autoconf or fragile “compiler
+version checks”.</p>
+<div class="section" id="has-builtin">
+<h3><tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">__has_builtin</span></tt><a class="headerlink" href="#has-builtin" title="Permalink to this headline">¶</a></h3>
+<p>This function-like macro takes a single identifier argument that is the name of
+a builtin function.  It evaluates to 1 if the builtin is supported or 0 if not.
+It can be used like this:</p>
+<div class="highlight-c++"><pre>#ifndef __has_builtin         // Optional of course.
+  #define __has_builtin(x) 0  // Compatibility with non-clang compilers.
+#endif
+
+...
+#if __has_builtin(__builtin_trap)
+  __builtin_trap();
+#else
+  abort();
+#endif
+...</pre>
+</div>
+</div>
+<div class="section" id="has-feature-and-has-extension">
+<span id="langext-has-feature-has-extension"></span><h3><tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">__has_feature</span></tt> and <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">__has_extension</span></tt><a class="headerlink" href="#has-feature-and-has-extension" title="Permalink to this headline">¶</a></h3>
+<p>These function-like macros take a single identifier argument that is the name
+of a feature.  <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">__has_feature</span></tt> evaluates to 1 if the feature is both
+supported by Clang and standardized in the current language standard or 0 if
+not (but see <a class="reference internal" href="#langext-has-feature-back-compat"><em>below</em></a>), while
+<tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">__has_extension</span></tt> evaluates to 1 if the feature is supported by Clang in the
+current language (either as a language extension or a standard language
+feature) or 0 if not.  They can be used like this:</p>
+<div class="highlight-c++"><pre>#ifndef __has_feature         // Optional of course.
+  #define __has_feature(x) 0  // Compatibility with non-clang compilers.
+#endif
+#ifndef __has_extension
+  #define __has_extension __has_feature // Compatibility with pre-3.0 compilers.
+#endif
+
+...
+#if __has_feature(cxx_rvalue_references)
+// This code will only be compiled with the -std=c++11 and -std=gnu++11
+// options, because rvalue references are only standardized in C++11.
+#endif
+
+#if __has_extension(cxx_rvalue_references)
+// This code will be compiled with the -std=c++11, -std=gnu++11, -std=c++98
+// and -std=gnu++98 options, because rvalue references are supported as a
+// language extension in C++98.
+#endif</pre>
+</div>
+<p id="langext-has-feature-back-compat">For backward compatibility, <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">__has_feature</span></tt> can also be used to test
+for support for non-standardized features, i.e. features not prefixed <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">c_</span></tt>,
+<tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">cxx_</span></tt> or <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">objc_</span></tt>.</p>
+<p>Another use of <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">__has_feature</span></tt> is to check for compiler features not related
+to the language standard, such as e.g. <a class="reference internal" href="AddressSanitizer.html"><em>AddressSanitizer</em></a>.</p>
+<p>If the <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">-pedantic-errors</span></tt> option is given, <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">__has_extension</span></tt> is equivalent
+to <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">__has_feature</span></tt>.</p>
+<p>The feature tag is described along with the language feature below.</p>
+<p>The feature name or extension name can also be specified with a preceding and
+following <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">__</span></tt> (double underscore) to avoid interference from a macro with
+the same name.  For instance, <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">__cxx_rvalue_references__</span></tt> can be used instead
+of <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">cxx_rvalue_references</span></tt>.</p>
+</div>
+<div class="section" id="has-attribute">
+<h3><tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">__has_attribute</span></tt><a class="headerlink" href="#has-attribute" title="Permalink to this headline">¶</a></h3>
+<p>This function-like macro takes a single identifier argument that is the name of
+an attribute.  It evaluates to 1 if the attribute is supported by the current
+compilation target, or 0 if not.  It can be used like this:</p>
+<div class="highlight-c++"><pre>#ifndef __has_attribute         // Optional of course.
+  #define __has_attribute(x) 0  // Compatibility with non-clang compilers.
+#endif
+
+...
+#if __has_attribute(always_inline)
+#define ALWAYS_INLINE __attribute__((always_inline))
+#else
+#define ALWAYS_INLINE
+#endif
+...</pre>
+</div>
+<p>The attribute name can also be specified with a preceding and following <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">__</span></tt>
+(double underscore) to avoid interference from a macro with the same name.  For
+instance, <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">__always_inline__</span></tt> can be used instead of <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">always_inline</span></tt>.</p>
+</div>
+<div class="section" id="is-identifier">
+<h3><tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">__is_identifier</span></tt><a class="headerlink" href="#is-identifier" title="Permalink to this headline">¶</a></h3>
+<p>This function-like macro takes a single identifier argument that might be either
+a reserved word or a regular identifier. It evaluates to 1 if the argument is just
+a regular identifier and not a reserved word, in the sense that it can then be
+used as the name of a user-defined function or variable. Otherwise it evaluates
+to 0.  It can be used like this:</p>
+<div class="highlight-c++"><pre>...
+#ifdef __is_identifier          // Compatibility with non-clang compilers.
+  #if __is_identifier(__wchar_t)
+    typedef wchar_t __wchar_t;
+  #endif
+#endif
+
+__wchar_t WideCharacter;
+...</pre>
+</div>
+</div>
+</div>
+<div class="section" id="include-file-checking-macros">
+<h2><a class="toc-backref" href="#id3">Include File Checking Macros</a><a class="headerlink" href="#include-file-checking-macros" title="Permalink to this headline">¶</a></h2>
+<p>Not all developments systems have the same include files.  The
+<a class="reference internal" href="#langext-has-include"><em>__has_include</em></a> and <a class="reference internal" href="#langext-has-include-next"><em>__has_include_next</em></a> macros allow
+you to check for the existence of an include file before doing a possibly
+failing <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">#include</span></tt> directive.  Include file checking macros must be used
+as expressions in <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">#if</span></tt> or <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">#elif</span></tt> preprocessing directives.</p>
+<div class="section" id="has-include">
+<span id="langext-has-include"></span><h3><tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">__has_include</span></tt><a class="headerlink" href="#has-include" title="Permalink to this headline">¶</a></h3>
+<p>This function-like macro takes a single file name string argument that is the
+name of an include file.  It evaluates to 1 if the file can be found using the
+include paths, or 0 otherwise:</p>
+<div class="highlight-c++"><div class="highlight"><pre><span class="c1">// Note the two possible file name string formats.</span>
+<span class="cp">#if __has_include("myinclude.h") && __has_include(<stdint.h>)</span>
+<span class="cp"># include "myinclude.h"</span>
+<span class="cp">#endif</span>
+</pre></div>
+</div>
+<p>To test for this feature, use <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">#if</span> <span class="pre">defined(__has_include)</span></tt>:</p>
+<div class="highlight-c++"><div class="highlight"><pre><span class="c1">// To avoid problem with non-clang compilers not having this macro.</span>
+<span class="cp">#if defined(__has_include)</span>
+<span class="cp">#if __has_include("myinclude.h")</span>
+<span class="cp"># include "myinclude.h"</span>
+<span class="cp">#endif</span>
+<span class="cp">#endif</span>
+</pre></div>
+</div>
+</div>
+<div class="section" id="has-include-next">
+<span id="langext-has-include-next"></span><h3><tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">__has_include_next</span></tt><a class="headerlink" href="#has-include-next" title="Permalink to this headline">¶</a></h3>
+<p>This function-like macro takes a single file name string argument that is the
+name of an include file.  It is like <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">__has_include</span></tt> except that it looks for
+the second instance of the given file found in the include paths.  It evaluates
+to 1 if the second instance of the file can be found using the include paths,
+or 0 otherwise:</p>
+<div class="highlight-c++"><div class="highlight"><pre><span class="c1">// Note the two possible file name string formats.</span>
+<span class="cp">#if __has_include_next("myinclude.h") && __has_include_next(<stdint.h>)</span>
+<span class="cp"># include_next "myinclude.h"</span>
+<span class="cp">#endif</span>
+
+<span class="c1">// To avoid problem with non-clang compilers not having this macro.</span>
+<span class="cp">#if defined(__has_include_next)</span>
+<span class="cp">#if __has_include_next("myinclude.h")</span>
+<span class="cp"># include_next "myinclude.h"</span>
+<span class="cp">#endif</span>
+<span class="cp">#endif</span>
+</pre></div>
+</div>
+<p>Note that <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">__has_include_next</span></tt>, like the GNU extension <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">#include_next</span></tt>
+directive, is intended for use in headers only, and will issue a warning if
+used in the top-level compilation file.  A warning will also be issued if an
+absolute path is used in the file argument.</p>
+</div>
+<div class="section" id="has-warning">
+<h3><tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">__has_warning</span></tt><a class="headerlink" href="#has-warning" title="Permalink to this headline">¶</a></h3>
+<p>This function-like macro takes a string literal that represents a command line
+option for a warning and returns true if that is a valid warning option.</p>
+<div class="highlight-c++"><div class="highlight"><pre><span class="cp">#if __has_warning("-Wformat")</span>
+<span class="p">...</span>
+<span class="cp">#endif</span>
+</pre></div>
+</div>
+</div>
+</div>
+<div class="section" id="builtin-macros">
+<h2><a class="toc-backref" href="#id4">Builtin Macros</a><a class="headerlink" href="#builtin-macros" title="Permalink to this headline">¶</a></h2>
+<dl class="docutils">
+<dt><tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">__BASE_FILE__</span></tt></dt>
+<dd>Defined to a string that contains the name of the main input file passed to
+Clang.</dd>
+<dt><tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">__COUNTER__</span></tt></dt>
+<dd>Defined to an integer value that starts at zero and is incremented each time
+the <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">__COUNTER__</span></tt> macro is expanded.</dd>
+<dt><tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">__INCLUDE_LEVEL__</span></tt></dt>
+<dd>Defined to an integral value that is the include depth of the file currently
+being translated.  For the main file, this value is zero.</dd>
+<dt><tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">__TIMESTAMP__</span></tt></dt>
+<dd>Defined to the date and time of the last modification of the current source
+file.</dd>
+<dt><tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">__clang__</span></tt></dt>
+<dd>Defined when compiling with Clang</dd>
+<dt><tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">__clang_major__</span></tt></dt>
+<dd>Defined to the major marketing version number of Clang (e.g., the 2 in
+2.0.1).  Note that marketing version numbers should not be used to check for
+language features, as different vendors use different numbering schemes.
+Instead, use the <a class="reference internal" href="#langext-feature-check"><em>Feature Checking Macros</em></a>.</dd>
+<dt><tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">__clang_minor__</span></tt></dt>
+<dd>Defined to the minor version number of Clang (e.g., the 0 in 2.0.1).  Note
+that marketing version numbers should not be used to check for language
+features, as different vendors use different numbering schemes.  Instead, use
+the <a class="reference internal" href="#langext-feature-check"><em>Feature Checking Macros</em></a>.</dd>
+<dt><tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">__clang_patchlevel__</span></tt></dt>
+<dd>Defined to the marketing patch level of Clang (e.g., the 1 in 2.0.1).</dd>
+<dt><tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">__clang_version__</span></tt></dt>
+<dd>Defined to a string that captures the Clang marketing version, including the
+Subversion tag or revision number, e.g., “<tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">1.5</span> <span class="pre">(trunk</span> <span class="pre">102332)</span></tt>”.</dd>
+</dl>
+</div>
+<div class="section" id="vectors-and-extended-vectors">
+<span id="langext-vectors"></span><h2><a class="toc-backref" href="#id5">Vectors and Extended Vectors</a><a class="headerlink" href="#vectors-and-extended-vectors" title="Permalink to this headline">¶</a></h2>
+<p>Supports the GCC, OpenCL, AltiVec and NEON vector extensions.</p>
+<p>OpenCL vector types are created using <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">ext_vector_type</span></tt> attribute.  It
+support for <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">V.xyzw</span></tt> syntax and other tidbits as seen in OpenCL.  An example
+is:</p>
+<div class="highlight-c++"><div class="highlight"><pre><span class="k">typedef</span> <span class="kt">float</span> <span class="n">float4</span> <span class="nf">__attribute__</span><span class="p">((</span><span class="n">ext_vector_type</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="mi">4</span><span class="p">)));</span>
+<span class="k">typedef</span> <span class="kt">float</span> <span class="n">float2</span> <span class="nf">__attribute__</span><span class="p">((</span><span class="n">ext_vector_type</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="mi">2</span><span class="p">)));</span>
+
+<span class="n">float4</span> <span class="nf">foo</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="n">float2</span> <span class="n">a</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="n">float2</span> <span class="n">b</span><span class="p">)</span> <span class="p">{</span>
+  <span class="n">float4</span> <span class="n">c</span><span class="p">;</span>
+  <span class="n">c</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="n">xz</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="n">a</span><span class="p">;</span>
+  <span class="n">c</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="n">yw</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="n">b</span><span class="p">;</span>
+  <span class="k">return</span> <span class="n">c</span><span class="p">;</span>
+<span class="p">}</span>
+</pre></div>
+</div>
+<p>Query for this feature with <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">__has_extension(attribute_ext_vector_type)</span></tt>.</p>
+<p>Giving <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">-faltivec</span></tt> option to clang enables support for AltiVec vector syntax
+and functions.  For example:</p>
+<div class="highlight-c++"><div class="highlight"><pre><span class="n">vector</span> <span class="kt">float</span> <span class="nf">foo</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="n">vector</span> <span class="kt">int</span> <span class="n">a</span><span class="p">)</span> <span class="p">{</span>
+  <span class="n">vector</span> <span class="kt">int</span> <span class="n">b</span><span class="p">;</span>
+  <span class="n">b</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="n">vec_add</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="n">a</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="n">a</span><span class="p">)</span> <span class="o">+</span> <span class="n">a</span><span class="p">;</span>
+  <span class="k">return</span> <span class="p">(</span><span class="n">vector</span> <span class="kt">float</span><span class="p">)</span><span class="n">b</span><span class="p">;</span>
+<span class="p">}</span>
+</pre></div>
+</div>
+<p>NEON vector types are created using <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">neon_vector_type</span></tt> and
+<tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">neon_polyvector_type</span></tt> attributes.  For example:</p>
+<div class="highlight-c++"><div class="highlight"><pre><span class="k">typedef</span> <span class="n">__attribute__</span><span class="p">((</span><span class="n">neon_vector_type</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="mi">8</span><span class="p">)))</span> <span class="kt">int8_t</span> <span class="kt">int8x8_t</span><span class="p">;</span>
+<span class="k">typedef</span> <span class="n">__attribute__</span><span class="p">((</span><span class="n">neon_polyvector_type</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="mi">16</span><span class="p">)))</span> <span class="kt">poly8_t</span> <span class="kt">poly8x16_t</span><span class="p">;</span>
+
+<span class="kt">int8x8_t</span> <span class="nf">foo</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="kt">int8x8_t</span> <span class="n">a</span><span class="p">)</span> <span class="p">{</span>
+  <span class="kt">int8x8_t</span> <span class="n">v</span><span class="p">;</span>
+  <span class="n">v</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="n">a</span><span class="p">;</span>
+  <span class="k">return</span> <span class="n">v</span><span class="p">;</span>
+<span class="p">}</span>
+</pre></div>
+</div>
+<div class="section" id="vector-literals">
+<h3>Vector Literals<a class="headerlink" href="#vector-literals" title="Permalink to this headline">¶</a></h3>
+<p>Vector literals can be used to create vectors from a set of scalars, or
+vectors.  Either parentheses or braces form can be used.  In the parentheses
+form the number of literal values specified must be one, i.e. referring to a
+scalar value, or must match the size of the vector type being created.  If a
+single scalar literal value is specified, the scalar literal value will be
+replicated to all the components of the vector type.  In the brackets form any
+number of literals can be specified.  For example:</p>
+<div class="highlight-c++"><div class="highlight"><pre><span class="k">typedef</span> <span class="kt">int</span> <span class="n">v4si</span> <span class="nf">__attribute__</span><span class="p">((</span><span class="n">__vector_size__</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="mi">16</span><span class="p">)));</span>
+<span class="k">typedef</span> <span class="kt">float</span> <span class="n">float4</span> <span class="nf">__attribute__</span><span class="p">((</span><span class="n">ext_vector_type</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="mi">4</span><span class="p">)));</span>
+<span class="k">typedef</span> <span class="kt">float</span> <span class="n">float2</span> <span class="nf">__attribute__</span><span class="p">((</span><span class="n">ext_vector_type</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="mi">2</span><span class="p">)));</span>
+
+<span class="n">v4si</span> <span class="n">vsi</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="p">(</span><span class="n">v4si</span><span class="p">){</span><span class="mi">1</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="mi">2</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="mi">3</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="mi">4</span><span class="p">};</span>
+<span class="n">float4</span> <span class="n">vf</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="p">(</span><span class="n">float4</span><span class="p">)(</span><span class="mf">1.0f</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="mf">2.0f</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="mf">3.0f</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="mf">4.0f</span><span class="p">);</span>
+<span class="n">vector</span> <span class="kt">int</span> <span class="n">vi1</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="p">(</span><span class="n">vector</span> <span class="kt">int</span><span class="p">)(</span><span class="mi">1</span><span class="p">);</span>    <span class="c1">// vi1 will be (1, 1, 1, 1).</span>
+<span class="n">vector</span> <span class="kt">int</span> <span class="n">vi2</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="p">(</span><span class="n">vector</span> <span class="kt">int</span><span class="p">){</span><span class="mi">1</span><span class="p">};</span>    <span class="c1">// vi2 will be (1, 0, 0, 0).</span>
+<span class="n">vector</span> <span class="kt">int</span> <span class="n">vi3</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="p">(</span><span class="n">vector</span> <span class="kt">int</span><span class="p">)(</span><span class="mi">1</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="mi">2</span><span class="p">);</span> <span class="c1">// error</span>
+<span class="n">vector</span> <span class="kt">int</span> <span class="n">vi4</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="p">(</span><span class="n">vector</span> <span class="kt">int</span><span class="p">){</span><span class="mi">1</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="mi">2</span><span class="p">};</span> <span class="c1">// vi4 will be (1, 2, 0, 0).</span>
+<span class="n">vector</span> <span class="kt">int</span> <span class="n">vi5</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="p">(</span><span class="n">vector</span> <span class="kt">int</span><span class="p">)(</span><span class="mi">1</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="mi">2</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="mi">3</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="mi">4</span><span class="p">);</span>
+<span class="n">float4</span> <span class="n">vf</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="p">(</span><span class="n">float4</span><span class="p">)((</span><span class="n">float2</span><span class="p">)(</span><span class="mf">1.0f</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="mf">2.0f</span><span class="p">),</span> <span class="p">(</span><span class="n">float2</span><span class="p">)(</span><span class="mf">3.0f</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="mf">4.0f</span><span class="p">));</span>
+</pre></div>
+</div>
+</div>
+<div class="section" id="vector-operations">
+<h3>Vector Operations<a class="headerlink" href="#vector-operations" title="Permalink to this headline">¶</a></h3>
+<p>The table below shows the support for each operation by vector extension.  A
+dash indicates that an operation is not accepted according to a corresponding
+specification.</p>
+<table border="1" class="docutils">
+<colgroup>
+<col width="60%" />
+<col width="12%" />
+<col width="14%" />
+<col width="6%" />
+<col width="8%" />
+</colgroup>
+<thead valign="bottom">
+<tr class="row-odd"><th class="head">Opeator</th>
+<th class="head">OpenCL</th>
+<th class="head">AltiVec</th>
+<th class="head">GCC</th>
+<th class="head">NEON</th>
+</tr>
+</thead>
+<tbody valign="top">
+<tr class="row-even"><td>[]</td>
+<td>yes</td>
+<td>yes</td>
+<td>yes</td>
+<td>–</td>
+</tr>
+<tr class="row-odd"><td>unary operators +, –</td>
+<td>yes</td>
+<td>yes</td>
+<td>yes</td>
+<td>–</td>
+</tr>
+<tr class="row-even"><td>++, – –</td>
+<td>yes</td>
+<td>yes</td>
+<td>yes</td>
+<td>–</td>
+</tr>
+<tr class="row-odd"><td>+,–,*,/,%</td>
+<td>yes</td>
+<td>yes</td>
+<td>yes</td>
+<td>–</td>
+</tr>
+<tr class="row-even"><td>bitwise operators &,|,^,~</td>
+<td>yes</td>
+<td>yes</td>
+<td>yes</td>
+<td>–</td>
+</tr>
+<tr class="row-odd"><td>>>,<<</td>
+<td>yes</td>
+<td>yes</td>
+<td>yes</td>
+<td>–</td>
+</tr>
+<tr class="row-even"><td>!, &&, ||</td>
+<td>no</td>
+<td>–</td>
+<td>–</td>
+<td>–</td>
+</tr>
+<tr class="row-odd"><td>==, !=, >, <, >=, <=</td>
+<td>yes</td>
+<td>yes</td>
+<td>–</td>
+<td>–</td>
+</tr>
+<tr class="row-even"><td>=</td>
+<td>yes</td>
+<td>yes</td>
+<td>yes</td>
+<td>yes</td>
+</tr>
+<tr class="row-odd"><td>:?</td>
+<td>yes</td>
+<td>–</td>
+<td>–</td>
+<td>–</td>
+</tr>
+<tr class="row-even"><td>sizeof</td>
+<td>yes</td>
+<td>yes</td>
+<td>yes</td>
+<td>yes</td>
+</tr>
+</tbody>
+</table>
+<p>See also <a class="reference internal" href="#langext-builtin-shufflevector"><em>__builtin_shufflevector</em></a>.</p>
+</div>
+</div>
+<div class="section" id="messages-on-deprecated-and-unavailable-attributes">
+<h2><a class="toc-backref" href="#id6">Messages on <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">deprecated</span></tt> and <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">unavailable</span></tt> Attributes</a><a class="headerlink" href="#messages-on-deprecated-and-unavailable-attributes" title="Permalink to this headline">¶</a></h2>
+<p>An optional string message can be added to the <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">deprecated</span></tt> and
+<tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">unavailable</span></tt> attributes.  For example:</p>
+<div class="highlight-c++"><div class="highlight"><pre><span class="kt">void</span> <span class="nf">explode</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="kt">void</span><span class="p">)</span> <span class="n">__attribute__</span><span class="p">((</span><span class="n">deprecated</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="s">"extremely unsafe, use 'combust' instead!!!"</span><span class="p">)));</span>
+</pre></div>
+</div>
+<p>If the deprecated or unavailable declaration is used, the message will be
+incorporated into the appropriate diagnostic:</p>
+<div class="highlight-c++"><pre>harmless.c:4:3: warning: 'explode' is deprecated: extremely unsafe, use 'combust' instead!!!
+      [-Wdeprecated-declarations]
+  explode();
+  ^</pre>
+</div>
+<p>Query for this feature with
+<tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">__has_extension(attribute_deprecated_with_message)</span></tt> and
+<tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">__has_extension(attribute_unavailable_with_message)</span></tt>.</p>
+</div>
+<div class="section" id="attributes-on-enumerators">
+<h2><a class="toc-backref" href="#id7">Attributes on Enumerators</a><a class="headerlink" href="#attributes-on-enumerators" title="Permalink to this headline">¶</a></h2>
+<p>Clang allows attributes to be written on individual enumerators.  This allows
+enumerators to be deprecated, made unavailable, etc.  The attribute must appear
+after the enumerator name and before any initializer, like so:</p>
+<div class="highlight-c++"><div class="highlight"><pre><span class="k">enum</span> <span class="n">OperationMode</span> <span class="p">{</span>
+  <span class="n">OM_Invalid</span><span class="p">,</span>
+  <span class="n">OM_Normal</span><span class="p">,</span>
+  <span class="n">OM_Terrified</span> <span class="n">__attribute__</span><span class="p">((</span><span class="n">deprecated</span><span class="p">)),</span>
+  <span class="n">OM_AbortOnError</span> <span class="n">__attribute__</span><span class="p">((</span><span class="n">deprecated</span><span class="p">))</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="mi">4</span>
+<span class="p">};</span>
+</pre></div>
+</div>
+<p>Attributes on the <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">enum</span></tt> declaration do not apply to individual enumerators.</p>
+<p>Query for this feature with <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">__has_extension(enumerator_attributes)</span></tt>.</p>
+</div>
+<div class="section" id="user-specified-system-frameworks">
+<h2><a class="toc-backref" href="#id8">‘User-Specified’ System Frameworks</a><a class="headerlink" href="#user-specified-system-frameworks" title="Permalink to this headline">¶</a></h2>
+<p>Clang provides a mechanism by which frameworks can be built in such a way that
+they will always be treated as being “system frameworks”, even if they are not
+present in a system framework directory.  This can be useful to system
+framework developers who want to be able to test building other applications
+with development builds of their framework, including the manner in which the
+compiler changes warning behavior for system headers.</p>
+<p>Framework developers can opt-in to this mechanism by creating a
+“<tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">.system_framework</span></tt>” file at the top-level of their framework.  That is, the
+framework should have contents like:</p>
+<div class="highlight-none"><div class="highlight"><pre>.../TestFramework.framework
+.../TestFramework.framework/.system_framework
+.../TestFramework.framework/Headers
+.../TestFramework.framework/Headers/TestFramework.h
+...
+</pre></div>
+</div>
+<p>Clang will treat the presence of this file as an indicator that the framework
+should be treated as a system framework, regardless of how it was found in the
+framework search path.  For consistency, we recommend that such files never be
+included in installed versions of the framework.</p>
+</div>
+<div class="section" id="checks-for-standard-language-features">
+<h2><a class="toc-backref" href="#id9">Checks for Standard Language Features</a><a class="headerlink" href="#checks-for-standard-language-features" title="Permalink to this headline">¶</a></h2>
+<p>The <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">__has_feature</span></tt> macro can be used to query if certain standard language
+features are enabled.  The <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">__has_extension</span></tt> macro can be used to query if
+language features are available as an extension when compiling for a standard
+which does not provide them.  The features which can be tested are listed here.</p>
+<div class="section" id="c-98">
+<h3>C++98<a class="headerlink" href="#c-98" title="Permalink to this headline">¶</a></h3>
+<p>The features listed below are part of the C++98 standard.  These features are
+enabled by default when compiling C++ code.</p>
+<div class="section" id="c-exceptions">
+<h4>C++ exceptions<a class="headerlink" href="#c-exceptions" title="Permalink to this headline">¶</a></h4>
+<p>Use <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">__has_feature(cxx_exceptions)</span></tt> to determine if C++ exceptions have been
+enabled.  For example, compiling code with <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">-fno-exceptions</span></tt> disables C++
+exceptions.</p>
+</div>
+<div class="section" id="c-rtti">
+<h4>C++ RTTI<a class="headerlink" href="#c-rtti" title="Permalink to this headline">¶</a></h4>
+<p>Use <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">__has_feature(cxx_rtti)</span></tt> to determine if C++ RTTI has been enabled.  For
+example, compiling code with <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">-fno-rtti</span></tt> disables the use of RTTI.</p>
+</div>
+</div>
+<div class="section" id="c-11">
+<h3>C++11<a class="headerlink" href="#c-11" title="Permalink to this headline">¶</a></h3>
+<p>The features listed below are part of the C++11 standard.  As a result, all
+these features are enabled with the <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">-std=c++11</span></tt> or <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">-std=gnu++11</span></tt> option
+when compiling C++ code.</p>
+<div class="section" id="c-11-sfinae-includes-access-control">
+<h4>C++11 SFINAE includes access control<a class="headerlink" href="#c-11-sfinae-includes-access-control" title="Permalink to this headline">¶</a></h4>
+<p>Use <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">__has_feature(cxx_access_control_sfinae)</span></tt> or
+<tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">__has_extension(cxx_access_control_sfinae)</span></tt> to determine whether
+access-control errors (e.g., calling a private constructor) are considered to
+be template argument deduction errors (aka SFINAE errors), per <a class="reference external" href="http://www.open-std.org/jtc1/sc22/wg21/docs/cwg_defects.html#1170">C++ DR1170</a>.</p>
+</div>
+<div class="section" id="c-11-alias-templates">
+<h4>C++11 alias templates<a class="headerlink" href="#c-11-alias-templates" title="Permalink to this headline">¶</a></h4>
+<p>Use <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">__has_feature(cxx_alias_templates)</span></tt> or
+<tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">__has_extension(cxx_alias_templates)</span></tt> to determine if support for C++11’s
+alias declarations and alias templates is enabled.</p>
+</div>
+<div class="section" id="c-11-alignment-specifiers">
+<h4>C++11 alignment specifiers<a class="headerlink" href="#c-11-alignment-specifiers" title="Permalink to this headline">¶</a></h4>
+<p>Use <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">__has_feature(cxx_alignas)</span></tt> or <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">__has_extension(cxx_alignas)</span></tt> to
+determine if support for alignment specifiers using <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">alignas</span></tt> is enabled.</p>
+</div>
+<div class="section" id="c-11-attributes">
+<h4>C++11 attributes<a class="headerlink" href="#c-11-attributes" title="Permalink to this headline">¶</a></h4>
+<p>Use <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">__has_feature(cxx_attributes)</span></tt> or <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">__has_extension(cxx_attributes)</span></tt> to
+determine if support for attribute parsing with C++11’s square bracket notation
+is enabled.</p>
+</div>
+<div class="section" id="c-11-generalized-constant-expressions">
+<h4>C++11 generalized constant expressions<a class="headerlink" href="#c-11-generalized-constant-expressions" title="Permalink to this headline">¶</a></h4>
+<p>Use <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">__has_feature(cxx_constexpr)</span></tt> to determine if support for generalized
+constant expressions (e.g., <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">constexpr</span></tt>) is enabled.</p>
+</div>
+<div class="section" id="c-11-decltype">
+<h4>C++11 <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">decltype()</span></tt><a class="headerlink" href="#c-11-decltype" title="Permalink to this headline">¶</a></h4>
+<p>Use <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">__has_feature(cxx_decltype)</span></tt> or <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">__has_extension(cxx_decltype)</span></tt> to
+determine if support for the <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">decltype()</span></tt> specifier is enabled.  C++11’s
+<tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">decltype</span></tt> does not require type-completeness of a function call expression.
+Use <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">__has_feature(cxx_decltype_incomplete_return_types)</span></tt> or
+<tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">__has_extension(cxx_decltype_incomplete_return_types)</span></tt> to determine if
+support for this feature is enabled.</p>
+</div>
+<div class="section" id="c-11-default-template-arguments-in-function-templates">
+<h4>C++11 default template arguments in function templates<a class="headerlink" href="#c-11-default-template-arguments-in-function-templates" title="Permalink to this headline">¶</a></h4>
+<p>Use <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">__has_feature(cxx_default_function_template_args)</span></tt> or
+<tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">__has_extension(cxx_default_function_template_args)</span></tt> to determine if support
+for default template arguments in function templates is enabled.</p>
+</div>
+<div class="section" id="c-11-defaulted-functions">
+<h4>C++11 <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">default</span></tt>ed functions<a class="headerlink" href="#c-11-defaulted-functions" title="Permalink to this headline">¶</a></h4>
+<p>Use <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">__has_feature(cxx_defaulted_functions)</span></tt> or
+<tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">__has_extension(cxx_defaulted_functions)</span></tt> to determine if support for
+defaulted function definitions (with <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">=</span> <span class="pre">default</span></tt>) is enabled.</p>
+</div>
+<div class="section" id="c-11-delegating-constructors">
+<h4>C++11 delegating constructors<a class="headerlink" href="#c-11-delegating-constructors" title="Permalink to this headline">¶</a></h4>
+<p>Use <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">__has_feature(cxx_delegating_constructors)</span></tt> to determine if support for
+delegating constructors is enabled.</p>
+</div>
+<div class="section" id="c-11-deleted-functions">
+<h4>C++11 <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">deleted</span></tt> functions<a class="headerlink" href="#c-11-deleted-functions" title="Permalink to this headline">¶</a></h4>
+<p>Use <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">__has_feature(cxx_deleted_functions)</span></tt> or
+<tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">__has_extension(cxx_deleted_functions)</span></tt> to determine if support for deleted
+function definitions (with <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">=</span> <span class="pre">delete</span></tt>) is enabled.</p>
+</div>
+<div class="section" id="c-11-explicit-conversion-functions">
+<h4>C++11 explicit conversion functions<a class="headerlink" href="#c-11-explicit-conversion-functions" title="Permalink to this headline">¶</a></h4>
+<p>Use <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">__has_feature(cxx_explicit_conversions)</span></tt> to determine if support for
+<tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">explicit</span></tt> conversion functions is enabled.</p>
+</div>
+<div class="section" id="c-11-generalized-initializers">
+<h4>C++11 generalized initializers<a class="headerlink" href="#c-11-generalized-initializers" title="Permalink to this headline">¶</a></h4>
+<p>Use <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">__has_feature(cxx_generalized_initializers)</span></tt> to determine if support for
+generalized initializers (using braced lists and <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">std::initializer_list</span></tt>) is
+enabled.</p>
+</div>
+<div class="section" id="c-11-implicit-move-constructors-assignment-operators">
+<h4>C++11 implicit move constructors/assignment operators<a class="headerlink" href="#c-11-implicit-move-constructors-assignment-operators" title="Permalink to this headline">¶</a></h4>
+<p>Use <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">__has_feature(cxx_implicit_moves)</span></tt> to determine if Clang will implicitly
+generate move constructors and move assignment operators where needed.</p>
+</div>
+<div class="section" id="c-11-inheriting-constructors">
+<h4>C++11 inheriting constructors<a class="headerlink" href="#c-11-inheriting-constructors" title="Permalink to this headline">¶</a></h4>
+<p>Use <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">__has_feature(cxx_inheriting_constructors)</span></tt> to determine if support for
+inheriting constructors is enabled.</p>
+</div>
+<div class="section" id="c-11-inline-namespaces">
+<h4>C++11 inline namespaces<a class="headerlink" href="#c-11-inline-namespaces" title="Permalink to this headline">¶</a></h4>
+<p>Use <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">__has_feature(cxx_inline_namespaces)</span></tt> or
+<tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">__has_extension(cxx_inline_namespaces)</span></tt> to determine if support for inline
+namespaces is enabled.</p>
+</div>
+<div class="section" id="c-11-lambdas">
+<h4>C++11 lambdas<a class="headerlink" href="#c-11-lambdas" title="Permalink to this headline">¶</a></h4>
+<p>Use <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">__has_feature(cxx_lambdas)</span></tt> or <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">__has_extension(cxx_lambdas)</span></tt> to
+determine if support for lambdas is enabled.</p>
+</div>
+<div class="section" id="c-11-local-and-unnamed-types-as-template-arguments">
+<h4>C++11 local and unnamed types as template arguments<a class="headerlink" href="#c-11-local-and-unnamed-types-as-template-arguments" title="Permalink to this headline">¶</a></h4>
+<p>Use <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">__has_feature(cxx_local_type_template_args)</span></tt> or
+<tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">__has_extension(cxx_local_type_template_args)</span></tt> to determine if support for
+local and unnamed types as template arguments is enabled.</p>
+</div>
+<div class="section" id="c-11-noexcept">
+<h4>C++11 noexcept<a class="headerlink" href="#c-11-noexcept" title="Permalink to this headline">¶</a></h4>
+<p>Use <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">__has_feature(cxx_noexcept)</span></tt> or <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">__has_extension(cxx_noexcept)</span></tt> to
+determine if support for noexcept exception specifications is enabled.</p>
+</div>
+<div class="section" id="c-11-in-class-non-static-data-member-initialization">
+<h4>C++11 in-class non-static data member initialization<a class="headerlink" href="#c-11-in-class-non-static-data-member-initialization" title="Permalink to this headline">¶</a></h4>
+<p>Use <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">__has_feature(cxx_nonstatic_member_init)</span></tt> to determine whether in-class
+initialization of non-static data members is enabled.</p>
+</div>
+<div class="section" id="c-11-nullptr">
+<h4>C++11 <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">nullptr</span></tt><a class="headerlink" href="#c-11-nullptr" title="Permalink to this headline">¶</a></h4>
+<p>Use <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">__has_feature(cxx_nullptr)</span></tt> or <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">__has_extension(cxx_nullptr)</span></tt> to
+determine if support for <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">nullptr</span></tt> is enabled.</p>
+</div>
+<div class="section" id="c-11-override-control">
+<h4>C++11 <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">override</span> <span class="pre">control</span></tt><a class="headerlink" href="#c-11-override-control" title="Permalink to this headline">¶</a></h4>
+<p>Use <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">__has_feature(cxx_override_control)</span></tt> or
+<tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">__has_extension(cxx_override_control)</span></tt> to determine if support for the
+override control keywords is enabled.</p>
+</div>
+<div class="section" id="c-11-reference-qualified-functions">
+<h4>C++11 reference-qualified functions<a class="headerlink" href="#c-11-reference-qualified-functions" title="Permalink to this headline">¶</a></h4>
+<p>Use <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">__has_feature(cxx_reference_qualified_functions)</span></tt> or
+<tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">__has_extension(cxx_reference_qualified_functions)</span></tt> to determine if support
+for reference-qualified functions (e.g., member functions with <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">&</span></tt> or <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">&&</span></tt>
+applied to <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">*this</span></tt>) is enabled.</p>
+</div>
+<div class="section" id="c-11-range-based-for-loop">
+<h4>C++11 range-based <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">for</span></tt> loop<a class="headerlink" href="#c-11-range-based-for-loop" title="Permalink to this headline">¶</a></h4>
+<p>Use <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">__has_feature(cxx_range_for)</span></tt> or <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">__has_extension(cxx_range_for)</span></tt> to
+determine if support for the range-based for loop is enabled.</p>
+</div>
+<div class="section" id="c-11-raw-string-literals">
+<h4>C++11 raw string literals<a class="headerlink" href="#c-11-raw-string-literals" title="Permalink to this headline">¶</a></h4>
+<p>Use <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">__has_feature(cxx_raw_string_literals)</span></tt> to determine if support for raw
+string literals (e.g., <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">R"x(foo\bar)x"</span></tt>) is enabled.</p>
+</div>
+<div class="section" id="c-11-rvalue-references">
+<h4>C++11 rvalue references<a class="headerlink" href="#c-11-rvalue-references" title="Permalink to this headline">¶</a></h4>
+<p>Use <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">__has_feature(cxx_rvalue_references)</span></tt> or
+<tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">__has_extension(cxx_rvalue_references)</span></tt> to determine if support for rvalue
+references is enabled.</p>
+</div>
+<div class="section" id="c-11-static-assert">
+<h4>C++11 <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">static_assert()</span></tt><a class="headerlink" href="#c-11-static-assert" title="Permalink to this headline">¶</a></h4>
+<p>Use <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">__has_feature(cxx_static_assert)</span></tt> or
+<tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">__has_extension(cxx_static_assert)</span></tt> to determine if support for compile-time
+assertions using <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">static_assert</span></tt> is enabled.</p>
+</div>
+<div class="section" id="c-11-thread-local">
+<h4>C++11 <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">thread_local</span></tt><a class="headerlink" href="#c-11-thread-local" title="Permalink to this headline">¶</a></h4>
+<p>Use <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">__has_feature(cxx_thread_local)</span></tt> to determine if support for
+<tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">thread_local</span></tt> variables is enabled.</p>
+</div>
+<div class="section" id="c-11-type-inference">
+<h4>C++11 type inference<a class="headerlink" href="#c-11-type-inference" title="Permalink to this headline">¶</a></h4>
+<p>Use <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">__has_feature(cxx_auto_type)</span></tt> or <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">__has_extension(cxx_auto_type)</span></tt> to
+determine C++11 type inference is supported using the <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">auto</span></tt> specifier.  If
+this is disabled, <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">auto</span></tt> will instead be a storage class specifier, as in C
+or C++98.</p>
+</div>
+<div class="section" id="c-11-strongly-typed-enumerations">
+<h4>C++11 strongly typed enumerations<a class="headerlink" href="#c-11-strongly-typed-enumerations" title="Permalink to this headline">¶</a></h4>
+<p>Use <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">__has_feature(cxx_strong_enums)</span></tt> or
+<tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">__has_extension(cxx_strong_enums)</span></tt> to determine if support for strongly
+typed, scoped enumerations is enabled.</p>
+</div>
+<div class="section" id="c-11-trailing-return-type">
+<h4>C++11 trailing return type<a class="headerlink" href="#c-11-trailing-return-type" title="Permalink to this headline">¶</a></h4>
+<p>Use <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">__has_feature(cxx_trailing_return)</span></tt> or
+<tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">__has_extension(cxx_trailing_return)</span></tt> to determine if support for the
+alternate function declaration syntax with trailing return type is enabled.</p>
+</div>
+<div class="section" id="c-11-unicode-string-literals">
+<h4>C++11 Unicode string literals<a class="headerlink" href="#c-11-unicode-string-literals" title="Permalink to this headline">¶</a></h4>
+<p>Use <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">__has_feature(cxx_unicode_literals)</span></tt> to determine if support for Unicode
+string literals is enabled.</p>
+</div>
+<div class="section" id="c-11-unrestricted-unions">
+<h4>C++11 unrestricted unions<a class="headerlink" href="#c-11-unrestricted-unions" title="Permalink to this headline">¶</a></h4>
+<p>Use <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">__has_feature(cxx_unrestricted_unions)</span></tt> to determine if support for
+unrestricted unions is enabled.</p>
+</div>
+<div class="section" id="c-11-user-defined-literals">
+<h4>C++11 user-defined literals<a class="headerlink" href="#c-11-user-defined-literals" title="Permalink to this headline">¶</a></h4>
+<p>Use <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">__has_feature(cxx_user_literals)</span></tt> to determine if support for
+user-defined literals is enabled.</p>
+</div>
+<div class="section" id="c-11-variadic-templates">
+<h4>C++11 variadic templates<a class="headerlink" href="#c-11-variadic-templates" title="Permalink to this headline">¶</a></h4>
+<p>Use <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">__has_feature(cxx_variadic_templates)</span></tt> or
+<tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">__has_extension(cxx_variadic_templates)</span></tt> to determine if support for
+variadic templates is enabled.</p>
+</div>
+</div>
+<div class="section" id="c-1y">
+<h3>C++1y<a class="headerlink" href="#c-1y" title="Permalink to this headline">¶</a></h3>
+<p>The features listed below are part of the committee draft for the C++1y
+standard.  As a result, all these features are enabled with the <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">-std=c++1y</span></tt>
+or <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">-std=gnu++1y</span></tt> option when compiling C++ code.</p>
+<div class="section" id="c-1y-binary-literals">
+<h4>C++1y binary literals<a class="headerlink" href="#c-1y-binary-literals" title="Permalink to this headline">¶</a></h4>
+<p>Use <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">__has_feature(cxx_binary_literals)</span></tt> or
+<tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">__has_extension(cxx_binary_literals)</span></tt> to determine whether
+binary literals (for instance, <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">0b10010</span></tt>) are recognized. Clang supports this
+feature as an extension in all language modes.</p>
+</div>
+<div class="section" id="c-1y-contextual-conversions">
+<h4>C++1y contextual conversions<a class="headerlink" href="#c-1y-contextual-conversions" title="Permalink to this headline">¶</a></h4>
+<p>Use <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">__has_feature(cxx_contextual_conversions)</span></tt> or
+<tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">__has_extension(cxx_contextual_conversions)</span></tt> to determine if the C++1y rules
+are used when performing an implicit conversion for an array bound in a
+<em>new-expression</em>, the operand of a <em>delete-expression</em>, an integral constant
+expression, or a condition in a <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">switch</span></tt> statement.</p>
+</div>
+<div class="section" id="c-1y-decltype-auto">
+<h4>C++1y decltype(auto)<a class="headerlink" href="#c-1y-decltype-auto" title="Permalink to this headline">¶</a></h4>
+<p>Use <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">__has_feature(cxx_decltype_auto)</span></tt> or
+<tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">__has_extension(cxx_decltype_auto)</span></tt> to determine if support
+for the <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">decltype(auto)</span></tt> placeholder type is enabled.</p>
+</div>
+<div class="section" id="c-1y-default-initializers-for-aggregates">
+<h4>C++1y default initializers for aggregates<a class="headerlink" href="#c-1y-default-initializers-for-aggregates" title="Permalink to this headline">¶</a></h4>
+<p>Use <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">__has_feature(cxx_aggregate_nsdmi)</span></tt> or
+<tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">__has_extension(cxx_aggregate_nsdmi)</span></tt> to determine if support
+for default initializers in aggregate members is enabled.</p>
+</div>
+<div class="section" id="c-1y-generalized-lambda-capture">
+<h4>C++1y generalized lambda capture<a class="headerlink" href="#c-1y-generalized-lambda-capture" title="Permalink to this headline">¶</a></h4>
+<p>Use <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">__has_feature(cxx_init_captures)</span></tt> or
+<tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">__has_extension(cxx_init_captures)</span></tt> to determine if support for
+lambda captures with explicit initializers is enabled
+(for instance, <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">[n(0)]</span> <span class="pre">{</span> <span class="pre">return</span> <span class="pre">++n;</span> <span class="pre">}</span></tt>).</p>
+</div>
+<div class="section" id="c-1y-generic-lambdas">
+<h4>C++1y generic lambdas<a class="headerlink" href="#c-1y-generic-lambdas" title="Permalink to this headline">¶</a></h4>
+<p>Use <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">__has_feature(cxx_generic_lambdas)</span></tt> or
+<tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">__has_extension(cxx_generic_lambdas)</span></tt> to determine if support for generic
+(polymorphic) lambdas is enabled
+(for instance, <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">[]</span> <span class="pre">(auto</span> <span class="pre">x)</span> <span class="pre">{</span> <span class="pre">return</span> <span class="pre">x</span> <span class="pre">+</span> <span class="pre">1;</span> <span class="pre">}</span></tt>).</p>
+</div>
+<div class="section" id="c-1y-relaxed-constexpr">
+<h4>C++1y relaxed constexpr<a class="headerlink" href="#c-1y-relaxed-constexpr" title="Permalink to this headline">¶</a></h4>
+<p>Use <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">__has_feature(cxx_relaxed_constexpr)</span></tt> or
+<tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">__has_extension(cxx_relaxed_constexpr)</span></tt> to determine if variable
+declarations, local variable modification, and control flow constructs
+are permitted in <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">constexpr</span></tt> functions.</p>
+</div>
+<div class="section" id="c-1y-return-type-deduction">
+<h4>C++1y return type deduction<a class="headerlink" href="#c-1y-return-type-deduction" title="Permalink to this headline">¶</a></h4>
+<p>Use <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">__has_feature(cxx_return_type_deduction)</span></tt> or
+<tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">__has_extension(cxx_return_type_deduction)</span></tt> to determine if support
+for return type deduction for functions (using <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">auto</span></tt> as a return type)
+is enabled.</p>
+</div>
+<div class="section" id="c-1y-runtime-sized-arrays">
+<h4>C++1y runtime-sized arrays<a class="headerlink" href="#c-1y-runtime-sized-arrays" title="Permalink to this headline">¶</a></h4>
+<p>Use <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">__has_feature(cxx_runtime_array)</span></tt> or
+<tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">__has_extension(cxx_runtime_array)</span></tt> to determine if support
+for arrays of runtime bound (a restricted form of variable-length arrays)
+is enabled.
+Clang’s implementation of this feature is incomplete.</p>
+</div>
+<div class="section" id="c-1y-variable-templates">
+<h4>C++1y variable templates<a class="headerlink" href="#c-1y-variable-templates" title="Permalink to this headline">¶</a></h4>
+<p>Use <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">__has_feature(cxx_variable_templates)</span></tt> or
+<tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">__has_extension(cxx_variable_templates)</span></tt> to determine if support for
+templated variable declarations is enabled.</p>
+</div>
+</div>
+<div class="section" id="c11">
+<h3>C11<a class="headerlink" href="#c11" title="Permalink to this headline">¶</a></h3>
+<p>The features listed below are part of the C11 standard.  As a result, all these
+features are enabled with the <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">-std=c11</span></tt> or <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">-std=gnu11</span></tt> option when
+compiling C code.  Additionally, because these features are all
+backward-compatible, they are available as extensions in all language modes.</p>
+<div class="section" id="c11-alignment-specifiers">
+<h4>C11 alignment specifiers<a class="headerlink" href="#c11-alignment-specifiers" title="Permalink to this headline">¶</a></h4>
+<p>Use <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">__has_feature(c_alignas)</span></tt> or <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">__has_extension(c_alignas)</span></tt> to determine
+if support for alignment specifiers using <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">_Alignas</span></tt> is enabled.</p>
+</div>
+<div class="section" id="c11-atomic-operations">
+<h4>C11 atomic operations<a class="headerlink" href="#c11-atomic-operations" title="Permalink to this headline">¶</a></h4>
+<p>Use <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">__has_feature(c_atomic)</span></tt> or <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">__has_extension(c_atomic)</span></tt> to determine
+if support for atomic types using <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">_Atomic</span></tt> is enabled.  Clang also provides
+<a class="reference internal" href="#langext-c11-atomic"><em>a set of builtins</em></a> which can be used to implement
+the <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre"><stdatomic.h></span></tt> operations on <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">_Atomic</span></tt> types.</p>
+</div>
+<div class="section" id="c11-generic-selections">
+<h4>C11 generic selections<a class="headerlink" href="#c11-generic-selections" title="Permalink to this headline">¶</a></h4>
+<p>Use <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">__has_feature(c_generic_selections)</span></tt> or
+<tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">__has_extension(c_generic_selections)</span></tt> to determine if support for generic
+selections is enabled.</p>
+<p>As an extension, the C11 generic selection expression is available in all
+languages supported by Clang.  The syntax is the same as that given in the C11
+standard.</p>
+<p>In C, type compatibility is decided according to the rules given in the
+appropriate standard, but in C++, which lacks the type compatibility rules used
+in C, types are considered compatible only if they are equivalent.</p>
+</div>
+<div class="section" id="c11-static-assert">
+<h4>C11 <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">_Static_assert()</span></tt><a class="headerlink" href="#c11-static-assert" title="Permalink to this headline">¶</a></h4>
+<p>Use <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">__has_feature(c_static_assert)</span></tt> or <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">__has_extension(c_static_assert)</span></tt>
+to determine if support for compile-time assertions using <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">_Static_assert</span></tt> is
+enabled.</p>
+</div>
+<div class="section" id="c11-thread-local">
+<h4>C11 <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">_Thread_local</span></tt><a class="headerlink" href="#c11-thread-local" title="Permalink to this headline">¶</a></h4>
+<p>Use <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">__has_feature(c_thread_local)</span></tt> or <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">__has_extension(c_thread_local)</span></tt>
+to determine if support for <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">_Thread_local</span></tt> variables is enabled.</p>
+</div>
+</div>
+</div>
+<div class="section" id="checks-for-type-trait-primitives">
+<h2><a class="toc-backref" href="#id10">Checks for Type Trait Primitives</a><a class="headerlink" href="#checks-for-type-trait-primitives" title="Permalink to this headline">¶</a></h2>
+<p>Type trait primitives are special builtin constant expressions that can be used
+by the standard C++ library to facilitate or simplify the implementation of
+user-facing type traits in the <type_traits> header.</p>
+<p>They are not intended to be used directly by user code because they are
+implementation-defined and subject to change – as such they’re tied closely to
+the supported set of system headers, currently:</p>
+<ul class="simple">
+<li>LLVM’s own libc++</li>
+<li>GNU libstdc++</li>
+<li>The Microsoft standard C++ library</li>
+</ul>
+<p>Clang supports the <a class="reference external" href="http://gcc.gnu.org/onlinedocs/gcc/Type-Traits.html">GNU C++ type traits</a> and a subset of the
+<a class="reference external" href="http://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/ms177194(v=VS.100).aspx">Microsoft Visual C++ Type traits</a>.</p>
+<p>Feature detection is supported only for some of the primitives at present. User
+code should not use these checks because they bear no direct relation to the
+actual set of type traits supported by the C++ standard library.</p>
+<p>For type trait <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">__X</span></tt>, <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">__has_extension(X)</span></tt> indicates the presence of the
+type trait primitive in the compiler. A simplistic usage example as might be
+seen in standard C++ headers follows:</p>
+<div class="highlight-c++"><div class="highlight"><pre><span class="cp">#if __has_extension(is_convertible_to)</span>
+<span class="k">template</span><span class="o"><</span><span class="k">typename</span> <span class="n">From</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="k">typename</span> <span class="n">To</span><span class="o">></span>
+<span class="k">struct</span> <span class="n">is_convertible_to</span> <span class="p">{</span>
+  <span class="k">static</span> <span class="k">const</span> <span class="kt">bool</span> <span class="n">value</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="n">__is_convertible_to</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="n">From</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="n">To</span><span class="p">);</span>
+<span class="p">};</span>
+<span class="cp">#else</span>
+<span class="c1">// Emulate type trait for compatibility with other compilers.</span>
+<span class="cp">#endif</span>
+</pre></div>
+</div>
+<p>The following type trait primitives are supported by Clang:</p>
+<ul class="simple">
+<li><tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">__has_nothrow_assign</span></tt> (GNU, Microsoft)</li>
+<li><tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">__has_nothrow_copy</span></tt> (GNU, Microsoft)</li>
+<li><tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">__has_nothrow_constructor</span></tt> (GNU, Microsoft)</li>
+<li><tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">__has_trivial_assign</span></tt> (GNU, Microsoft)</li>
+<li><tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">__has_trivial_copy</span></tt> (GNU, Microsoft)</li>
+<li><tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">__has_trivial_constructor</span></tt> (GNU, Microsoft)</li>
+<li><tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">__has_trivial_destructor</span></tt> (GNU, Microsoft)</li>
+<li><tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">__has_virtual_destructor</span></tt> (GNU, Microsoft)</li>
+<li><tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">__is_abstract</span></tt> (GNU, Microsoft)</li>
+<li><tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">__is_base_of</span></tt> (GNU, Microsoft)</li>
+<li><tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">__is_class</span></tt> (GNU, Microsoft)</li>
+<li><tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">__is_convertible_to</span></tt> (Microsoft)</li>
+<li><tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">__is_empty</span></tt> (GNU, Microsoft)</li>
+<li><tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">__is_enum</span></tt> (GNU, Microsoft)</li>
+<li><tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">__is_interface_class</span></tt> (Microsoft)</li>
+<li><tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">__is_pod</span></tt> (GNU, Microsoft)</li>
+<li><tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">__is_polymorphic</span></tt> (GNU, Microsoft)</li>
+<li><tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">__is_union</span></tt> (GNU, Microsoft)</li>
+<li><tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">__is_literal(type)</span></tt>: Determines whether the given type is a literal type</li>
+<li><tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">__is_final</span></tt>: Determines whether the given type is declared with a
+<tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">final</span></tt> class-virt-specifier.</li>
+<li><tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">__underlying_type(type)</span></tt>: Retrieves the underlying type for a given
+<tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">enum</span></tt> type.  This trait is required to implement the C++11 standard
+library.</li>
+<li><tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">__is_trivially_assignable(totype,</span> <span class="pre">fromtype)</span></tt>: Determines whether a value
+of type <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">totype</span></tt> can be assigned to from a value of type <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">fromtype</span></tt> such
+that no non-trivial functions are called as part of that assignment.  This
+trait is required to implement the C++11 standard library.</li>
+<li><tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">__is_trivially_constructible(type,</span> <span class="pre">argtypes...)</span></tt>: Determines whether a
+value of type <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">type</span></tt> can be direct-initialized with arguments of types
+<tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">argtypes...</span></tt> such that no non-trivial functions are called as part of
+that initialization.  This trait is required to implement the C++11 standard
+library.</li>
+<li><tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">__is_destructible</span></tt> (MSVC 2013): partially implemented</li>
+<li><tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">__is_nothrow_destructible</span></tt> (MSVC 2013): partially implemented</li>
+<li><tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">__is_nothrow_assignable</span></tt> (MSVC 2013, clang)</li>
+<li><tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">__is_constructible</span></tt> (MSVC 2013, clang)</li>
+<li><tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">__is_nothrow_constructible</span></tt> (MSVC 2013, clang)</li>
+</ul>
+</div>
+<div class="section" id="blocks">
+<h2><a class="toc-backref" href="#id11">Blocks</a><a class="headerlink" href="#blocks" title="Permalink to this headline">¶</a></h2>
+<p>The syntax and high level language feature description is in
+<a class="reference internal" href="BlockLanguageSpec.html"><em>BlockLanguageSpec</em></a>. Implementation and ABI details for
+the clang implementation are in <a class="reference internal" href="Block-ABI-Apple.html"><em>Block-ABI-Apple</em></a>.</p>
+<p>Query for this feature with <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">__has_extension(blocks)</span></tt>.</p>
+</div>
+<div class="section" id="objective-c-features">
+<h2><a class="toc-backref" href="#id12">Objective-C Features</a><a class="headerlink" href="#objective-c-features" title="Permalink to this headline">¶</a></h2>
+<div class="section" id="related-result-types">
+<h3>Related result types<a class="headerlink" href="#related-result-types" title="Permalink to this headline">¶</a></h3>
+<p>According to Cocoa conventions, Objective-C methods with certain names
+(“<tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">init</span></tt>”, “<tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">alloc</span></tt>”, etc.) always return objects that are an instance of
+the receiving class’s type.  Such methods are said to have a “related result
+type”, meaning that a message send to one of these methods will have the same
+static type as an instance of the receiver class.  For example, given the
+following classes:</p>
+<div class="highlight-objc"><div class="highlight"><pre><span class="k">@interface</span> <span class="nc">NSObject</span>
+<span class="k">+</span> <span class="p">(</span><span class="kt">id</span><span class="p">)</span><span class="nf">alloc</span><span class="p">;</span>
+<span class="k">-</span> <span class="p">(</span><span class="kt">id</span><span class="p">)</span><span class="nf">init</span><span class="p">;</span>
+<span class="k">@end</span>
+
+<span class="k">@interface</span> <span class="nc">NSArray</span> : <span class="nc">NSObject</span>
+<span class="k">@end</span>
+</pre></div>
+</div>
+<p>and this common initialization pattern</p>
+<div class="highlight-objc"><div class="highlight"><pre><span class="n">NSArray</span> <span class="o">*</span><span class="n">array</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="p">[[</span><span class="n">NSArray</span> <span class="n">alloc</span><span class="p">]</span> <span class="n">init</span><span class="p">];</span>
+</pre></div>
+</div>
+<p>the type of the expression <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">[NSArray</span> <span class="pre">alloc]</span></tt> is <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">NSArray*</span></tt> because
+<tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">alloc</span></tt> implicitly has a related result type.  Similarly, the type of the
+expression <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">[[NSArray</span> <span class="pre">alloc]</span> <span class="pre">init]</span></tt> is <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">NSArray*</span></tt>, since <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">init</span></tt> has a
+related result type and its receiver is known to have the type <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">NSArray</span> <span class="pre">*</span></tt>.
+If neither <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">alloc</span></tt> nor <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">init</span></tt> had a related result type, the expressions
+would have had type <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">id</span></tt>, as declared in the method signature.</p>
+<p>A method with a related result type can be declared by using the type
+<tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">instancetype</span></tt> as its result type.  <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">instancetype</span></tt> is a contextual keyword
+that is only permitted in the result type of an Objective-C method, e.g.</p>
+<div class="highlight-objc"><div class="highlight"><pre><span class="k">@interface</span> <span class="nc">A</span>
+<span class="k">+</span> <span class="p">(</span><span class="n">instancetype</span><span class="p">)</span><span class="nf">constructAnA</span><span class="p">;</span>
+<span class="k">@end</span>
+</pre></div>
+</div>
+<p>The related result type can also be inferred for some methods.  To determine
+whether a method has an inferred related result type, the first word in the
+camel-case selector (e.g., “<tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">init</span></tt>” in “<tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">initWithObjects</span></tt>”) is considered,
+and the method will have a related result type if its return type is compatible
+with the type of its class and if:</p>
+<ul class="simple">
+<li>the first word is “<tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">alloc</span></tt>” or “<tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">new</span></tt>”, and the method is a class method,
+or</li>
+<li>the first word is “<tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">autorelease</span></tt>”, “<tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">init</span></tt>”, “<tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">retain</span></tt>”, or “<tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">self</span></tt>”,
+and the method is an instance method.</li>
+</ul>
+<p>If a method with a related result type is overridden by a subclass method, the
+subclass method must also return a type that is compatible with the subclass
+type.  For example:</p>
+<div class="highlight-objc"><div class="highlight"><pre><span class="k">@interface</span> <span class="nc">NSString</span> : <span class="nc">NSObject</span>
+<span class="k">-</span> <span class="p">(</span><span class="n">NSUnrelated</span> <span class="o">*</span><span class="p">)</span><span class="nf">init</span><span class="p">;</span> <span class="c1">// incorrect usage: NSUnrelated is not NSString or a superclass of NSString</span>
+<span class="k">@end</span>
+</pre></div>
+</div>
+<p>Related result types only affect the type of a message send or property access
+via the given method.  In all other respects, a method with a related result
+type is treated the same way as method that returns <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">id</span></tt>.</p>
+<p>Use <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">__has_feature(objc_instancetype)</span></tt> to determine whether the
+<tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">instancetype</span></tt> contextual keyword is available.</p>
+</div>
+<div class="section" id="automatic-reference-counting">
+<h3>Automatic reference counting<a class="headerlink" href="#automatic-reference-counting" title="Permalink to this headline">¶</a></h3>
+<p>Clang provides support for <a class="reference internal" href="AutomaticReferenceCounting.html"><em>automated reference counting</em></a> in Objective-C, which eliminates the need
+for manual <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">retain</span></tt>/<tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">release</span></tt>/<tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">autorelease</span></tt> message sends.  There are two
+feature macros associated with automatic reference counting:
+<tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">__has_feature(objc_arc)</span></tt> indicates the availability of automated reference
+counting in general, while <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">__has_feature(objc_arc_weak)</span></tt> indicates that
+automated reference counting also includes support for <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">__weak</span></tt> pointers to
+Objective-C objects.</p>
+</div>
+<div class="section" id="enumerations-with-a-fixed-underlying-type">
+<span id="objc-fixed-enum"></span><h3>Enumerations with a fixed underlying type<a class="headerlink" href="#enumerations-with-a-fixed-underlying-type" title="Permalink to this headline">¶</a></h3>
+<p>Clang provides support for C++11 enumerations with a fixed underlying type
+within Objective-C.  For example, one can write an enumeration type as:</p>
+<div class="highlight-c++"><div class="highlight"><pre><span class="k">typedef</span> <span class="k">enum</span> <span class="o">:</span> <span class="kt">unsigned</span> <span class="kt">char</span> <span class="p">{</span> <span class="n">Red</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="n">Green</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="n">Blue</span> <span class="p">}</span> <span class="n">Color</span><span class="p">;</span>
+</pre></div>
+</div>
+<p>This specifies that the underlying type, which is used to store the enumeration
+value, is <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">unsigned</span> <span class="pre">char</span></tt>.</p>
+<p>Use <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">__has_feature(objc_fixed_enum)</span></tt> to determine whether support for fixed
+underlying types is available in Objective-C.</p>
+</div>
+<div class="section" id="interoperability-with-c-11-lambdas">
+<h3>Interoperability with C++11 lambdas<a class="headerlink" href="#interoperability-with-c-11-lambdas" title="Permalink to this headline">¶</a></h3>
+<p>Clang provides interoperability between C++11 lambdas and blocks-based APIs, by
+permitting a lambda to be implicitly converted to a block pointer with the
+corresponding signature.  For example, consider an API such as <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">NSArray</span></tt>‘s
+array-sorting method:</p>
+<div class="highlight-objc"><div class="highlight"><pre><span class="k">-</span> <span class="p">(</span><span class="n">NSArray</span> <span class="o">*</span><span class="p">)</span><span class="nf">sortedArrayUsingComparator:</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="n">NSComparator</span><span class="p">)</span><span class="nv">cmptr</span><span class="p">;</span>
+</pre></div>
+</div>
+<p><tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">NSComparator</span></tt> is simply a typedef for the block pointer <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">NSComparisonResult</span>
+<span class="pre">(^)(id,</span> <span class="pre">id)</span></tt>, and parameters of this type are generally provided with block
+literals as arguments.  However, one can also use a C++11 lambda so long as it
+provides the same signature (in this case, accepting two parameters of type
+<tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">id</span></tt> and returning an <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">NSComparisonResult</span></tt>):</p>
+<div class="highlight-objc"><pre>NSArray *array = @[@"string 1", @"string 21", @"string 12", @"String 11",
+                   @"String 02"];
+const NSStringCompareOptions comparisonOptions
+  = NSCaseInsensitiveSearch | NSNumericSearch |
+    NSWidthInsensitiveSearch | NSForcedOrderingSearch;
+NSLocale *currentLocale = [NSLocale currentLocale];
+NSArray *sorted
+  = [array sortedArrayUsingComparator:[=](id s1, id s2) -> NSComparisonResult {
+             NSRange string1Range = NSMakeRange(0, [s1 length]);
+             return [s1 compare:s2 options:comparisonOptions
+             range:string1Range locale:currentLocale];
+     }];
+NSLog(@"sorted: %@", sorted);</pre>
+</div>
+<p>This code relies on an implicit conversion from the type of the lambda
+expression (an unnamed, local class type called the <em>closure type</em>) to the
+corresponding block pointer type.  The conversion itself is expressed by a
+conversion operator in that closure type that produces a block pointer with the
+same signature as the lambda itself, e.g.,</p>
+<div class="highlight-objc"><div class="highlight"><pre><span class="n">operator</span> <span class="n">NSComparisonResult</span> <span class="p">(</span><span class="o">^</span><span class="p">)(</span><span class="kt">id</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="kt">id</span><span class="p">)()</span> <span class="k">const</span><span class="p">;</span>
+</pre></div>
+</div>
+<p>This conversion function returns a new block that simply forwards the two
+parameters to the lambda object (which it captures by copy), then returns the
+result.  The returned block is first copied (with <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">Block_copy</span></tt>) and then
+autoreleased.  As an optimization, if a lambda expression is immediately
+converted to a block pointer (as in the first example, above), then the block
+is not copied and autoreleased: rather, it is given the same lifetime as a
+block literal written at that point in the program, which avoids the overhead
+of copying a block to the heap in the common case.</p>
+<p>The conversion from a lambda to a block pointer is only available in
+Objective-C++, and not in C++ with blocks, due to its use of Objective-C memory
+management (autorelease).</p>
+</div>
+<div class="section" id="object-literals-and-subscripting">
+<h3>Object Literals and Subscripting<a class="headerlink" href="#object-literals-and-subscripting" title="Permalink to this headline">¶</a></h3>
+<p>Clang provides support for <a class="reference internal" href="ObjectiveCLiterals.html"><em>Object Literals and Subscripting</em></a> in Objective-C, which simplifies common Objective-C
+programming patterns, makes programs more concise, and improves the safety of
+container creation.  There are several feature macros associated with object
+literals and subscripting: <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">__has_feature(objc_array_literals)</span></tt> tests the
+availability of array literals; <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">__has_feature(objc_dictionary_literals)</span></tt>
+tests the availability of dictionary literals;
+<tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">__has_feature(objc_subscripting)</span></tt> tests the availability of object
+subscripting.</p>
+</div>
+<div class="section" id="objective-c-autosynthesis-of-properties">
+<h3>Objective-C Autosynthesis of Properties<a class="headerlink" href="#objective-c-autosynthesis-of-properties" title="Permalink to this headline">¶</a></h3>
+<p>Clang provides support for autosynthesis of declared properties.  Using this
+feature, clang provides default synthesis of those properties not declared
+@dynamic and not having user provided backing getter and setter methods.
+<tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">__has_feature(objc_default_synthesize_properties)</span></tt> checks for availability
+of this feature in version of clang being used.</p>
+</div>
+<div class="section" id="objective-c-retaining-behavior-attributes">
+<span id="langext-objc-retain-release"></span><h3>Objective-C retaining behavior attributes<a class="headerlink" href="#objective-c-retaining-behavior-attributes" title="Permalink to this headline">¶</a></h3>
+<p>In Objective-C, functions and methods are generally assumed to follow the
+<a class="reference external" href="http://developer.apple.com/library/mac/#documentation/Cocoa/Conceptual/MemoryMgmt/Articles/mmRules.html">Cocoa Memory Management</a>
+conventions for ownership of object arguments and
+return values. However, there are exceptions, and so Clang provides attributes
+to allow these exceptions to be documented. This are used by ARC and the
+<a class="reference external" href="http://clang-analyzer.llvm.org">static analyzer</a> Some exceptions may be
+better described using the <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">objc_method_family</span></tt> attribute instead.</p>
+<p><strong>Usage</strong>: The <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">ns_returns_retained</span></tt>, <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">ns_returns_not_retained</span></tt>,
+<tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">ns_returns_autoreleased</span></tt>, <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">cf_returns_retained</span></tt>, and
+<tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">cf_returns_not_retained</span></tt> attributes can be placed on methods and functions
+that return Objective-C or CoreFoundation objects. They are commonly placed at
+the end of a function prototype or method declaration:</p>
+<div class="highlight-objc"><div class="highlight"><pre><span class="kt">id</span> <span class="nf">foo</span><span class="p">()</span> <span class="n">__attribute__</span><span class="p">((</span><span class="n">ns_returns_retained</span><span class="p">));</span>
+
+<span class="k">-</span> <span class="p">(</span><span class="n">NSString</span> <span class="o">*</span><span class="p">)</span><span class="nf">bar:</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="kt">int</span><span class="p">)</span><span class="nv">x</span> <span class="n">__attribute__</span><span class="p">((</span><span class="n">ns_returns_retained</span><span class="p">));</span>
+</pre></div>
+</div>
+<p>The <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">*_returns_retained</span></tt> attributes specify that the returned object has a +1
+retain count.  The <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">*_returns_not_retained</span></tt> attributes specify that the return
+object has a +0 retain count, even if the normal convention for its selector
+would be +1.  <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">ns_returns_autoreleased</span></tt> specifies that the returned object is
++0, but is guaranteed to live at least as long as the next flush of an
+autorelease pool.</p>
+<p><strong>Usage</strong>: The <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">ns_consumed</span></tt> and <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">cf_consumed</span></tt> attributes can be placed on
+an parameter declaration; they specify that the argument is expected to have a
++1 retain count, which will be balanced in some way by the function or method.
+The <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">ns_consumes_self</span></tt> attribute can only be placed on an Objective-C
+method; it specifies that the method expects its <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">self</span></tt> parameter to have a
++1 retain count, which it will balance in some way.</p>
+<div class="highlight-objc"><div class="highlight"><pre><span class="kt">void</span> <span class="nf">foo</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="n">__attribute__</span><span class="p">((</span><span class="n">ns_consumed</span><span class="p">))</span> <span class="n">NSString</span> <span class="o">*</span><span class="n">string</span><span class="p">);</span>
+
+<span class="k">-</span> <span class="p">(</span><span class="kt">void</span><span class="p">)</span> <span class="nf">bar</span> <span class="n">__attribute__</span><span class="p">((</span><span class="n">ns_consumes_self</span><span class="p">));</span>
+<span class="k">-</span> <span class="p">(</span><span class="kt">void</span><span class="p">)</span> <span class="nf">baz:</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="kt">id</span><span class="p">)</span> <span class="n">__attribute__</span><span class="p">((</span><span class="n">ns_consumed</span><span class="p">))</span> <span class="n">x</span><span class="p">;</span>
+</pre></div>
+</div>
+<p>Further examples of these attributes are available in the static analyzer’s <a class="reference external" href="http://clang-analyzer.llvm.org/annotations.html#cocoa_mem">list of annotations for analysis</a>.</p>
+<p>Query for these features with <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">__has_attribute(ns_consumed)</span></tt>,
+<tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">__has_attribute(ns_returns_retained)</span></tt>, etc.</p>
+</div>
+<div class="section" id="objective-c-abi-protocol-qualifier-mangling-of-parameters">
+<h3>Objective-C++ ABI: protocol-qualifier mangling of parameters<a class="headerlink" href="#objective-c-abi-protocol-qualifier-mangling-of-parameters" title="Permalink to this headline">¶</a></h3>
+<p>Starting with LLVM 3.4, Clang produces a new mangling for parameters whose
+type is a qualified-<tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">id</span></tt> (e.g., <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">id<Foo></span></tt>).  This mangling allows such
+parameters to be differentiated from those with the regular unqualified <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">id</span></tt>
+type.</p>
+<p>This was a non-backward compatible mangling change to the ABI.  This change
+allows proper overloading, and also prevents mangling conflicts with template
+parameters of protocol-qualified type.</p>
+<p>Query the presence of this new mangling with
+<tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">__has_feature(objc_protocol_qualifier_mangling)</span></tt>.</p>
+</div>
+</div>
+<div class="section" id="initializer-lists-for-complex-numbers-in-c">
+<span id="langext-overloading"></span><h2><a class="toc-backref" href="#id13">Initializer lists for complex numbers in C</a><a class="headerlink" href="#initializer-lists-for-complex-numbers-in-c" title="Permalink to this headline">¶</a></h2>
+<p>clang supports an extension which allows the following in C:</p>
+<div class="highlight-c++"><div class="highlight"><pre><span class="cp">#include <math.h></span>
+<span class="cp">#include <complex.h></span>
+<span class="n">complex</span> <span class="kt">float</span> <span class="n">x</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="p">{</span> <span class="mf">1.0f</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="n">INFINITY</span> <span class="p">};</span> <span class="c1">// Init to (1, Inf)</span>
+</pre></div>
+</div>
+<p>This construct is useful because there is no way to separately initialize the
+real and imaginary parts of a complex variable in standard C, given that clang
+does not support <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">_Imaginary</span></tt>.  (Clang also supports the <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">__real__</span></tt> and
+<tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">__imag__</span></tt> extensions from gcc, which help in some cases, but are not usable
+in static initializers.)</p>
+<p>Note that this extension does not allow eliding the braces; the meaning of the
+following two lines is different:</p>
+<div class="highlight-c++"><div class="highlight"><pre><span class="n">complex</span> <span class="kt">float</span> <span class="n">x</span><span class="p">[]</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="p">{</span> <span class="p">{</span> <span class="mf">1.0f</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="mf">1.0f</span> <span class="p">}</span> <span class="p">};</span> <span class="c1">// [0] = (1, 1)</span>
+<span class="n">complex</span> <span class="kt">float</span> <span class="n">x</span><span class="p">[]</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="p">{</span> <span class="mf">1.0f</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="mf">1.0f</span> <span class="p">};</span> <span class="c1">// [0] = (1, 0), [1] = (1, 0)</span>
+</pre></div>
+</div>
+<p>This extension also works in C++ mode, as far as that goes, but does not apply
+to the C++ <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">std::complex</span></tt>.  (In C++11, list initialization allows the same
+syntax to be used with <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">std::complex</span></tt> with the same meaning.)</p>
+</div>
+<div class="section" id="builtin-functions">
+<h2><a class="toc-backref" href="#id14">Builtin Functions</a><a class="headerlink" href="#builtin-functions" title="Permalink to this headline">¶</a></h2>
+<p>Clang supports a number of builtin library functions with the same syntax as
+GCC, including things like <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">__builtin_nan</span></tt>, <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">__builtin_constant_p</span></tt>,
+<tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">__builtin_choose_expr</span></tt>, <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">__builtin_types_compatible_p</span></tt>,
+<tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">__sync_fetch_and_add</span></tt>, etc.  In addition to the GCC builtins, Clang supports
+a number of builtins that GCC does not, which are listed here.</p>
+<p>Please note that Clang does not and will not support all of the GCC builtins
+for vector operations.  Instead of using builtins, you should use the functions
+defined in target-specific header files like <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre"><xmmintrin.h></span></tt>, which define
+portable wrappers for these.  Many of the Clang versions of these functions are
+implemented directly in terms of <a class="reference internal" href="#langext-vectors"><em>extended vector support</em></a> instead of builtins, in order to reduce the number of
+builtins that we need to implement.</p>
+<div class="section" id="builtin-readcyclecounter">
+<h3><tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">__builtin_readcyclecounter</span></tt><a class="headerlink" href="#builtin-readcyclecounter" title="Permalink to this headline">¶</a></h3>
+<p><tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">__builtin_readcyclecounter</span></tt> is used to access the cycle counter register (or
+a similar low-latency, high-accuracy clock) on those targets that support it.</p>
+<p><strong>Syntax</strong>:</p>
+<div class="highlight-c++"><div class="highlight"><pre><span class="n">__builtin_readcyclecounter</span><span class="p">()</span>
+</pre></div>
+</div>
+<p><strong>Example of Use</strong>:</p>
+<div class="highlight-c++"><div class="highlight"><pre><span class="kt">unsigned</span> <span class="kt">long</span> <span class="kt">long</span> <span class="n">t0</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="n">__builtin_readcyclecounter</span><span class="p">();</span>
+<span class="n">do_something</span><span class="p">();</span>
+<span class="kt">unsigned</span> <span class="kt">long</span> <span class="kt">long</span> <span class="n">t1</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="n">__builtin_readcyclecounter</span><span class="p">();</span>
+<span class="kt">unsigned</span> <span class="kt">long</span> <span class="kt">long</span> <span class="n">cycles_to_do_something</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="n">t1</span> <span class="o">-</span> <span class="n">t0</span><span class="p">;</span> <span class="c1">// assuming no overflow</span>
+</pre></div>
+</div>
+<p><strong>Description</strong>:</p>
+<p>The <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">__builtin_readcyclecounter()</span></tt> builtin returns the cycle counter value,
+which may be either global or process/thread-specific depending on the target.
+As the backing counters often overflow quickly (on the order of seconds) this
+should only be used for timing small intervals.  When not supported by the
+target, the return value is always zero.  This builtin takes no arguments and
+produces an unsigned long long result.</p>
+<p>Query for this feature with <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">__has_builtin(__builtin_readcyclecounter)</span></tt>. Note
+that even if present, its use may depend on run-time privilege or other OS
+controlled state.</p>
+</div>
+<div class="section" id="builtin-shufflevector">
+<span id="langext-builtin-shufflevector"></span><h3><tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">__builtin_shufflevector</span></tt><a class="headerlink" href="#builtin-shufflevector" title="Permalink to this headline">¶</a></h3>
+<p><tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">__builtin_shufflevector</span></tt> is used to express generic vector
+permutation/shuffle/swizzle operations.  This builtin is also very important
+for the implementation of various target-specific header files like
+<tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre"><xmmintrin.h></span></tt>.</p>
+<p><strong>Syntax</strong>:</p>
+<div class="highlight-c++"><div class="highlight"><pre><span class="n">__builtin_shufflevector</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="n">vec1</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="n">vec2</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="n">index1</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="n">index2</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="p">...)</span>
+</pre></div>
+</div>
+<p><strong>Examples</strong>:</p>
+<div class="highlight-c++"><div class="highlight"><pre><span class="c1">// identity operation - return 4-element vector v1.</span>
+<span class="n">__builtin_shufflevector</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="n">v1</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="n">v1</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="mi">0</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="mi">1</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="mi">2</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="mi">3</span><span class="p">)</span>
+
+<span class="c1">// "Splat" element 0 of V1 into a 4-element result.</span>
+<span class="n">__builtin_shufflevector</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="n">V1</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="n">V1</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="mi">0</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="mi">0</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="mi">0</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="mi">0</span><span class="p">)</span>
+
+<span class="c1">// Reverse 4-element vector V1.</span>
+<span class="n">__builtin_shufflevector</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="n">V1</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="n">V1</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="mi">3</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="mi">2</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="mi">1</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="mi">0</span><span class="p">)</span>
+
+<span class="c1">// Concatenate every other element of 4-element vectors V1 and V2.</span>
+<span class="n">__builtin_shufflevector</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="n">V1</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="n">V2</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="mi">0</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="mi">2</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="mi">4</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="mi">6</span><span class="p">)</span>
+
+<span class="c1">// Concatenate every other element of 8-element vectors V1 and V2.</span>
+<span class="n">__builtin_shufflevector</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="n">V1</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="n">V2</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="mi">0</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="mi">2</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="mi">4</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="mi">6</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="mi">8</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="mi">10</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="mi">12</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="mi">14</span><span class="p">)</span>
+
+<span class="c1">// Shuffle v1 with some elements being undefined</span>
+<span class="n">__builtin_shufflevector</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="n">v1</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="n">v1</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="mi">3</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="o">-</span><span class="mi">1</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="mi">1</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="o">-</span><span class="mi">1</span><span class="p">)</span>
+</pre></div>
+</div>
+<p><strong>Description</strong>:</p>
+<p>The first two arguments to <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">__builtin_shufflevector</span></tt> are vectors that have
+the same element type.  The remaining arguments are a list of integers that
+specify the elements indices of the first two vectors that should be extracted
+and returned in a new vector.  These element indices are numbered sequentially
+starting with the first vector, continuing into the second vector.  Thus, if
+<tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">vec1</span></tt> is a 4-element vector, index 5 would refer to the second element of
+<tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">vec2</span></tt>. An index of -1 can be used to indicate that the corresponding element
+in the returned vector is a don’t care and can be optimized by the backend.</p>
+<p>The result of <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">__builtin_shufflevector</span></tt> is a vector with the same element
+type as <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">vec1</span></tt>/<tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">vec2</span></tt> but that has an element count equal to the number of
+indices specified.</p>
+<p>Query for this feature with <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">__has_builtin(__builtin_shufflevector)</span></tt>.</p>
+</div>
+<div class="section" id="builtin-convertvector">
+<h3><tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">__builtin_convertvector</span></tt><a class="headerlink" href="#builtin-convertvector" title="Permalink to this headline">¶</a></h3>
+<p><tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">__builtin_convertvector</span></tt> is used to express generic vector
+type-conversion operations. The input vector and the output vector
+type must have the same number of elements.</p>
+<p><strong>Syntax</strong>:</p>
+<div class="highlight-c++"><div class="highlight"><pre><span class="n">__builtin_convertvector</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="n">src_vec</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="n">dst_vec_type</span><span class="p">)</span>
+</pre></div>
+</div>
+<p><strong>Examples</strong>:</p>
+<div class="highlight-c++"><div class="highlight"><pre><span class="k">typedef</span> <span class="kt">double</span> <span class="n">vector4double</span> <span class="nf">__attribute__</span><span class="p">((</span><span class="n">__vector_size__</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="mi">32</span><span class="p">)));</span>
+<span class="k">typedef</span> <span class="kt">float</span>  <span class="n">vector4float</span>  <span class="nf">__attribute__</span><span class="p">((</span><span class="n">__vector_size__</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="mi">16</span><span class="p">)));</span>
+<span class="k">typedef</span> <span class="kt">short</span>  <span class="n">vector4short</span>  <span class="nf">__attribute__</span><span class="p">((</span><span class="n">__vector_size__</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="mi">8</span><span class="p">)));</span>
+<span class="n">vector4float</span> <span class="n">vf</span><span class="p">;</span> <span class="n">vector4short</span> <span class="n">vs</span><span class="p">;</span>
+
+<span class="c1">// convert from a vector of 4 floats to a vector of 4 doubles.</span>
+<span class="n">__builtin_convertvector</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="n">vf</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="n">vector4double</span><span class="p">)</span>
+<span class="c1">// equivalent to:</span>
+<span class="p">(</span><span class="n">vector4double</span><span class="p">)</span> <span class="p">{</span> <span class="p">(</span><span class="kt">double</span><span class="p">)</span> <span class="n">vf</span><span class="p">[</span><span class="mi">0</span><span class="p">],</span> <span class="p">(</span><span class="kt">double</span><span class="p">)</span> <span class="n">vf</span><span class="p">[</span><span class="mi">1</span><span class="p">],</span> <span class="p">(</span><span class="kt">double</span><span class="p">)</span> <span class="n">vf</span><span class="p">[</span><span class="mi">2</span><span class="p">],</span> <span class="p">(</span><span class="kt">double</span><span class="p">)</span> <span class="n">vf</span><span class="p">[</span><span class="mi">3</span><span class="p">]</span> <span class="p">}</span>
+
+<span class="c1">// convert from a vector of 4 shorts to a vector of 4 floats.</span>
+<span class="n">__builtin_convertvector</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="n">vs</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="n">vector4float</span><span class="p">)</span>
+<span class="c1">// equivalent to:</span>
+<span class="p">(</span><span class="n">vector4float</span><span class="p">)</span> <span class="p">{</span> <span class="p">(</span><span class="kt">float</span><span class="p">)</span> <span class="n">vf</span><span class="p">[</span><span class="mi">0</span><span class="p">],</span> <span class="p">(</span><span class="kt">float</span><span class="p">)</span> <span class="n">vf</span><span class="p">[</span><span class="mi">1</span><span class="p">],</span> <span class="p">(</span><span class="kt">float</span><span class="p">)</span> <span class="n">vf</span><span class="p">[</span><span class="mi">2</span><span class="p">],</span> <span class="p">(</span><span class="kt">float</span><span class="p">)</span> <span class="n">vf</span><span class="p">[</span><span class="mi">3</span><span class="p">]</span> <span class="p">}</span>
+</pre></div>
+</div>
+<p><strong>Description</strong>:</p>
+<p>The first argument to <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">__builtin_convertvector</span></tt> is a vector, and the second
+argument is a vector type with the same number of elements as the first
+argument.</p>
+<p>The result of <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">__builtin_convertvector</span></tt> is a vector with the same element
+type as the second argument, with a value defined in terms of the action of a
+C-style cast applied to each element of the first argument.</p>
+<p>Query for this feature with <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">__has_builtin(__builtin_convertvector)</span></tt>.</p>
+</div>
+<div class="section" id="builtin-unreachable">
+<h3><tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">__builtin_unreachable</span></tt><a class="headerlink" href="#builtin-unreachable" title="Permalink to this headline">¶</a></h3>
+<p><tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">__builtin_unreachable</span></tt> is used to indicate that a specific point in the
+program cannot be reached, even if the compiler might otherwise think it can.
+This is useful to improve optimization and eliminates certain warnings.  For
+example, without the <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">__builtin_unreachable</span></tt> in the example below, the
+compiler assumes that the inline asm can fall through and prints a “function
+declared ‘<tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">noreturn</span></tt>‘ should not return” warning.</p>
+<p><strong>Syntax</strong>:</p>
+<div class="highlight-c++"><div class="highlight"><pre><span class="n">__builtin_unreachable</span><span class="p">()</span>
+</pre></div>
+</div>
+<p><strong>Example of use</strong>:</p>
+<div class="highlight-c++"><div class="highlight"><pre><span class="kt">void</span> <span class="nf">myabort</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="kt">void</span><span class="p">)</span> <span class="n">__attribute__</span><span class="p">((</span><span class="n">noreturn</span><span class="p">));</span>
+<span class="kt">void</span> <span class="nf">myabort</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="kt">void</span><span class="p">)</span> <span class="p">{</span>
+  <span class="k">asm</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="s">"int3"</span><span class="p">);</span>
+  <span class="n">__builtin_unreachable</span><span class="p">();</span>
+<span class="p">}</span>
+</pre></div>
+</div>
+<p><strong>Description</strong>:</p>
+<p>The <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">__builtin_unreachable()</span></tt> builtin has completely undefined behavior.
+Since it has undefined behavior, it is a statement that it is never reached and
+the optimizer can take advantage of this to produce better code.  This builtin
+takes no arguments and produces a void result.</p>
+<p>Query for this feature with <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">__has_builtin(__builtin_unreachable)</span></tt>.</p>
+</div>
+<div class="section" id="sync-swap">
+<h3><tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">__sync_swap</span></tt><a class="headerlink" href="#sync-swap" title="Permalink to this headline">¶</a></h3>
+<p><tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">__sync_swap</span></tt> is used to atomically swap integers or pointers in memory.</p>
+<p><strong>Syntax</strong>:</p>
+<div class="highlight-c++"><div class="highlight"><pre><span class="n">type</span> <span class="n">__sync_swap</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="n">type</span> <span class="o">*</span><span class="n">ptr</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="n">type</span> <span class="n">value</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="p">...)</span>
+</pre></div>
+</div>
+<p><strong>Example of Use</strong>:</p>
+<div class="highlight-c++"><div class="highlight"><pre><span class="kt">int</span> <span class="n">old_value</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="n">__sync_swap</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="o">&</span><span class="n">value</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="n">new_value</span><span class="p">);</span>
+</pre></div>
+</div>
+<p><strong>Description</strong>:</p>
+<p>The <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">__sync_swap()</span></tt> builtin extends the existing <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">__sync_*()</span></tt> family of
+atomic intrinsics to allow code to atomically swap the current value with the
+new value.  More importantly, it helps developers write more efficient and
+correct code by avoiding expensive loops around
+<tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">__sync_bool_compare_and_swap()</span></tt> or relying on the platform specific
+implementation details of <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">__sync_lock_test_and_set()</span></tt>.  The
+<tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">__sync_swap()</span></tt> builtin is a full barrier.</p>
+</div>
+<div class="section" id="builtin-addressof">
+<h3><tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">__builtin_addressof</span></tt><a class="headerlink" href="#builtin-addressof" title="Permalink to this headline">¶</a></h3>
+<p><tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">__builtin_addressof</span></tt> performs the functionality of the built-in <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">&</span></tt>
+operator, ignoring any <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">operator&</span></tt> overload.  This is useful in constant
+expressions in C++11, where there is no other way to take the address of an
+object that overloads <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">operator&</span></tt>.</p>
+<p><strong>Example of use</strong>:</p>
+<div class="highlight-c++"><div class="highlight"><pre><span class="k">template</span><span class="o"><</span><span class="k">typename</span> <span class="n">T</span><span class="o">></span> <span class="n">constexpr</span> <span class="n">T</span> <span class="o">*</span><span class="n">addressof</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="n">T</span> <span class="o">&</span><span class="n">value</span><span class="p">)</span> <span class="p">{</span>
+  <span class="k">return</span> <span class="n">__builtin_addressof</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="n">value</span><span class="p">);</span>
+<span class="p">}</span>
+</pre></div>
+</div>
+</div>
+<div class="section" id="builtin-operator-new-and-builtin-operator-delete">
+<h3><tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">__builtin_operator_new</span></tt> and <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">__builtin_operator_delete</span></tt><a class="headerlink" href="#builtin-operator-new-and-builtin-operator-delete" title="Permalink to this headline">¶</a></h3>
+<p><tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">__builtin_operator_new</span></tt> allocates memory just like a non-placement non-class
+<em>new-expression</em>. This is exactly like directly calling the normal
+non-placement <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">::operator</span> <span class="pre">new</span></tt>, except that it allows certain optimizations
+that the C++ standard does not permit for a direct function call to
+<tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">::operator</span> <span class="pre">new</span></tt> (in particular, removing <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">new</span></tt> / <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">delete</span></tt> pairs and
+merging allocations).</p>
+<p>Likewise, <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">__builtin_operator_delete</span></tt> deallocates memory just like a
+non-class <em>delete-expression</em>, and is exactly like directly calling the normal
+<tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">::operator</span> <span class="pre">delete</span></tt>, except that it permits optimizations. Only the unsized
+form of <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">__builtin_operator_delete</span></tt> is currently available.</p>
+<p>These builtins are intended for use in the implementation of <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">std::allocator</span></tt>
+and other similar allocation libraries, and are only available in C++.</p>
+</div>
+<div class="section" id="multiprecision-arithmetic-builtins">
+<h3>Multiprecision Arithmetic Builtins<a class="headerlink" href="#multiprecision-arithmetic-builtins" title="Permalink to this headline">¶</a></h3>
+<p>Clang provides a set of builtins which expose multiprecision arithmetic in a
+manner amenable to C. They all have the following form:</p>
+<div class="highlight-c"><div class="highlight"><pre><span class="kt">unsigned</span> <span class="n">x</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="p">...,</span> <span class="n">y</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="p">...,</span> <span class="n">carryin</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="p">...,</span> <span class="n">carryout</span><span class="p">;</span>
+<span class="kt">unsigned</span> <span class="n">sum</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="n">__builtin_addc</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="n">x</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="n">y</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="n">carryin</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="o">&</span><span class="n">carryout</span><span class="p">);</span>
+</pre></div>
+</div>
+<p>Thus one can form a multiprecision addition chain in the following manner:</p>
+<div class="highlight-c"><div class="highlight"><pre><span class="kt">unsigned</span> <span class="o">*</span><span class="n">x</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="o">*</span><span class="n">y</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="o">*</span><span class="n">z</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="n">carryin</span><span class="o">=</span><span class="mi">0</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="n">carryout</span><span class="p">;</span>
+<span class="n">z</span><span class="p">[</span><span class="mi">0</span><span class="p">]</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="n">__builtin_addc</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="n">x</span><span class="p">[</span><span class="mi">0</span><span class="p">],</span> <span class="n">y</span><span class="p">[</span><span class="mi">0</span><span class="p">],</span> <span class="n">carryin</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="o">&</span><span class="n">carryout</span><span class="p">);</span>
+<span class="n">carryin</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="n">carryout</span><span class="p">;</span>
+<span class="n">z</span><span class="p">[</span><span class="mi">1</span><span class="p">]</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="n">__builtin_addc</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="n">x</span><span class="p">[</span><span class="mi">1</span><span class="p">],</span> <span class="n">y</span><span class="p">[</span><span class="mi">1</span><span class="p">],</span> <span class="n">carryin</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="o">&</span><span class="n">carryout</span><span class="p">);</span>
+<span class="n">carryin</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="n">carryout</span><span class="p">;</span>
+<span class="n">z</span><span class="p">[</span><span class="mi">2</span><span class="p">]</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="n">__builtin_addc</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="n">x</span><span class="p">[</span><span class="mi">2</span><span class="p">],</span> <span class="n">y</span><span class="p">[</span><span class="mi">2</span><span class="p">],</span> <span class="n">carryin</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="o">&</span><span class="n">carryout</span><span class="p">);</span>
+<span class="n">carryin</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="n">carryout</span><span class="p">;</span>
+<span class="n">z</span><span class="p">[</span><span class="mi">3</span><span class="p">]</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="n">__builtin_addc</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="n">x</span><span class="p">[</span><span class="mi">3</span><span class="p">],</span> <span class="n">y</span><span class="p">[</span><span class="mi">3</span><span class="p">],</span> <span class="n">carryin</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="o">&</span><span class="n">carryout</span><span class="p">);</span>
+</pre></div>
+</div>
+<p>The complete list of builtins are:</p>
+<div class="highlight-c"><div class="highlight"><pre><span class="kt">unsigned</span> <span class="kt">char</span>      <span class="nf">__builtin_addcb</span> <span class="p">(</span><span class="kt">unsigned</span> <span class="kt">char</span> <span class="n">x</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="kt">unsigned</span> <span class="kt">char</span> <span class="n">y</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="kt">unsigned</span> <span class="kt">char</span> <span class="n">carryin</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="kt">unsigned</span> <span class="kt">char</span> <span class="o">*</span><span class="n">carryout</span><span class="p">);</span>
+<span class="kt">unsigned</span> <span class="kt">short</span>     <span class="nf">__builtin_addcs</span> <span class="p">(</span><span class="kt">unsigned</span> <span class="kt">short</span> <span class="n">x</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="kt">unsigned</span> <span class="kt">short</span> <span class="n">y</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="kt">unsigned</span> <span class="kt">short</span> <span class="n">carryin</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="kt">unsigned</span> <span class="kt">short</span> <span class="o">*</span><span class="n">carryout</span><span class="p">);</span>
+<span class="kt">unsigned</span>           <span class="nf">__builtin_addc</span>  <span class="p">(</span><span class="kt">unsigned</span> <span class="n">x</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="kt">unsigned</span> <span class="n">y</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="kt">unsigned</span> <span class="n">carryin</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="kt">unsigned</span> <span class="o">*</span><span class="n">carryout</span><span class="p">);</span>
+<span class="kt">unsigned</span> <span class="kt">long</span>      <span class="nf">__builtin_addcl</span> <span class="p">(</span><span class="kt">unsigned</span> <span class="kt">long</span> <span class="n">x</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="kt">unsigned</span> <span class="kt">long</span> <span class="n">y</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="kt">unsigned</span> <span class="kt">long</span> <span class="n">carryin</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="kt">unsigned</span> <span class="kt">long</span> <span class="o">*</span><span class="n">carryout</span><span class="p">);</span>
+<span class="kt">unsigned</span> <span class="kt">long</span> <span class="kt">long</span> <span class="nf">__builtin_addcll</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="kt">unsigned</span> <span class="kt">long</span> <span class="kt">long</span> <span class="n">x</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="kt">unsigned</span> <span class="kt">long</span> <span class="kt">long</span> <span class="n">y</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="kt">unsigned</span> <span class="kt">long</span> <span class="kt">long</span> <span class="n">carryin</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="kt">unsigned</span> <span class="kt">long</span> <span class="kt">long</span> <span class="o">*</span><span class="n">carryout</span><span class="p">);</span>
+<span class="kt">unsigned</span> <span class="kt">char</span>      <span class="nf">__builtin_subcb</span> <span class="p">(</span><span class="kt">unsigned</span> <span class="kt">char</span> <span class="n">x</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="kt">unsigned</span> <span class="kt">char</span> <span class="n">y</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="kt">unsigned</span> <span class="kt">char</span> <span class="n">carryin</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="kt">unsigned</span> <span class="kt">char</span> <span class="o">*</span><span class="n">carryout</span><span class="p">);</span>
+<span class="kt">unsigned</span> <span class="kt">short</span>     <span class="nf">__builtin_subcs</span> <span class="p">(</span><span class="kt">unsigned</span> <span class="kt">short</span> <span class="n">x</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="kt">unsigned</span> <span class="kt">short</span> <span class="n">y</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="kt">unsigned</span> <span class="kt">short</span> <span class="n">carryin</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="kt">unsigned</span> <span class="kt">short</span> <span class="o">*</span><span class="n">carryout</span><span class="p">);</span>
+<span class="kt">unsigned</span>           <span class="nf">__builtin_subc</span>  <span class="p">(</span><span class="kt">unsigned</span> <span class="n">x</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="kt">unsigned</span> <span class="n">y</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="kt">unsigned</span> <span class="n">carryin</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="kt">unsigned</span> <span class="o">*</span><span class="n">carryout</span><span class="p">);</span>
+<span class="kt">unsigned</span> <span class="kt">long</span>      <span class="nf">__builtin_subcl</span> <span class="p">(</span><span class="kt">unsigned</span> <span class="kt">long</span> <span class="n">x</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="kt">unsigned</span> <span class="kt">long</span> <span class="n">y</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="kt">unsigned</span> <span class="kt">long</span> <span class="n">carryin</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="kt">unsigned</span> <span class="kt">long</span> <span class="o">*</span><span class="n">carryout</span><span class="p">);</span>
+<span class="kt">unsigned</span> <span class="kt">long</span> <span class="kt">long</span> <span class="nf">__builtin_subcll</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="kt">unsigned</span> <span class="kt">long</span> <span class="kt">long</span> <span class="n">x</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="kt">unsigned</span> <span class="kt">long</span> <span class="kt">long</span> <span class="n">y</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="kt">unsigned</span> <span class="kt">long</span> <span class="kt">long</span> <span class="n">carryin</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="kt">unsigned</span> <span class="kt">long</span> <span class="kt">long</span> <span class="o">*</span><span class="n">carryout</span><span class="p">);</span>
+</pre></div>
+</div>
+</div>
+<div class="section" id="checked-arithmetic-builtins">
+<h3>Checked Arithmetic Builtins<a class="headerlink" href="#checked-arithmetic-builtins" title="Permalink to this headline">¶</a></h3>
+<p>Clang provides a set of builtins that implement checked arithmetic for security
+critical applications in a manner that is fast and easily expressable in C. As
+an example of their usage:</p>
+<div class="highlight-c"><div class="highlight"><pre><span class="kt">errorcode_t</span> <span class="nf">security_critical_application</span><span class="p">(...)</span> <span class="p">{</span>
+  <span class="kt">unsigned</span> <span class="n">x</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="n">y</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="n">result</span><span class="p">;</span>
+  <span class="p">...</span>
+  <span class="k">if</span> <span class="p">(</span><span class="n">__builtin_umul_overflow</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="n">x</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="n">y</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="o">&</span><span class="n">result</span><span class="p">))</span>
+    <span class="k">return</span> <span class="n">kErrorCodeHackers</span><span class="p">;</span>
+  <span class="p">...</span>
+  <span class="n">use_multiply</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="n">result</span><span class="p">);</span>
+  <span class="p">...</span>
+<span class="p">}</span>
+</pre></div>
+</div>
+<p>A complete enumeration of the builtins are:</p>
+<div class="highlight-c"><div class="highlight"><pre><span class="kt">bool</span> <span class="nf">__builtin_uadd_overflow</span>  <span class="p">(</span><span class="kt">unsigned</span> <span class="n">x</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="kt">unsigned</span> <span class="n">y</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="kt">unsigned</span> <span class="o">*</span><span class="n">sum</span><span class="p">);</span>
+<span class="kt">bool</span> <span class="nf">__builtin_uaddl_overflow</span> <span class="p">(</span><span class="kt">unsigned</span> <span class="kt">long</span> <span class="n">x</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="kt">unsigned</span> <span class="kt">long</span> <span class="n">y</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="kt">unsigned</span> <span class="kt">long</span> <span class="o">*</span><span class="n">sum</span><span class="p">);</span>
+<span class="kt">bool</span> <span class="nf">__builtin_uaddll_overflow</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="kt">unsigned</span> <span class="kt">long</span> <span class="kt">long</span> <span class="n">x</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="kt">unsigned</span> <span class="kt">long</span> <span class="kt">long</span> <span class="n">y</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="kt">unsigned</span> <span class="kt">long</span> <span class="kt">long</span> <span class="o">*</span><span class="n">sum</span><span class="p">);</span>
+<span class="kt">bool</span> <span class="nf">__builtin_usub_overflow</span>  <span class="p">(</span><span class="kt">unsigned</span> <span class="n">x</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="kt">unsigned</span> <span class="n">y</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="kt">unsigned</span> <span class="o">*</span><span class="n">diff</span><span class="p">);</span>
+<span class="kt">bool</span> <span class="nf">__builtin_usubl_overflow</span> <span class="p">(</span><span class="kt">unsigned</span> <span class="kt">long</span> <span class="n">x</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="kt">unsigned</span> <span class="kt">long</span> <span class="n">y</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="kt">unsigned</span> <span class="kt">long</span> <span class="o">*</span><span class="n">diff</span><span class="p">);</span>
+<span class="kt">bool</span> <span class="nf">__builtin_usubll_overflow</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="kt">unsigned</span> <span class="kt">long</span> <span class="kt">long</span> <span class="n">x</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="kt">unsigned</span> <span class="kt">long</span> <span class="kt">long</span> <span class="n">y</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="kt">unsigned</span> <span class="kt">long</span> <span class="kt">long</span> <span class="o">*</span><span class="n">diff</span><span class="p">);</span>
+<span class="kt">bool</span> <span class="nf">__builtin_umul_overflow</span>  <span class="p">(</span><span class="kt">unsigned</span> <span class="n">x</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="kt">unsigned</span> <span class="n">y</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="kt">unsigned</span> <span class="o">*</span><span class="n">prod</span><span class="p">);</span>
+<span class="kt">bool</span> <span class="nf">__builtin_umull_overflow</span> <span class="p">(</span><span class="kt">unsigned</span> <span class="kt">long</span> <span class="n">x</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="kt">unsigned</span> <span class="kt">long</span> <span class="n">y</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="kt">unsigned</span> <span class="kt">long</span> <span class="o">*</span><span class="n">prod</span><span class="p">);</span>
+<span class="kt">bool</span> <span class="nf">__builtin_umulll_overflow</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="kt">unsigned</span> <span class="kt">long</span> <span class="kt">long</span> <span class="n">x</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="kt">unsigned</span> <span class="kt">long</span> <span class="kt">long</span> <span class="n">y</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="kt">unsigned</span> <span class="kt">long</span> <span class="kt">long</span> <span class="o">*</span><span class="n">prod</span><span class="p">);</span>
+<span class="kt">bool</span> <span class="nf">__builtin_sadd_overflow</span>  <span class="p">(</span><span class="kt">int</span> <span class="n">x</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="kt">int</span> <span class="n">y</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="kt">int</span> <span class="o">*</span><span class="n">sum</span><span class="p">);</span>
+<span class="kt">bool</span> <span class="nf">__builtin_saddl_overflow</span> <span class="p">(</span><span class="kt">long</span> <span class="n">x</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="kt">long</span> <span class="n">y</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="kt">long</span> <span class="o">*</span><span class="n">sum</span><span class="p">);</span>
+<span class="kt">bool</span> <span class="nf">__builtin_saddll_overflow</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="kt">long</span> <span class="kt">long</span> <span class="n">x</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="kt">long</span> <span class="kt">long</span> <span class="n">y</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="kt">long</span> <span class="kt">long</span> <span class="o">*</span><span class="n">sum</span><span class="p">);</span>
+<span class="kt">bool</span> <span class="nf">__builtin_ssub_overflow</span>  <span class="p">(</span><span class="kt">int</span> <span class="n">x</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="kt">int</span> <span class="n">y</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="kt">int</span> <span class="o">*</span><span class="n">diff</span><span class="p">);</span>
+<span class="kt">bool</span> <span class="nf">__builtin_ssubl_overflow</span> <span class="p">(</span><span class="kt">long</span> <span class="n">x</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="kt">long</span> <span class="n">y</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="kt">long</span> <span class="o">*</span><span class="n">diff</span><span class="p">);</span>
+<span class="kt">bool</span> <span class="nf">__builtin_ssubll_overflow</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="kt">long</span> <span class="kt">long</span> <span class="n">x</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="kt">long</span> <span class="kt">long</span> <span class="n">y</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="kt">long</span> <span class="kt">long</span> <span class="o">*</span><span class="n">diff</span><span class="p">);</span>
+<span class="kt">bool</span> <span class="nf">__builtin_smul_overflow</span>  <span class="p">(</span><span class="kt">int</span> <span class="n">x</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="kt">int</span> <span class="n">y</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="kt">int</span> <span class="o">*</span><span class="n">prod</span><span class="p">);</span>
+<span class="kt">bool</span> <span class="nf">__builtin_smull_overflow</span> <span class="p">(</span><span class="kt">long</span> <span class="n">x</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="kt">long</span> <span class="n">y</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="kt">long</span> <span class="o">*</span><span class="n">prod</span><span class="p">);</span>
+<span class="kt">bool</span> <span class="nf">__builtin_smulll_overflow</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="kt">long</span> <span class="kt">long</span> <span class="n">x</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="kt">long</span> <span class="kt">long</span> <span class="n">y</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="kt">long</span> <span class="kt">long</span> <span class="o">*</span><span class="n">prod</span><span class="p">);</span>
+</pre></div>
+</div>
+</div>
+<div class="section" id="c11-atomic-builtins">
+<span id="langext-c11-atomic"></span><h3>__c11_atomic builtins<a class="headerlink" href="#c11-atomic-builtins" title="Permalink to this headline">¶</a></h3>
+<p>Clang provides a set of builtins which are intended to be used to implement
+C11’s <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre"><stdatomic.h></span></tt> header.  These builtins provide the semantics of the
+<tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">_explicit</span></tt> form of the corresponding C11 operation, and are named with a
+<tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">__c11_</span></tt> prefix.  The supported operations are:</p>
+<ul class="simple">
+<li><tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">__c11_atomic_init</span></tt></li>
+<li><tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">__c11_atomic_thread_fence</span></tt></li>
+<li><tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">__c11_atomic_signal_fence</span></tt></li>
+<li><tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">__c11_atomic_is_lock_free</span></tt></li>
+<li><tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">__c11_atomic_store</span></tt></li>
+<li><tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">__c11_atomic_load</span></tt></li>
+<li><tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">__c11_atomic_exchange</span></tt></li>
+<li><tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">__c11_atomic_compare_exchange_strong</span></tt></li>
+<li><tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">__c11_atomic_compare_exchange_weak</span></tt></li>
+<li><tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">__c11_atomic_fetch_add</span></tt></li>
+<li><tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">__c11_atomic_fetch_sub</span></tt></li>
+<li><tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">__c11_atomic_fetch_and</span></tt></li>
+<li><tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">__c11_atomic_fetch_or</span></tt></li>
+<li><tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">__c11_atomic_fetch_xor</span></tt></li>
+</ul>
+</div>
+<div class="section" id="low-level-arm-exclusive-memory-builtins">
+<h3>Low-level ARM exclusive memory builtins<a class="headerlink" href="#low-level-arm-exclusive-memory-builtins" title="Permalink to this headline">¶</a></h3>
+<p>Clang provides overloaded builtins giving direct access to the three key ARM
+instructions for implementing atomic operations.</p>
+<div class="highlight-c"><div class="highlight"><pre><span class="n">T</span> <span class="nf">__builtin_arm_ldrex</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="k">const</span> <span class="k">volatile</span> <span class="n">T</span> <span class="o">*</span><span class="n">addr</span><span class="p">);</span>
+<span class="n">T</span> <span class="nf">__builtin_arm_ldaex</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="k">const</span> <span class="k">volatile</span> <span class="n">T</span> <span class="o">*</span><span class="n">addr</span><span class="p">);</span>
+<span class="kt">int</span> <span class="nf">__builtin_arm_strex</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="n">T</span> <span class="n">val</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="k">volatile</span> <span class="n">T</span> <span class="o">*</span><span class="n">addr</span><span class="p">);</span>
+<span class="kt">int</span> <span class="nf">__builtin_arm_stlex</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="n">T</span> <span class="n">val</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="k">volatile</span> <span class="n">T</span> <span class="o">*</span><span class="n">addr</span><span class="p">);</span>
+<span class="kt">void</span> <span class="nf">__builtin_arm_clrex</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="kt">void</span><span class="p">);</span>
+</pre></div>
+</div>
+<p>The types <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">T</span></tt> currently supported are:
+* Integer types with width at most 64 bits (or 128 bits on AArch64).
+* Floating-point types
+* Pointer types.</p>
+<p>Note that the compiler does not guarantee it will not insert stores which clear
+the exclusive monitor in between an <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">ldrex</span></tt> type operation and its paired
+<tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">strex</span></tt>. In practice this is only usually a risk when the extra store is on
+the same cache line as the variable being modified and Clang will only insert
+stack stores on its own, so it is best not to use these operations on variables
+with automatic storage duration.</p>
+<p>Also, loads and stores may be implicit in code written between the <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">ldrex</span></tt> and
+<tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">strex</span></tt>. Clang will not necessarily mitigate the effects of these either, so
+care should be exercised.</p>
+<p>For these reasons the higher level atomic primitives should be preferred where
+possible.</p>
+</div>
+</div>
+<div class="section" id="non-standard-c-11-attributes">
+<h2><a class="toc-backref" href="#id15">Non-standard C++11 Attributes</a><a class="headerlink" href="#non-standard-c-11-attributes" title="Permalink to this headline">¶</a></h2>
+<p>Clang’s non-standard C++11 attributes live in the <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">clang</span></tt> attribute
+namespace.</p>
+<p>Clang supports GCC’s <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">gnu</span></tt> attribute namespace. All GCC attributes which
+are accepted with the <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">__attribute__((foo))</span></tt> syntax are also accepted as
+<tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">[[gnu::foo]]</span></tt>. This only extends to attributes which are specified by GCC
+(see the list of <a class="reference external" href="http://gcc.gnu.org/onlinedocs/gcc/Function-Attributes.html">GCC function attributes</a>, <a class="reference external" href="http://gcc.gnu.org/onlinedocs/gcc/Variable-Attributes.html">GCC variable
+attributes</a>, and
+<a class="reference external" href="http://gcc.gnu.org/onlinedocs/gcc/Type-Attributes.html">GCC type attributes</a>). As with the GCC
+implementation, these attributes must appertain to the <em>declarator-id</em> in a
+declaration, which means they must go either at the start of the declaration or
+immediately after the name being declared.</p>
+<p>For example, this applies the GNU <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">unused</span></tt> attribute to <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">a</span></tt> and <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">f</span></tt>, and
+also applies the GNU <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">noreturn</span></tt> attribute to <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">f</span></tt>.</p>
+<div class="highlight-c++"><div class="highlight"><pre><span class="p">[[</span><span class="n">gnu</span><span class="o">::</span><span class="n">unused</span><span class="p">]]</span> <span class="kt">int</span> <span class="n">a</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="n">f</span> <span class="p">[[</span><span class="n">gnu</span><span class="o">::</span><span class="n">noreturn</span><span class="p">]]</span> <span class="p">();</span>
+</pre></div>
+</div>
+</div>
+<div class="section" id="target-specific-extensions">
+<h2><a class="toc-backref" href="#id16">Target-Specific Extensions</a><a class="headerlink" href="#target-specific-extensions" title="Permalink to this headline">¶</a></h2>
+<p>Clang supports some language features conditionally on some targets.</p>
+<div class="section" id="arm-aarch64-language-extensions">
+<h3>ARM/AArch64 Language Extensions<a class="headerlink" href="#arm-aarch64-language-extensions" title="Permalink to this headline">¶</a></h3>
+<div class="section" id="memory-barrier-intrinsics">
+<h4>Memory Barrier Intrinsics<a class="headerlink" href="#memory-barrier-intrinsics" title="Permalink to this headline">¶</a></h4>
+<p>Clang implements the <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">__dmb</span></tt>, <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">__dsb</span></tt> and <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">__isb</span></tt> intrinsics as defined
+in the <a class="reference external" href="http://infocenter.arm.com/help/topic/com.arm.doc.ihi0053c/IHI0053C_acle_2_0.pdf">ARM C Language Extensions Release 2.0</a>.
+Note that these intrinsics are implemented as motion barriers that block
+reordering of memory accesses and side effect instructions. Other instructions
+like simple arithmatic may be reordered around the intrinsic. If you expect to
+have no reordering at all, use inline assembly instead.</p>
+</div>
+</div>
+<div class="section" id="x86-x86-64-language-extensions">
+<h3>X86/X86-64 Language Extensions<a class="headerlink" href="#x86-x86-64-language-extensions" title="Permalink to this headline">¶</a></h3>
+<p>The X86 backend has these language extensions:</p>
+<div class="section" id="memory-references-off-the-gs-segment">
+<h4>Memory references off the GS segment<a class="headerlink" href="#memory-references-off-the-gs-segment" title="Permalink to this headline">¶</a></h4>
+<p>Annotating a pointer with address space #256 causes it to be code generated
+relative to the X86 GS segment register, and address space #257 causes it to be
+relative to the X86 FS segment.  Note that this is a very very low-level
+feature that should only be used if you know what you’re doing (for example in
+an OS kernel).</p>
+<p>Here is an example:</p>
+<div class="highlight-c++"><div class="highlight"><pre><span class="cp">#define GS_RELATIVE __attribute__((address_space(256)))</span>
+<span class="kt">int</span> <span class="nf">foo</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="kt">int</span> <span class="n">GS_RELATIVE</span> <span class="o">*</span><span class="n">P</span><span class="p">)</span> <span class="p">{</span>
+  <span class="k">return</span> <span class="o">*</span><span class="n">P</span><span class="p">;</span>
+<span class="p">}</span>
+</pre></div>
+</div>
+<p>Which compiles to (on X86-32):</p>
+<div class="highlight-gas"><div class="highlight"><pre><span class="nl">_foo:</span>
+        <span class="nf">movl</span>    <span class="mi">4</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="nv">%esp</span><span class="p">),</span> <span class="nv">%eax</span>
+        <span class="nf">movl</span>    <span class="nv">%gs</span><span class="p">:(</span><span class="nv">%eax</span><span class="p">),</span> <span class="nv">%eax</span>
+        <span class="nf">ret</span>
+</pre></div>
+</div>
+</div>
+</div>
+</div>
+<div class="section" id="extensions-for-static-analysis">
+<h2><a class="toc-backref" href="#id17">Extensions for Static Analysis</a><a class="headerlink" href="#extensions-for-static-analysis" title="Permalink to this headline">¶</a></h2>
+<p>Clang supports additional attributes that are useful for documenting program
+invariants and rules for static analysis tools, such as the <a class="reference external" href="http://clang-analyzer.llvm.org/">Clang Static
+Analyzer</a>. These attributes are documented
+in the analyzer’s <a class="reference external" href="http://clang-analyzer.llvm.org/annotations.html">list of source-level annotations</a>.</p>
+</div>
+<div class="section" id="extensions-for-dynamic-analysis">
+<h2><a class="toc-backref" href="#id18">Extensions for Dynamic Analysis</a><a class="headerlink" href="#extensions-for-dynamic-analysis" title="Permalink to this headline">¶</a></h2>
+<p>Use <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">__has_feature(address_sanitizer)</span></tt> to check if the code is being built
+with <a class="reference internal" href="AddressSanitizer.html"><em>AddressSanitizer</em></a>.</p>
+<p>Use <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">__has_feature(thread_sanitizer)</span></tt> to check if the code is being built
+with <a class="reference internal" href="ThreadSanitizer.html"><em>ThreadSanitizer</em></a>.</p>
+<p>Use <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">__has_feature(memory_sanitizer)</span></tt> to check if the code is being built
+with <a class="reference internal" href="MemorySanitizer.html"><em>MemorySanitizer</em></a>.</p>
+</div>
+<div class="section" id="extensions-for-selectively-disabling-optimization">
+<h2><a class="toc-backref" href="#id19">Extensions for selectively disabling optimization</a><a class="headerlink" href="#extensions-for-selectively-disabling-optimization" title="Permalink to this headline">¶</a></h2>
+<p>Clang provides a mechanism for selectively disabling optimizations in functions
+and methods.</p>
+<p>To disable optimizations in a single function definition, the GNU-style or C++11
+non-standard attribute <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">optnone</span></tt> can be used.</p>
+<div class="highlight-c++"><div class="highlight"><pre><span class="c1">// The following functions will not be optimized.</span>
+<span class="c1">// GNU-style attribute</span>
+<span class="n">__attribute__</span><span class="p">((</span><span class="n">optnone</span><span class="p">))</span> <span class="kt">int</span> <span class="n">foo</span><span class="p">()</span> <span class="p">{</span>
+  <span class="c1">// ... code</span>
+<span class="p">}</span>
+<span class="c1">// C++11 attribute</span>
+<span class="p">[[</span><span class="n">clang</span><span class="o">::</span><span class="n">optnone</span><span class="p">]]</span> <span class="kt">int</span> <span class="n">bar</span><span class="p">()</span> <span class="p">{</span>
+  <span class="c1">// ... code</span>
+<span class="p">}</span>
+</pre></div>
+</div>
+<p>To facilitate disabling optimization for a range of function definitions, a
+range-based pragma is provided. Its syntax is <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">#pragma</span> <span class="pre">clang</span> <span class="pre">optimize</span></tt>
+followed by <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">off</span></tt> or <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">on</span></tt>.</p>
+<p>All function definitions in the region between an <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">off</span></tt> and the following
+<tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">on</span></tt> will be decorated with the <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">optnone</span></tt> attribute unless doing so would
+conflict with explicit attributes already present on the function (e.g. the
+ones that control inlining).</p>
+<div class="highlight-c++"><div class="highlight"><pre><span class="cp">#pragma clang optimize off</span>
+<span class="c1">// This function will be decorated with optnone.</span>
+<span class="kt">int</span> <span class="nf">foo</span><span class="p">()</span> <span class="p">{</span>
+  <span class="c1">// ... code</span>
+<span class="p">}</span>
+
+<span class="c1">// optnone conflicts with always_inline, so bar() will not be decorated.</span>
+<span class="n">__attribute__</span><span class="p">((</span><span class="n">always_inline</span><span class="p">))</span> <span class="kt">int</span> <span class="n">bar</span><span class="p">()</span> <span class="p">{</span>
+  <span class="c1">// ... code</span>
+<span class="p">}</span>
+<span class="cp">#pragma clang optimize on</span>
+</pre></div>
+</div>
+<p>If no <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">on</span></tt> is found to close an <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">off</span></tt> region, the end of the region is the
+end of the compilation unit.</p>
+<p>Note that a stray <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">#pragma</span> <span class="pre">clang</span> <span class="pre">optimize</span> <span class="pre">on</span></tt> does not selectively enable
+additional optimizations when compiling at low optimization levels. This feature
+can only be used to selectively disable optimizations.</p>
+<p>The pragma has an effect on functions only at the point of their definition; for
+function templates, this means that the state of the pragma at the point of an
+instantiation is not necessarily relevant. Consider the following example:</p>
+<div class="highlight-c++"><div class="highlight"><pre><span class="k">template</span><span class="o"><</span><span class="k">typename</span> <span class="n">T</span><span class="o">></span> <span class="n">T</span> <span class="n">twice</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="n">T</span> <span class="n">t</span><span class="p">)</span> <span class="p">{</span>
+  <span class="k">return</span> <span class="mi">2</span> <span class="o">*</span> <span class="n">t</span><span class="p">;</span>
+<span class="p">}</span>
+
+<span class="cp">#pragma clang optimize off</span>
+<span class="k">template</span><span class="o"><</span><span class="k">typename</span> <span class="n">T</span><span class="o">></span> <span class="n">T</span> <span class="n">thrice</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="n">T</span> <span class="n">t</span><span class="p">)</span> <span class="p">{</span>
+  <span class="k">return</span> <span class="mi">3</span> <span class="o">*</span> <span class="n">t</span><span class="p">;</span>
+<span class="p">}</span>
+
+<span class="kt">int</span> <span class="n">container</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="kt">int</span> <span class="n">a</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="kt">int</span> <span class="n">b</span><span class="p">)</span> <span class="p">{</span>
+  <span class="k">return</span> <span class="n">twice</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="n">a</span><span class="p">)</span> <span class="o">+</span> <span class="n">thrice</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="n">b</span><span class="p">);</span>
+<span class="p">}</span>
+<span class="cp">#pragma clang optimize on</span>
+</pre></div>
+</div>
+<p>In this example, the definition of the template function <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">twice</span></tt> is outside
+the pragma region, whereas the definition of <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">thrice</span></tt> is inside the region.
+The <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">container</span></tt> function is also in the region and will not be optimized, but
+it causes the instantiation of <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">twice</span></tt> and <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">thrice</span></tt> with an <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">int</span></tt> type; of
+these two instantiations, <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">twice</span></tt> will be optimized (because its definition
+was outside the region) and <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">thrice</span></tt> will not be optimized.</p>
+</div>
+<div class="section" id="extensions-for-loop-hint-optimizations">
+<span id="langext-pragma-loop"></span><h2><a class="toc-backref" href="#id20">Extensions for loop hint optimizations</a><a class="headerlink" href="#extensions-for-loop-hint-optimizations" title="Permalink to this headline">¶</a></h2>
+<p>The <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">#pragma</span> <span class="pre">clang</span> <span class="pre">loop</span></tt> directive is used to specify hints for optimizing the
+subsequent for, while, do-while, or c++11 range-based for loop. The directive
+provides options for vectorization and interleaving. Loop hints can be specified
+before any loop and will be ignored if the optimization is not safe to apply.</p>
+<p>A vectorized loop performs multiple iterations of the original loop
+in parallel using vector instructions. The instruction set of the target
+processor determines which vector instructions are available and their vector
+widths. This restricts the types of loops that can be vectorized. The vectorizer
+automatically determines if the loop is safe and profitable to vectorize. A
+vector instruction cost model is used to select the vector width.</p>
+<p>Interleaving multiple loop iterations allows modern processors to further
+improve instruction-level parallelism (ILP) using advanced hardware features,
+such as multiple execution units and out-of-order execution. The vectorizer uses
+a cost model that depends on the register pressure and generated code size to
+select the interleaving count.</p>
+<p>Vectorization is enabled by <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">vectorize(enable)</span></tt> and interleaving is enabled
+by <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">interleave(enable)</span></tt>. This is useful when compiling with <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">-Os</span></tt> to
+manually enable vectorization or interleaving.</p>
+<div class="highlight-c++"><div class="highlight"><pre><span class="cp">#pragma clang loop vectorize(enable)</span>
+<span class="cp">#pragma clang loop interleave(enable)</span>
+<span class="k">for</span><span class="p">(...)</span> <span class="p">{</span>
+  <span class="p">...</span>
+<span class="p">}</span>
+</pre></div>
+</div>
+<p>The vector width is specified by <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">vectorize_width(_value_)</span></tt> and the interleave
+count is specified by <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">interleave_count(_value_)</span></tt>, where
+_value_ is a positive integer. This is useful for specifying the optimal
+width/count of the set of target architectures supported by your application.</p>
+<div class="highlight-c++"><div class="highlight"><pre><span class="cp">#pragma clang loop vectorize_width(2)</span>
+<span class="cp">#pragma clang loop interleave_count(2)</span>
+<span class="k">for</span><span class="p">(...)</span> <span class="p">{</span>
+  <span class="p">...</span>
+<span class="p">}</span>
+</pre></div>
+</div>
+<p>Specifying a width/count of 1 disables the optimization, and is equivalent to
+<tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">vectorize(disable)</span></tt> or <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">interleave(disable)</span></tt>.</p>
+<p>For convenience multiple loop hints can be specified on a single line.</p>
+<div class="highlight-c++"><div class="highlight"><pre><span class="cp">#pragma clang loop vectorize_width(4) interleave_count(8)</span>
+<span class="k">for</span><span class="p">(...)</span> <span class="p">{</span>
+  <span class="p">...</span>
+<span class="p">}</span>
+</pre></div>
+</div>
+<p>If an optimization cannot be applied any hints that apply to it will be ignored.
+For example, the hint <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">vectorize_width(4)</span></tt> is ignored if the loop is not
+proven safe to vectorize. To identify and diagnose optimization issues use
+<cite>-Rpass</cite>, <cite>-Rpass-missed</cite>, and <cite>-Rpass-analysis</cite> command line options. See the
+user guide for details.</p>
+</div>
+</div>
+
+
+      </div>
+      <div class="bottomnav">
+      
+        <p>
+        «  <a href="UsersManual.html">Clang Compiler User’s Manual</a>
+          ::  
+        <a class="uplink" href="index.html">Contents</a>
+          ::  
+        <a href="ObjectiveCLiterals.html">Objective-C Literals</a>  Â»
+        </p>
+
+      </div>
+
+    <div class="footer">
+        © Copyright 2007-2014, The Clang Team.
+      Created using <a href="http://sphinx.pocoo.org/">Sphinx</a> 1.1.3.
+    </div>
+  </body>
+</html>
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+++ www-releases/trunk/3.5.1/tools/clang/docs/LeakSanitizer.html Tue Jan 13 17:58:20 2015
@@ -0,0 +1,103 @@
+
+
+<!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD XHTML 1.0 Transitional//EN"
+  "http://www.w3.org/TR/xhtml1/DTD/xhtml1-transitional.dtd">
+
+
+<html xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml">
+  <head>
+    <meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=utf-8" />
+    
+    <title>LeakSanitizer — Clang 3.5 documentation</title>
+    
+    <link rel="stylesheet" href="_static/haiku.css" type="text/css" />
+    <link rel="stylesheet" href="_static/pygments.css" type="text/css" />
+    <link rel="stylesheet" href="_static/print.css" type="text/css" />
+    
+    <script type="text/javascript">
+      var DOCUMENTATION_OPTIONS = {
+        URL_ROOT:    '',
+        VERSION:     '3.5',
+        COLLAPSE_INDEX: false,
+        FILE_SUFFIX: '.html',
+        HAS_SOURCE:  true
+      };
+    </script>
+    <script type="text/javascript" src="_static/jquery.js"></script>
+    <script type="text/javascript" src="_static/underscore.js"></script>
+    <script type="text/javascript" src="_static/doctools.js"></script>
+    <script type="text/javascript" src="http://cdn.mathjax.org/mathjax/latest/MathJax.js?config=TeX-AMS-MML_HTMLorMML"></script>
+    <script type="text/javascript" src="_static/theme_extras.js"></script>
+    <link rel="top" title="Clang 3.5 documentation" href="index.html" />
+    <link rel="next" title="Sanitizer special case list" href="SanitizerSpecialCaseList.html" />
+    <link rel="prev" title="DataFlowSanitizer Design Document" href="DataFlowSanitizerDesign.html" /> 
+  </head>
+  <body>
+      <div class="header"><h1 class="heading"><a href="index.html">
+          <span>Clang 3.5 documentation</span></a></h1>
+        <h2 class="heading"><span>LeakSanitizer</span></h2>
+      </div>
+      <div class="topnav">
+      
+        <p>
+        «  <a href="DataFlowSanitizerDesign.html">DataFlowSanitizer Design Document</a>
+          ::  
+        <a class="uplink" href="index.html">Contents</a>
+          ::  
+        <a href="SanitizerSpecialCaseList.html">Sanitizer special case list</a>  Â»
+        </p>
+
+      </div>
+      <div class="content">
+        
+        
+  <div class="section" id="leaksanitizer">
+<h1>LeakSanitizer<a class="headerlink" href="#leaksanitizer" title="Permalink to this headline">¶</a></h1>
+<div class="contents local topic" id="contents">
+<ul class="simple">
+<li><a class="reference internal" href="#introduction" id="id1">Introduction</a></li>
+<li><a class="reference internal" href="#current-status" id="id2">Current status</a></li>
+<li><a class="reference internal" href="#more-information" id="id3">More Information</a></li>
+</ul>
+</div>
+<div class="section" id="introduction">
+<h2><a class="toc-backref" href="#id1">Introduction</a><a class="headerlink" href="#introduction" title="Permalink to this headline">¶</a></h2>
+<p>LeakSanitizer is a run-time memory leak detector. It can be combined with
+<a class="reference internal" href="AddressSanitizer.html"><em>AddressSanitizer</em></a> to get both memory error and leak detection.
+LeakSanitizer does not introduce any additional slowdown when used in this mode.
+The LeakSanitizer runtime can also be linked in separately to get leak detection
+only, at a minimal performance cost.</p>
+</div>
+<div class="section" id="current-status">
+<h2><a class="toc-backref" href="#id2">Current status</a><a class="headerlink" href="#current-status" title="Permalink to this headline">¶</a></h2>
+<p>LeakSanitizer is experimental and supported only on x86_64 Linux.</p>
+<p>The combined mode has been tested on fairly large software projects. The
+stand-alone mode has received much less testing.</p>
+<p>There are plans to support LeakSanitizer in <a class="reference internal" href="MemorySanitizer.html"><em>MemorySanitizer</em></a> builds.</p>
+</div>
+<div class="section" id="more-information">
+<h2><a class="toc-backref" href="#id3">More Information</a><a class="headerlink" href="#more-information" title="Permalink to this headline">¶</a></h2>
+<p><a class="reference external" href="https://code.google.com/p/address-sanitizer/wiki/LeakSanitizer">https://code.google.com/p/address-sanitizer/wiki/LeakSanitizer</a></p>
+</div>
+</div>
+
+
+      </div>
+      <div class="bottomnav">
+      
+        <p>
+        «  <a href="DataFlowSanitizerDesign.html">DataFlowSanitizer Design Document</a>
+          ::  
+        <a class="uplink" href="index.html">Contents</a>
+          ::  
+        <a href="SanitizerSpecialCaseList.html">Sanitizer special case list</a>  Â»
+        </p>
+
+      </div>
+
+    <div class="footer">
+        © Copyright 2007-2014, The Clang Team.
+      Created using <a href="http://sphinx.pocoo.org/">Sphinx</a> 1.1.3.
+    </div>
+  </body>
+</html>
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+++ www-releases/trunk/3.5.1/tools/clang/docs/LibASTMatchers.html Tue Jan 13 17:58:20 2015
@@ -0,0 +1,171 @@
+
+
+<!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD XHTML 1.0 Transitional//EN"
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+      <div class="header"><h1 class="heading"><a href="index.html">
+          <span>Clang 3.5 documentation</span></a></h1>
+        <h2 class="heading"><span>Matching the Clang AST</span></h2>
+      </div>
+      <div class="topnav">
+      
+        <p>
+        «  <a href="LibASTMatchersTutorial.html">Tutorial for building tools using LibTooling and LibASTMatchers</a>
+          ::  
+        <a class="uplink" href="index.html">Contents</a>
+          ::  
+        <a href="HowToSetupToolingForLLVM.html">How To Setup Clang Tooling For LLVM</a>  Â»
+        </p>
+
+      </div>
+      <div class="content">
+        
+        
+  <div class="section" id="matching-the-clang-ast">
+<h1>Matching the Clang AST<a class="headerlink" href="#matching-the-clang-ast" title="Permalink to this headline">¶</a></h1>
+<p>This document explains how to use Clang’s LibASTMatchers to match interesting
+nodes of the AST and execute code that uses the matched nodes.  Combined with
+<a class="reference internal" href="LibTooling.html"><em>LibTooling</em></a>, LibASTMatchers helps to write code-to-code transformation
+tools or query tools.</p>
+<p>We assume basic knowledge about the Clang AST.  See the <a class="reference internal" href="IntroductionToTheClangAST.html"><em>Introduction
+to the Clang AST</em></a> if you want to learn more
+about how the AST is structured.</p>
+<div class="section" id="introduction">
+<h2>Introduction<a class="headerlink" href="#introduction" title="Permalink to this headline">¶</a></h2>
+<p>LibASTMatchers provides a domain specific language to create predicates on
+Clang’s AST.  This DSL is written in and can be used from C++, allowing users
+to write a single program to both match AST nodes and access the node’s C++
+interface to extract attributes, source locations, or any other information
+provided on the AST level.</p>
+<p>AST matchers are predicates on nodes in the AST.  Matchers are created by
+calling creator functions that allow building up a tree of matchers, where
+inner matchers are used to make the match more specific.</p>
+<p>For example, to create a matcher that matches all class or union declarations
+in the AST of a translation unit, you can call <a class="reference external" href="LibASTMatchersReference.html#recordDecl0Anchor">recordDecl()</a>.  To narrow the match down,
+for example to find all class or union declarations with the name “<tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">Foo</span></tt>”,
+insert a <a class="reference external" href="LibASTMatchersReference.html#hasName0Anchor">hasName</a> matcher: the
+call <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">recordDecl(hasName("Foo"))</span></tt> returns a matcher that matches classes or
+unions that are named “<tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">Foo</span></tt>”, in any namespace.  By default, matchers that
+accept multiple inner matchers use an implicit <a class="reference external" href="LibASTMatchersReference.html#allOf0Anchor">allOf()</a>.  This allows further narrowing
+down the match, for example to match all classes that are derived from
+“<tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">Bar</span></tt>”: <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">recordDecl(hasName("Foo"),</span> <span class="pre">isDerivedFrom("Bar"))</span></tt>.</p>
+</div>
+<div class="section" id="how-to-create-a-matcher">
+<h2>How to create a matcher<a class="headerlink" href="#how-to-create-a-matcher" title="Permalink to this headline">¶</a></h2>
+<p>With more than a thousand classes in the Clang AST, one can quickly get lost
+when trying to figure out how to create a matcher for a specific pattern.  This
+section will teach you how to use a rigorous step-by-step pattern to build the
+matcher you are interested in.  Note that there will always be matchers missing
+for some part of the AST.  See the section about <a class="reference internal" href="#astmatchers-writing"><em>how to write your own
+AST matchers</em></a> later in this document.</p>
+<p>The precondition to using the matchers is to understand how the AST for what you
+want to match looks like.  The
+<a class="reference internal" href="IntroductionToTheClangAST.html"><em>Introduction to the Clang AST</em></a> teaches you
+how to dump a translation unit’s AST into a human readable format.</p>
+<p>In general, the strategy to create the right matchers is:</p>
+<ol class="arabic simple">
+<li>Find the outermost class in Clang’s AST you want to match.</li>
+<li>Look at the <a class="reference external" href="LibASTMatchersReference.html">AST Matcher Reference</a> for
+matchers that either match the node you’re interested in or narrow down
+attributes on the node.</li>
+<li>Create your outer match expression.  Verify that it works as expected.</li>
+<li>Examine the matchers for what the next inner node you want to match is.</li>
+<li>Repeat until the matcher is finished.</li>
+</ol>
+</div>
+<div class="section" id="binding-nodes-in-match-expressions">
+<span id="astmatchers-bind"></span><h2>Binding nodes in match expressions<a class="headerlink" href="#binding-nodes-in-match-expressions" title="Permalink to this headline">¶</a></h2>
+<p>Matcher expressions allow you to specify which parts of the AST are interesting
+for a certain task.  Often you will want to then do something with the nodes
+that were matched, like building source code transformations.</p>
+<p>To that end, matchers that match specific AST nodes (so called node matchers)
+are bindable; for example, <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">recordDecl(hasName("MyClass")).bind("id")</span></tt> will
+bind the matched <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">recordDecl</span></tt> node to the string “<tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">id</span></tt>”, to be later
+retrieved in the <a class="reference external" href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1ast__matchers_1_1MatchFinder_1_1MatchCallback.html">match callback</a>.</p>
+</div>
+<div class="section" id="writing-your-own-matchers">
+<h2>Writing your own matchers<a class="headerlink" href="#writing-your-own-matchers" title="Permalink to this headline">¶</a></h2>
+<p>There are multiple different ways to define a matcher, depending on its type
+and flexibility.</p>
+<div class="section" id="variadicdyncastallofmatcher-base-derived">
+<h3><tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">VariadicDynCastAllOfMatcher<Base,</span> <span class="pre">Derived></span></tt><a class="headerlink" href="#variadicdyncastallofmatcher-base-derived" title="Permalink to this headline">¶</a></h3>
+<p>Those match all nodes of type <em>Base</em> if they can be dynamically casted to
+<em>Derived</em>.  The names of those matchers are nouns, which closely resemble
+<em>Derived</em>.  <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">VariadicDynCastAllOfMatchers</span></tt> are the backbone of the matcher
+hierarchy.  Most often, your match expression will start with one of them, and
+you can <a class="reference internal" href="#astmatchers-bind"><em>bind</em></a> the node they represent to ids for later
+processing.</p>
+<p><tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">VariadicDynCastAllOfMatchers</span></tt> are callable classes that model variadic
+template functions in C++03.  They take an aribtrary number of
+<tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">Matcher<Derived></span></tt> and return a <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">Matcher<Base></span></tt>.</p>
+</div>
+<div class="section" id="ast-matcher-p-type-name-paramtype-param">
+<h3><tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">AST_MATCHER_P(Type,</span> <span class="pre">Name,</span> <span class="pre">ParamType,</span> <span class="pre">Param)</span></tt><a class="headerlink" href="#ast-matcher-p-type-name-paramtype-param" title="Permalink to this headline">¶</a></h3>
+<p>Most matcher definitions use the matcher creation macros.  Those define both
+the matcher of type <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">Matcher<Type></span></tt> itself, and a matcher-creation function
+named <em>Name</em> that takes a parameter of type <em>ParamType</em> and returns the
+corresponding matcher.</p>
+<p>There are multiple matcher definition macros that deal with polymorphic return
+values and different parameter counts.  See <a class="reference external" href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/ASTMatchersMacros_8h.html">ASTMatchersMacros.h</a>.</p>
+</div>
+<div class="section" id="matcher-creation-functions">
+<span id="astmatchers-writing"></span><h3>Matcher creation functions<a class="headerlink" href="#matcher-creation-functions" title="Permalink to this headline">¶</a></h3>
+<p>Matchers are generated by nesting calls to matcher creation functions.  Most of
+the time those functions are either created by using
+<tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">VariadicDynCastAllOfMatcher</span></tt> or the matcher creation macros (see below).
+The free-standing functions are an indication that this matcher is just a
+combination of other matchers, as is for example the case with <a class="reference external" href="LibASTMatchersReference.html#callee1Anchor">callee</a>.</p>
+</div>
+</div>
+</div>
+
+
+      </div>
+      <div class="bottomnav">
+      
+        <p>
+        «  <a href="LibASTMatchersTutorial.html">Tutorial for building tools using LibTooling and LibASTMatchers</a>
+          ::  
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+          ::  
+        <a href="HowToSetupToolingForLLVM.html">How To Setup Clang Tooling For LLVM</a>  Â»
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+
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+
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+        © Copyright 2007-2014, The Clang Team.
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+</html>
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+<!DOCTYPE HTML PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD HTML 4.01//EN"
+          "http://www.w3.org/TR/html4/strict.dtd">
+<html>
+<head>
+<title>AST Matcher Reference</title>
+<link type="text/css" rel="stylesheet" href="../menu.css" />
+<link type="text/css" rel="stylesheet" href="../content.css" />
+<style type="text/css">
+td {
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+
+<!--#include virtual="../menu.html.incl"-->
+
+<div id="content">
+
+<h1>AST Matcher Reference</h1>
+
+<p>This document shows all currently implemented matchers. The matchers are grouped
+by category and node type they match. You can click on matcher names to show the
+matcher's source documentation.</p>
+
+<p>There are three different basic categories of matchers:
+<ul>
+<li><a href="#decl-matchers">Node Matchers:</a> Matchers that match a specific type of AST node.</li>
+<li><a href="#narrowing-matchers">Narrowing Matchers:</a> Matchers that match attributes on AST nodes.</li>
+<li><a href="#traversal-matchers">Traversal Matchers:</a> Matchers that allow traversal between AST nodes.</li>
+</ul>
+</p>
+
+<p>Within each category the matchers are ordered by node type they match on.
+Note that if a matcher can match multiple node types, it will it will appear
+multiple times. This means that by searching for Matcher<Stmt> you can
+find all matchers that can be used to match on Stmt nodes.</p>
+
+<p>The exception to that rule are matchers that can match on any node. Those
+are marked with a * and are listed in the beginning of each category.</p>
+
+<p>Note that the categorization of matchers is a great help when you combine
+them into matcher expressions. You will usually want to form matcher expressions
+that read like english sentences by alternating between node matchers and
+narrowing or traversal matchers, like this:
+<pre>
+recordDecl(hasDescendant(
+    ifStmt(hasTrueExpression(
+        expr(hasDescendant(
+            ifStmt()))))))
+</pre>
+</p>
+
+<!-- ======================================================================= -->
+<h2 id="decl-matchers">Node Matchers</h2>
+<!-- ======================================================================= -->
+
+<p>Node matchers are at the core of matcher expressions - they specify the type
+of node that is expected. Every match expression starts with a node matcher,
+which can then be further refined with a narrowing or traversal matcher. All
+traversal matchers take node matchers as their arguments.</p>
+
+<p>For convenience, all node matchers take an arbitrary number of arguments
+and implicitly act as allOf matchers.</p>
+
+<p>Node matchers are the only matchers that support the bind("id") call to
+bind the matched node to the given string, to be later retrieved from the
+match callback.</p>
+
+<p>It is important to remember that the arguments to node matchers are
+predicates on the same node, just with additional information about the type.
+This is often useful to make matcher expression more readable by inlining bind
+calls into redundant node matchers inside another node matcher:
+<pre>
+// This binds the CXXRecordDecl to "id", as the decl() matcher will stay on
+// the same node.
+recordDecl(decl().bind("id"), hasName("::MyClass"))
+</pre>
+</p>
+
+<table>
+<tr style="text-align:left"><th>Return type</th><th>Name</th><th>Parameters</th></tr>
+<!-- START_DECL_MATCHERS -->
+
+<tr><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1CXXCtorInitializer.html">CXXCtorInitializer</a>></td><td class="name" onclick="toggle('ctorInitializer0')"><a name="ctorInitializer0Anchor">ctorInitializer</a></td><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1CXXCtorInitializer.html">CXXCtorInitializer</a>>...</td></tr>
+<tr><td colspan="4" class="doc" id="ctorInitializer0"><pre>Matches constructor initializers.
+
+Examples matches i(42).
+  class C {
+    C() : i(42) {}
+    int i;
+  };
+</pre></td></tr>
+
+
+<tr><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1Decl.html">Decl</a>></td><td class="name" onclick="toggle('accessSpecDecl0')"><a name="accessSpecDecl0Anchor">accessSpecDecl</a></td><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1AccessSpecDecl.html">AccessSpecDecl</a>>...</td></tr>
+<tr><td colspan="4" class="doc" id="accessSpecDecl0"><pre>Matches C++ access specifier declarations.
+
+Given
+  class C {
+  public:
+    int a;
+  };
+accessSpecDecl()
+  matches 'public:'
+</pre></td></tr>
+
+
+<tr><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1Decl.html">Decl</a>></td><td class="name" onclick="toggle('classTemplateDecl0')"><a name="classTemplateDecl0Anchor">classTemplateDecl</a></td><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1ClassTemplateDecl.html">ClassTemplateDecl</a>>...</td></tr>
+<tr><td colspan="4" class="doc" id="classTemplateDecl0"><pre>Matches C++ class template declarations.
+
+Example matches Z
+  template<class T> class Z {};
+</pre></td></tr>
+
+
+<tr><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1Decl.html">Decl</a>></td><td class="name" onclick="toggle('classTemplateSpecializationDecl0')"><a name="classTemplateSpecializationDecl0Anchor">classTemplateSpecializationDecl</a></td><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1ClassTemplateSpecializationDecl.html">ClassTemplateSpecializationDecl</a>>...</td></tr>
+<tr><td colspan="4" class="doc" id="classTemplateSpecializationDecl0"><pre>Matches C++ class template specializations.
+
+Given
+  template<typename T> class A {};
+  template<> class A<double> {};
+  A<int> a;
+classTemplateSpecializationDecl()
+  matches the specializations A<int> and A<double>
+</pre></td></tr>
+
+
+<tr><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1Decl.html">Decl</a>></td><td class="name" onclick="toggle('constructorDecl0')"><a name="constructorDecl0Anchor">constructorDecl</a></td><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1CXXConstructorDecl.html">CXXConstructorDecl</a>>...</td></tr>
+<tr><td colspan="4" class="doc" id="constructorDecl0"><pre>Matches C++ constructor declarations.
+
+Example matches Foo::Foo() and Foo::Foo(int)
+  class Foo {
+   public:
+    Foo();
+    Foo(int);
+    int DoSomething();
+  };
+</pre></td></tr>
+
+
+<tr><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1Decl.html">Decl</a>></td><td class="name" onclick="toggle('decl0')"><a name="decl0Anchor">decl</a></td><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1Decl.html">Decl</a>>...</td></tr>
+<tr><td colspan="4" class="doc" id="decl0"><pre>Matches declarations.
+
+Examples matches X, C, and the friend declaration inside C;
+  void X();
+  class C {
+    friend X;
+  };
+</pre></td></tr>
+
+
+<tr><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1Decl.html">Decl</a>></td><td class="name" onclick="toggle('declaratorDecl0')"><a name="declaratorDecl0Anchor">declaratorDecl</a></td><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1DeclaratorDecl.html">DeclaratorDecl</a>>...</td></tr>
+<tr><td colspan="4" class="doc" id="declaratorDecl0"><pre>Matches declarator declarations (field, variable, function
+and non-type template parameter declarations).
+
+Given
+  class X { int y; };
+declaratorDecl()
+  matches int y.
+</pre></td></tr>
+
+
+<tr><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1Decl.html">Decl</a>></td><td class="name" onclick="toggle('destructorDecl0')"><a name="destructorDecl0Anchor">destructorDecl</a></td><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1CXXDestructorDecl.html">CXXDestructorDecl</a>>...</td></tr>
+<tr><td colspan="4" class="doc" id="destructorDecl0"><pre>Matches explicit C++ destructor declarations.
+
+Example matches Foo::~Foo()
+  class Foo {
+   public:
+    virtual ~Foo();
+  };
+</pre></td></tr>
+
+
+<tr><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1Decl.html">Decl</a>></td><td class="name" onclick="toggle('enumConstantDecl0')"><a name="enumConstantDecl0Anchor">enumConstantDecl</a></td><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1EnumConstantDecl.html">EnumConstantDecl</a>>...</td></tr>
+<tr><td colspan="4" class="doc" id="enumConstantDecl0"><pre>Matches enum constants.
+
+Example matches A, B, C
+  enum X {
+    A, B, C
+  };
+</pre></td></tr>
+
+
+<tr><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1Decl.html">Decl</a>></td><td class="name" onclick="toggle('enumDecl0')"><a name="enumDecl0Anchor">enumDecl</a></td><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1EnumDecl.html">EnumDecl</a>>...</td></tr>
+<tr><td colspan="4" class="doc" id="enumDecl0"><pre>Matches enum declarations.
+
+Example matches X
+  enum X {
+    A, B, C
+  };
+</pre></td></tr>
+
+
+<tr><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1Decl.html">Decl</a>></td><td class="name" onclick="toggle('fieldDecl0')"><a name="fieldDecl0Anchor">fieldDecl</a></td><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1FieldDecl.html">FieldDecl</a>>...</td></tr>
+<tr><td colspan="4" class="doc" id="fieldDecl0"><pre>Matches field declarations.
+
+Given
+  class X { int m; };
+fieldDecl()
+  matches 'm'.
+</pre></td></tr>
+
+
+<tr><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1Decl.html">Decl</a>></td><td class="name" onclick="toggle('friendDecl0')"><a name="friendDecl0Anchor">friendDecl</a></td><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1FriendDecl.html">FriendDecl</a>>...</td></tr>
+<tr><td colspan="4" class="doc" id="friendDecl0"><pre>Matches friend declarations.
+
+Given
+  class X { friend void foo(); };
+friendDecl()
+  matches 'friend void foo()'.
+</pre></td></tr>
+
+
+<tr><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1Decl.html">Decl</a>></td><td class="name" onclick="toggle('functionDecl0')"><a name="functionDecl0Anchor">functionDecl</a></td><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1FunctionDecl.html">FunctionDecl</a>>...</td></tr>
+<tr><td colspan="4" class="doc" id="functionDecl0"><pre>Matches function declarations.
+
+Example matches f
+  void f();
+</pre></td></tr>
+
+
+<tr><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1Decl.html">Decl</a>></td><td class="name" onclick="toggle('functionTemplateDecl0')"><a name="functionTemplateDecl0Anchor">functionTemplateDecl</a></td><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1FunctionTemplateDecl.html">FunctionTemplateDecl</a>>...</td></tr>
+<tr><td colspan="4" class="doc" id="functionTemplateDecl0"><pre>Matches C++ function template declarations.
+
+Example matches f
+  template<class T> void f(T t) {}
+</pre></td></tr>
+
+
+<tr><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1Decl.html">Decl</a>></td><td class="name" onclick="toggle('methodDecl0')"><a name="methodDecl0Anchor">methodDecl</a></td><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1CXXMethodDecl.html">CXXMethodDecl</a>>...</td></tr>
+<tr><td colspan="4" class="doc" id="methodDecl0"><pre>Matches method declarations.
+
+Example matches y
+  class X { void y(); };
+</pre></td></tr>
+
+
+<tr><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1Decl.html">Decl</a>></td><td class="name" onclick="toggle('namedDecl0')"><a name="namedDecl0Anchor">namedDecl</a></td><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1NamedDecl.html">NamedDecl</a>>...</td></tr>
+<tr><td colspan="4" class="doc" id="namedDecl0"><pre>Matches a declaration of anything that could have a name.
+
+Example matches X, S, the anonymous union type, i, and U;
+  typedef int X;
+  struct S {
+    union {
+      int i;
+    } U;
+  };
+</pre></td></tr>
+
+
+<tr><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1Decl.html">Decl</a>></td><td class="name" onclick="toggle('namespaceDecl0')"><a name="namespaceDecl0Anchor">namespaceDecl</a></td><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1NamespaceDecl.html">NamespaceDecl</a>>...</td></tr>
+<tr><td colspan="4" class="doc" id="namespaceDecl0"><pre>Matches a declaration of a namespace.
+
+Given
+  namespace {}
+  namespace test {}
+namespaceDecl()
+  matches "namespace {}" and "namespace test {}"
+</pre></td></tr>
+
+
+<tr><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1Decl.html">Decl</a>></td><td class="name" onclick="toggle('parmVarDecl0')"><a name="parmVarDecl0Anchor">parmVarDecl</a></td><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1ParmVarDecl.html">ParmVarDecl</a>>...</td></tr>
+<tr><td colspan="4" class="doc" id="parmVarDecl0"><pre>Matches parameter variable declarations.
+
+Given
+  void f(int x);
+parmVarDecl()
+  matches int x.
+</pre></td></tr>
+
+
+<tr><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1Decl.html">Decl</a>></td><td class="name" onclick="toggle('recordDecl0')"><a name="recordDecl0Anchor">recordDecl</a></td><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1CXXRecordDecl.html">CXXRecordDecl</a>>...</td></tr>
+<tr><td colspan="4" class="doc" id="recordDecl0"><pre>Matches C++ class declarations.
+
+Example matches X, Z
+  class X;
+  template<class T> class Z {};
+</pre></td></tr>
+
+
+<tr><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1Decl.html">Decl</a>></td><td class="name" onclick="toggle('unresolvedUsingValueDecl0')"><a name="unresolvedUsingValueDecl0Anchor">unresolvedUsingValueDecl</a></td><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1UnresolvedUsingValueDecl.html">UnresolvedUsingValueDecl</a>>...</td></tr>
+<tr><td colspan="4" class="doc" id="unresolvedUsingValueDecl0"><pre>Matches unresolved using value declarations.
+
+Given
+  template<typename X>
+  class C : private X {
+    using X::x;
+  };
+unresolvedUsingValueDecl()
+  matches using X::x </pre></td></tr>
+
+
+<tr><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1Decl.html">Decl</a>></td><td class="name" onclick="toggle('usingDecl0')"><a name="usingDecl0Anchor">usingDecl</a></td><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1UsingDecl.html">UsingDecl</a>>...</td></tr>
+<tr><td colspan="4" class="doc" id="usingDecl0"><pre>Matches using declarations.
+
+Given
+  namespace X { int x; }
+  using X::x;
+usingDecl()
+  matches using X::x </pre></td></tr>
+
+
+<tr><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1Decl.html">Decl</a>></td><td class="name" onclick="toggle('varDecl0')"><a name="varDecl0Anchor">varDecl</a></td><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1VarDecl.html">VarDecl</a>>...</td></tr>
+<tr><td colspan="4" class="doc" id="varDecl0"><pre>Matches variable declarations.
+
+Note: this does not match declarations of member variables, which are
+"field" declarations in Clang parlance.
+
+Example matches a
+  int a;
+</pre></td></tr>
+
+
+<tr><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1NestedNameSpecifierLoc.html">NestedNameSpecifierLoc</a>></td><td class="name" onclick="toggle('nestedNameSpecifierLoc0')"><a name="nestedNameSpecifierLoc0Anchor">nestedNameSpecifierLoc</a></td><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1NestedNameSpecifierLoc.html">NestedNameSpecifierLoc</a>>...</td></tr>
+<tr><td colspan="4" class="doc" id="nestedNameSpecifierLoc0"><pre>Same as nestedNameSpecifier but matches NestedNameSpecifierLoc.
+</pre></td></tr>
+
+
+<tr><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1NestedNameSpecifier.html">NestedNameSpecifier</a>></td><td class="name" onclick="toggle('nestedNameSpecifier0')"><a name="nestedNameSpecifier0Anchor">nestedNameSpecifier</a></td><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1NestedNameSpecifier.html">NestedNameSpecifier</a>>...</td></tr>
+<tr><td colspan="4" class="doc" id="nestedNameSpecifier0"><pre>Matches nested name specifiers.
+
+Given
+  namespace ns {
+    struct A { static void f(); };
+    void A::f() {}
+    void g() { A::f(); }
+  }
+  ns::A a;
+nestedNameSpecifier()
+  matches "ns::" and both "A::"
+</pre></td></tr>
+
+
+<tr><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1QualType.html">QualType</a>></td><td class="name" onclick="toggle('qualType0')"><a name="qualType0Anchor">qualType</a></td><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1QualType.html">QualType</a>>...</td></tr>
+<tr><td colspan="4" class="doc" id="qualType0"><pre>Matches QualTypes in the clang AST.
+</pre></td></tr>
+
+
+<tr><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1Stmt.html">Stmt</a>></td><td class="name" onclick="toggle('arraySubscriptExpr0')"><a name="arraySubscriptExpr0Anchor">arraySubscriptExpr</a></td><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1ArraySubscriptExpr.html">ArraySubscriptExpr</a>>...</td></tr>
+<tr><td colspan="4" class="doc" id="arraySubscriptExpr0"><pre>Matches array subscript expressions.
+
+Given
+  int i = a[1];
+arraySubscriptExpr()
+  matches "a[1]"
+</pre></td></tr>
+
+
+<tr><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1Stmt.html">Stmt</a>></td><td class="name" onclick="toggle('asmStmt0')"><a name="asmStmt0Anchor">asmStmt</a></td><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1AsmStmt.html">AsmStmt</a>>...</td></tr>
+<tr><td colspan="4" class="doc" id="asmStmt0"><pre>Matches asm statements.
+
+ int i = 100;
+  __asm("mov al, 2");
+asmStmt()
+  matches '__asm("mov al, 2")'
+</pre></td></tr>
+
+
+<tr><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1Stmt.html">Stmt</a>></td><td class="name" onclick="toggle('binaryOperator0')"><a name="binaryOperator0Anchor">binaryOperator</a></td><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1BinaryOperator.html">BinaryOperator</a>>...</td></tr>
+<tr><td colspan="4" class="doc" id="binaryOperator0"><pre>Matches binary operator expressions.
+
+Example matches a || b
+  !(a || b)
+</pre></td></tr>
+
+
+<tr><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1Stmt.html">Stmt</a>></td><td class="name" onclick="toggle('bindTemporaryExpr0')"><a name="bindTemporaryExpr0Anchor">bindTemporaryExpr</a></td><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1CXXBindTemporaryExpr.html">CXXBindTemporaryExpr</a>>...</td></tr>
+<tr><td colspan="4" class="doc" id="bindTemporaryExpr0"><pre>Matches nodes where temporaries are created.
+
+Example matches FunctionTakesString(GetStringByValue())
+    (matcher = bindTemporaryExpr())
+  FunctionTakesString(GetStringByValue());
+  FunctionTakesStringByPointer(GetStringPointer());
+</pre></td></tr>
+
+
+<tr><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1Stmt.html">Stmt</a>></td><td class="name" onclick="toggle('boolLiteral0')"><a name="boolLiteral0Anchor">boolLiteral</a></td><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1CXXBoolLiteralExpr.html">CXXBoolLiteralExpr</a>>...</td></tr>
+<tr><td colspan="4" class="doc" id="boolLiteral0"><pre>Matches bool literals.
+
+Example matches true
+  true
+</pre></td></tr>
+
+
+<tr><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1Stmt.html">Stmt</a>></td><td class="name" onclick="toggle('breakStmt0')"><a name="breakStmt0Anchor">breakStmt</a></td><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1BreakStmt.html">BreakStmt</a>>...</td></tr>
+<tr><td colspan="4" class="doc" id="breakStmt0"><pre>Matches break statements.
+
+Given
+  while (true) { break; }
+breakStmt()
+  matches 'break'
+</pre></td></tr>
+
+
+<tr><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1Stmt.html">Stmt</a>></td><td class="name" onclick="toggle('cStyleCastExpr0')"><a name="cStyleCastExpr0Anchor">cStyleCastExpr</a></td><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1CStyleCastExpr.html">CStyleCastExpr</a>>...</td></tr>
+<tr><td colspan="4" class="doc" id="cStyleCastExpr0"><pre>Matches a C-style cast expression.
+
+Example: Matches (int*) 2.2f in
+  int i = (int) 2.2f;
+</pre></td></tr>
+
+
+<tr><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1Stmt.html">Stmt</a>></td><td class="name" onclick="toggle('callExpr0')"><a name="callExpr0Anchor">callExpr</a></td><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1CallExpr.html">CallExpr</a>>...</td></tr>
+<tr><td colspan="4" class="doc" id="callExpr0"><pre>Matches call expressions.
+
+Example matches x.y() and y()
+  X x;
+  x.y();
+  y();
+</pre></td></tr>
+
+
+<tr><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1Stmt.html">Stmt</a>></td><td class="name" onclick="toggle('caseStmt0')"><a name="caseStmt0Anchor">caseStmt</a></td><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1CaseStmt.html">CaseStmt</a>>...</td></tr>
+<tr><td colspan="4" class="doc" id="caseStmt0"><pre>Matches case statements inside switch statements.
+
+Given
+  switch(a) { case 42: break; default: break; }
+caseStmt()
+  matches 'case 42: break;'.
+</pre></td></tr>
+
+
+<tr><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1Stmt.html">Stmt</a>></td><td class="name" onclick="toggle('castExpr0')"><a name="castExpr0Anchor">castExpr</a></td><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1CastExpr.html">CastExpr</a>>...</td></tr>
+<tr><td colspan="4" class="doc" id="castExpr0"><pre>Matches any cast nodes of Clang's AST.
+
+Example: castExpr() matches each of the following:
+  (int) 3;
+  const_cast<Expr *>(SubExpr);
+  char c = 0;
+but does not match
+  int i = (0);
+  int k = 0;
+</pre></td></tr>
+
+
+<tr><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1Stmt.html">Stmt</a>></td><td class="name" onclick="toggle('catchStmt0')"><a name="catchStmt0Anchor">catchStmt</a></td><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1CXXCatchStmt.html">CXXCatchStmt</a>>...</td></tr>
+<tr><td colspan="4" class="doc" id="catchStmt0"><pre>Matches catch statements.
+
+  try {} catch(int i) {}
+catchStmt()
+  matches 'catch(int i)'
+</pre></td></tr>
+
+
+<tr><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1Stmt.html">Stmt</a>></td><td class="name" onclick="toggle('characterLiteral0')"><a name="characterLiteral0Anchor">characterLiteral</a></td><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1CharacterLiteral.html">CharacterLiteral</a>>...</td></tr>
+<tr><td colspan="4" class="doc" id="characterLiteral0"><pre>Matches character literals (also matches wchar_t).
+
+Not matching Hex-encoded chars (e.g. 0x1234, which is a IntegerLiteral),
+though.
+
+Example matches 'a', L'a'
+  char ch = 'a'; wchar_t chw = L'a';
+</pre></td></tr>
+
+
+<tr><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1Stmt.html">Stmt</a>></td><td class="name" onclick="toggle('compoundLiteralExpr0')"><a name="compoundLiteralExpr0Anchor">compoundLiteralExpr</a></td><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1CompoundLiteralExpr.html">CompoundLiteralExpr</a>>...</td></tr>
+<tr><td colspan="4" class="doc" id="compoundLiteralExpr0"><pre>Matches compound (i.e. non-scalar) literals
+
+Example match: {1}, (1, 2)
+  int array[4] = {1}; vector int myvec = (vector int)(1, 2);
+</pre></td></tr>
+
+
+<tr><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1Stmt.html">Stmt</a>></td><td class="name" onclick="toggle('compoundStmt0')"><a name="compoundStmt0Anchor">compoundStmt</a></td><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1CompoundStmt.html">CompoundStmt</a>>...</td></tr>
+<tr><td colspan="4" class="doc" id="compoundStmt0"><pre>Matches compound statements.
+
+Example matches '{}' and '{{}}'in 'for (;;) {{}}'
+  for (;;) {{}}
+</pre></td></tr>
+
+
+<tr><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1Stmt.html">Stmt</a>></td><td class="name" onclick="toggle('conditionalOperator0')"><a name="conditionalOperator0Anchor">conditionalOperator</a></td><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1ConditionalOperator.html">ConditionalOperator</a>>...</td></tr>
+<tr><td colspan="4" class="doc" id="conditionalOperator0"><pre>Matches conditional operator expressions.
+
+Example matches a ? b : c
+  (a ? b : c) + 42
+</pre></td></tr>
+
+
+<tr><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1Stmt.html">Stmt</a>></td><td class="name" onclick="toggle('constCastExpr0')"><a name="constCastExpr0Anchor">constCastExpr</a></td><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1CXXConstCastExpr.html">CXXConstCastExpr</a>>...</td></tr>
+<tr><td colspan="4" class="doc" id="constCastExpr0"><pre>Matches a const_cast expression.
+
+Example: Matches const_cast<int*>(&r) in
+  int n = 42;
+  const int &r(n);
+  int* p = const_cast<int*>(&r);
+</pre></td></tr>
+
+
+<tr><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1Stmt.html">Stmt</a>></td><td class="name" onclick="toggle('constructExpr0')"><a name="constructExpr0Anchor">constructExpr</a></td><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1CXXConstructExpr.html">CXXConstructExpr</a>>...</td></tr>
+<tr><td colspan="4" class="doc" id="constructExpr0"><pre>Matches constructor call expressions (including implicit ones).
+
+Example matches string(ptr, n) and ptr within arguments of f
+    (matcher = constructExpr())
+  void f(const string &a, const string &b);
+  char *ptr;
+  int n;
+  f(string(ptr, n), ptr);
+</pre></td></tr>
+
+
+<tr><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1Stmt.html">Stmt</a>></td><td class="name" onclick="toggle('continueStmt0')"><a name="continueStmt0Anchor">continueStmt</a></td><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1ContinueStmt.html">ContinueStmt</a>>...</td></tr>
+<tr><td colspan="4" class="doc" id="continueStmt0"><pre>Matches continue statements.
+
+Given
+  while (true) { continue; }
+continueStmt()
+  matches 'continue'
+</pre></td></tr>
+
+
+<tr><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1Stmt.html">Stmt</a>></td><td class="name" onclick="toggle('declRefExpr0')"><a name="declRefExpr0Anchor">declRefExpr</a></td><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1DeclRefExpr.html">DeclRefExpr</a>>...</td></tr>
+<tr><td colspan="4" class="doc" id="declRefExpr0"><pre>Matches expressions that refer to declarations.
+
+Example matches x in if (x)
+  bool x;
+  if (x) {}
+</pre></td></tr>
+
+
+<tr><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1Stmt.html">Stmt</a>></td><td class="name" onclick="toggle('declStmt0')"><a name="declStmt0Anchor">declStmt</a></td><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1DeclStmt.html">DeclStmt</a>>...</td></tr>
+<tr><td colspan="4" class="doc" id="declStmt0"><pre>Matches declaration statements.
+
+Given
+  int a;
+declStmt()
+  matches 'int a'.
+</pre></td></tr>
+
+
+<tr><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1Stmt.html">Stmt</a>></td><td class="name" onclick="toggle('defaultArgExpr0')"><a name="defaultArgExpr0Anchor">defaultArgExpr</a></td><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1CXXDefaultArgExpr.html">CXXDefaultArgExpr</a>>...</td></tr>
+<tr><td colspan="4" class="doc" id="defaultArgExpr0"><pre>Matches the value of a default argument at the call site.
+
+Example matches the CXXDefaultArgExpr placeholder inserted for the
+    default value of the second parameter in the call expression f(42)
+    (matcher = defaultArgExpr())
+  void f(int x, int y = 0);
+  f(42);
+</pre></td></tr>
+
+
+<tr><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1Stmt.html">Stmt</a>></td><td class="name" onclick="toggle('defaultStmt0')"><a name="defaultStmt0Anchor">defaultStmt</a></td><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1DefaultStmt.html">DefaultStmt</a>>...</td></tr>
+<tr><td colspan="4" class="doc" id="defaultStmt0"><pre>Matches default statements inside switch statements.
+
+Given
+  switch(a) { case 42: break; default: break; }
+defaultStmt()
+  matches 'default: break;'.
+</pre></td></tr>
+
+
+<tr><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1Stmt.html">Stmt</a>></td><td class="name" onclick="toggle('deleteExpr0')"><a name="deleteExpr0Anchor">deleteExpr</a></td><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1CXXDeleteExpr.html">CXXDeleteExpr</a>>...</td></tr>
+<tr><td colspan="4" class="doc" id="deleteExpr0"><pre>Matches delete expressions.
+
+Given
+  delete X;
+deleteExpr()
+  matches 'delete X'.
+</pre></td></tr>
+
+
+<tr><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1Stmt.html">Stmt</a>></td><td class="name" onclick="toggle('doStmt0')"><a name="doStmt0Anchor">doStmt</a></td><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1DoStmt.html">DoStmt</a>>...</td></tr>
+<tr><td colspan="4" class="doc" id="doStmt0"><pre>Matches do statements.
+
+Given
+  do {} while (true);
+doStmt()
+  matches 'do {} while(true)'
+</pre></td></tr>
+
+
+<tr><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1Stmt.html">Stmt</a>></td><td class="name" onclick="toggle('dynamicCastExpr0')"><a name="dynamicCastExpr0Anchor">dynamicCastExpr</a></td><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1CXXDynamicCastExpr.html">CXXDynamicCastExpr</a>>...</td></tr>
+<tr><td colspan="4" class="doc" id="dynamicCastExpr0"><pre>Matches a dynamic_cast expression.
+
+Example:
+  dynamicCastExpr()
+matches
+  dynamic_cast<D*>(&b);
+in
+  struct B { virtual ~B() {} }; struct D : B {};
+  B b;
+  D* p = dynamic_cast<D*>(&b);
+</pre></td></tr>
+
+
+<tr><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1Stmt.html">Stmt</a>></td><td class="name" onclick="toggle('explicitCastExpr0')"><a name="explicitCastExpr0Anchor">explicitCastExpr</a></td><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1ExplicitCastExpr.html">ExplicitCastExpr</a>>...</td></tr>
+<tr><td colspan="4" class="doc" id="explicitCastExpr0"><pre>Matches explicit cast expressions.
+
+Matches any cast expression written in user code, whether it be a
+C-style cast, a functional-style cast, or a keyword cast.
+
+Does not match implicit conversions.
+
+Note: the name "explicitCast" is chosen to match Clang's terminology, as
+Clang uses the term "cast" to apply to implicit conversions as well as to
+actual cast expressions.
+
+hasDestinationType.
+
+Example: matches all five of the casts in
+  int((int)(reinterpret_cast<int>(static_cast<int>(const_cast<int>(42)))))
+but does not match the implicit conversion in
+  long ell = 42;
+</pre></td></tr>
+
+
+<tr><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1Stmt.html">Stmt</a>></td><td class="name" onclick="toggle('expr0')"><a name="expr0Anchor">expr</a></td><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1Expr.html">Expr</a>>...</td></tr>
+<tr><td colspan="4" class="doc" id="expr0"><pre>Matches expressions.
+
+Example matches x()
+  void f() { x(); }
+</pre></td></tr>
+
+
+<tr><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1Stmt.html">Stmt</a>></td><td class="name" onclick="toggle('exprWithCleanups0')"><a name="exprWithCleanups0Anchor">exprWithCleanups</a></td><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1ExprWithCleanups.html">ExprWithCleanups</a>>...</td></tr>
+<tr><td colspan="4" class="doc" id="exprWithCleanups0"><pre>Matches expressions that introduce cleanups to be run at the end
+of the sub-expression's evaluation.
+
+Example matches std::string()
+  const std::string str = std::string();
+</pre></td></tr>
+
+
+<tr><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1Stmt.html">Stmt</a>></td><td class="name" onclick="toggle('floatLiteral0')"><a name="floatLiteral0Anchor">floatLiteral</a></td><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1FloatingLiteral.html">FloatingLiteral</a>>...</td></tr>
+<tr><td colspan="4" class="doc" id="floatLiteral0"><pre>Matches float literals of all sizes encodings, e.g.
+1.0, 1.0f, 1.0L and 1e10.
+
+Does not match implicit conversions such as
+  float a = 10;
+</pre></td></tr>
+
+
+<tr><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1Stmt.html">Stmt</a>></td><td class="name" onclick="toggle('forRangeStmt0')"><a name="forRangeStmt0Anchor">forRangeStmt</a></td><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1CXXForRangeStmt.html">CXXForRangeStmt</a>>...</td></tr>
+<tr><td colspan="4" class="doc" id="forRangeStmt0"><pre>Matches range-based for statements.
+
+forRangeStmt() matches 'for (auto a : i)'
+  int i[] =  {1, 2, 3}; for (auto a : i);
+  for(int j = 0; j < 5; ++j);
+</pre></td></tr>
+
+
+<tr><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1Stmt.html">Stmt</a>></td><td class="name" onclick="toggle('forStmt0')"><a name="forStmt0Anchor">forStmt</a></td><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1ForStmt.html">ForStmt</a>>...</td></tr>
+<tr><td colspan="4" class="doc" id="forStmt0"><pre>Matches for statements.
+
+Example matches 'for (;;) {}'
+  for (;;) {}
+  int i[] =  {1, 2, 3}; for (auto a : i);
+</pre></td></tr>
+
+
+<tr><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1Stmt.html">Stmt</a>></td><td class="name" onclick="toggle('functionalCastExpr0')"><a name="functionalCastExpr0Anchor">functionalCastExpr</a></td><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1CXXFunctionalCastExpr.html">CXXFunctionalCastExpr</a>>...</td></tr>
+<tr><td colspan="4" class="doc" id="functionalCastExpr0"><pre>Matches functional cast expressions
+
+Example: Matches Foo(bar);
+  Foo f = bar;
+  Foo g = (Foo) bar;
+  Foo h = Foo(bar);
+</pre></td></tr>
+
+
+<tr><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1Stmt.html">Stmt</a>></td><td class="name" onclick="toggle('gotoStmt0')"><a name="gotoStmt0Anchor">gotoStmt</a></td><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1GotoStmt.html">GotoStmt</a>>...</td></tr>
+<tr><td colspan="4" class="doc" id="gotoStmt0"><pre>Matches goto statements.
+
+Given
+  goto FOO;
+  FOO: bar();
+gotoStmt()
+  matches 'goto FOO'
+</pre></td></tr>
+
+
+<tr><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1Stmt.html">Stmt</a>></td><td class="name" onclick="toggle('ifStmt0')"><a name="ifStmt0Anchor">ifStmt</a></td><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1IfStmt.html">IfStmt</a>>...</td></tr>
+<tr><td colspan="4" class="doc" id="ifStmt0"><pre>Matches if statements.
+
+Example matches 'if (x) {}'
+  if (x) {}
+</pre></td></tr>
+
+
+<tr><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1Stmt.html">Stmt</a>></td><td class="name" onclick="toggle('implicitCastExpr0')"><a name="implicitCastExpr0Anchor">implicitCastExpr</a></td><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1ImplicitCastExpr.html">ImplicitCastExpr</a>>...</td></tr>
+<tr><td colspan="4" class="doc" id="implicitCastExpr0"><pre>Matches the implicit cast nodes of Clang's AST.
+
+This matches many different places, including function call return value
+eliding, as well as any type conversions.
+</pre></td></tr>
+
+
+<tr><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1Stmt.html">Stmt</a>></td><td class="name" onclick="toggle('initListExpr0')"><a name="initListExpr0Anchor">initListExpr</a></td><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1InitListExpr.html">InitListExpr</a>>...</td></tr>
+<tr><td colspan="4" class="doc" id="initListExpr0"><pre>Matches init list expressions.
+
+Given
+  int a[] = { 1, 2 };
+  struct B { int x, y; };
+  B b = { 5, 6 };
+initList()
+  matches "{ 1, 2 }" and "{ 5, 6 }"
+</pre></td></tr>
+
+
+<tr><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1Stmt.html">Stmt</a>></td><td class="name" onclick="toggle('integerLiteral0')"><a name="integerLiteral0Anchor">integerLiteral</a></td><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1IntegerLiteral.html">IntegerLiteral</a>>...</td></tr>
+<tr><td colspan="4" class="doc" id="integerLiteral0"><pre>Matches integer literals of all sizes encodings, e.g.
+1, 1L, 0x1 and 1U.
+
+Does not match character-encoded integers such as L'a'.
+</pre></td></tr>
+
+
+<tr><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1Stmt.html">Stmt</a>></td><td class="name" onclick="toggle('labelStmt0')"><a name="labelStmt0Anchor">labelStmt</a></td><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1LabelStmt.html">LabelStmt</a>>...</td></tr>
+<tr><td colspan="4" class="doc" id="labelStmt0"><pre>Matches label statements.
+
+Given
+  goto FOO;
+  FOO: bar();
+labelStmt()
+  matches 'FOO:'
+</pre></td></tr>
+
+
+<tr><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1Stmt.html">Stmt</a>></td><td class="name" onclick="toggle('lambdaExpr0')"><a name="lambdaExpr0Anchor">lambdaExpr</a></td><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1LambdaExpr.html">LambdaExpr</a>>...</td></tr>
+<tr><td colspan="4" class="doc" id="lambdaExpr0"><pre>Matches lambda expressions.
+
+Example matches [&](){return 5;}
+  [&](){return 5;}
+</pre></td></tr>
+
+
+<tr><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1Stmt.html">Stmt</a>></td><td class="name" onclick="toggle('materializeTemporaryExpr0')"><a name="materializeTemporaryExpr0Anchor">materializeTemporaryExpr</a></td><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1MaterializeTemporaryExpr.html">MaterializeTemporaryExpr</a>>...</td></tr>
+<tr><td colspan="4" class="doc" id="materializeTemporaryExpr0"><pre>Matches nodes where temporaries are materialized.
+
+Example: Given
+  struct T {void func()};
+  T f();
+  void g(T);
+materializeTemporaryExpr() matches 'f()' in these statements
+  T u(f());
+  g(f());
+but does not match
+  f();
+  f().func();
+</pre></td></tr>
+
+
+<tr><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1Stmt.html">Stmt</a>></td><td class="name" onclick="toggle('memberCallExpr0')"><a name="memberCallExpr0Anchor">memberCallExpr</a></td><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1CXXMemberCallExpr.html">CXXMemberCallExpr</a>>...</td></tr>
+<tr><td colspan="4" class="doc" id="memberCallExpr0"><pre>Matches member call expressions.
+
+Example matches x.y()
+  X x;
+  x.y();
+</pre></td></tr>
+
+
+<tr><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1Stmt.html">Stmt</a>></td><td class="name" onclick="toggle('memberExpr0')"><a name="memberExpr0Anchor">memberExpr</a></td><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1MemberExpr.html">MemberExpr</a>>...</td></tr>
+<tr><td colspan="4" class="doc" id="memberExpr0"><pre>Matches member expressions.
+
+Given
+  class Y {
+    void x() { this->x(); x(); Y y; y.x(); a; this->b; Y::b; }
+    int a; static int b;
+  };
+memberExpr()
+  matches this->x, x, y.x, a, this->b
+</pre></td></tr>
+
+
+<tr><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1Stmt.html">Stmt</a>></td><td class="name" onclick="toggle('newExpr0')"><a name="newExpr0Anchor">newExpr</a></td><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1CXXNewExpr.html">CXXNewExpr</a>>...</td></tr>
+<tr><td colspan="4" class="doc" id="newExpr0"><pre>Matches new expressions.
+
+Given
+  new X;
+newExpr()
+  matches 'new X'.
+</pre></td></tr>
+
+
+<tr><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1Stmt.html">Stmt</a>></td><td class="name" onclick="toggle('nullPtrLiteralExpr0')"><a name="nullPtrLiteralExpr0Anchor">nullPtrLiteralExpr</a></td><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1CXXNullPtrLiteralExpr.html">CXXNullPtrLiteralExpr</a>>...</td></tr>
+<tr><td colspan="4" class="doc" id="nullPtrLiteralExpr0"><pre>Matches nullptr literal.
+</pre></td></tr>
+
+
+<tr><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1Stmt.html">Stmt</a>></td><td class="name" onclick="toggle('nullStmt0')"><a name="nullStmt0Anchor">nullStmt</a></td><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1NullStmt.html">NullStmt</a>>...</td></tr>
+<tr><td colspan="4" class="doc" id="nullStmt0"><pre>Matches null statements.
+
+  foo();;
+nullStmt()
+  matches the second ';'
+</pre></td></tr>
+
+
+<tr><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1Stmt.html">Stmt</a>></td><td class="name" onclick="toggle('operatorCallExpr0')"><a name="operatorCallExpr0Anchor">operatorCallExpr</a></td><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1CXXOperatorCallExpr.html">CXXOperatorCallExpr</a>>...</td></tr>
+<tr><td colspan="4" class="doc" id="operatorCallExpr0"><pre>Matches overloaded operator calls.
+
+Note that if an operator isn't overloaded, it won't match. Instead, use
+binaryOperator matcher.
+Currently it does not match operators such as new delete.
+FIXME: figure out why these do not match?
+
+Example matches both operator<<((o << b), c) and operator<<(o, b)
+    (matcher = operatorCallExpr())
+  ostream &operator<< (ostream &out, int i) { };
+  ostream &o; int b = 1, c = 1;
+  o << b << c;
+</pre></td></tr>
+
+
+<tr><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1Stmt.html">Stmt</a>></td><td class="name" onclick="toggle('reinterpretCastExpr0')"><a name="reinterpretCastExpr0Anchor">reinterpretCastExpr</a></td><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1CXXReinterpretCastExpr.html">CXXReinterpretCastExpr</a>>...</td></tr>
+<tr><td colspan="4" class="doc" id="reinterpretCastExpr0"><pre>Matches a reinterpret_cast expression.
+
+Either the source expression or the destination type can be matched
+using has(), but hasDestinationType() is more specific and can be
+more readable.
+
+Example matches reinterpret_cast<char*>(&p) in
+  void* p = reinterpret_cast<char*>(&p);
+</pre></td></tr>
+
+
+<tr><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1Stmt.html">Stmt</a>></td><td class="name" onclick="toggle('returnStmt0')"><a name="returnStmt0Anchor">returnStmt</a></td><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1ReturnStmt.html">ReturnStmt</a>>...</td></tr>
+<tr><td colspan="4" class="doc" id="returnStmt0"><pre>Matches return statements.
+
+Given
+  return 1;
+returnStmt()
+  matches 'return 1'
+</pre></td></tr>
+
+
+<tr><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1Stmt.html">Stmt</a>></td><td class="name" onclick="toggle('staticCastExpr0')"><a name="staticCastExpr0Anchor">staticCastExpr</a></td><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1CXXStaticCastExpr.html">CXXStaticCastExpr</a>>...</td></tr>
+<tr><td colspan="4" class="doc" id="staticCastExpr0"><pre>Matches a C++ static_cast expression.
+
+hasDestinationType
+reinterpretCast
+
+Example:
+  staticCastExpr()
+matches
+  static_cast<long>(8)
+in
+  long eight(static_cast<long>(8));
+</pre></td></tr>
+
+
+<tr><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1Stmt.html">Stmt</a>></td><td class="name" onclick="toggle('stmt0')"><a name="stmt0Anchor">stmt</a></td><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1Stmt.html">Stmt</a>>...</td></tr>
+<tr><td colspan="4" class="doc" id="stmt0"><pre>Matches statements.
+
+Given
+  { ++a; }
+stmt()
+  matches both the compound statement '{ ++a; }' and '++a'.
+</pre></td></tr>
+
+
+<tr><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1Stmt.html">Stmt</a>></td><td class="name" onclick="toggle('stringLiteral0')"><a name="stringLiteral0Anchor">stringLiteral</a></td><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1StringLiteral.html">StringLiteral</a>>...</td></tr>
+<tr><td colspan="4" class="doc" id="stringLiteral0"><pre>Matches string literals (also matches wide string literals).
+
+Example matches "abcd", L"abcd"
+  char *s = "abcd"; wchar_t *ws = L"abcd"
+</pre></td></tr>
+
+
+<tr><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1Stmt.html">Stmt</a>></td><td class="name" onclick="toggle('switchCase0')"><a name="switchCase0Anchor">switchCase</a></td><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1SwitchCase.html">SwitchCase</a>>...</td></tr>
+<tr><td colspan="4" class="doc" id="switchCase0"><pre>Matches case and default statements inside switch statements.
+
+Given
+  switch(a) { case 42: break; default: break; }
+switchCase()
+  matches 'case 42: break;' and 'default: break;'.
+</pre></td></tr>
+
+
+<tr><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1Stmt.html">Stmt</a>></td><td class="name" onclick="toggle('switchStmt0')"><a name="switchStmt0Anchor">switchStmt</a></td><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1SwitchStmt.html">SwitchStmt</a>>...</td></tr>
+<tr><td colspan="4" class="doc" id="switchStmt0"><pre>Matches switch statements.
+
+Given
+  switch(a) { case 42: break; default: break; }
+switchStmt()
+  matches 'switch(a)'.
+</pre></td></tr>
+
+
+<tr><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1Stmt.html">Stmt</a>></td><td class="name" onclick="toggle('temporaryObjectExpr0')"><a name="temporaryObjectExpr0Anchor">temporaryObjectExpr</a></td><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1CXXTemporaryObjectExpr.html">CXXTemporaryObjectExpr</a>>...</td></tr>
+<tr><td colspan="4" class="doc" id="temporaryObjectExpr0"><pre>Matches functional cast expressions having N != 1 arguments
+
+Example: Matches Foo(bar, bar)
+  Foo h = Foo(bar, bar);
+</pre></td></tr>
+
+
+<tr><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1Stmt.html">Stmt</a>></td><td class="name" onclick="toggle('thisExpr0')"><a name="thisExpr0Anchor">thisExpr</a></td><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1CXXThisExpr.html">CXXThisExpr</a>>...</td></tr>
+<tr><td colspan="4" class="doc" id="thisExpr0"><pre>Matches implicit and explicit this expressions.
+
+Example matches the implicit this expression in "return i".
+    (matcher = thisExpr())
+struct foo {
+  int i;
+  int f() { return i; }
+};
+</pre></td></tr>
+
+
+<tr><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1Stmt.html">Stmt</a>></td><td class="name" onclick="toggle('throwExpr0')"><a name="throwExpr0Anchor">throwExpr</a></td><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1CXXThrowExpr.html">CXXThrowExpr</a>>...</td></tr>
+<tr><td colspan="4" class="doc" id="throwExpr0"><pre>Matches throw expressions.
+
+  try { throw 5; } catch(int i) {}
+throwExpr()
+  matches 'throw 5'
+</pre></td></tr>
+
+
+<tr><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1Stmt.html">Stmt</a>></td><td class="name" onclick="toggle('tryStmt0')"><a name="tryStmt0Anchor">tryStmt</a></td><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1CXXTryStmt.html">CXXTryStmt</a>>...</td></tr>
+<tr><td colspan="4" class="doc" id="tryStmt0"><pre>Matches try statements.
+
+  try {} catch(int i) {}
+tryStmt()
+  matches 'try {}'
+</pre></td></tr>
+
+
+<tr><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1Stmt.html">Stmt</a>></td><td class="name" onclick="toggle('unaryExprOrTypeTraitExpr0')"><a name="unaryExprOrTypeTraitExpr0Anchor">unaryExprOrTypeTraitExpr</a></td><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1UnaryExprOrTypeTraitExpr.html">UnaryExprOrTypeTraitExpr</a>>...</td></tr>
+<tr><td colspan="4" class="doc" id="unaryExprOrTypeTraitExpr0"><pre>Matches sizeof (C99), alignof (C++11) and vec_step (OpenCL)
+
+Given
+  Foo x = bar;
+  int y = sizeof(x) + alignof(x);
+unaryExprOrTypeTraitExpr()
+  matches sizeof(x) and alignof(x)
+</pre></td></tr>
+
+
+<tr><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1Stmt.html">Stmt</a>></td><td class="name" onclick="toggle('unaryOperator0')"><a name="unaryOperator0Anchor">unaryOperator</a></td><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1UnaryOperator.html">UnaryOperator</a>>...</td></tr>
+<tr><td colspan="4" class="doc" id="unaryOperator0"><pre>Matches unary operator expressions.
+
+Example matches !a
+  !a || b
+</pre></td></tr>
+
+
+<tr><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1Stmt.html">Stmt</a>></td><td class="name" onclick="toggle('unresolvedConstructExpr0')"><a name="unresolvedConstructExpr0Anchor">unresolvedConstructExpr</a></td><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1CXXUnresolvedConstructExpr.html">CXXUnresolvedConstructExpr</a>>...</td></tr>
+<tr><td colspan="4" class="doc" id="unresolvedConstructExpr0"><pre>Matches unresolved constructor call expressions.
+
+Example matches T(t) in return statement of f
+    (matcher = unresolvedConstructExpr())
+  template <typename T>
+  void f(const T& t) { return T(t); }
+</pre></td></tr>
+
+
+<tr><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1Stmt.html">Stmt</a>></td><td class="name" onclick="toggle('userDefinedLiteral0')"><a name="userDefinedLiteral0Anchor">userDefinedLiteral</a></td><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1UserDefinedLiteral.html">UserDefinedLiteral</a>>...</td></tr>
+<tr><td colspan="4" class="doc" id="userDefinedLiteral0"><pre>Matches user defined literal operator call.
+
+Example match: "foo"_suffix
+</pre></td></tr>
+
+
+<tr><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1Stmt.html">Stmt</a>></td><td class="name" onclick="toggle('whileStmt0')"><a name="whileStmt0Anchor">whileStmt</a></td><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1WhileStmt.html">WhileStmt</a>>...</td></tr>
+<tr><td colspan="4" class="doc" id="whileStmt0"><pre>Matches while statements.
+
+Given
+  while (true) {}
+whileStmt()
+  matches 'while (true) {}'.
+</pre></td></tr>
+
+
+<tr><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1TypeLoc.html">TypeLoc</a>></td><td class="name" onclick="toggle('typeLoc0')"><a name="typeLoc0Anchor">typeLoc</a></td><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1TypeLoc.html">TypeLoc</a>>...</td></tr>
+<tr><td colspan="4" class="doc" id="typeLoc0"><pre>Matches TypeLocs in the clang AST.
+</pre></td></tr>
+
+
+<tr><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1Type.html">Type</a>></td><td class="name" onclick="toggle('arrayType0')"><a name="arrayType0Anchor">arrayType</a></td><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1ArrayType.html">ArrayType</a>>...</td></tr>
+<tr><td colspan="4" class="doc" id="arrayType0"><pre>Matches all kinds of arrays.
+
+Given
+  int a[] = { 2, 3 };
+  int b[4];
+  void f() { int c[a[0]]; }
+arrayType()
+  matches "int a[]", "int b[4]" and "int c[a[0]]";
+</pre></td></tr>
+
+
+<tr><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1Type.html">Type</a>></td><td class="name" onclick="toggle('atomicType0')"><a name="atomicType0Anchor">atomicType</a></td><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1AtomicType.html">AtomicType</a>>...</td></tr>
+<tr><td colspan="4" class="doc" id="atomicType0"><pre>Matches atomic types.
+
+Given
+  _Atomic(int) i;
+atomicType()
+  matches "_Atomic(int) i"
+</pre></td></tr>
+
+
+<tr><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1Type.html">Type</a>></td><td class="name" onclick="toggle('autoType0')"><a name="autoType0Anchor">autoType</a></td><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1AutoType.html">AutoType</a>>...</td></tr>
+<tr><td colspan="4" class="doc" id="autoType0"><pre>Matches types nodes representing C++11 auto types.
+
+Given:
+  auto n = 4;
+  int v[] = { 2, 3 }
+  for (auto i : v) { }
+autoType()
+  matches "auto n" and "auto i"
+</pre></td></tr>
+
+
+<tr><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1Type.html">Type</a>></td><td class="name" onclick="toggle('blockPointerType0')"><a name="blockPointerType0Anchor">blockPointerType</a></td><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1BlockPointerType.html">BlockPointerType</a>>...</td></tr>
+<tr><td colspan="4" class="doc" id="blockPointerType0"><pre>Matches block pointer types, i.e. types syntactically represented as
+"void (^)(int)".
+
+The pointee is always required to be a FunctionType.
+</pre></td></tr>
+
+
+<tr><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1Type.html">Type</a>></td><td class="name" onclick="toggle('builtinType0')"><a name="builtinType0Anchor">builtinType</a></td><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1BuiltinType.html">BuiltinType</a>>...</td></tr>
+<tr><td colspan="4" class="doc" id="builtinType0"><pre>Matches builtin Types.
+
+Given
+  struct A {};
+  A a;
+  int b;
+  float c;
+  bool d;
+builtinType()
+  matches "int b", "float c" and "bool d"
+</pre></td></tr>
+
+
+<tr><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1Type.html">Type</a>></td><td class="name" onclick="toggle('complexType0')"><a name="complexType0Anchor">complexType</a></td><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1ComplexType.html">ComplexType</a>>...</td></tr>
+<tr><td colspan="4" class="doc" id="complexType0"><pre>Matches C99 complex types.
+
+Given
+  _Complex float f;
+complexType()
+  matches "_Complex float f"
+</pre></td></tr>
+
+
+<tr><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1Type.html">Type</a>></td><td class="name" onclick="toggle('constantArrayType0')"><a name="constantArrayType0Anchor">constantArrayType</a></td><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1ConstantArrayType.html">ConstantArrayType</a>>...</td></tr>
+<tr><td colspan="4" class="doc" id="constantArrayType0"><pre>Matches C arrays with a specified constant size.
+
+Given
+  void() {
+    int a[2];
+    int b[] = { 2, 3 };
+    int c[b[0]];
+  }
+constantArrayType()
+  matches "int a[2]"
+</pre></td></tr>
+
+
+<tr><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1Type.html">Type</a>></td><td class="name" onclick="toggle('dependentSizedArrayType0')"><a name="dependentSizedArrayType0Anchor">dependentSizedArrayType</a></td><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1DependentSizedArrayType.html">DependentSizedArrayType</a>>...</td></tr>
+<tr><td colspan="4" class="doc" id="dependentSizedArrayType0"><pre>Matches C++ arrays whose size is a value-dependent expression.
+
+Given
+  template<typename T, int Size>
+  class array {
+    T data[Size];
+  };
+dependentSizedArrayType
+  matches "T data[Size]"
+</pre></td></tr>
+
+
+<tr><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1Type.html">Type</a>></td><td class="name" onclick="toggle('elaboratedType0')"><a name="elaboratedType0Anchor">elaboratedType</a></td><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1ElaboratedType.html">ElaboratedType</a>>...</td></tr>
+<tr><td colspan="4" class="doc" id="elaboratedType0"><pre>Matches types specified with an elaborated type keyword or with a
+qualified name.
+
+Given
+  namespace N {
+    namespace M {
+      class D {};
+    }
+  }
+  class C {};
+
+  class C c;
+  N::M::D d;
+
+elaboratedType() matches the type of the variable declarations of both
+c and d.
+</pre></td></tr>
+
+
+<tr><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1Type.html">Type</a>></td><td class="name" onclick="toggle('functionType0')"><a name="functionType0Anchor">functionType</a></td><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1FunctionType.html">FunctionType</a>>...</td></tr>
+<tr><td colspan="4" class="doc" id="functionType0"><pre>Matches FunctionType nodes.
+
+Given
+  int (*f)(int);
+  void g();
+functionType()
+  matches "int (*f)(int)" and the type of "g".
+</pre></td></tr>
+
+
+<tr><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1Type.html">Type</a>></td><td class="name" onclick="toggle('incompleteArrayType0')"><a name="incompleteArrayType0Anchor">incompleteArrayType</a></td><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1IncompleteArrayType.html">IncompleteArrayType</a>>...</td></tr>
+<tr><td colspan="4" class="doc" id="incompleteArrayType0"><pre>Matches C arrays with unspecified size.
+
+Given
+  int a[] = { 2, 3 };
+  int b[42];
+  void f(int c[]) { int d[a[0]]; };
+incompleteArrayType()
+  matches "int a[]" and "int c[]"
+</pre></td></tr>
+
+
+<tr><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1Type.html">Type</a>></td><td class="name" onclick="toggle('lValueReferenceType0')"><a name="lValueReferenceType0Anchor">lValueReferenceType</a></td><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1LValueReferenceType.html">LValueReferenceType</a>>...</td></tr>
+<tr><td colspan="4" class="doc" id="lValueReferenceType0"><pre>Matches lvalue reference types.
+
+Given:
+  int *a;
+  int &b = *a;
+  int &&c = 1;
+  auto &d = b;
+  auto &&e = c;
+  auto &&f = 2;
+  int g = 5;
+
+lValueReferenceType() matches the types of b, d, and e. e is
+matched since the type is deduced as int& by reference collapsing rules.
+</pre></td></tr>
+
+
+<tr><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1Type.html">Type</a>></td><td class="name" onclick="toggle('memberPointerType0')"><a name="memberPointerType0Anchor">memberPointerType</a></td><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1MemberPointerType.html">MemberPointerType</a>>...</td></tr>
+<tr><td colspan="4" class="doc" id="memberPointerType0"><pre>Matches member pointer types.
+Given
+  struct A { int i; }
+  A::* ptr = A::i;
+memberPointerType()
+  matches "A::* ptr"
+</pre></td></tr>
+
+
+<tr><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1Type.html">Type</a>></td><td class="name" onclick="toggle('parenType0')"><a name="parenType0Anchor">parenType</a></td><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1ParenType.html">ParenType</a>>...</td></tr>
+<tr><td colspan="4" class="doc" id="parenType0"><pre>Matches ParenType nodes.
+
+Given
+  int (*ptr_to_array)[4];
+  int *array_of_ptrs[4];
+
+varDecl(hasType(pointsTo(parenType()))) matches ptr_to_array but not
+array_of_ptrs.
+</pre></td></tr>
+
+
+<tr><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1Type.html">Type</a>></td><td class="name" onclick="toggle('pointerType0')"><a name="pointerType0Anchor">pointerType</a></td><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1PointerType.html">PointerType</a>>...</td></tr>
+<tr><td colspan="4" class="doc" id="pointerType0"><pre>Matches pointer types.
+
+Given
+  int *a;
+  int &b = *a;
+  int c = 5;
+pointerType()
+  matches "int *a"
+</pre></td></tr>
+
+
+<tr><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1Type.html">Type</a>></td><td class="name" onclick="toggle('rValueReferenceType0')"><a name="rValueReferenceType0Anchor">rValueReferenceType</a></td><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1RValueReferenceType.html">RValueReferenceType</a>>...</td></tr>
+<tr><td colspan="4" class="doc" id="rValueReferenceType0"><pre>Matches rvalue reference types.
+
+Given:
+  int *a;
+  int &b = *a;
+  int &&c = 1;
+  auto &d = b;
+  auto &&e = c;
+  auto &&f = 2;
+  int g = 5;
+
+rValueReferenceType() matches the types of c and f. e is not
+matched as it is deduced to int& by reference collapsing rules.
+</pre></td></tr>
+
+
+<tr><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1Type.html">Type</a>></td><td class="name" onclick="toggle('recordType0')"><a name="recordType0Anchor">recordType</a></td><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1RecordType.html">RecordType</a>>...</td></tr>
+<tr><td colspan="4" class="doc" id="recordType0"><pre>Matches record types (e.g. structs, classes).
+
+Given
+  class C {};
+  struct S {};
+
+  C c;
+  S s;
+
+recordType() matches the type of the variable declarations of both c
+and s.
+</pre></td></tr>
+
+
+<tr><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1Type.html">Type</a>></td><td class="name" onclick="toggle('referenceType0')"><a name="referenceType0Anchor">referenceType</a></td><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1ReferenceType.html">ReferenceType</a>>...</td></tr>
+<tr><td colspan="4" class="doc" id="referenceType0"><pre>Matches both lvalue and rvalue reference types.
+
+Given
+  int *a;
+  int &b = *a;
+  int &&c = 1;
+  auto &d = b;
+  auto &&e = c;
+  auto &&f = 2;
+  int g = 5;
+
+referenceType() matches the types of b, c, d, e, and f.
+</pre></td></tr>
+
+
+<tr><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1Type.html">Type</a>></td><td class="name" onclick="toggle('templateSpecializationType0')"><a name="templateSpecializationType0Anchor">templateSpecializationType</a></td><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1TemplateSpecializationType.html">TemplateSpecializationType</a>>...</td></tr>
+<tr><td colspan="4" class="doc" id="templateSpecializationType0"><pre>Matches template specialization types.
+
+Given
+  template <typename T>
+  class C { };
+
+  template class C<int>;  A
+  C<char> var;            B
+
+templateSpecializationType() matches the type of the explicit
+instantiation in A and the type of the variable declaration in B.
+</pre></td></tr>
+
+
+<tr><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1Type.html">Type</a>></td><td class="name" onclick="toggle('type0')"><a name="type0Anchor">type</a></td><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1Type.html">Type</a>>...</td></tr>
+<tr><td colspan="4" class="doc" id="type0"><pre>Matches Types in the clang AST.
+</pre></td></tr>
+
+
+<tr><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1Type.html">Type</a>></td><td class="name" onclick="toggle('typedefType0')"><a name="typedefType0Anchor">typedefType</a></td><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1TypedefType.html">TypedefType</a>>...</td></tr>
+<tr><td colspan="4" class="doc" id="typedefType0"><pre>Matches typedef types.
+
+Given
+  typedef int X;
+typedefType()
+  matches "typedef int X"
+</pre></td></tr>
+
+
+<tr><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1Type.html">Type</a>></td><td class="name" onclick="toggle('unaryTransformType0')"><a name="unaryTransformType0Anchor">unaryTransformType</a></td><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1UnaryTransformType.html">UnaryTransformType</a>>...</td></tr>
+<tr><td colspan="4" class="doc" id="unaryTransformType0"><pre>Matches types nodes representing unary type transformations.
+
+Given:
+  typedef __underlying_type(T) type;
+unaryTransformType()
+  matches "__underlying_type(T)"
+</pre></td></tr>
+
+
+<tr><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1Type.html">Type</a>></td><td class="name" onclick="toggle('variableArrayType0')"><a name="variableArrayType0Anchor">variableArrayType</a></td><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1VariableArrayType.html">VariableArrayType</a>>...</td></tr>
+<tr><td colspan="4" class="doc" id="variableArrayType0"><pre>Matches C arrays with a specified size that is not an
+integer-constant-expression.
+
+Given
+  void f() {
+    int a[] = { 2, 3 }
+    int b[42];
+    int c[a[0]];
+variableArrayType()
+  matches "int c[a[0]]"
+</pre></td></tr>
+
+<!--END_DECL_MATCHERS -->
+</table>
+
+<!-- ======================================================================= -->
+<h2 id="narrowing-matchers">Narrowing Matchers</h2>
+<!-- ======================================================================= -->
+
+<p>Narrowing matchers match certain attributes on the current node, thus
+narrowing down the set of nodes of the current type to match on.</p>
+
+<p>There are special logical narrowing matchers (allOf, anyOf, anything and unless)
+which allow users to create more powerful match expressions.</p>
+
+<table>
+<tr style="text-align:left"><th>Return type</th><th>Name</th><th>Parameters</th></tr>
+<!-- START_NARROWING_MATCHERS -->
+
+<tr><td>Matcher<*></td><td class="name" onclick="toggle('allOf0')"><a name="allOf0Anchor">allOf</a></td><td>Matcher<*>, ..., Matcher<*></td></tr>
+<tr><td colspan="4" class="doc" id="allOf0"><pre>Matches if all given matchers match.
+
+Usable as: Any Matcher
+</pre></td></tr>
+
+
+<tr><td>Matcher<*></td><td class="name" onclick="toggle('anyOf0')"><a name="anyOf0Anchor">anyOf</a></td><td>Matcher<*>, ..., Matcher<*></td></tr>
+<tr><td colspan="4" class="doc" id="anyOf0"><pre>Matches if any of the given matchers matches.
+
+Usable as: Any Matcher
+</pre></td></tr>
+
+
+<tr><td>Matcher<*></td><td class="name" onclick="toggle('anything0')"><a name="anything0Anchor">anything</a></td><td></td></tr>
+<tr><td colspan="4" class="doc" id="anything0"><pre>Matches any node.
+
+Useful when another matcher requires a child matcher, but there's no
+additional constraint. This will often be used with an explicit conversion
+to an internal::Matcher<> type such as TypeMatcher.
+
+Example: DeclarationMatcher(anything()) matches all declarations, e.g.,
+"int* p" and "void f()" in
+  int* p;
+  void f();
+
+Usable as: Any Matcher
+</pre></td></tr>
+
+
+<tr><td>Matcher<*></td><td class="name" onclick="toggle('unless0')"><a name="unless0Anchor">unless</a></td><td>Matcher<*></td></tr>
+<tr><td colspan="4" class="doc" id="unless0"><pre>Matches if the provided matcher does not match.
+
+Example matches Y (matcher = recordDecl(unless(hasName("X"))))
+  class X {};
+  class Y {};
+
+Usable as: Any Matcher
+</pre></td></tr>
+
+
+<tr><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1BinaryOperator.html">BinaryOperator</a>></td><td class="name" onclick="toggle('hasOperatorName0')"><a name="hasOperatorName0Anchor">hasOperatorName</a></td><td>std::string Name</td></tr>
+<tr><td colspan="4" class="doc" id="hasOperatorName0"><pre>Matches the operator Name of operator expressions (binary or
+unary).
+
+Example matches a || b (matcher = binaryOperator(hasOperatorName("||")))
+  !(a || b)
+</pre></td></tr>
+
+
+<tr><td>Matcher<CXXBoolLiteral></td><td class="name" onclick="toggle('equals2')"><a name="equals2Anchor">equals</a></td><td>ValueT  Value</td></tr>
+<tr><td colspan="4" class="doc" id="equals2"><pre>Matches literals that are equal to the given value.
+
+Example matches true (matcher = boolLiteral(equals(true)))
+  true
+
+Usable as: Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1CharacterLiteral.html">CharacterLiteral</a>>, Matcher<CXXBoolLiteral>,
+           Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1FloatingLiteral.html">FloatingLiteral</a>>, Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1IntegerLiteral.html">IntegerLiteral</a>>
+</pre></td></tr>
+
+
+<tr><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1CXXConstructExpr.html">CXXConstructExpr</a>></td><td class="name" onclick="toggle('argumentCountIs1')"><a name="argumentCountIs1Anchor">argumentCountIs</a></td><td>unsigned N</td></tr>
+<tr><td colspan="4" class="doc" id="argumentCountIs1"><pre>Checks that a call expression or a constructor call expression has
+a specific number of arguments (including absent default arguments).
+
+Example matches f(0, 0) (matcher = callExpr(argumentCountIs(2)))
+  void f(int x, int y);
+  f(0, 0);
+</pre></td></tr>
+
+
+<tr><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1CXXConstructExpr.html">CXXConstructExpr</a>></td><td class="name" onclick="toggle('isListInitialization0')"><a name="isListInitialization0Anchor">isListInitialization</a></td><td></td></tr>
+<tr><td colspan="4" class="doc" id="isListInitialization0"><pre>Matches a constructor call expression which uses list initialization.
+</pre></td></tr>
+
+
+<tr><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1CXXCtorInitializer.html">CXXCtorInitializer</a>></td><td class="name" onclick="toggle('isWritten0')"><a name="isWritten0Anchor">isWritten</a></td><td></td></tr>
+<tr><td colspan="4" class="doc" id="isWritten0"><pre>Matches a constructor initializer if it is explicitly written in
+code (as opposed to implicitly added by the compiler).
+
+Given
+  struct Foo {
+    Foo() { }
+    Foo(int) : foo_("A") { }
+    string foo_;
+  };
+constructorDecl(hasAnyConstructorInitializer(isWritten()))
+  will match Foo(int), but not Foo()
+</pre></td></tr>
+
+
+<tr><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1CXXMethodDecl.html">CXXMethodDecl</a>></td><td class="name" onclick="toggle('hasOverloadedOperatorName0')"><a name="hasOverloadedOperatorName0Anchor">hasOverloadedOperatorName</a></td><td>StringRef Name</td></tr>
+<tr><td colspan="4" class="doc" id="hasOverloadedOperatorName0"><pre>Matches overloaded operator names.
+
+Matches overloaded operator names specified in strings without the
+"operator" prefix: e.g. "<<".
+
+Given:
+  class A { int operator*(); };
+  const A &operator<<(const A &a, const A &b);
+  A a;
+  a << a;   <-- This matches
+
+operatorCallExpr(hasOverloadedOperatorName("<<"))) matches the specified
+line and recordDecl(hasMethod(hasOverloadedOperatorName("*"))) matches
+the declaration of A.
+
+Usable as: Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1CXXOperatorCallExpr.html">CXXOperatorCallExpr</a>>, Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1CXXMethodDecl.html">CXXMethodDecl</a>>
+</pre></td></tr>
+
+
+<tr><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1CXXMethodDecl.html">CXXMethodDecl</a>></td><td class="name" onclick="toggle('isConst0')"><a name="isConst0Anchor">isConst</a></td><td></td></tr>
+<tr><td colspan="4" class="doc" id="isConst0"><pre>Matches if the given method declaration is const.
+
+Given
+struct A {
+  void foo() const;
+  void bar();
+};
+
+methodDecl(isConst()) matches A::foo() but not A::bar()
+</pre></td></tr>
+
+
+<tr><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1CXXMethodDecl.html">CXXMethodDecl</a>></td><td class="name" onclick="toggle('isOverride0')"><a name="isOverride0Anchor">isOverride</a></td><td></td></tr>
+<tr><td colspan="4" class="doc" id="isOverride0"><pre>Matches if the given method declaration overrides another method.
+
+Given
+  class A {
+   public:
+    virtual void x();
+  };
+  class B : public A {
+   public:
+    virtual void x();
+  };
+  matches B::x
+</pre></td></tr>
+
+
+<tr><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1CXXMethodDecl.html">CXXMethodDecl</a>></td><td class="name" onclick="toggle('isPure0')"><a name="isPure0Anchor">isPure</a></td><td></td></tr>
+<tr><td colspan="4" class="doc" id="isPure0"><pre>Matches if the given method declaration is pure.
+
+Given
+  class A {
+   public:
+    virtual void x() = 0;
+  };
+  matches A::x
+</pre></td></tr>
+
+
+<tr><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1CXXMethodDecl.html">CXXMethodDecl</a>></td><td class="name" onclick="toggle('isVirtual0')"><a name="isVirtual0Anchor">isVirtual</a></td><td></td></tr>
+<tr><td colspan="4" class="doc" id="isVirtual0"><pre>Matches if the given method declaration is virtual.
+
+Given
+  class A {
+   public:
+    virtual void x();
+  };
+  matches A::x
+</pre></td></tr>
+
+
+<tr><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1CXXOperatorCallExpr.html">CXXOperatorCallExpr</a>></td><td class="name" onclick="toggle('hasOverloadedOperatorName1')"><a name="hasOverloadedOperatorName1Anchor">hasOverloadedOperatorName</a></td><td>StringRef Name</td></tr>
+<tr><td colspan="4" class="doc" id="hasOverloadedOperatorName1"><pre>Matches overloaded operator names.
+
+Matches overloaded operator names specified in strings without the
+"operator" prefix: e.g. "<<".
+
+Given:
+  class A { int operator*(); };
+  const A &operator<<(const A &a, const A &b);
+  A a;
+  a << a;   <-- This matches
+
+operatorCallExpr(hasOverloadedOperatorName("<<"))) matches the specified
+line and recordDecl(hasMethod(hasOverloadedOperatorName("*"))) matches
+the declaration of A.
+
+Usable as: Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1CXXOperatorCallExpr.html">CXXOperatorCallExpr</a>>, Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1CXXMethodDecl.html">CXXMethodDecl</a>>
+</pre></td></tr>
+
+
+<tr><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1CXXRecordDecl.html">CXXRecordDecl</a>></td><td class="name" onclick="toggle('isDerivedFrom1')"><a name="isDerivedFrom1Anchor">isDerivedFrom</a></td><td>StringRef BaseName</td></tr>
+<tr><td colspan="4" class="doc" id="isDerivedFrom1"><pre>Overloaded method as shortcut for isDerivedFrom(hasName(...)).
+</pre></td></tr>
+
+
+<tr><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1CXXRecordDecl.html">CXXRecordDecl</a>></td><td class="name" onclick="toggle('isExplicitTemplateSpecialization2')"><a name="isExplicitTemplateSpecialization2Anchor">isExplicitTemplateSpecialization</a></td><td></td></tr>
+<tr><td colspan="4" class="doc" id="isExplicitTemplateSpecialization2"><pre>Matches explicit template specializations of function, class, or
+static member variable template instantiations.
+
+Given
+  template<typename T> void A(T t) { }
+  template<> void A(int N) { }
+functionDecl(isExplicitTemplateSpecialization())
+  matches the specialization A<int>().
+
+Usable as: Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1FunctionDecl.html">FunctionDecl</a>>, Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1VarDecl.html">VarDecl</a>>, Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1CXXRecordDecl.html">CXXRecordDecl</a>>
+</pre></td></tr>
+
+
+<tr><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1CXXRecordDecl.html">CXXRecordDecl</a>></td><td class="name" onclick="toggle('isSameOrDerivedFrom1')"><a name="isSameOrDerivedFrom1Anchor">isSameOrDerivedFrom</a></td><td>StringRef BaseName</td></tr>
+<tr><td colspan="4" class="doc" id="isSameOrDerivedFrom1"><pre>Overloaded method as shortcut for
+isSameOrDerivedFrom(hasName(...)).
+</pre></td></tr>
+
+
+<tr><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1CXXRecordDecl.html">CXXRecordDecl</a>></td><td class="name" onclick="toggle('isTemplateInstantiation2')"><a name="isTemplateInstantiation2Anchor">isTemplateInstantiation</a></td><td></td></tr>
+<tr><td colspan="4" class="doc" id="isTemplateInstantiation2"><pre>Matches template instantiations of function, class, or static
+member variable template instantiations.
+
+Given
+  template <typename T> class X {}; class A {}; X<A> x;
+or
+  template <typename T> class X {}; class A {}; template class X<A>;
+recordDecl(hasName("::X"), isTemplateInstantiation())
+  matches the template instantiation of X<A>.
+
+But given
+  template <typename T>  class X {}; class A {};
+  template <> class X<A> {}; X<A> x;
+recordDecl(hasName("::X"), isTemplateInstantiation())
+  does not match, as X<A> is an explicit template specialization.
+
+Usable as: Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1FunctionDecl.html">FunctionDecl</a>>, Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1VarDecl.html">VarDecl</a>>, Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1CXXRecordDecl.html">CXXRecordDecl</a>>
+</pre></td></tr>
+
+
+<tr><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1CallExpr.html">CallExpr</a>></td><td class="name" onclick="toggle('argumentCountIs0')"><a name="argumentCountIs0Anchor">argumentCountIs</a></td><td>unsigned N</td></tr>
+<tr><td colspan="4" class="doc" id="argumentCountIs0"><pre>Checks that a call expression or a constructor call expression has
+a specific number of arguments (including absent default arguments).
+
+Example matches f(0, 0) (matcher = callExpr(argumentCountIs(2)))
+  void f(int x, int y);
+  f(0, 0);
+</pre></td></tr>
+
+
+<tr><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1CharacterLiteral.html">CharacterLiteral</a>></td><td class="name" onclick="toggle('equals3')"><a name="equals3Anchor">equals</a></td><td>ValueT  Value</td></tr>
+<tr><td colspan="4" class="doc" id="equals3"><pre>Matches literals that are equal to the given value.
+
+Example matches true (matcher = boolLiteral(equals(true)))
+  true
+
+Usable as: Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1CharacterLiteral.html">CharacterLiteral</a>>, Matcher<CXXBoolLiteral>,
+           Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1FloatingLiteral.html">FloatingLiteral</a>>, Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1IntegerLiteral.html">IntegerLiteral</a>>
+</pre></td></tr>
+
+
+<tr><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1CompoundStmt.html">CompoundStmt</a>></td><td class="name" onclick="toggle('statementCountIs0')"><a name="statementCountIs0Anchor">statementCountIs</a></td><td>unsigned N</td></tr>
+<tr><td colspan="4" class="doc" id="statementCountIs0"><pre>Checks that a compound statement contains a specific number of
+child statements.
+
+Example: Given
+  { for (;;) {} }
+compoundStmt(statementCountIs(0)))
+  matches '{}'
+  but does not match the outer compound statement.
+</pre></td></tr>
+
+
+<tr><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1ConstantArrayType.html">ConstantArrayType</a>></td><td class="name" onclick="toggle('hasSize0')"><a name="hasSize0Anchor">hasSize</a></td><td>unsigned N</td></tr>
+<tr><td colspan="4" class="doc" id="hasSize0"><pre>Matches ConstantArrayType nodes that have the specified size.
+
+Given
+  int a[42];
+  int b[2 * 21];
+  int c[41], d[43];
+constantArrayType(hasSize(42))
+  matches "int a[42]" and "int b[2 * 21]"
+</pre></td></tr>
+
+
+<tr><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1DeclStmt.html">DeclStmt</a>></td><td class="name" onclick="toggle('declCountIs0')"><a name="declCountIs0Anchor">declCountIs</a></td><td>unsigned N</td></tr>
+<tr><td colspan="4" class="doc" id="declCountIs0"><pre>Matches declaration statements that contain a specific number of
+declarations.
+
+Example: Given
+  int a, b;
+  int c;
+  int d = 2, e;
+declCountIs(2)
+  matches 'int a, b;' and 'int d = 2, e;', but not 'int c;'.
+</pre></td></tr>
+
+
+<tr><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1Decl.html">Decl</a>></td><td class="name" onclick="toggle('equalsBoundNode1')"><a name="equalsBoundNode1Anchor">equalsBoundNode</a></td><td>std::string ID</td></tr>
+<tr><td colspan="4" class="doc" id="equalsBoundNode1"><pre>Matches if a node equals a previously bound node.
+
+Matches a node if it equals the node previously bound to ID.
+
+Given
+  class X { int a; int b; };
+recordDecl(
+    has(fieldDecl(hasName("a"), hasType(type().bind("t")))),
+    has(fieldDecl(hasName("b"), hasType(type(equalsBoundNode("t"))))))
+  matches the class X, as a and b have the same type.
+
+Note that when multiple matches are involved via forEach* matchers,
+equalsBoundNodes acts as a filter.
+For example:
+compoundStmt(
+    forEachDescendant(varDecl().bind("d")),
+    forEachDescendant(declRefExpr(to(decl(equalsBoundNode("d"))))))
+will trigger a match for each combination of variable declaration
+and reference to that variable declaration within a compound statement.
+</pre></td></tr>
+
+
+<tr><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1Decl.html">Decl</a>></td><td class="name" onclick="toggle('equalsNode0')"><a name="equalsNode0Anchor">equalsNode</a></td><td>Decl *Node</td></tr>
+<tr><td colspan="4" class="doc" id="equalsNode0"><pre>Matches if a node equals another node.
+
+Decl has pointer identity in the AST.
+</pre></td></tr>
+
+
+<tr><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1Decl.html">Decl</a>></td><td class="name" onclick="toggle('isImplicit0')"><a name="isImplicit0Anchor">isImplicit</a></td><td></td></tr>
+<tr><td colspan="4" class="doc" id="isImplicit0"><pre>Matches a declaration that has been implicitly added
+by the compiler (eg. implicit defaultcopy constructors).
+</pre></td></tr>
+
+
+<tr><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1Decl.html">Decl</a>></td><td class="name" onclick="toggle('isPrivate0')"><a name="isPrivate0Anchor">isPrivate</a></td><td></td></tr>
+<tr><td colspan="4" class="doc" id="isPrivate0"><pre>Matches private C++ declarations.
+
+Given
+  class C {
+  public:    int a;
+  protected: int b;
+  private:   int c;
+  };
+fieldDecl(isPrivate())
+  matches 'int c;' 
+</pre></td></tr>
+
+
+<tr><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1Decl.html">Decl</a>></td><td class="name" onclick="toggle('isProtected0')"><a name="isProtected0Anchor">isProtected</a></td><td></td></tr>
+<tr><td colspan="4" class="doc" id="isProtected0"><pre>Matches protected C++ declarations.
+
+Given
+  class C {
+  public:    int a;
+  protected: int b;
+  private:   int c;
+  };
+fieldDecl(isProtected())
+  matches 'int b;' 
+</pre></td></tr>
+
+
+<tr><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1Decl.html">Decl</a>></td><td class="name" onclick="toggle('isPublic0')"><a name="isPublic0Anchor">isPublic</a></td><td></td></tr>
+<tr><td colspan="4" class="doc" id="isPublic0"><pre>Matches public C++ declarations.
+
+Given
+  class C {
+  public:    int a;
+  protected: int b;
+  private:   int c;
+  };
+fieldDecl(isPublic())
+  matches 'int a;' 
+</pre></td></tr>
+
+
+<tr><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1FloatingLiteral.html">FloatingLiteral</a>></td><td class="name" onclick="toggle('equals1')"><a name="equals1Anchor">equals</a></td><td>ValueT  Value</td></tr>
+<tr><td colspan="4" class="doc" id="equals1"><pre>Matches literals that are equal to the given value.
+
+Example matches true (matcher = boolLiteral(equals(true)))
+  true
+
+Usable as: Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1CharacterLiteral.html">CharacterLiteral</a>>, Matcher<CXXBoolLiteral>,
+           Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1FloatingLiteral.html">FloatingLiteral</a>>, Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1IntegerLiteral.html">IntegerLiteral</a>>
+</pre></td></tr>
+
+
+<tr><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1FunctionDecl.html">FunctionDecl</a>></td><td class="name" onclick="toggle('isDefinition2')"><a name="isDefinition2Anchor">isDefinition</a></td><td></td></tr>
+<tr><td colspan="4" class="doc" id="isDefinition2"><pre>Matches if a declaration has a body attached.
+
+Example matches A, va, fa
+  class A {};
+  class B;  Doesn't match, as it has no body.
+  int va;
+  extern int vb;  Doesn't match, as it doesn't define the variable.
+  void fa() {}
+  void fb();  Doesn't match, as it has no body.
+
+Usable as: Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1TagDecl.html">TagDecl</a>>, Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1VarDecl.html">VarDecl</a>>, Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1FunctionDecl.html">FunctionDecl</a>>
+</pre></td></tr>
+
+
+<tr><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1FunctionDecl.html">FunctionDecl</a>></td><td class="name" onclick="toggle('isExplicitTemplateSpecialization0')"><a name="isExplicitTemplateSpecialization0Anchor">isExplicitTemplateSpecialization</a></td><td></td></tr>
+<tr><td colspan="4" class="doc" id="isExplicitTemplateSpecialization0"><pre>Matches explicit template specializations of function, class, or
+static member variable template instantiations.
+
+Given
+  template<typename T> void A(T t) { }
+  template<> void A(int N) { }
+functionDecl(isExplicitTemplateSpecialization())
+  matches the specialization A<int>().
+
+Usable as: Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1FunctionDecl.html">FunctionDecl</a>>, Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1VarDecl.html">VarDecl</a>>, Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1CXXRecordDecl.html">CXXRecordDecl</a>>
+</pre></td></tr>
+
+
+<tr><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1FunctionDecl.html">FunctionDecl</a>></td><td class="name" onclick="toggle('isExternC0')"><a name="isExternC0Anchor">isExternC</a></td><td></td></tr>
+<tr><td colspan="4" class="doc" id="isExternC0"><pre>Matches extern "C" function declarations.
+
+Given:
+  extern "C" void f() {}
+  extern "C" { void g() {} }
+  void h() {}
+functionDecl(isExternC())
+  matches the declaration of f and g, but not the declaration h
+</pre></td></tr>
+
+
+<tr><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1FunctionDecl.html">FunctionDecl</a>></td><td class="name" onclick="toggle('isTemplateInstantiation0')"><a name="isTemplateInstantiation0Anchor">isTemplateInstantiation</a></td><td></td></tr>
+<tr><td colspan="4" class="doc" id="isTemplateInstantiation0"><pre>Matches template instantiations of function, class, or static
+member variable template instantiations.
+
+Given
+  template <typename T> class X {}; class A {}; X<A> x;
+or
+  template <typename T> class X {}; class A {}; template class X<A>;
+recordDecl(hasName("::X"), isTemplateInstantiation())
+  matches the template instantiation of X<A>.
+
+But given
+  template <typename T>  class X {}; class A {};
+  template <> class X<A> {}; X<A> x;
+recordDecl(hasName("::X"), isTemplateInstantiation())
+  does not match, as X<A> is an explicit template specialization.
+
+Usable as: Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1FunctionDecl.html">FunctionDecl</a>>, Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1VarDecl.html">VarDecl</a>>, Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1CXXRecordDecl.html">CXXRecordDecl</a>>
+</pre></td></tr>
+
+
+<tr><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1FunctionDecl.html">FunctionDecl</a>></td><td class="name" onclick="toggle('parameterCountIs0')"><a name="parameterCountIs0Anchor">parameterCountIs</a></td><td>unsigned N</td></tr>
+<tr><td colspan="4" class="doc" id="parameterCountIs0"><pre>Matches FunctionDecls that have a specific parameter count.
+
+Given
+  void f(int i) {}
+  void g(int i, int j) {}
+functionDecl(parameterCountIs(2))
+  matches g(int i, int j) {}
+</pre></td></tr>
+
+
+<tr><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1IntegerLiteral.html">IntegerLiteral</a>></td><td class="name" onclick="toggle('equals0')"><a name="equals0Anchor">equals</a></td><td>ValueT  Value</td></tr>
+<tr><td colspan="4" class="doc" id="equals0"><pre>Matches literals that are equal to the given value.
+
+Example matches true (matcher = boolLiteral(equals(true)))
+  true
+
+Usable as: Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1CharacterLiteral.html">CharacterLiteral</a>>, Matcher<CXXBoolLiteral>,
+           Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1FloatingLiteral.html">FloatingLiteral</a>>, Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1IntegerLiteral.html">IntegerLiteral</a>>
+</pre></td></tr>
+
+
+<tr><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1MemberExpr.html">MemberExpr</a>></td><td class="name" onclick="toggle('isArrow0')"><a name="isArrow0Anchor">isArrow</a></td><td></td></tr>
+<tr><td colspan="4" class="doc" id="isArrow0"><pre>Matches member expressions that are called with '->' as opposed
+to '.'.
+
+Member calls on the implicit this pointer match as called with '->'.
+
+Given
+  class Y {
+    void x() { this->x(); x(); Y y; y.x(); a; this->b; Y::b; }
+    int a;
+    static int b;
+  };
+memberExpr(isArrow())
+  matches this->x, x, y.x, a, this->b
+</pre></td></tr>
+
+
+<tr><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1NamedDecl.html">NamedDecl</a>></td><td class="name" onclick="toggle('hasName0')"><a name="hasName0Anchor">hasName</a></td><td>std::string Name</td></tr>
+<tr><td colspan="4" class="doc" id="hasName0"><pre>Matches NamedDecl nodes that have the specified name.
+
+Supports specifying enclosing namespaces or classes by prefixing the name
+with '<enclosing>::'.
+Does not match typedefs of an underlying type with the given name.
+
+Example matches X (Name == "X")
+  class X;
+
+Example matches X (Name is one of "::a::b::X", "a::b::X", "b::X", "X")
+  namespace a { namespace b { class X; } }
+</pre></td></tr>
+
+
+<tr><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1NamedDecl.html">NamedDecl</a>></td><td class="name" onclick="toggle('matchesName0')"><a name="matchesName0Anchor">matchesName</a></td><td>std::string RegExp</td></tr>
+<tr><td colspan="4" class="doc" id="matchesName0"><pre>Matches NamedDecl nodes whose fully qualified names contain
+a substring matched by the given RegExp.
+
+Supports specifying enclosing namespaces or classes by
+prefixing the name with '<enclosing>::'.  Does not match typedefs
+of an underlying type with the given name.
+
+Example matches X (regexp == "::X")
+  class X;
+
+Example matches X (regexp is one of "::X", "^foo::.*X", among others)
+  namespace foo { namespace bar { class X; } }
+</pre></td></tr>
+
+
+<tr><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1QualType.html">QualType</a>></td><td class="name" onclick="toggle('asString0')"><a name="asString0Anchor">asString</a></td><td>std::string Name</td></tr>
+<tr><td colspan="4" class="doc" id="asString0"><pre>Matches if the matched type is represented by the given string.
+
+Given
+  class Y { public: void x(); };
+  void z() { Y* y; y->x(); }
+callExpr(on(hasType(asString("class Y *"))))
+  matches y->x()
+</pre></td></tr>
+
+
+<tr><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1QualType.html">QualType</a>></td><td class="name" onclick="toggle('equalsBoundNode3')"><a name="equalsBoundNode3Anchor">equalsBoundNode</a></td><td>std::string ID</td></tr>
+<tr><td colspan="4" class="doc" id="equalsBoundNode3"><pre>Matches if a node equals a previously bound node.
+
+Matches a node if it equals the node previously bound to ID.
+
+Given
+  class X { int a; int b; };
+recordDecl(
+    has(fieldDecl(hasName("a"), hasType(type().bind("t")))),
+    has(fieldDecl(hasName("b"), hasType(type(equalsBoundNode("t"))))))
+  matches the class X, as a and b have the same type.
+
+Note that when multiple matches are involved via forEach* matchers,
+equalsBoundNodes acts as a filter.
+For example:
+compoundStmt(
+    forEachDescendant(varDecl().bind("d")),
+    forEachDescendant(declRefExpr(to(decl(equalsBoundNode("d"))))))
+will trigger a match for each combination of variable declaration
+and reference to that variable declaration within a compound statement.
+</pre></td></tr>
+
+
+<tr><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1QualType.html">QualType</a>></td><td class="name" onclick="toggle('hasLocalQualifiers0')"><a name="hasLocalQualifiers0Anchor">hasLocalQualifiers</a></td><td></td></tr>
+<tr><td colspan="4" class="doc" id="hasLocalQualifiers0"><pre>Matches QualType nodes that have local CV-qualifiers attached to
+the node, not hidden within a typedef.
+
+Given
+  typedef const int const_int;
+  const_int i;
+  int *const j;
+  int *volatile k;
+  int m;
+varDecl(hasType(hasLocalQualifiers())) matches only j and k.
+i is const-qualified but the qualifier is not local.
+</pre></td></tr>
+
+
+<tr><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1QualType.html">QualType</a>></td><td class="name" onclick="toggle('isConstQualified0')"><a name="isConstQualified0Anchor">isConstQualified</a></td><td></td></tr>
+<tr><td colspan="4" class="doc" id="isConstQualified0"><pre>Matches QualType nodes that are const-qualified, i.e., that
+include "top-level" const.
+
+Given
+  void a(int);
+  void b(int const);
+  void c(const int);
+  void d(const int*);
+  void e(int const) {};
+functionDecl(hasAnyParameter(hasType(isConstQualified())))
+  matches "void b(int const)", "void c(const int)" and
+  "void e(int const) {}". It does not match d as there
+  is no top-level const on the parameter type "const int *".
+</pre></td></tr>
+
+
+<tr><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1QualType.html">QualType</a>></td><td class="name" onclick="toggle('isInteger0')"><a name="isInteger0Anchor">isInteger</a></td><td></td></tr>
+<tr><td colspan="4" class="doc" id="isInteger0"><pre>Matches QualType nodes that are of integer type.
+
+Given
+  void a(int);
+  void b(long);
+  void c(double);
+functionDecl(hasAnyParameter(hasType(isInteger())))
+matches "a(int)", "b(long)", but not "c(double)".
+</pre></td></tr>
+
+
+<tr><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1Stmt.html">Stmt</a>></td><td class="name" onclick="toggle('equalsBoundNode0')"><a name="equalsBoundNode0Anchor">equalsBoundNode</a></td><td>std::string ID</td></tr>
+<tr><td colspan="4" class="doc" id="equalsBoundNode0"><pre>Matches if a node equals a previously bound node.
+
+Matches a node if it equals the node previously bound to ID.
+
+Given
+  class X { int a; int b; };
+recordDecl(
+    has(fieldDecl(hasName("a"), hasType(type().bind("t")))),
+    has(fieldDecl(hasName("b"), hasType(type(equalsBoundNode("t"))))))
+  matches the class X, as a and b have the same type.
+
+Note that when multiple matches are involved via forEach* matchers,
+equalsBoundNodes acts as a filter.
+For example:
+compoundStmt(
+    forEachDescendant(varDecl().bind("d")),
+    forEachDescendant(declRefExpr(to(decl(equalsBoundNode("d"))))))
+will trigger a match for each combination of variable declaration
+and reference to that variable declaration within a compound statement.
+</pre></td></tr>
+
+
+<tr><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1Stmt.html">Stmt</a>></td><td class="name" onclick="toggle('equalsNode1')"><a name="equalsNode1Anchor">equalsNode</a></td><td>Stmt *Node</td></tr>
+<tr><td colspan="4" class="doc" id="equalsNode1"><pre>Matches if a node equals another node.
+
+Stmt has pointer identity in the AST.
+
+</pre></td></tr>
+
+
+<tr><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1TagDecl.html">TagDecl</a>></td><td class="name" onclick="toggle('isDefinition0')"><a name="isDefinition0Anchor">isDefinition</a></td><td></td></tr>
+<tr><td colspan="4" class="doc" id="isDefinition0"><pre>Matches if a declaration has a body attached.
+
+Example matches A, va, fa
+  class A {};
+  class B;  Doesn't match, as it has no body.
+  int va;
+  extern int vb;  Doesn't match, as it doesn't define the variable.
+  void fa() {}
+  void fb();  Doesn't match, as it has no body.
+
+Usable as: Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1TagDecl.html">TagDecl</a>>, Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1VarDecl.html">VarDecl</a>>, Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1FunctionDecl.html">FunctionDecl</a>>
+</pre></td></tr>
+
+
+<tr><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1Type.html">Type</a>></td><td class="name" onclick="toggle('equalsBoundNode2')"><a name="equalsBoundNode2Anchor">equalsBoundNode</a></td><td>std::string ID</td></tr>
+<tr><td colspan="4" class="doc" id="equalsBoundNode2"><pre>Matches if a node equals a previously bound node.
+
+Matches a node if it equals the node previously bound to ID.
+
+Given
+  class X { int a; int b; };
+recordDecl(
+    has(fieldDecl(hasName("a"), hasType(type().bind("t")))),
+    has(fieldDecl(hasName("b"), hasType(type(equalsBoundNode("t"))))))
+  matches the class X, as a and b have the same type.
+
+Note that when multiple matches are involved via forEach* matchers,
+equalsBoundNodes acts as a filter.
+For example:
+compoundStmt(
+    forEachDescendant(varDecl().bind("d")),
+    forEachDescendant(declRefExpr(to(decl(equalsBoundNode("d"))))))
+will trigger a match for each combination of variable declaration
+and reference to that variable declaration within a compound statement.
+</pre></td></tr>
+
+
+<tr><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1UnaryExprOrTypeTraitExpr.html">UnaryExprOrTypeTraitExpr</a>></td><td class="name" onclick="toggle('ofKind0')"><a name="ofKind0Anchor">ofKind</a></td><td>UnaryExprOrTypeTrait Kind</td></tr>
+<tr><td colspan="4" class="doc" id="ofKind0"><pre>Matches unary expressions of a certain kind.
+
+Given
+  int x;
+  int s = sizeof(x) + alignof(x)
+unaryExprOrTypeTraitExpr(ofKind(UETT_SizeOf))
+  matches sizeof(x)
+</pre></td></tr>
+
+
+<tr><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1UnaryOperator.html">UnaryOperator</a>></td><td class="name" onclick="toggle('hasOperatorName1')"><a name="hasOperatorName1Anchor">hasOperatorName</a></td><td>std::string Name</td></tr>
+<tr><td colspan="4" class="doc" id="hasOperatorName1"><pre>Matches the operator Name of operator expressions (binary or
+unary).
+
+Example matches a || b (matcher = binaryOperator(hasOperatorName("||")))
+  !(a || b)
+</pre></td></tr>
+
+
+<tr><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1VarDecl.html">VarDecl</a>></td><td class="name" onclick="toggle('hasGlobalStorage0')"><a name="hasGlobalStorage0Anchor">hasGlobalStorage</a></td><td></td></tr>
+<tr><td colspan="4" class="doc" id="hasGlobalStorage0"><pre>Matches a variable declaration that does not have local storage.
+
+Example matches y and z (matcher = varDecl(hasGlobalStorage())
+void f() {
+  int x;
+  static int y;
+}
+int z;
+</pre></td></tr>
+
+
+<tr><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1VarDecl.html">VarDecl</a>></td><td class="name" onclick="toggle('hasLocalStorage0')"><a name="hasLocalStorage0Anchor">hasLocalStorage</a></td><td></td></tr>
+<tr><td colspan="4" class="doc" id="hasLocalStorage0"><pre>Matches a variable declaration that has function scope and is a
+non-static local variable.
+
+Example matches x (matcher = varDecl(hasLocalStorage())
+void f() {
+  int x;
+  static int y;
+}
+int z;
+</pre></td></tr>
+
+
+<tr><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1VarDecl.html">VarDecl</a>></td><td class="name" onclick="toggle('isDefinition1')"><a name="isDefinition1Anchor">isDefinition</a></td><td></td></tr>
+<tr><td colspan="4" class="doc" id="isDefinition1"><pre>Matches if a declaration has a body attached.
+
+Example matches A, va, fa
+  class A {};
+  class B;  Doesn't match, as it has no body.
+  int va;
+  extern int vb;  Doesn't match, as it doesn't define the variable.
+  void fa() {}
+  void fb();  Doesn't match, as it has no body.
+
+Usable as: Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1TagDecl.html">TagDecl</a>>, Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1VarDecl.html">VarDecl</a>>, Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1FunctionDecl.html">FunctionDecl</a>>
+</pre></td></tr>
+
+
+<tr><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1VarDecl.html">VarDecl</a>></td><td class="name" onclick="toggle('isExplicitTemplateSpecialization1')"><a name="isExplicitTemplateSpecialization1Anchor">isExplicitTemplateSpecialization</a></td><td></td></tr>
+<tr><td colspan="4" class="doc" id="isExplicitTemplateSpecialization1"><pre>Matches explicit template specializations of function, class, or
+static member variable template instantiations.
+
+Given
+  template<typename T> void A(T t) { }
+  template<> void A(int N) { }
+functionDecl(isExplicitTemplateSpecialization())
+  matches the specialization A<int>().
+
+Usable as: Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1FunctionDecl.html">FunctionDecl</a>>, Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1VarDecl.html">VarDecl</a>>, Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1CXXRecordDecl.html">CXXRecordDecl</a>>
+</pre></td></tr>
+
+
+<tr><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1VarDecl.html">VarDecl</a>></td><td class="name" onclick="toggle('isTemplateInstantiation1')"><a name="isTemplateInstantiation1Anchor">isTemplateInstantiation</a></td><td></td></tr>
+<tr><td colspan="4" class="doc" id="isTemplateInstantiation1"><pre>Matches template instantiations of function, class, or static
+member variable template instantiations.
+
+Given
+  template <typename T> class X {}; class A {}; X<A> x;
+or
+  template <typename T> class X {}; class A {}; template class X<A>;
+recordDecl(hasName("::X"), isTemplateInstantiation())
+  matches the template instantiation of X<A>.
+
+But given
+  template <typename T>  class X {}; class A {};
+  template <> class X<A> {}; X<A> x;
+recordDecl(hasName("::X"), isTemplateInstantiation())
+  does not match, as X<A> is an explicit template specialization.
+
+Usable as: Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1FunctionDecl.html">FunctionDecl</a>>, Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1VarDecl.html">VarDecl</a>>, Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1CXXRecordDecl.html">CXXRecordDecl</a>>
+</pre></td></tr>
+
+<!--END_NARROWING_MATCHERS -->
+</table>
+
+<!-- ======================================================================= -->
+<h2 id="traversal-matchers">AST Traversal Matchers</h2>
+<!-- ======================================================================= -->
+
+<p>Traversal matchers specify the relationship to other nodes that are
+reachable from the current node.</p>
+
+<p>Note that there are special traversal matchers (has, hasDescendant, forEach and
+forEachDescendant) which work on all nodes and allow users to write more generic
+match expressions.</p>
+
+<table>
+<tr style="text-align:left"><th>Return type</th><th>Name</th><th>Parameters</th></tr>
+<!-- START_TRAVERSAL_MATCHERS -->
+
+<tr><td>Matcher<*></td><td class="name" onclick="toggle('eachOf0')"><a name="eachOf0Anchor">eachOf</a></td><td>Matcher<*>, ..., Matcher<*></td></tr>
+<tr><td colspan="4" class="doc" id="eachOf0"><pre>Matches if any of the given matchers matches.
+
+Unlike anyOf, eachOf will generate a match result for each
+matching submatcher.
+
+For example, in:
+  class A { int a; int b; };
+The matcher:
+  recordDecl(eachOf(has(fieldDecl(hasName("a")).bind("v")),
+                    has(fieldDecl(hasName("b")).bind("v"))))
+will generate two results binding "v", the first of which binds
+the field declaration of a, the second the field declaration of
+b.
+
+Usable as: Any Matcher
+</pre></td></tr>
+
+
+<tr><td>Matcher<*></td><td class="name" onclick="toggle('forEachDescendant0')"><a name="forEachDescendant0Anchor">forEachDescendant</a></td><td>Matcher<*></td></tr>
+<tr><td colspan="4" class="doc" id="forEachDescendant0"><pre>Matches AST nodes that have descendant AST nodes that match the
+provided matcher.
+
+Example matches X, A, B, C
+    (matcher = recordDecl(forEachDescendant(recordDecl(hasName("X")))))
+  class X {};  Matches X, because X::X is a class of name X inside X.
+  class A { class X {}; };
+  class B { class C { class X {}; }; };
+
+DescendantT must be an AST base type.
+
+As opposed to 'hasDescendant', 'forEachDescendant' will cause a match for
+each result that matches instead of only on the first one.
+
+Note: Recursively combined ForEachDescendant can cause many matches:
+  recordDecl(forEachDescendant(recordDecl(forEachDescendant(recordDecl()))))
+will match 10 times (plus injected class name matches) on:
+  class A { class B { class C { class D { class E {}; }; }; }; };
+
+Usable as: Any Matcher
+</pre></td></tr>
+
+
+<tr><td>Matcher<*></td><td class="name" onclick="toggle('forEach0')"><a name="forEach0Anchor">forEach</a></td><td>Matcher<*></td></tr>
+<tr><td colspan="4" class="doc" id="forEach0"><pre>Matches AST nodes that have child AST nodes that match the
+provided matcher.
+
+Example matches X, Y (matcher = recordDecl(forEach(recordDecl(hasName("X")))
+  class X {};  Matches X, because X::X is a class of name X inside X.
+  class Y { class X {}; };
+  class Z { class Y { class X {}; }; };  Does not match Z.
+
+ChildT must be an AST base type.
+
+As opposed to 'has', 'forEach' will cause a match for each result that
+matches instead of only on the first one.
+
+Usable as: Any Matcher
+</pre></td></tr>
+
+
+<tr><td>Matcher<*></td><td class="name" onclick="toggle('hasAncestor0')"><a name="hasAncestor0Anchor">hasAncestor</a></td><td>Matcher<*></td></tr>
+<tr><td colspan="4" class="doc" id="hasAncestor0"><pre>Matches AST nodes that have an ancestor that matches the provided
+matcher.
+
+Given
+void f() { if (true) { int x = 42; } }
+void g() { for (;;) { int x = 43; } }
+expr(integerLiteral(hasAncestor(ifStmt()))) matches 42, but not 43.
+
+Usable as: Any Matcher
+</pre></td></tr>
+
+
+<tr><td>Matcher<*></td><td class="name" onclick="toggle('hasDescendant0')"><a name="hasDescendant0Anchor">hasDescendant</a></td><td>Matcher<*></td></tr>
+<tr><td colspan="4" class="doc" id="hasDescendant0"><pre>Matches AST nodes that have descendant AST nodes that match the
+provided matcher.
+
+Example matches X, Y, Z
+    (matcher = recordDecl(hasDescendant(recordDecl(hasName("X")))))
+  class X {};  Matches X, because X::X is a class of name X inside X.
+  class Y { class X {}; };
+  class Z { class Y { class X {}; }; };
+
+DescendantT must be an AST base type.
+
+Usable as: Any Matcher
+</pre></td></tr>
+
+
+<tr><td>Matcher<*></td><td class="name" onclick="toggle('has0')"><a name="has0Anchor">has</a></td><td>Matcher<*></td></tr>
+<tr><td colspan="4" class="doc" id="has0"><pre>Matches AST nodes that have child AST nodes that match the
+provided matcher.
+
+Example matches X, Y (matcher = recordDecl(has(recordDecl(hasName("X")))
+  class X {};  Matches X, because X::X is a class of name X inside X.
+  class Y { class X {}; };
+  class Z { class Y { class X {}; }; };  Does not match Z.
+
+ChildT must be an AST base type.
+
+Usable as: Any Matcher
+</pre></td></tr>
+
+
+<tr><td>Matcher<*></td><td class="name" onclick="toggle('hasParent0')"><a name="hasParent0Anchor">hasParent</a></td><td>Matcher<*></td></tr>
+<tr><td colspan="4" class="doc" id="hasParent0"><pre>Matches AST nodes that have a parent that matches the provided
+matcher.
+
+Given
+void f() { for (;;) { int x = 42; if (true) { int x = 43; } } }
+compoundStmt(hasParent(ifStmt())) matches "{ int x = 43; }".
+
+Usable as: Any Matcher
+</pre></td></tr>
+
+
+<tr><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1ArraySubscriptExpr.html">ArraySubscriptExpr</a>></td><td class="name" onclick="toggle('hasBase0')"><a name="hasBase0Anchor">hasBase</a></td><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1Expr.html">Expr</a>> InnerMatcher</td></tr>
+<tr><td colspan="4" class="doc" id="hasBase0"><pre>Matches the base expression of an array subscript expression.
+
+Given
+  int i[5];
+  void f() { i[1] = 42; }
+arraySubscriptExpression(hasBase(implicitCastExpr(
+    hasSourceExpression(declRefExpr()))))
+  matches i[1] with the declRefExpr() matching i
+</pre></td></tr>
+
+
+<tr><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1ArraySubscriptExpr.html">ArraySubscriptExpr</a>></td><td class="name" onclick="toggle('hasIndex0')"><a name="hasIndex0Anchor">hasIndex</a></td><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1Expr.html">Expr</a>> InnerMatcher</td></tr>
+<tr><td colspan="4" class="doc" id="hasIndex0"><pre>Matches the index expression of an array subscript expression.
+
+Given
+  int i[5];
+  void f() { i[1] = 42; }
+arraySubscriptExpression(hasIndex(integerLiteral()))
+  matches i[1] with the integerLiteral() matching 1
+</pre></td></tr>
+
+
+<tr><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1ArrayTypeLoc.html">ArrayTypeLoc</a>></td><td class="name" onclick="toggle('hasElementTypeLoc0')"><a name="hasElementTypeLoc0Anchor">hasElementTypeLoc</a></td><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1TypeLoc.html">TypeLoc</a>></td></tr>
+<tr><td colspan="4" class="doc" id="hasElementTypeLoc0"><pre>Matches arrays and C99 complex types that have a specific element
+type.
+
+Given
+  struct A {};
+  A a[7];
+  int b[7];
+arrayType(hasElementType(builtinType()))
+  matches "int b[7]"
+
+Usable as: Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1ArrayType.html">ArrayType</a>>, Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1ComplexType.html">ComplexType</a>>
+</pre></td></tr>
+
+
+<tr><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1ArrayType.html">ArrayType</a>></td><td class="name" onclick="toggle('hasElementType0')"><a name="hasElementType0Anchor">hasElementType</a></td><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1Type.html">Type</a>></td></tr>
+<tr><td colspan="4" class="doc" id="hasElementType0"><pre>Matches arrays and C99 complex types that have a specific element
+type.
+
+Given
+  struct A {};
+  A a[7];
+  int b[7];
+arrayType(hasElementType(builtinType()))
+  matches "int b[7]"
+
+Usable as: Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1ArrayType.html">ArrayType</a>>, Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1ComplexType.html">ComplexType</a>>
+</pre></td></tr>
+
+
+<tr><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1AtomicTypeLoc.html">AtomicTypeLoc</a>></td><td class="name" onclick="toggle('hasValueTypeLoc0')"><a name="hasValueTypeLoc0Anchor">hasValueTypeLoc</a></td><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1TypeLoc.html">TypeLoc</a>></td></tr>
+<tr><td colspan="4" class="doc" id="hasValueTypeLoc0"><pre>Matches atomic types with a specific value type.
+
+Given
+  _Atomic(int) i;
+  _Atomic(float) f;
+atomicType(hasValueType(isInteger()))
+ matches "_Atomic(int) i"
+
+Usable as: Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1AtomicType.html">AtomicType</a>>
+</pre></td></tr>
+
+
+<tr><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1AtomicType.html">AtomicType</a>></td><td class="name" onclick="toggle('hasValueType0')"><a name="hasValueType0Anchor">hasValueType</a></td><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1Type.html">Type</a>></td></tr>
+<tr><td colspan="4" class="doc" id="hasValueType0"><pre>Matches atomic types with a specific value type.
+
+Given
+  _Atomic(int) i;
+  _Atomic(float) f;
+atomicType(hasValueType(isInteger()))
+ matches "_Atomic(int) i"
+
+Usable as: Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1AtomicType.html">AtomicType</a>>
+</pre></td></tr>
+
+
+<tr><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1AutoType.html">AutoType</a>></td><td class="name" onclick="toggle('hasDeducedType0')"><a name="hasDeducedType0Anchor">hasDeducedType</a></td><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1Type.html">Type</a>></td></tr>
+<tr><td colspan="4" class="doc" id="hasDeducedType0"><pre>Matches AutoType nodes where the deduced type is a specific type.
+
+Note: There is no TypeLoc for the deduced type and thus no
+getDeducedLoc() matcher.
+
+Given
+  auto a = 1;
+  auto b = 2.0;
+autoType(hasDeducedType(isInteger()))
+  matches "auto a"
+
+Usable as: Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1AutoType.html">AutoType</a>>
+</pre></td></tr>
+
+
+<tr><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1BinaryOperator.html">BinaryOperator</a>></td><td class="name" onclick="toggle('hasEitherOperand0')"><a name="hasEitherOperand0Anchor">hasEitherOperand</a></td><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1Expr.html">Expr</a>>  InnerMatcher</td></tr>
+<tr><td colspan="4" class="doc" id="hasEitherOperand0"><pre>Matches if either the left hand side or the right hand side of a
+binary operator matches.
+</pre></td></tr>
+
+
+<tr><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1BinaryOperator.html">BinaryOperator</a>></td><td class="name" onclick="toggle('hasLHS0')"><a name="hasLHS0Anchor">hasLHS</a></td><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1Expr.html">Expr</a>> InnerMatcher</td></tr>
+<tr><td colspan="4" class="doc" id="hasLHS0"><pre>Matches the left hand side of binary operator expressions.
+
+Example matches a (matcher = binaryOperator(hasLHS()))
+  a || b
+</pre></td></tr>
+
+
+<tr><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1BinaryOperator.html">BinaryOperator</a>></td><td class="name" onclick="toggle('hasRHS0')"><a name="hasRHS0Anchor">hasRHS</a></td><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1Expr.html">Expr</a>> InnerMatcher</td></tr>
+<tr><td colspan="4" class="doc" id="hasRHS0"><pre>Matches the right hand side of binary operator expressions.
+
+Example matches b (matcher = binaryOperator(hasRHS()))
+  a || b
+</pre></td></tr>
+
+
+<tr><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1BlockPointerTypeLoc.html">BlockPointerTypeLoc</a>></td><td class="name" onclick="toggle('pointeeLoc0')"><a name="pointeeLoc0Anchor">pointeeLoc</a></td><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1TypeLoc.html">TypeLoc</a>></td></tr>
+<tr><td colspan="4" class="doc" id="pointeeLoc0"><pre>Narrows PointerType (and similar) matchers to those where the
+pointee matches a given matcher.
+
+Given
+  int *a;
+  int const *b;
+  float const *f;
+pointerType(pointee(isConstQualified(), isInteger()))
+  matches "int const *b"
+
+Usable as: Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1BlockPointerType.html">BlockPointerType</a>>, Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1MemberPointerType.html">MemberPointerType</a>>,
+  Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1PointerType.html">PointerType</a>>, Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1ReferenceType.html">ReferenceType</a>>
+</pre></td></tr>
+
+
+<tr><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1BlockPointerType.html">BlockPointerType</a>></td><td class="name" onclick="toggle('pointee0')"><a name="pointee0Anchor">pointee</a></td><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1Type.html">Type</a>></td></tr>
+<tr><td colspan="4" class="doc" id="pointee0"><pre>Narrows PointerType (and similar) matchers to those where the
+pointee matches a given matcher.
+
+Given
+  int *a;
+  int const *b;
+  float const *f;
+pointerType(pointee(isConstQualified(), isInteger()))
+  matches "int const *b"
+
+Usable as: Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1BlockPointerType.html">BlockPointerType</a>>, Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1MemberPointerType.html">MemberPointerType</a>>,
+  Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1PointerType.html">PointerType</a>>, Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1ReferenceType.html">ReferenceType</a>>
+</pre></td></tr>
+
+
+<tr><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1CXXConstructExpr.html">CXXConstructExpr</a>></td><td class="name" onclick="toggle('hasAnyArgument1')"><a name="hasAnyArgument1Anchor">hasAnyArgument</a></td><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1Expr.html">Expr</a>> InnerMatcher</td></tr>
+<tr><td colspan="4" class="doc" id="hasAnyArgument1"><pre>Matches any argument of a call expression or a constructor call
+expression.
+
+Given
+  void x(int, int, int) { int y; x(1, y, 42); }
+callExpr(hasAnyArgument(declRefExpr()))
+  matches x(1, y, 42)
+with hasAnyArgument(...)
+  matching y
+
+FIXME: Currently this will ignore parentheses and implicit casts on
+the argument before applying the inner matcher. We'll want to remove
+this to allow for greater control by the user once ignoreImplicit()
+has been implemented.
+</pre></td></tr>
+
+
+<tr><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1CXXConstructExpr.html">CXXConstructExpr</a>></td><td class="name" onclick="toggle('hasArgument1')"><a name="hasArgument1Anchor">hasArgument</a></td><td>unsigned N, Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1Expr.html">Expr</a>> InnerMatcher</td></tr>
+<tr><td colspan="4" class="doc" id="hasArgument1"><pre>Matches the n'th argument of a call expression or a constructor
+call expression.
+
+Example matches y in x(y)
+    (matcher = callExpr(hasArgument(0, declRefExpr())))
+  void x(int) { int y; x(y); }
+</pre></td></tr>
+
+
+<tr><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1CXXConstructExpr.html">CXXConstructExpr</a>></td><td class="name" onclick="toggle('hasDeclaration12')"><a name="hasDeclaration12Anchor">hasDeclaration</a></td><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1Decl.html">Decl</a>>  InnerMatcher</td></tr>
+<tr><td colspan="4" class="doc" id="hasDeclaration12"><pre>Matches a node if the declaration associated with that node
+matches the given matcher.
+
+The associated declaration is:
+- for type nodes, the declaration of the underlying type
+- for CallExpr, the declaration of the callee
+- for MemberExpr, the declaration of the referenced member
+- for CXXConstructExpr, the declaration of the constructor
+
+Also usable as Matcher<T> for any T supporting the getDecl() member
+function. e.g. various subtypes of clang::Type and various expressions.
+
+Usable as: Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1CallExpr.html">CallExpr</a>>, Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1CXXConstructExpr.html">CXXConstructExpr</a>>,
+  Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1DeclRefExpr.html">DeclRefExpr</a>>, Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1EnumType.html">EnumType</a>>, Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1InjectedClassNameType.html">InjectedClassNameType</a>>,
+  Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1LabelStmt.html">LabelStmt</a>>, Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1MemberExpr.html">MemberExpr</a>>, Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1QualType.html">QualType</a>>,
+  Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1RecordType.html">RecordType</a>>, Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1TagType.html">TagType</a>>,
+  Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1TemplateSpecializationType.html">TemplateSpecializationType</a>>, Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1TemplateTypeParmType.html">TemplateTypeParmType</a>>,
+  Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1TypedefType.html">TypedefType</a>>, Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1UnresolvedUsingType.html">UnresolvedUsingType</a>>
+</pre></td></tr>
+
+
+<tr><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1CXXConstructorDecl.html">CXXConstructorDecl</a>></td><td class="name" onclick="toggle('forEachConstructorInitializer0')"><a name="forEachConstructorInitializer0Anchor">forEachConstructorInitializer</a></td><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1CXXCtorInitializer.html">CXXCtorInitializer</a>> InnerMatcher</td></tr>
+<tr><td colspan="4" class="doc" id="forEachConstructorInitializer0"><pre>Matches each constructor initializer in a constructor definition.
+
+Given
+  class A { A() : i(42), j(42) {} int i; int j; };
+constructorDecl(forEachConstructorInitializer(forField(decl().bind("x"))))
+  will trigger two matches, binding for 'i' and 'j' respectively.
+</pre></td></tr>
+
+
+<tr><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1CXXConstructorDecl.html">CXXConstructorDecl</a>></td><td class="name" onclick="toggle('hasAnyConstructorInitializer0')"><a name="hasAnyConstructorInitializer0Anchor">hasAnyConstructorInitializer</a></td><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1CXXCtorInitializer.html">CXXCtorInitializer</a>> InnerMatcher</td></tr>
+<tr><td colspan="4" class="doc" id="hasAnyConstructorInitializer0"><pre>Matches a constructor initializer.
+
+Given
+  struct Foo {
+    Foo() : foo_(1) { }
+    int foo_;
+  };
+recordDecl(has(constructorDecl(hasAnyConstructorInitializer(anything()))))
+  record matches Foo, hasAnyConstructorInitializer matches foo_(1)
+</pre></td></tr>
+
+
+<tr><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1CXXCtorInitializer.html">CXXCtorInitializer</a>></td><td class="name" onclick="toggle('forField0')"><a name="forField0Anchor">forField</a></td><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1FieldDecl.html">FieldDecl</a>> InnerMatcher</td></tr>
+<tr><td colspan="4" class="doc" id="forField0"><pre>Matches the field declaration of a constructor initializer.
+
+Given
+  struct Foo {
+    Foo() : foo_(1) { }
+    int foo_;
+  };
+recordDecl(has(constructorDecl(hasAnyConstructorInitializer(
+    forField(hasName("foo_"))))))
+  matches Foo
+with forField matching foo_
+</pre></td></tr>
+
+
+<tr><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1CXXCtorInitializer.html">CXXCtorInitializer</a>></td><td class="name" onclick="toggle('withInitializer0')"><a name="withInitializer0Anchor">withInitializer</a></td><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1Expr.html">Expr</a>> InnerMatcher</td></tr>
+<tr><td colspan="4" class="doc" id="withInitializer0"><pre>Matches the initializer expression of a constructor initializer.
+
+Given
+  struct Foo {
+    Foo() : foo_(1) { }
+    int foo_;
+  };
+recordDecl(has(constructorDecl(hasAnyConstructorInitializer(
+    withInitializer(integerLiteral(equals(1)))))))
+  matches Foo
+with withInitializer matching (1)
+</pre></td></tr>
+
+
+<tr><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1CXXForRangeStmt.html">CXXForRangeStmt</a>></td><td class="name" onclick="toggle('hasBody3')"><a name="hasBody3Anchor">hasBody</a></td><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1Stmt.html">Stmt</a>> InnerMatcher</td></tr>
+<tr><td colspan="4" class="doc" id="hasBody3"><pre>Matches a 'for', 'while', or 'do while' statement that has
+a given body.
+
+Given
+  for (;;) {}
+hasBody(compoundStmt())
+  matches 'for (;;) {}'
+with compoundStmt()
+  matching '{}'
+</pre></td></tr>
+
+
+<tr><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1CXXForRangeStmt.html">CXXForRangeStmt</a>></td><td class="name" onclick="toggle('hasLoopVariable0')"><a name="hasLoopVariable0Anchor">hasLoopVariable</a></td><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1VarDecl.html">VarDecl</a>> InnerMatcher</td></tr>
+<tr><td colspan="4" class="doc" id="hasLoopVariable0"><pre>Matches the initialization statement of a for loop.
+
+Example:
+    forStmt(hasLoopVariable(anything()))
+matches 'int x' in
+    for (int x : a) { }
+</pre></td></tr>
+
+
+<tr><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1CXXForRangeStmt.html">CXXForRangeStmt</a>></td><td class="name" onclick="toggle('hasRangeInit0')"><a name="hasRangeInit0Anchor">hasRangeInit</a></td><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1Expr.html">Expr</a>> InnerMatcher</td></tr>
+<tr><td colspan="4" class="doc" id="hasRangeInit0"><pre>Matches the range initialization statement of a for loop.
+
+Example:
+    forStmt(hasRangeInit(anything()))
+matches 'a' in
+    for (int x : a) { }
+</pre></td></tr>
+
+
+<tr><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1CXXMemberCallExpr.html">CXXMemberCallExpr</a>></td><td class="name" onclick="toggle('onImplicitObjectArgument0')"><a name="onImplicitObjectArgument0Anchor">onImplicitObjectArgument</a></td><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1Expr.html">Expr</a>> InnerMatcher</td></tr>
+<tr><td colspan="4" class="doc" id="onImplicitObjectArgument0"><pre></pre></td></tr>
+
+
+<tr><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1CXXMemberCallExpr.html">CXXMemberCallExpr</a>></td><td class="name" onclick="toggle('on0')"><a name="on0Anchor">on</a></td><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1Expr.html">Expr</a>> InnerMatcher</td></tr>
+<tr><td colspan="4" class="doc" id="on0"><pre>Matches on the implicit object argument of a member call expression.
+
+Example matches y.x() (matcher = callExpr(on(hasType(recordDecl(hasName("Y"))))))
+  class Y { public: void x(); };
+  void z() { Y y; y.x(); }",
+
+FIXME: Overload to allow directly matching types?
+</pre></td></tr>
+
+
+<tr><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1CXXMemberCallExpr.html">CXXMemberCallExpr</a>></td><td class="name" onclick="toggle('thisPointerType1')"><a name="thisPointerType1Anchor">thisPointerType</a></td><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1Decl.html">Decl</a>> InnerMatcher</td></tr>
+<tr><td colspan="4" class="doc" id="thisPointerType1"><pre>Overloaded to match the type's declaration.
+</pre></td></tr>
+
+
+<tr><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1CXXMemberCallExpr.html">CXXMemberCallExpr</a>></td><td class="name" onclick="toggle('thisPointerType0')"><a name="thisPointerType0Anchor">thisPointerType</a></td><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1QualType.html">QualType</a>> InnerMatcher</td></tr>
+<tr><td colspan="4" class="doc" id="thisPointerType0"><pre>Matches if the expression's type either matches the specified
+matcher, or is a pointer to a type that matches the InnerMatcher.
+</pre></td></tr>
+
+
+<tr><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1CXXMethodDecl.html">CXXMethodDecl</a>></td><td class="name" onclick="toggle('ofClass0')"><a name="ofClass0Anchor">ofClass</a></td><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1CXXRecordDecl.html">CXXRecordDecl</a>> InnerMatcher</td></tr>
+<tr><td colspan="4" class="doc" id="ofClass0"><pre>Matches the class declaration that the given method declaration
+belongs to.
+
+FIXME: Generalize this for other kinds of declarations.
+FIXME: What other kind of declarations would we need to generalize
+this to?
+
+Example matches A() in the last line
+    (matcher = constructExpr(hasDeclaration(methodDecl(
+        ofClass(hasName("A"))))))
+  class A {
+   public:
+    A();
+  };
+  A a = A();
+</pre></td></tr>
+
+
+<tr><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1CXXRecordDecl.html">CXXRecordDecl</a>></td><td class="name" onclick="toggle('hasMethod0')"><a name="hasMethod0Anchor">hasMethod</a></td><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1CXXMethodDecl.html">CXXMethodDecl</a>> InnerMatcher</td></tr>
+<tr><td colspan="4" class="doc" id="hasMethod0"><pre>Matches the first method of a class or struct that satisfies InnerMatcher.
+
+Given:
+  class A { void func(); };
+  class B { void member(); };
+
+recordDecl(hasMethod(hasName("func"))) matches the declaration of A
+but not B.
+</pre></td></tr>
+
+
+<tr><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1CXXRecordDecl.html">CXXRecordDecl</a>></td><td class="name" onclick="toggle('isDerivedFrom0')"><a name="isDerivedFrom0Anchor">isDerivedFrom</a></td><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1NamedDecl.html">NamedDecl</a>> Base</td></tr>
+<tr><td colspan="4" class="doc" id="isDerivedFrom0"><pre>Matches C++ classes that are directly or indirectly derived from
+a class matching Base.
+
+Note that a class is not considered to be derived from itself.
+
+Example matches Y, Z, C (Base == hasName("X"))
+  class X;
+  class Y : public X {};  directly derived
+  class Z : public Y {};  indirectly derived
+  typedef X A;
+  typedef A B;
+  class C : public B {};  derived from a typedef of X
+
+In the following example, Bar matches isDerivedFrom(hasName("X")):
+  class Foo;
+  typedef Foo X;
+  class Bar : public Foo {};  derived from a type that X is a typedef of
+</pre></td></tr>
+
+
+<tr><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1CXXRecordDecl.html">CXXRecordDecl</a>></td><td class="name" onclick="toggle('isSameOrDerivedFrom0')"><a name="isSameOrDerivedFrom0Anchor">isSameOrDerivedFrom</a></td><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1NamedDecl.html">NamedDecl</a>> Base</td></tr>
+<tr><td colspan="4" class="doc" id="isSameOrDerivedFrom0"><pre>Similar to isDerivedFrom(), but also matches classes that directly
+match Base.
+</pre></td></tr>
+
+
+<tr><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1CallExpr.html">CallExpr</a>></td><td class="name" onclick="toggle('callee1')"><a name="callee1Anchor">callee</a></td><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1Decl.html">Decl</a>> InnerMatcher</td></tr>
+<tr><td colspan="4" class="doc" id="callee1"><pre>Matches if the call expression's callee's declaration matches the
+given matcher.
+
+Example matches y.x() (matcher = callExpr(callee(methodDecl(hasName("x")))))
+  class Y { public: void x(); };
+  void z() { Y y; y.x();
+</pre></td></tr>
+
+
+<tr><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1CallExpr.html">CallExpr</a>></td><td class="name" onclick="toggle('callee0')"><a name="callee0Anchor">callee</a></td><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1Stmt.html">Stmt</a>> InnerMatcher</td></tr>
+<tr><td colspan="4" class="doc" id="callee0"><pre>Matches if the call expression's callee expression matches.
+
+Given
+  class Y { void x() { this->x(); x(); Y y; y.x(); } };
+  void f() { f(); }
+callExpr(callee(expr()))
+  matches this->x(), x(), y.x(), f()
+with callee(...)
+  matching this->x, x, y.x, f respectively
+
+Note: Callee cannot take the more general internal::Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1Expr.html">Expr</a>>
+because this introduces ambiguous overloads with calls to Callee taking a
+internal::Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1Decl.html">Decl</a>>, as the matcher hierarchy is purely
+implemented in terms of implicit casts.
+</pre></td></tr>
+
+
+<tr><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1CallExpr.html">CallExpr</a>></td><td class="name" onclick="toggle('hasAnyArgument0')"><a name="hasAnyArgument0Anchor">hasAnyArgument</a></td><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1Expr.html">Expr</a>> InnerMatcher</td></tr>
+<tr><td colspan="4" class="doc" id="hasAnyArgument0"><pre>Matches any argument of a call expression or a constructor call
+expression.
+
+Given
+  void x(int, int, int) { int y; x(1, y, 42); }
+callExpr(hasAnyArgument(declRefExpr()))
+  matches x(1, y, 42)
+with hasAnyArgument(...)
+  matching y
+
+FIXME: Currently this will ignore parentheses and implicit casts on
+the argument before applying the inner matcher. We'll want to remove
+this to allow for greater control by the user once ignoreImplicit()
+has been implemented.
+</pre></td></tr>
+
+
+<tr><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1CallExpr.html">CallExpr</a>></td><td class="name" onclick="toggle('hasArgument0')"><a name="hasArgument0Anchor">hasArgument</a></td><td>unsigned N, Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1Expr.html">Expr</a>> InnerMatcher</td></tr>
+<tr><td colspan="4" class="doc" id="hasArgument0"><pre>Matches the n'th argument of a call expression or a constructor
+call expression.
+
+Example matches y in x(y)
+    (matcher = callExpr(hasArgument(0, declRefExpr())))
+  void x(int) { int y; x(y); }
+</pre></td></tr>
+
+
+<tr><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1CallExpr.html">CallExpr</a>></td><td class="name" onclick="toggle('hasDeclaration13')"><a name="hasDeclaration13Anchor">hasDeclaration</a></td><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1Decl.html">Decl</a>>  InnerMatcher</td></tr>
+<tr><td colspan="4" class="doc" id="hasDeclaration13"><pre>Matches a node if the declaration associated with that node
+matches the given matcher.
+
+The associated declaration is:
+- for type nodes, the declaration of the underlying type
+- for CallExpr, the declaration of the callee
+- for MemberExpr, the declaration of the referenced member
+- for CXXConstructExpr, the declaration of the constructor
+
+Also usable as Matcher<T> for any T supporting the getDecl() member
+function. e.g. various subtypes of clang::Type and various expressions.
+
+Usable as: Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1CallExpr.html">CallExpr</a>>, Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1CXXConstructExpr.html">CXXConstructExpr</a>>,
+  Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1DeclRefExpr.html">DeclRefExpr</a>>, Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1EnumType.html">EnumType</a>>, Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1InjectedClassNameType.html">InjectedClassNameType</a>>,
+  Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1LabelStmt.html">LabelStmt</a>>, Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1MemberExpr.html">MemberExpr</a>>, Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1QualType.html">QualType</a>>,
+  Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1RecordType.html">RecordType</a>>, Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1TagType.html">TagType</a>>,
+  Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1TemplateSpecializationType.html">TemplateSpecializationType</a>>, Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1TemplateTypeParmType.html">TemplateTypeParmType</a>>,
+  Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1TypedefType.html">TypedefType</a>>, Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1UnresolvedUsingType.html">UnresolvedUsingType</a>>
+</pre></td></tr>
+
+
+<tr><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1CaseStmt.html">CaseStmt</a>></td><td class="name" onclick="toggle('hasCaseConstant0')"><a name="hasCaseConstant0Anchor">hasCaseConstant</a></td><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1Expr.html">Expr</a>> InnerMatcher</td></tr>
+<tr><td colspan="4" class="doc" id="hasCaseConstant0"><pre>If the given case statement does not use the GNU case range
+extension, matches the constant given in the statement.
+
+Given
+  switch (1) { case 1: case 1+1: case 3 ... 4: ; }
+caseStmt(hasCaseConstant(integerLiteral()))
+  matches "case 1:"
+</pre></td></tr>
+
+
+<tr><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1CastExpr.html">CastExpr</a>></td><td class="name" onclick="toggle('hasSourceExpression0')"><a name="hasSourceExpression0Anchor">hasSourceExpression</a></td><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1Expr.html">Expr</a>> InnerMatcher</td></tr>
+<tr><td colspan="4" class="doc" id="hasSourceExpression0"><pre>Matches if the cast's source expression matches the given matcher.
+
+Example: matches "a string" (matcher =
+                                 hasSourceExpression(constructExpr()))
+class URL { URL(string); };
+URL url = "a string";
+</pre></td></tr>
+
+
+<tr><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1ClassTemplateSpecializationDecl.html">ClassTemplateSpecializationDecl</a>></td><td class="name" onclick="toggle('hasAnyTemplateArgument0')"><a name="hasAnyTemplateArgument0Anchor">hasAnyTemplateArgument</a></td><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1TemplateArgument.html">TemplateArgument</a>> InnerMatcher</td></tr>
+<tr><td colspan="4" class="doc" id="hasAnyTemplateArgument0"><pre>Matches classTemplateSpecializations that have at least one
+TemplateArgument matching the given InnerMatcher.
+
+Given
+  template<typename T> class A {};
+  template<> class A<double> {};
+  A<int> a;
+classTemplateSpecializationDecl(hasAnyTemplateArgument(
+    refersToType(asString("int"))))
+  matches the specialization A<int>
+</pre></td></tr>
+
+
+<tr><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1ClassTemplateSpecializationDecl.html">ClassTemplateSpecializationDecl</a>></td><td class="name" onclick="toggle('hasTemplateArgument0')"><a name="hasTemplateArgument0Anchor">hasTemplateArgument</a></td><td>unsigned N, Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1TemplateArgument.html">TemplateArgument</a>> InnerMatcher</td></tr>
+<tr><td colspan="4" class="doc" id="hasTemplateArgument0"><pre>Matches classTemplateSpecializations where the n'th TemplateArgument
+matches the given InnerMatcher.
+
+Given
+  template<typename T, typename U> class A {};
+  A<bool, int> b;
+  A<int, bool> c;
+classTemplateSpecializationDecl(hasTemplateArgument(
+    1, refersToType(asString("int"))))
+  matches the specialization A<bool, int>
+</pre></td></tr>
+
+
+<tr><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1ComplexTypeLoc.html">ComplexTypeLoc</a>></td><td class="name" onclick="toggle('hasElementTypeLoc1')"><a name="hasElementTypeLoc1Anchor">hasElementTypeLoc</a></td><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1TypeLoc.html">TypeLoc</a>></td></tr>
+<tr><td colspan="4" class="doc" id="hasElementTypeLoc1"><pre>Matches arrays and C99 complex types that have a specific element
+type.
+
+Given
+  struct A {};
+  A a[7];
+  int b[7];
+arrayType(hasElementType(builtinType()))
+  matches "int b[7]"
+
+Usable as: Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1ArrayType.html">ArrayType</a>>, Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1ComplexType.html">ComplexType</a>>
+</pre></td></tr>
+
+
+<tr><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1ComplexType.html">ComplexType</a>></td><td class="name" onclick="toggle('hasElementType1')"><a name="hasElementType1Anchor">hasElementType</a></td><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1Type.html">Type</a>></td></tr>
+<tr><td colspan="4" class="doc" id="hasElementType1"><pre>Matches arrays and C99 complex types that have a specific element
+type.
+
+Given
+  struct A {};
+  A a[7];
+  int b[7];
+arrayType(hasElementType(builtinType()))
+  matches "int b[7]"
+
+Usable as: Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1ArrayType.html">ArrayType</a>>, Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1ComplexType.html">ComplexType</a>>
+</pre></td></tr>
+
+
+<tr><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1CompoundStmt.html">CompoundStmt</a>></td><td class="name" onclick="toggle('hasAnySubstatement0')"><a name="hasAnySubstatement0Anchor">hasAnySubstatement</a></td><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1Stmt.html">Stmt</a>> InnerMatcher</td></tr>
+<tr><td colspan="4" class="doc" id="hasAnySubstatement0"><pre>Matches compound statements where at least one substatement matches
+a given matcher.
+
+Given
+  { {}; 1+2; }
+hasAnySubstatement(compoundStmt())
+  matches '{ {}; 1+2; }'
+with compoundStmt()
+  matching '{}'
+</pre></td></tr>
+
+
+<tr><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1ConditionalOperator.html">ConditionalOperator</a>></td><td class="name" onclick="toggle('hasCondition4')"><a name="hasCondition4Anchor">hasCondition</a></td><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1Expr.html">Expr</a>> InnerMatcher</td></tr>
+<tr><td colspan="4" class="doc" id="hasCondition4"><pre>Matches the condition expression of an if statement, for loop,
+or conditional operator.
+
+Example matches true (matcher = hasCondition(boolLiteral(equals(true))))
+  if (true) {}
+</pre></td></tr>
+
+
+<tr><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1ConditionalOperator.html">ConditionalOperator</a>></td><td class="name" onclick="toggle('hasFalseExpression0')"><a name="hasFalseExpression0Anchor">hasFalseExpression</a></td><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1Expr.html">Expr</a>> InnerMatcher</td></tr>
+<tr><td colspan="4" class="doc" id="hasFalseExpression0"><pre>Matches the false branch expression of a conditional operator.
+
+Example matches b
+  condition ? a : b
+</pre></td></tr>
+
+
+<tr><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1ConditionalOperator.html">ConditionalOperator</a>></td><td class="name" onclick="toggle('hasTrueExpression0')"><a name="hasTrueExpression0Anchor">hasTrueExpression</a></td><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1Expr.html">Expr</a>> InnerMatcher</td></tr>
+<tr><td colspan="4" class="doc" id="hasTrueExpression0"><pre>Matches the true branch expression of a conditional operator.
+
+Example matches a
+  condition ? a : b
+</pre></td></tr>
+
+
+<tr><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1DeclRefExpr.html">DeclRefExpr</a>></td><td class="name" onclick="toggle('hasDeclaration11')"><a name="hasDeclaration11Anchor">hasDeclaration</a></td><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1Decl.html">Decl</a>>  InnerMatcher</td></tr>
+<tr><td colspan="4" class="doc" id="hasDeclaration11"><pre>Matches a node if the declaration associated with that node
+matches the given matcher.
+
+The associated declaration is:
+- for type nodes, the declaration of the underlying type
+- for CallExpr, the declaration of the callee
+- for MemberExpr, the declaration of the referenced member
+- for CXXConstructExpr, the declaration of the constructor
+
+Also usable as Matcher<T> for any T supporting the getDecl() member
+function. e.g. various subtypes of clang::Type and various expressions.
+
+Usable as: Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1CallExpr.html">CallExpr</a>>, Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1CXXConstructExpr.html">CXXConstructExpr</a>>,
+  Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1DeclRefExpr.html">DeclRefExpr</a>>, Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1EnumType.html">EnumType</a>>, Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1InjectedClassNameType.html">InjectedClassNameType</a>>,
+  Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1LabelStmt.html">LabelStmt</a>>, Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1MemberExpr.html">MemberExpr</a>>, Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1QualType.html">QualType</a>>,
+  Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1RecordType.html">RecordType</a>>, Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1TagType.html">TagType</a>>,
+  Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1TemplateSpecializationType.html">TemplateSpecializationType</a>>, Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1TemplateTypeParmType.html">TemplateTypeParmType</a>>,
+  Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1TypedefType.html">TypedefType</a>>, Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1UnresolvedUsingType.html">UnresolvedUsingType</a>>
+</pre></td></tr>
+
+
+<tr><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1DeclRefExpr.html">DeclRefExpr</a>></td><td class="name" onclick="toggle('throughUsingDecl0')"><a name="throughUsingDecl0Anchor">throughUsingDecl</a></td><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1UsingShadowDecl.html">UsingShadowDecl</a>> InnerMatcher</td></tr>
+<tr><td colspan="4" class="doc" id="throughUsingDecl0"><pre>Matches a DeclRefExpr that refers to a declaration through a
+specific using shadow declaration.
+
+FIXME: This currently only works for functions. Fix.
+
+Given
+  namespace a { void f() {} }
+  using a::f;
+  void g() {
+    f();     Matches this ..
+    a::f();  .. but not this.
+  }
+declRefExpr(throughUsingDeclaration(anything()))
+  matches f()
+</pre></td></tr>
+
+
+<tr><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1DeclRefExpr.html">DeclRefExpr</a>></td><td class="name" onclick="toggle('to0')"><a name="to0Anchor">to</a></td><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1Decl.html">Decl</a>> InnerMatcher</td></tr>
+<tr><td colspan="4" class="doc" id="to0"><pre>Matches a DeclRefExpr that refers to a declaration that matches the
+specified matcher.
+
+Example matches x in if(x)
+    (matcher = declRefExpr(to(varDecl(hasName("x")))))
+  bool x;
+  if (x) {}
+</pre></td></tr>
+
+
+<tr><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1DeclStmt.html">DeclStmt</a>></td><td class="name" onclick="toggle('containsDeclaration0')"><a name="containsDeclaration0Anchor">containsDeclaration</a></td><td>unsigned N, Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1Decl.html">Decl</a>> InnerMatcher</td></tr>
+<tr><td colspan="4" class="doc" id="containsDeclaration0"><pre>Matches the n'th declaration of a declaration statement.
+
+Note that this does not work for global declarations because the AST
+breaks up multiple-declaration DeclStmt's into multiple single-declaration
+DeclStmt's.
+Example: Given non-global declarations
+  int a, b = 0;
+  int c;
+  int d = 2, e;
+declStmt(containsDeclaration(
+      0, varDecl(hasInitializer(anything()))))
+  matches only 'int d = 2, e;', and
+declStmt(containsDeclaration(1, varDecl()))
+  matches 'int a, b = 0' as well as 'int d = 2, e;'
+  but 'int c;' is not matched.
+</pre></td></tr>
+
+
+<tr><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1DeclStmt.html">DeclStmt</a>></td><td class="name" onclick="toggle('hasSingleDecl0')"><a name="hasSingleDecl0Anchor">hasSingleDecl</a></td><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1Decl.html">Decl</a>> InnerMatcher</td></tr>
+<tr><td colspan="4" class="doc" id="hasSingleDecl0"><pre>Matches the Decl of a DeclStmt which has a single declaration.
+
+Given
+  int a, b;
+  int c;
+declStmt(hasSingleDecl(anything()))
+  matches 'int c;' but not 'int a, b;'.
+</pre></td></tr>
+
+
+<tr><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1DeclaratorDecl.html">DeclaratorDecl</a>></td><td class="name" onclick="toggle('hasTypeLoc0')"><a name="hasTypeLoc0Anchor">hasTypeLoc</a></td><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1TypeLoc.html">TypeLoc</a>> Inner</td></tr>
+<tr><td colspan="4" class="doc" id="hasTypeLoc0"><pre>Matches if the type location of the declarator decl's type matches
+the inner matcher.
+
+Given
+  int x;
+declaratorDecl(hasTypeLoc(loc(asString("int"))))
+  matches int x
+</pre></td></tr>
+
+
+<tr><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1Decl.html">Decl</a>></td><td class="name" onclick="toggle('hasDeclContext0')"><a name="hasDeclContext0Anchor">hasDeclContext</a></td><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1Decl.html">Decl</a>> InnerMatcher</td></tr>
+<tr><td colspan="4" class="doc" id="hasDeclContext0"><pre>Matches declarations whose declaration context, interpreted as a
+Decl, matches InnerMatcher.
+
+Given
+  namespace N {
+    namespace M {
+      class D {};
+    }
+  }
+
+recordDecl(hasDeclContext(namedDecl(hasName("M")))) matches the
+declaration of class D.
+</pre></td></tr>
+
+
+<tr><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1DoStmt.html">DoStmt</a>></td><td class="name" onclick="toggle('hasBody0')"><a name="hasBody0Anchor">hasBody</a></td><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1Stmt.html">Stmt</a>> InnerMatcher</td></tr>
+<tr><td colspan="4" class="doc" id="hasBody0"><pre>Matches a 'for', 'while', or 'do while' statement that has
+a given body.
+
+Given
+  for (;;) {}
+hasBody(compoundStmt())
+  matches 'for (;;) {}'
+with compoundStmt()
+  matching '{}'
+</pre></td></tr>
+
+
+<tr><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1DoStmt.html">DoStmt</a>></td><td class="name" onclick="toggle('hasCondition3')"><a name="hasCondition3Anchor">hasCondition</a></td><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1Expr.html">Expr</a>> InnerMatcher</td></tr>
+<tr><td colspan="4" class="doc" id="hasCondition3"><pre>Matches the condition expression of an if statement, for loop,
+or conditional operator.
+
+Example matches true (matcher = hasCondition(boolLiteral(equals(true))))
+  if (true) {}
+</pre></td></tr>
+
+
+<tr><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1ElaboratedType.html">ElaboratedType</a>></td><td class="name" onclick="toggle('hasQualifier0')"><a name="hasQualifier0Anchor">hasQualifier</a></td><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1NestedNameSpecifier.html">NestedNameSpecifier</a>> InnerMatcher</td></tr>
+<tr><td colspan="4" class="doc" id="hasQualifier0"><pre>Matches ElaboratedTypes whose qualifier, a NestedNameSpecifier,
+matches InnerMatcher if the qualifier exists.
+
+Given
+  namespace N {
+    namespace M {
+      class D {};
+    }
+  }
+  N::M::D d;
+
+elaboratedType(hasQualifier(hasPrefix(specifiesNamespace(hasName("N"))))
+matches the type of the variable declaration of d.
+</pre></td></tr>
+
+
+<tr><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1ElaboratedType.html">ElaboratedType</a>></td><td class="name" onclick="toggle('namesType0')"><a name="namesType0Anchor">namesType</a></td><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1QualType.html">QualType</a>> InnerMatcher</td></tr>
+<tr><td colspan="4" class="doc" id="namesType0"><pre>Matches ElaboratedTypes whose named type matches InnerMatcher.
+
+Given
+  namespace N {
+    namespace M {
+      class D {};
+    }
+  }
+  N::M::D d;
+
+elaboratedType(namesType(recordType(
+hasDeclaration(namedDecl(hasName("D")))))) matches the type of the variable
+declaration of d.
+</pre></td></tr>
+
+
+<tr><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1EnumType.html">EnumType</a>></td><td class="name" onclick="toggle('hasDeclaration10')"><a name="hasDeclaration10Anchor">hasDeclaration</a></td><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1Decl.html">Decl</a>>  InnerMatcher</td></tr>
+<tr><td colspan="4" class="doc" id="hasDeclaration10"><pre>Matches a node if the declaration associated with that node
+matches the given matcher.
+
+The associated declaration is:
+- for type nodes, the declaration of the underlying type
+- for CallExpr, the declaration of the callee
+- for MemberExpr, the declaration of the referenced member
+- for CXXConstructExpr, the declaration of the constructor
+
+Also usable as Matcher<T> for any T supporting the getDecl() member
+function. e.g. various subtypes of clang::Type and various expressions.
+
+Usable as: Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1CallExpr.html">CallExpr</a>>, Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1CXXConstructExpr.html">CXXConstructExpr</a>>,
+  Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1DeclRefExpr.html">DeclRefExpr</a>>, Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1EnumType.html">EnumType</a>>, Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1InjectedClassNameType.html">InjectedClassNameType</a>>,
+  Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1LabelStmt.html">LabelStmt</a>>, Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1MemberExpr.html">MemberExpr</a>>, Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1QualType.html">QualType</a>>,
+  Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1RecordType.html">RecordType</a>>, Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1TagType.html">TagType</a>>,
+  Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1TemplateSpecializationType.html">TemplateSpecializationType</a>>, Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1TemplateTypeParmType.html">TemplateTypeParmType</a>>,
+  Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1TypedefType.html">TypedefType</a>>, Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1UnresolvedUsingType.html">UnresolvedUsingType</a>>
+</pre></td></tr>
+
+
+<tr><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1ExplicitCastExpr.html">ExplicitCastExpr</a>></td><td class="name" onclick="toggle('hasDestinationType0')"><a name="hasDestinationType0Anchor">hasDestinationType</a></td><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1QualType.html">QualType</a>> InnerMatcher</td></tr>
+<tr><td colspan="4" class="doc" id="hasDestinationType0"><pre>Matches casts whose destination type matches a given matcher.
+
+(Note: Clang's AST refers to other conversions as "casts" too, and calls
+actual casts "explicit" casts.)
+</pre></td></tr>
+
+
+<tr><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1Expr.html">Expr</a>></td><td class="name" onclick="toggle('hasType2')"><a name="hasType2Anchor">hasType</a></td><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1Decl.html">Decl</a>> InnerMatcher</td></tr>
+<tr><td colspan="4" class="doc" id="hasType2"><pre>Overloaded to match the declaration of the expression's or value
+declaration's type.
+
+In case of a value declaration (for example a variable declaration),
+this resolves one layer of indirection. For example, in the value
+declaration "X x;", recordDecl(hasName("X")) matches the declaration of X,
+while varDecl(hasType(recordDecl(hasName("X")))) matches the declaration
+of x."
+
+Example matches x (matcher = expr(hasType(recordDecl(hasName("X")))))
+            and z (matcher = varDecl(hasType(recordDecl(hasName("X")))))
+ class X {};
+ void y(X &x) { x; X z; }
+
+Usable as: Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1Expr.html">Expr</a>>, Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1ValueDecl.html">ValueDecl</a>>
+</pre></td></tr>
+
+
+<tr><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1Expr.html">Expr</a>></td><td class="name" onclick="toggle('hasType0')"><a name="hasType0Anchor">hasType</a></td><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1QualType.html">QualType</a>> InnerMatcher</td></tr>
+<tr><td colspan="4" class="doc" id="hasType0"><pre>Matches if the expression's or declaration's type matches a type
+matcher.
+
+Example matches x (matcher = expr(hasType(recordDecl(hasName("X")))))
+            and z (matcher = varDecl(hasType(recordDecl(hasName("X")))))
+ class X {};
+ void y(X &x) { x; X z; }
+</pre></td></tr>
+
+
+<tr><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1Expr.html">Expr</a>></td><td class="name" onclick="toggle('ignoringImpCasts0')"><a name="ignoringImpCasts0Anchor">ignoringImpCasts</a></td><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1Expr.html">Expr</a>> InnerMatcher</td></tr>
+<tr><td colspan="4" class="doc" id="ignoringImpCasts0"><pre>Matches expressions that match InnerMatcher after any implicit casts
+are stripped off.
+
+Parentheses and explicit casts are not discarded.
+Given
+  int arr[5];
+  int a = 0;
+  char b = 0;
+  const int c = a;
+  int *d = arr;
+  long e = (long) 0l;
+The matchers
+   varDecl(hasInitializer(ignoringImpCasts(integerLiteral())))
+   varDecl(hasInitializer(ignoringImpCasts(declRefExpr())))
+would match the declarations for a, b, c, and d, but not e.
+While
+   varDecl(hasInitializer(integerLiteral()))
+   varDecl(hasInitializer(declRefExpr()))
+only match the declarations for b, c, and d.
+</pre></td></tr>
+
+
+<tr><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1Expr.html">Expr</a>></td><td class="name" onclick="toggle('ignoringParenCasts0')"><a name="ignoringParenCasts0Anchor">ignoringParenCasts</a></td><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1Expr.html">Expr</a>> InnerMatcher</td></tr>
+<tr><td colspan="4" class="doc" id="ignoringParenCasts0"><pre>Matches expressions that match InnerMatcher after parentheses and
+casts are stripped off.
+
+Implicit and non-C Style casts are also discarded.
+Given
+  int a = 0;
+  char b = (0);
+  void* c = reinterpret_cast<char*>(0);
+  char d = char(0);
+The matcher
+   varDecl(hasInitializer(ignoringParenCasts(integerLiteral())))
+would match the declarations for a, b, c, and d.
+while
+   varDecl(hasInitializer(integerLiteral()))
+only match the declaration for a.
+</pre></td></tr>
+
+
+<tr><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1Expr.html">Expr</a>></td><td class="name" onclick="toggle('ignoringParenImpCasts0')"><a name="ignoringParenImpCasts0Anchor">ignoringParenImpCasts</a></td><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1Expr.html">Expr</a>> InnerMatcher</td></tr>
+<tr><td colspan="4" class="doc" id="ignoringParenImpCasts0"><pre>Matches expressions that match InnerMatcher after implicit casts and
+parentheses are stripped off.
+
+Explicit casts are not discarded.
+Given
+  int arr[5];
+  int a = 0;
+  char b = (0);
+  const int c = a;
+  int *d = (arr);
+  long e = ((long) 0l);
+The matchers
+   varDecl(hasInitializer(ignoringParenImpCasts(integerLiteral())))
+   varDecl(hasInitializer(ignoringParenImpCasts(declRefExpr())))
+would match the declarations for a, b, c, and d, but not e.
+while
+   varDecl(hasInitializer(integerLiteral()))
+   varDecl(hasInitializer(declRefExpr()))
+would only match the declaration for a.
+</pre></td></tr>
+
+
+<tr><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1ForStmt.html">ForStmt</a>></td><td class="name" onclick="toggle('hasBody1')"><a name="hasBody1Anchor">hasBody</a></td><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1Stmt.html">Stmt</a>> InnerMatcher</td></tr>
+<tr><td colspan="4" class="doc" id="hasBody1"><pre>Matches a 'for', 'while', or 'do while' statement that has
+a given body.
+
+Given
+  for (;;) {}
+hasBody(compoundStmt())
+  matches 'for (;;) {}'
+with compoundStmt()
+  matching '{}'
+</pre></td></tr>
+
+
+<tr><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1ForStmt.html">ForStmt</a>></td><td class="name" onclick="toggle('hasCondition1')"><a name="hasCondition1Anchor">hasCondition</a></td><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1Expr.html">Expr</a>> InnerMatcher</td></tr>
+<tr><td colspan="4" class="doc" id="hasCondition1"><pre>Matches the condition expression of an if statement, for loop,
+or conditional operator.
+
+Example matches true (matcher = hasCondition(boolLiteral(equals(true))))
+  if (true) {}
+</pre></td></tr>
+
+
+<tr><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1ForStmt.html">ForStmt</a>></td><td class="name" onclick="toggle('hasIncrement0')"><a name="hasIncrement0Anchor">hasIncrement</a></td><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1Stmt.html">Stmt</a>> InnerMatcher</td></tr>
+<tr><td colspan="4" class="doc" id="hasIncrement0"><pre>Matches the increment statement of a for loop.
+
+Example:
+    forStmt(hasIncrement(unaryOperator(hasOperatorName("++"))))
+matches '++x' in
+    for (x; x < N; ++x) { }
+</pre></td></tr>
+
+
+<tr><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1ForStmt.html">ForStmt</a>></td><td class="name" onclick="toggle('hasLoopInit0')"><a name="hasLoopInit0Anchor">hasLoopInit</a></td><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1Stmt.html">Stmt</a>> InnerMatcher</td></tr>
+<tr><td colspan="4" class="doc" id="hasLoopInit0"><pre>Matches the initialization statement of a for loop.
+
+Example:
+    forStmt(hasLoopInit(declStmt()))
+matches 'int x = 0' in
+    for (int x = 0; x < N; ++x) { }
+</pre></td></tr>
+
+
+<tr><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1FunctionDecl.html">FunctionDecl</a>></td><td class="name" onclick="toggle('hasAnyParameter0')"><a name="hasAnyParameter0Anchor">hasAnyParameter</a></td><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1ParmVarDecl.html">ParmVarDecl</a>> InnerMatcher</td></tr>
+<tr><td colspan="4" class="doc" id="hasAnyParameter0"><pre>Matches any parameter of a function declaration.
+
+Does not match the 'this' parameter of a method.
+
+Given
+  class X { void f(int x, int y, int z) {} };
+methodDecl(hasAnyParameter(hasName("y")))
+  matches f(int x, int y, int z) {}
+with hasAnyParameter(...)
+  matching int y
+</pre></td></tr>
+
+
+<tr><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1FunctionDecl.html">FunctionDecl</a>></td><td class="name" onclick="toggle('hasParameter0')"><a name="hasParameter0Anchor">hasParameter</a></td><td>unsigned N, Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1ParmVarDecl.html">ParmVarDecl</a>> InnerMatcher</td></tr>
+<tr><td colspan="4" class="doc" id="hasParameter0"><pre>Matches the n'th parameter of a function declaration.
+
+Given
+  class X { void f(int x) {} };
+methodDecl(hasParameter(0, hasType(varDecl())))
+  matches f(int x) {}
+with hasParameter(...)
+  matching int x
+</pre></td></tr>
+
+
+<tr><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1FunctionDecl.html">FunctionDecl</a>></td><td class="name" onclick="toggle('returns0')"><a name="returns0Anchor">returns</a></td><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1QualType.html">QualType</a>> InnerMatcher</td></tr>
+<tr><td colspan="4" class="doc" id="returns0"><pre>Matches the return type of a function declaration.
+
+Given:
+  class X { int f() { return 1; } };
+methodDecl(returns(asString("int")))
+  matches int f() { return 1; }
+</pre></td></tr>
+
+
+<tr><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1IfStmt.html">IfStmt</a>></td><td class="name" onclick="toggle('hasCondition0')"><a name="hasCondition0Anchor">hasCondition</a></td><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1Expr.html">Expr</a>> InnerMatcher</td></tr>
+<tr><td colspan="4" class="doc" id="hasCondition0"><pre>Matches the condition expression of an if statement, for loop,
+or conditional operator.
+
+Example matches true (matcher = hasCondition(boolLiteral(equals(true))))
+  if (true) {}
+</pre></td></tr>
+
+
+<tr><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1IfStmt.html">IfStmt</a>></td><td class="name" onclick="toggle('hasConditionVariableStatement0')"><a name="hasConditionVariableStatement0Anchor">hasConditionVariableStatement</a></td><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1DeclStmt.html">DeclStmt</a>> InnerMatcher</td></tr>
+<tr><td colspan="4" class="doc" id="hasConditionVariableStatement0"><pre>Matches the condition variable statement in an if statement.
+
+Given
+  if (A* a = GetAPointer()) {}
+hasConditionVariableStatement(...)
+  matches 'A* a = GetAPointer()'.
+</pre></td></tr>
+
+
+<tr><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1IfStmt.html">IfStmt</a>></td><td class="name" onclick="toggle('hasElse0')"><a name="hasElse0Anchor">hasElse</a></td><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1Stmt.html">Stmt</a>> InnerMatcher</td></tr>
+<tr><td colspan="4" class="doc" id="hasElse0"><pre>Matches the else-statement of an if statement.
+
+Examples matches the if statement
+  (matcher = ifStmt(hasElse(boolLiteral(equals(true)))))
+  if (false) false; else true;
+</pre></td></tr>
+
+
+<tr><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1IfStmt.html">IfStmt</a>></td><td class="name" onclick="toggle('hasThen0')"><a name="hasThen0Anchor">hasThen</a></td><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1Stmt.html">Stmt</a>> InnerMatcher</td></tr>
+<tr><td colspan="4" class="doc" id="hasThen0"><pre>Matches the then-statement of an if statement.
+
+Examples matches the if statement
+  (matcher = ifStmt(hasThen(boolLiteral(equals(true)))))
+  if (false) true; else false;
+</pre></td></tr>
+
+
+<tr><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1ImplicitCastExpr.html">ImplicitCastExpr</a>></td><td class="name" onclick="toggle('hasImplicitDestinationType0')"><a name="hasImplicitDestinationType0Anchor">hasImplicitDestinationType</a></td><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1QualType.html">QualType</a>> InnerMatcher</td></tr>
+<tr><td colspan="4" class="doc" id="hasImplicitDestinationType0"><pre>Matches implicit casts whose destination type matches a given
+matcher.
+
+FIXME: Unit test this matcher
+</pre></td></tr>
+
+
+<tr><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1InjectedClassNameType.html">InjectedClassNameType</a>></td><td class="name" onclick="toggle('hasDeclaration9')"><a name="hasDeclaration9Anchor">hasDeclaration</a></td><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1Decl.html">Decl</a>>  InnerMatcher</td></tr>
+<tr><td colspan="4" class="doc" id="hasDeclaration9"><pre>Matches a node if the declaration associated with that node
+matches the given matcher.
+
+The associated declaration is:
+- for type nodes, the declaration of the underlying type
+- for CallExpr, the declaration of the callee
+- for MemberExpr, the declaration of the referenced member
+- for CXXConstructExpr, the declaration of the constructor
+
+Also usable as Matcher<T> for any T supporting the getDecl() member
+function. e.g. various subtypes of clang::Type and various expressions.
+
+Usable as: Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1CallExpr.html">CallExpr</a>>, Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1CXXConstructExpr.html">CXXConstructExpr</a>>,
+  Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1DeclRefExpr.html">DeclRefExpr</a>>, Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1EnumType.html">EnumType</a>>, Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1InjectedClassNameType.html">InjectedClassNameType</a>>,
+  Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1LabelStmt.html">LabelStmt</a>>, Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1MemberExpr.html">MemberExpr</a>>, Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1QualType.html">QualType</a>>,
+  Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1RecordType.html">RecordType</a>>, Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1TagType.html">TagType</a>>,
+  Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1TemplateSpecializationType.html">TemplateSpecializationType</a>>, Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1TemplateTypeParmType.html">TemplateTypeParmType</a>>,
+  Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1TypedefType.html">TypedefType</a>>, Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1UnresolvedUsingType.html">UnresolvedUsingType</a>>
+</pre></td></tr>
+
+
+<tr><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1LabelStmt.html">LabelStmt</a>></td><td class="name" onclick="toggle('hasDeclaration8')"><a name="hasDeclaration8Anchor">hasDeclaration</a></td><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1Decl.html">Decl</a>>  InnerMatcher</td></tr>
+<tr><td colspan="4" class="doc" id="hasDeclaration8"><pre>Matches a node if the declaration associated with that node
+matches the given matcher.
+
+The associated declaration is:
+- for type nodes, the declaration of the underlying type
+- for CallExpr, the declaration of the callee
+- for MemberExpr, the declaration of the referenced member
+- for CXXConstructExpr, the declaration of the constructor
+
+Also usable as Matcher<T> for any T supporting the getDecl() member
+function. e.g. various subtypes of clang::Type and various expressions.
+
+Usable as: Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1CallExpr.html">CallExpr</a>>, Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1CXXConstructExpr.html">CXXConstructExpr</a>>,
+  Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1DeclRefExpr.html">DeclRefExpr</a>>, Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1EnumType.html">EnumType</a>>, Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1InjectedClassNameType.html">InjectedClassNameType</a>>,
+  Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1LabelStmt.html">LabelStmt</a>>, Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1MemberExpr.html">MemberExpr</a>>, Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1QualType.html">QualType</a>>,
+  Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1RecordType.html">RecordType</a>>, Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1TagType.html">TagType</a>>,
+  Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1TemplateSpecializationType.html">TemplateSpecializationType</a>>, Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1TemplateTypeParmType.html">TemplateTypeParmType</a>>,
+  Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1TypedefType.html">TypedefType</a>>, Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1UnresolvedUsingType.html">UnresolvedUsingType</a>>
+</pre></td></tr>
+
+
+<tr><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1MemberExpr.html">MemberExpr</a>></td><td class="name" onclick="toggle('hasDeclaration7')"><a name="hasDeclaration7Anchor">hasDeclaration</a></td><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1Decl.html">Decl</a>>  InnerMatcher</td></tr>
+<tr><td colspan="4" class="doc" id="hasDeclaration7"><pre>Matches a node if the declaration associated with that node
+matches the given matcher.
+
+The associated declaration is:
+- for type nodes, the declaration of the underlying type
+- for CallExpr, the declaration of the callee
+- for MemberExpr, the declaration of the referenced member
+- for CXXConstructExpr, the declaration of the constructor
+
+Also usable as Matcher<T> for any T supporting the getDecl() member
+function. e.g. various subtypes of clang::Type and various expressions.
+
+Usable as: Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1CallExpr.html">CallExpr</a>>, Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1CXXConstructExpr.html">CXXConstructExpr</a>>,
+  Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1DeclRefExpr.html">DeclRefExpr</a>>, Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1EnumType.html">EnumType</a>>, Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1InjectedClassNameType.html">InjectedClassNameType</a>>,
+  Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1LabelStmt.html">LabelStmt</a>>, Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1MemberExpr.html">MemberExpr</a>>, Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1QualType.html">QualType</a>>,
+  Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1RecordType.html">RecordType</a>>, Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1TagType.html">TagType</a>>,
+  Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1TemplateSpecializationType.html">TemplateSpecializationType</a>>, Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1TemplateTypeParmType.html">TemplateTypeParmType</a>>,
+  Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1TypedefType.html">TypedefType</a>>, Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1UnresolvedUsingType.html">UnresolvedUsingType</a>>
+</pre></td></tr>
+
+
+<tr><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1MemberExpr.html">MemberExpr</a>></td><td class="name" onclick="toggle('hasObjectExpression0')"><a name="hasObjectExpression0Anchor">hasObjectExpression</a></td><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1Expr.html">Expr</a>> InnerMatcher</td></tr>
+<tr><td colspan="4" class="doc" id="hasObjectExpression0"><pre>Matches a member expression where the object expression is
+matched by a given matcher.
+
+Given
+  struct X { int m; };
+  void f(X x) { x.m; m; }
+memberExpr(hasObjectExpression(hasType(recordDecl(hasName("X")))))))
+  matches "x.m" and "m"
+with hasObjectExpression(...)
+  matching "x" and the implicit object expression of "m" which has type X*.
+</pre></td></tr>
+
+
+<tr><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1MemberExpr.html">MemberExpr</a>></td><td class="name" onclick="toggle('member0')"><a name="member0Anchor">member</a></td><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1ValueDecl.html">ValueDecl</a>> InnerMatcher</td></tr>
+<tr><td colspan="4" class="doc" id="member0"><pre>Matches a member expression where the member is matched by a
+given matcher.
+
+Given
+  struct { int first, second; } first, second;
+  int i(second.first);
+  int j(first.second);
+memberExpr(member(hasName("first")))
+  matches second.first
+  but not first.second (because the member name there is "second").
+</pre></td></tr>
+
+
+<tr><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1MemberPointerTypeLoc.html">MemberPointerTypeLoc</a>></td><td class="name" onclick="toggle('pointeeLoc1')"><a name="pointeeLoc1Anchor">pointeeLoc</a></td><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1TypeLoc.html">TypeLoc</a>></td></tr>
+<tr><td colspan="4" class="doc" id="pointeeLoc1"><pre>Narrows PointerType (and similar) matchers to those where the
+pointee matches a given matcher.
+
+Given
+  int *a;
+  int const *b;
+  float const *f;
+pointerType(pointee(isConstQualified(), isInteger()))
+  matches "int const *b"
+
+Usable as: Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1BlockPointerType.html">BlockPointerType</a>>, Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1MemberPointerType.html">MemberPointerType</a>>,
+  Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1PointerType.html">PointerType</a>>, Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1ReferenceType.html">ReferenceType</a>>
+</pre></td></tr>
+
+
+<tr><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1MemberPointerType.html">MemberPointerType</a>></td><td class="name" onclick="toggle('pointee1')"><a name="pointee1Anchor">pointee</a></td><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1Type.html">Type</a>></td></tr>
+<tr><td colspan="4" class="doc" id="pointee1"><pre>Narrows PointerType (and similar) matchers to those where the
+pointee matches a given matcher.
+
+Given
+  int *a;
+  int const *b;
+  float const *f;
+pointerType(pointee(isConstQualified(), isInteger()))
+  matches "int const *b"
+
+Usable as: Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1BlockPointerType.html">BlockPointerType</a>>, Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1MemberPointerType.html">MemberPointerType</a>>,
+  Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1PointerType.html">PointerType</a>>, Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1ReferenceType.html">ReferenceType</a>>
+</pre></td></tr>
+
+
+<tr><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1NestedNameSpecifierLoc.html">NestedNameSpecifierLoc</a>></td><td class="name" onclick="toggle('hasPrefix1')"><a name="hasPrefix1Anchor">hasPrefix</a></td><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1NestedNameSpecifierLoc.html">NestedNameSpecifierLoc</a>> InnerMatcher</td></tr>
+<tr><td colspan="4" class="doc" id="hasPrefix1"><pre>Matches on the prefix of a NestedNameSpecifierLoc.
+
+Given
+  struct A { struct B { struct C {}; }; };
+  A::B::C c;
+nestedNameSpecifierLoc(hasPrefix(loc(specifiesType(asString("struct A")))))
+  matches "A::"
+</pre></td></tr>
+
+
+<tr><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1NestedNameSpecifierLoc.html">NestedNameSpecifierLoc</a>></td><td class="name" onclick="toggle('specifiesTypeLoc0')"><a name="specifiesTypeLoc0Anchor">specifiesTypeLoc</a></td><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1TypeLoc.html">TypeLoc</a>> InnerMatcher</td></tr>
+<tr><td colspan="4" class="doc" id="specifiesTypeLoc0"><pre>Matches nested name specifier locs that specify a type matching the
+given TypeLoc.
+
+Given
+  struct A { struct B { struct C {}; }; };
+  A::B::C c;
+nestedNameSpecifierLoc(specifiesTypeLoc(loc(type(
+  hasDeclaration(recordDecl(hasName("A")))))))
+  matches "A::"
+</pre></td></tr>
+
+
+<tr><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1NestedNameSpecifier.html">NestedNameSpecifier</a>></td><td class="name" onclick="toggle('hasPrefix0')"><a name="hasPrefix0Anchor">hasPrefix</a></td><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1NestedNameSpecifier.html">NestedNameSpecifier</a>> InnerMatcher</td></tr>
+<tr><td colspan="4" class="doc" id="hasPrefix0"><pre>Matches on the prefix of a NestedNameSpecifier.
+
+Given
+  struct A { struct B { struct C {}; }; };
+  A::B::C c;
+nestedNameSpecifier(hasPrefix(specifiesType(asString("struct A")))) and
+  matches "A::"
+</pre></td></tr>
+
+
+<tr><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1NestedNameSpecifier.html">NestedNameSpecifier</a>></td><td class="name" onclick="toggle('specifiesNamespace0')"><a name="specifiesNamespace0Anchor">specifiesNamespace</a></td><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1NamespaceDecl.html">NamespaceDecl</a>> InnerMatcher</td></tr>
+<tr><td colspan="4" class="doc" id="specifiesNamespace0"><pre>Matches nested name specifiers that specify a namespace matching the
+given namespace matcher.
+
+Given
+  namespace ns { struct A {}; }
+  ns::A a;
+nestedNameSpecifier(specifiesNamespace(hasName("ns")))
+  matches "ns::"
+</pre></td></tr>
+
+
+<tr><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1NestedNameSpecifier.html">NestedNameSpecifier</a>></td><td class="name" onclick="toggle('specifiesType0')"><a name="specifiesType0Anchor">specifiesType</a></td><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1QualType.html">QualType</a>> InnerMatcher</td></tr>
+<tr><td colspan="4" class="doc" id="specifiesType0"><pre>Matches nested name specifiers that specify a type matching the
+given QualType matcher without qualifiers.
+
+Given
+  struct A { struct B { struct C {}; }; };
+  A::B::C c;
+nestedNameSpecifier(specifiesType(hasDeclaration(recordDecl(hasName("A")))))
+  matches "A::"
+</pre></td></tr>
+
+
+<tr><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1ParenType.html">ParenType</a>></td><td class="name" onclick="toggle('innerType0')"><a name="innerType0Anchor">innerType</a></td><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1Type.html">Type</a>></td></tr>
+<tr><td colspan="4" class="doc" id="innerType0"><pre>Matches ParenType nodes where the inner type is a specific type.
+
+Given
+  int (*ptr_to_array)[4];
+  int (*ptr_to_func)(int);
+
+varDecl(hasType(pointsTo(parenType(innerType(functionType()))))) matches
+ptr_to_func but not ptr_to_array.
+
+Usable as: Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1ParenType.html">ParenType</a>>
+</pre></td></tr>
+
+
+<tr><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1PointerTypeLoc.html">PointerTypeLoc</a>></td><td class="name" onclick="toggle('pointeeLoc2')"><a name="pointeeLoc2Anchor">pointeeLoc</a></td><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1TypeLoc.html">TypeLoc</a>></td></tr>
+<tr><td colspan="4" class="doc" id="pointeeLoc2"><pre>Narrows PointerType (and similar) matchers to those where the
+pointee matches a given matcher.
+
+Given
+  int *a;
+  int const *b;
+  float const *f;
+pointerType(pointee(isConstQualified(), isInteger()))
+  matches "int const *b"
+
+Usable as: Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1BlockPointerType.html">BlockPointerType</a>>, Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1MemberPointerType.html">MemberPointerType</a>>,
+  Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1PointerType.html">PointerType</a>>, Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1ReferenceType.html">ReferenceType</a>>
+</pre></td></tr>
+
+
+<tr><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1PointerType.html">PointerType</a>></td><td class="name" onclick="toggle('pointee2')"><a name="pointee2Anchor">pointee</a></td><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1Type.html">Type</a>></td></tr>
+<tr><td colspan="4" class="doc" id="pointee2"><pre>Narrows PointerType (and similar) matchers to those where the
+pointee matches a given matcher.
+
+Given
+  int *a;
+  int const *b;
+  float const *f;
+pointerType(pointee(isConstQualified(), isInteger()))
+  matches "int const *b"
+
+Usable as: Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1BlockPointerType.html">BlockPointerType</a>>, Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1MemberPointerType.html">MemberPointerType</a>>,
+  Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1PointerType.html">PointerType</a>>, Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1ReferenceType.html">ReferenceType</a>>
+</pre></td></tr>
+
+
+<tr><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1QualType.html">QualType</a>></td><td class="name" onclick="toggle('hasCanonicalType0')"><a name="hasCanonicalType0Anchor">hasCanonicalType</a></td><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1QualType.html">QualType</a>> InnerMatcher</td></tr>
+<tr><td colspan="4" class="doc" id="hasCanonicalType0"><pre>Matches QualTypes whose canonical type matches InnerMatcher.
+
+Given:
+  typedef int &int_ref;
+  int a;
+  int_ref b = a;
+
+varDecl(hasType(qualType(referenceType()))))) will not match the
+declaration of b but varDecl(hasType(qualType(hasCanonicalType(referenceType())))))) does.
+</pre></td></tr>
+
+
+<tr><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1QualType.html">QualType</a>></td><td class="name" onclick="toggle('hasDeclaration6')"><a name="hasDeclaration6Anchor">hasDeclaration</a></td><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1Decl.html">Decl</a>>  InnerMatcher</td></tr>
+<tr><td colspan="4" class="doc" id="hasDeclaration6"><pre>Matches a node if the declaration associated with that node
+matches the given matcher.
+
+The associated declaration is:
+- for type nodes, the declaration of the underlying type
+- for CallExpr, the declaration of the callee
+- for MemberExpr, the declaration of the referenced member
+- for CXXConstructExpr, the declaration of the constructor
+
+Also usable as Matcher<T> for any T supporting the getDecl() member
+function. e.g. various subtypes of clang::Type and various expressions.
+
+Usable as: Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1CallExpr.html">CallExpr</a>>, Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1CXXConstructExpr.html">CXXConstructExpr</a>>,
+  Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1DeclRefExpr.html">DeclRefExpr</a>>, Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1EnumType.html">EnumType</a>>, Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1InjectedClassNameType.html">InjectedClassNameType</a>>,
+  Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1LabelStmt.html">LabelStmt</a>>, Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1MemberExpr.html">MemberExpr</a>>, Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1QualType.html">QualType</a>>,
+  Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1RecordType.html">RecordType</a>>, Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1TagType.html">TagType</a>>,
+  Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1TemplateSpecializationType.html">TemplateSpecializationType</a>>, Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1TemplateTypeParmType.html">TemplateTypeParmType</a>>,
+  Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1TypedefType.html">TypedefType</a>>, Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1UnresolvedUsingType.html">UnresolvedUsingType</a>>
+</pre></td></tr>
+
+
+<tr><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1QualType.html">QualType</a>></td><td class="name" onclick="toggle('pointsTo1')"><a name="pointsTo1Anchor">pointsTo</a></td><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1Decl.html">Decl</a>> InnerMatcher</td></tr>
+<tr><td colspan="4" class="doc" id="pointsTo1"><pre>Overloaded to match the pointee type's declaration.
+</pre></td></tr>
+
+
+<tr><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1QualType.html">QualType</a>></td><td class="name" onclick="toggle('pointsTo0')"><a name="pointsTo0Anchor">pointsTo</a></td><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1QualType.html">QualType</a>> InnerMatcher</td></tr>
+<tr><td colspan="4" class="doc" id="pointsTo0"><pre>Matches if the matched type is a pointer type and the pointee type
+matches the specified matcher.
+
+Example matches y->x()
+    (matcher = callExpr(on(hasType(pointsTo(recordDecl(hasName("Y")))))))
+  class Y { public: void x(); };
+  void z() { Y *y; y->x(); }
+</pre></td></tr>
+
+
+<tr><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1QualType.html">QualType</a>></td><td class="name" onclick="toggle('references1')"><a name="references1Anchor">references</a></td><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1Decl.html">Decl</a>> InnerMatcher</td></tr>
+<tr><td colspan="4" class="doc" id="references1"><pre>Overloaded to match the referenced type's declaration.
+</pre></td></tr>
+
+
+<tr><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1QualType.html">QualType</a>></td><td class="name" onclick="toggle('references0')"><a name="references0Anchor">references</a></td><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1QualType.html">QualType</a>> InnerMatcher</td></tr>
+<tr><td colspan="4" class="doc" id="references0"><pre>Matches if the matched type is a reference type and the referenced
+type matches the specified matcher.
+
+Example matches X &x and const X &y
+    (matcher = varDecl(hasType(references(recordDecl(hasName("X"))))))
+  class X {
+    void a(X b) {
+      X &x = b;
+      const X &y = b;
+  };
+</pre></td></tr>
+
+
+<tr><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1RecordType.html">RecordType</a>></td><td class="name" onclick="toggle('hasDeclaration5')"><a name="hasDeclaration5Anchor">hasDeclaration</a></td><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1Decl.html">Decl</a>>  InnerMatcher</td></tr>
+<tr><td colspan="4" class="doc" id="hasDeclaration5"><pre>Matches a node if the declaration associated with that node
+matches the given matcher.
+
+The associated declaration is:
+- for type nodes, the declaration of the underlying type
+- for CallExpr, the declaration of the callee
+- for MemberExpr, the declaration of the referenced member
+- for CXXConstructExpr, the declaration of the constructor
+
+Also usable as Matcher<T> for any T supporting the getDecl() member
+function. e.g. various subtypes of clang::Type and various expressions.
+
+Usable as: Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1CallExpr.html">CallExpr</a>>, Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1CXXConstructExpr.html">CXXConstructExpr</a>>,
+  Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1DeclRefExpr.html">DeclRefExpr</a>>, Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1EnumType.html">EnumType</a>>, Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1InjectedClassNameType.html">InjectedClassNameType</a>>,
+  Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1LabelStmt.html">LabelStmt</a>>, Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1MemberExpr.html">MemberExpr</a>>, Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1QualType.html">QualType</a>>,
+  Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1RecordType.html">RecordType</a>>, Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1TagType.html">TagType</a>>,
+  Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1TemplateSpecializationType.html">TemplateSpecializationType</a>>, Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1TemplateTypeParmType.html">TemplateTypeParmType</a>>,
+  Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1TypedefType.html">TypedefType</a>>, Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1UnresolvedUsingType.html">UnresolvedUsingType</a>>
+</pre></td></tr>
+
+
+<tr><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1ReferenceTypeLoc.html">ReferenceTypeLoc</a>></td><td class="name" onclick="toggle('pointeeLoc3')"><a name="pointeeLoc3Anchor">pointeeLoc</a></td><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1TypeLoc.html">TypeLoc</a>></td></tr>
+<tr><td colspan="4" class="doc" id="pointeeLoc3"><pre>Narrows PointerType (and similar) matchers to those where the
+pointee matches a given matcher.
+
+Given
+  int *a;
+  int const *b;
+  float const *f;
+pointerType(pointee(isConstQualified(), isInteger()))
+  matches "int const *b"
+
+Usable as: Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1BlockPointerType.html">BlockPointerType</a>>, Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1MemberPointerType.html">MemberPointerType</a>>,
+  Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1PointerType.html">PointerType</a>>, Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1ReferenceType.html">ReferenceType</a>>
+</pre></td></tr>
+
+
+<tr><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1ReferenceType.html">ReferenceType</a>></td><td class="name" onclick="toggle('pointee3')"><a name="pointee3Anchor">pointee</a></td><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1Type.html">Type</a>></td></tr>
+<tr><td colspan="4" class="doc" id="pointee3"><pre>Narrows PointerType (and similar) matchers to those where the
+pointee matches a given matcher.
+
+Given
+  int *a;
+  int const *b;
+  float const *f;
+pointerType(pointee(isConstQualified(), isInteger()))
+  matches "int const *b"
+
+Usable as: Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1BlockPointerType.html">BlockPointerType</a>>, Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1MemberPointerType.html">MemberPointerType</a>>,
+  Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1PointerType.html">PointerType</a>>, Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1ReferenceType.html">ReferenceType</a>>
+</pre></td></tr>
+
+
+<tr><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1Stmt.html">Stmt</a>></td><td class="name" onclick="toggle('alignOfExpr0')"><a name="alignOfExpr0Anchor">alignOfExpr</a></td><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1UnaryExprOrTypeTraitExpr.html">UnaryExprOrTypeTraitExpr</a>>  InnerMatcher</td></tr>
+<tr><td colspan="4" class="doc" id="alignOfExpr0"><pre>Same as unaryExprOrTypeTraitExpr, but only matching
+alignof.
+</pre></td></tr>
+
+
+<tr><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1Stmt.html">Stmt</a>></td><td class="name" onclick="toggle('sizeOfExpr0')"><a name="sizeOfExpr0Anchor">sizeOfExpr</a></td><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1UnaryExprOrTypeTraitExpr.html">UnaryExprOrTypeTraitExpr</a>>  InnerMatcher</td></tr>
+<tr><td colspan="4" class="doc" id="sizeOfExpr0"><pre>Same as unaryExprOrTypeTraitExpr, but only matching
+sizeof.
+</pre></td></tr>
+
+
+<tr><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1SwitchStmt.html">SwitchStmt</a>></td><td class="name" onclick="toggle('forEachSwitchCase0')"><a name="forEachSwitchCase0Anchor">forEachSwitchCase</a></td><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1SwitchCase.html">SwitchCase</a>> InnerMatcher</td></tr>
+<tr><td colspan="4" class="doc" id="forEachSwitchCase0"><pre>Matches each case or default statement belonging to the given switch
+statement. This matcher may produce multiple matches.
+
+Given
+  switch (1) { case 1: case 2: default: switch (2) { case 3: case 4: ; } }
+switchStmt(forEachSwitchCase(caseStmt().bind("c"))).bind("s")
+  matches four times, with "c" binding each of "case 1:", "case 2:",
+"case 3:" and "case 4:", and "s" respectively binding "switch (1)",
+"switch (1)", "switch (2)" and "switch (2)".
+</pre></td></tr>
+
+
+<tr><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1TagType.html">TagType</a>></td><td class="name" onclick="toggle('hasDeclaration4')"><a name="hasDeclaration4Anchor">hasDeclaration</a></td><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1Decl.html">Decl</a>>  InnerMatcher</td></tr>
+<tr><td colspan="4" class="doc" id="hasDeclaration4"><pre>Matches a node if the declaration associated with that node
+matches the given matcher.
+
+The associated declaration is:
+- for type nodes, the declaration of the underlying type
+- for CallExpr, the declaration of the callee
+- for MemberExpr, the declaration of the referenced member
+- for CXXConstructExpr, the declaration of the constructor
+
+Also usable as Matcher<T> for any T supporting the getDecl() member
+function. e.g. various subtypes of clang::Type and various expressions.
+
+Usable as: Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1CallExpr.html">CallExpr</a>>, Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1CXXConstructExpr.html">CXXConstructExpr</a>>,
+  Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1DeclRefExpr.html">DeclRefExpr</a>>, Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1EnumType.html">EnumType</a>>, Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1InjectedClassNameType.html">InjectedClassNameType</a>>,
+  Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1LabelStmt.html">LabelStmt</a>>, Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1MemberExpr.html">MemberExpr</a>>, Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1QualType.html">QualType</a>>,
+  Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1RecordType.html">RecordType</a>>, Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1TagType.html">TagType</a>>,
+  Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1TemplateSpecializationType.html">TemplateSpecializationType</a>>, Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1TemplateTypeParmType.html">TemplateTypeParmType</a>>,
+  Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1TypedefType.html">TypedefType</a>>, Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1UnresolvedUsingType.html">UnresolvedUsingType</a>>
+</pre></td></tr>
+
+
+<tr><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1TemplateArgument.html">TemplateArgument</a>></td><td class="name" onclick="toggle('isExpr0')"><a name="isExpr0Anchor">isExpr</a></td><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1Expr.html">Expr</a>> InnerMatcher</td></tr>
+<tr><td colspan="4" class="doc" id="isExpr0"><pre>Matches a sugar TemplateArgument that refers to a certain expression.
+
+Given
+  template<typename T> struct A {};
+  struct B { B* next; };
+  A<&B::next> a;
+templateSpecializationType(hasAnyTemplateArgument(
+  isExpr(hasDescendant(declRefExpr(to(fieldDecl(hasName("next"))))))))
+  matches the specialization A<&B::next> with fieldDecl(...) matching
+    B::next
+</pre></td></tr>
+
+
+<tr><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1TemplateArgument.html">TemplateArgument</a>></td><td class="name" onclick="toggle('refersToDeclaration0')"><a name="refersToDeclaration0Anchor">refersToDeclaration</a></td><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1Decl.html">Decl</a>> InnerMatcher</td></tr>
+<tr><td colspan="4" class="doc" id="refersToDeclaration0"><pre>Matches a canonical TemplateArgument that refers to a certain
+declaration.
+
+Given
+  template<typename T> struct A {};
+  struct B { B* next; };
+  A<&B::next> a;
+classTemplateSpecializationDecl(hasAnyTemplateArgument(
+    refersToDeclaration(fieldDecl(hasName("next"))))
+  matches the specialization A<&B::next> with fieldDecl(...) matching
+    B::next
+</pre></td></tr>
+
+
+<tr><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1TemplateArgument.html">TemplateArgument</a>></td><td class="name" onclick="toggle('refersToType0')"><a name="refersToType0Anchor">refersToType</a></td><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1QualType.html">QualType</a>> InnerMatcher</td></tr>
+<tr><td colspan="4" class="doc" id="refersToType0"><pre>Matches a TemplateArgument that refers to a certain type.
+
+Given
+  struct X {};
+  template<typename T> struct A {};
+  A<X> a;
+classTemplateSpecializationDecl(hasAnyTemplateArgument(
+    refersToType(class(hasName("X")))))
+  matches the specialization A<X>
+</pre></td></tr>
+
+
+<tr><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1TemplateSpecializationType.html">TemplateSpecializationType</a>></td><td class="name" onclick="toggle('hasAnyTemplateArgument1')"><a name="hasAnyTemplateArgument1Anchor">hasAnyTemplateArgument</a></td><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1TemplateArgument.html">TemplateArgument</a>> InnerMatcher</td></tr>
+<tr><td colspan="4" class="doc" id="hasAnyTemplateArgument1"><pre>Matches classTemplateSpecializations that have at least one
+TemplateArgument matching the given InnerMatcher.
+
+Given
+  template<typename T> class A {};
+  template<> class A<double> {};
+  A<int> a;
+classTemplateSpecializationDecl(hasAnyTemplateArgument(
+    refersToType(asString("int"))))
+  matches the specialization A<int>
+</pre></td></tr>
+
+
+<tr><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1TemplateSpecializationType.html">TemplateSpecializationType</a>></td><td class="name" onclick="toggle('hasDeclaration3')"><a name="hasDeclaration3Anchor">hasDeclaration</a></td><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1Decl.html">Decl</a>>  InnerMatcher</td></tr>
+<tr><td colspan="4" class="doc" id="hasDeclaration3"><pre>Matches a node if the declaration associated with that node
+matches the given matcher.
+
+The associated declaration is:
+- for type nodes, the declaration of the underlying type
+- for CallExpr, the declaration of the callee
+- for MemberExpr, the declaration of the referenced member
+- for CXXConstructExpr, the declaration of the constructor
+
+Also usable as Matcher<T> for any T supporting the getDecl() member
+function. e.g. various subtypes of clang::Type and various expressions.
+
+Usable as: Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1CallExpr.html">CallExpr</a>>, Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1CXXConstructExpr.html">CXXConstructExpr</a>>,
+  Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1DeclRefExpr.html">DeclRefExpr</a>>, Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1EnumType.html">EnumType</a>>, Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1InjectedClassNameType.html">InjectedClassNameType</a>>,
+  Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1LabelStmt.html">LabelStmt</a>>, Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1MemberExpr.html">MemberExpr</a>>, Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1QualType.html">QualType</a>>,
+  Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1RecordType.html">RecordType</a>>, Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1TagType.html">TagType</a>>,
+  Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1TemplateSpecializationType.html">TemplateSpecializationType</a>>, Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1TemplateTypeParmType.html">TemplateTypeParmType</a>>,
+  Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1TypedefType.html">TypedefType</a>>, Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1UnresolvedUsingType.html">UnresolvedUsingType</a>>
+</pre></td></tr>
+
+
+<tr><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1TemplateSpecializationType.html">TemplateSpecializationType</a>></td><td class="name" onclick="toggle('hasTemplateArgument1')"><a name="hasTemplateArgument1Anchor">hasTemplateArgument</a></td><td>unsigned N, Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1TemplateArgument.html">TemplateArgument</a>> InnerMatcher</td></tr>
+<tr><td colspan="4" class="doc" id="hasTemplateArgument1"><pre>Matches classTemplateSpecializations where the n'th TemplateArgument
+matches the given InnerMatcher.
+
+Given
+  template<typename T, typename U> class A {};
+  A<bool, int> b;
+  A<int, bool> c;
+classTemplateSpecializationDecl(hasTemplateArgument(
+    1, refersToType(asString("int"))))
+  matches the specialization A<bool, int>
+</pre></td></tr>
+
+
+<tr><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1TemplateTypeParmType.html">TemplateTypeParmType</a>></td><td class="name" onclick="toggle('hasDeclaration2')"><a name="hasDeclaration2Anchor">hasDeclaration</a></td><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1Decl.html">Decl</a>>  InnerMatcher</td></tr>
+<tr><td colspan="4" class="doc" id="hasDeclaration2"><pre>Matches a node if the declaration associated with that node
+matches the given matcher.
+
+The associated declaration is:
+- for type nodes, the declaration of the underlying type
+- for CallExpr, the declaration of the callee
+- for MemberExpr, the declaration of the referenced member
+- for CXXConstructExpr, the declaration of the constructor
+
+Also usable as Matcher<T> for any T supporting the getDecl() member
+function. e.g. various subtypes of clang::Type and various expressions.
+
+Usable as: Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1CallExpr.html">CallExpr</a>>, Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1CXXConstructExpr.html">CXXConstructExpr</a>>,
+  Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1DeclRefExpr.html">DeclRefExpr</a>>, Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1EnumType.html">EnumType</a>>, Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1InjectedClassNameType.html">InjectedClassNameType</a>>,
+  Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1LabelStmt.html">LabelStmt</a>>, Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1MemberExpr.html">MemberExpr</a>>, Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1QualType.html">QualType</a>>,
+  Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1RecordType.html">RecordType</a>>, Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1TagType.html">TagType</a>>,
+  Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1TemplateSpecializationType.html">TemplateSpecializationType</a>>, Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1TemplateTypeParmType.html">TemplateTypeParmType</a>>,
+  Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1TypedefType.html">TypedefType</a>>, Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1UnresolvedUsingType.html">UnresolvedUsingType</a>>
+</pre></td></tr>
+
+
+<tr><td>Matcher<T></td><td class="name" onclick="toggle('findAll0')"><a name="findAll0Anchor">findAll</a></td><td>Matcher<T>  Matcher</td></tr>
+<tr><td colspan="4" class="doc" id="findAll0"><pre>Matches if the node or any descendant matches.
+
+Generates results for each match.
+
+For example, in:
+  class A { class B {}; class C {}; };
+The matcher:
+  recordDecl(hasName("::A"), findAll(recordDecl(isDefinition()).bind("m")))
+will generate results for A, B and C.
+
+Usable as: Any Matcher
+</pre></td></tr>
+
+
+<tr><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1TypedefType.html">TypedefType</a>></td><td class="name" onclick="toggle('hasDeclaration1')"><a name="hasDeclaration1Anchor">hasDeclaration</a></td><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1Decl.html">Decl</a>>  InnerMatcher</td></tr>
+<tr><td colspan="4" class="doc" id="hasDeclaration1"><pre>Matches a node if the declaration associated with that node
+matches the given matcher.
+
+The associated declaration is:
+- for type nodes, the declaration of the underlying type
+- for CallExpr, the declaration of the callee
+- for MemberExpr, the declaration of the referenced member
+- for CXXConstructExpr, the declaration of the constructor
+
+Also usable as Matcher<T> for any T supporting the getDecl() member
+function. e.g. various subtypes of clang::Type and various expressions.
+
+Usable as: Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1CallExpr.html">CallExpr</a>>, Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1CXXConstructExpr.html">CXXConstructExpr</a>>,
+  Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1DeclRefExpr.html">DeclRefExpr</a>>, Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1EnumType.html">EnumType</a>>, Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1InjectedClassNameType.html">InjectedClassNameType</a>>,
+  Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1LabelStmt.html">LabelStmt</a>>, Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1MemberExpr.html">MemberExpr</a>>, Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1QualType.html">QualType</a>>,
+  Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1RecordType.html">RecordType</a>>, Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1TagType.html">TagType</a>>,
+  Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1TemplateSpecializationType.html">TemplateSpecializationType</a>>, Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1TemplateTypeParmType.html">TemplateTypeParmType</a>>,
+  Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1TypedefType.html">TypedefType</a>>, Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1UnresolvedUsingType.html">UnresolvedUsingType</a>>
+</pre></td></tr>
+
+
+<tr><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1UnaryExprOrTypeTraitExpr.html">UnaryExprOrTypeTraitExpr</a>></td><td class="name" onclick="toggle('hasArgumentOfType0')"><a name="hasArgumentOfType0Anchor">hasArgumentOfType</a></td><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1QualType.html">QualType</a>> InnerMatcher</td></tr>
+<tr><td colspan="4" class="doc" id="hasArgumentOfType0"><pre>Matches unary expressions that have a specific type of argument.
+
+Given
+  int a, c; float b; int s = sizeof(a) + sizeof(b) + alignof(c);
+unaryExprOrTypeTraitExpr(hasArgumentOfType(asString("int"))
+  matches sizeof(a) and alignof(c)
+</pre></td></tr>
+
+
+<tr><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1UnaryOperator.html">UnaryOperator</a>></td><td class="name" onclick="toggle('hasUnaryOperand0')"><a name="hasUnaryOperand0Anchor">hasUnaryOperand</a></td><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1Expr.html">Expr</a>> InnerMatcher</td></tr>
+<tr><td colspan="4" class="doc" id="hasUnaryOperand0"><pre>Matches if the operand of a unary operator matches.
+
+Example matches true (matcher = hasUnaryOperand(boolLiteral(equals(true))))
+  !true
+</pre></td></tr>
+
+
+<tr><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1UnresolvedUsingType.html">UnresolvedUsingType</a>></td><td class="name" onclick="toggle('hasDeclaration0')"><a name="hasDeclaration0Anchor">hasDeclaration</a></td><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1Decl.html">Decl</a>>  InnerMatcher</td></tr>
+<tr><td colspan="4" class="doc" id="hasDeclaration0"><pre>Matches a node if the declaration associated with that node
+matches the given matcher.
+
+The associated declaration is:
+- for type nodes, the declaration of the underlying type
+- for CallExpr, the declaration of the callee
+- for MemberExpr, the declaration of the referenced member
+- for CXXConstructExpr, the declaration of the constructor
+
+Also usable as Matcher<T> for any T supporting the getDecl() member
+function. e.g. various subtypes of clang::Type and various expressions.
+
+Usable as: Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1CallExpr.html">CallExpr</a>>, Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1CXXConstructExpr.html">CXXConstructExpr</a>>,
+  Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1DeclRefExpr.html">DeclRefExpr</a>>, Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1EnumType.html">EnumType</a>>, Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1InjectedClassNameType.html">InjectedClassNameType</a>>,
+  Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1LabelStmt.html">LabelStmt</a>>, Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1MemberExpr.html">MemberExpr</a>>, Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1QualType.html">QualType</a>>,
+  Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1RecordType.html">RecordType</a>>, Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1TagType.html">TagType</a>>,
+  Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1TemplateSpecializationType.html">TemplateSpecializationType</a>>, Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1TemplateTypeParmType.html">TemplateTypeParmType</a>>,
+  Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1TypedefType.html">TypedefType</a>>, Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1UnresolvedUsingType.html">UnresolvedUsingType</a>>
+</pre></td></tr>
+
+
+<tr><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1UsingDecl.html">UsingDecl</a>></td><td class="name" onclick="toggle('hasAnyUsingShadowDecl0')"><a name="hasAnyUsingShadowDecl0Anchor">hasAnyUsingShadowDecl</a></td><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1UsingShadowDecl.html">UsingShadowDecl</a>> InnerMatcher</td></tr>
+<tr><td colspan="4" class="doc" id="hasAnyUsingShadowDecl0"><pre>Matches any using shadow declaration.
+
+Given
+  namespace X { void b(); }
+  using X::b;
+usingDecl(hasAnyUsingShadowDecl(hasName("b"))))
+  matches using X::b </pre></td></tr>
+
+
+<tr><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1UsingShadowDecl.html">UsingShadowDecl</a>></td><td class="name" onclick="toggle('hasTargetDecl0')"><a name="hasTargetDecl0Anchor">hasTargetDecl</a></td><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1NamedDecl.html">NamedDecl</a>> InnerMatcher</td></tr>
+<tr><td colspan="4" class="doc" id="hasTargetDecl0"><pre>Matches a using shadow declaration where the target declaration is
+matched by the given matcher.
+
+Given
+  namespace X { int a; void b(); }
+  using X::a;
+  using X::b;
+usingDecl(hasAnyUsingShadowDecl(hasTargetDecl(functionDecl())))
+  matches using X::b but not using X::a </pre></td></tr>
+
+
+<tr><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1ValueDecl.html">ValueDecl</a>></td><td class="name" onclick="toggle('hasType3')"><a name="hasType3Anchor">hasType</a></td><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1Decl.html">Decl</a>> InnerMatcher</td></tr>
+<tr><td colspan="4" class="doc" id="hasType3"><pre>Overloaded to match the declaration of the expression's or value
+declaration's type.
+
+In case of a value declaration (for example a variable declaration),
+this resolves one layer of indirection. For example, in the value
+declaration "X x;", recordDecl(hasName("X")) matches the declaration of X,
+while varDecl(hasType(recordDecl(hasName("X")))) matches the declaration
+of x."
+
+Example matches x (matcher = expr(hasType(recordDecl(hasName("X")))))
+            and z (matcher = varDecl(hasType(recordDecl(hasName("X")))))
+ class X {};
+ void y(X &x) { x; X z; }
+
+Usable as: Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1Expr.html">Expr</a>>, Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1ValueDecl.html">ValueDecl</a>>
+</pre></td></tr>
+
+
+<tr><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1ValueDecl.html">ValueDecl</a>></td><td class="name" onclick="toggle('hasType1')"><a name="hasType1Anchor">hasType</a></td><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1QualType.html">QualType</a>> InnerMatcher</td></tr>
+<tr><td colspan="4" class="doc" id="hasType1"><pre>Matches if the expression's or declaration's type matches a type
+matcher.
+
+Example matches x (matcher = expr(hasType(recordDecl(hasName("X")))))
+            and z (matcher = varDecl(hasType(recordDecl(hasName("X")))))
+ class X {};
+ void y(X &x) { x; X z; }
+</pre></td></tr>
+
+
+<tr><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1VarDecl.html">VarDecl</a>></td><td class="name" onclick="toggle('hasInitializer0')"><a name="hasInitializer0Anchor">hasInitializer</a></td><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1Expr.html">Expr</a>> InnerMatcher</td></tr>
+<tr><td colspan="4" class="doc" id="hasInitializer0"><pre>Matches a variable declaration that has an initializer expression
+that matches the given matcher.
+
+Example matches x (matcher = varDecl(hasInitializer(callExpr())))
+  bool y() { return true; }
+  bool x = y();
+</pre></td></tr>
+
+
+<tr><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1VariableArrayType.html">VariableArrayType</a>></td><td class="name" onclick="toggle('hasSizeExpr0')"><a name="hasSizeExpr0Anchor">hasSizeExpr</a></td><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1Expr.html">Expr</a>> InnerMatcher</td></tr>
+<tr><td colspan="4" class="doc" id="hasSizeExpr0"><pre>Matches VariableArrayType nodes that have a specific size
+expression.
+
+Given
+  void f(int b) {
+    int a[b];
+  }
+variableArrayType(hasSizeExpr(ignoringImpCasts(declRefExpr(to(
+  varDecl(hasName("b")))))))
+  matches "int a[b]"
+</pre></td></tr>
+
+
+<tr><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1WhileStmt.html">WhileStmt</a>></td><td class="name" onclick="toggle('hasBody2')"><a name="hasBody2Anchor">hasBody</a></td><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1Stmt.html">Stmt</a>> InnerMatcher</td></tr>
+<tr><td colspan="4" class="doc" id="hasBody2"><pre>Matches a 'for', 'while', or 'do while' statement that has
+a given body.
+
+Given
+  for (;;) {}
+hasBody(compoundStmt())
+  matches 'for (;;) {}'
+with compoundStmt()
+  matching '{}'
+</pre></td></tr>
+
+
+<tr><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1WhileStmt.html">WhileStmt</a>></td><td class="name" onclick="toggle('hasCondition2')"><a name="hasCondition2Anchor">hasCondition</a></td><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1Expr.html">Expr</a>> InnerMatcher</td></tr>
+<tr><td colspan="4" class="doc" id="hasCondition2"><pre>Matches the condition expression of an if statement, for loop,
+or conditional operator.
+
+Example matches true (matcher = hasCondition(boolLiteral(equals(true))))
+  if (true) {}
+</pre></td></tr>
+
+
+<tr><td>Matcher<internal::BindableMatcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1NestedNameSpecifierLoc.html">NestedNameSpecifierLoc</a>>></td><td class="name" onclick="toggle('loc1')"><a name="loc1Anchor">loc</a></td><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1NestedNameSpecifier.html">NestedNameSpecifier</a>> InnerMatcher</td></tr>
+<tr><td colspan="4" class="doc" id="loc1"><pre>Matches NestedNameSpecifierLocs for which the given inner
+NestedNameSpecifier-matcher matches.
+</pre></td></tr>
+
+
+<tr><td>Matcher<internal::BindableMatcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1TypeLoc.html">TypeLoc</a>>></td><td class="name" onclick="toggle('loc0')"><a name="loc0Anchor">loc</a></td><td>Matcher&lt<a href="http://clang.llvm.org/doxygen/classclang_1_1QualType.html">QualType</a>> InnerMatcher</td></tr>
+<tr><td colspan="4" class="doc" id="loc0"><pre>Matches TypeLocs for which the given inner
+QualType-matcher matches.
+</pre></td></tr>
+
+<!--END_TRAVERSAL_MATCHERS -->
+</table>
+
+</div>
+</body>
+</html>
+
+

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+++ www-releases/trunk/3.5.1/tools/clang/docs/LibASTMatchersTutorial.html Tue Jan 13 17:58:20 2015
@@ -0,0 +1,545 @@
+
+
+<!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD XHTML 1.0 Transitional//EN"
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+
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+<html xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml">
+  <head>
+    <meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=utf-8" />
+    
+    <title>Tutorial for building tools using LibTooling and LibASTMatchers — Clang 3.5 documentation</title>
+    
+    <link rel="stylesheet" href="_static/haiku.css" type="text/css" />
+    <link rel="stylesheet" href="_static/pygments.css" type="text/css" />
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+    
+    <script type="text/javascript">
+      var DOCUMENTATION_OPTIONS = {
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+      };
+    </script>
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+  </head>
+  <body>
+      <div class="header"><h1 class="heading"><a href="index.html">
+          <span>Clang 3.5 documentation</span></a></h1>
+        <h2 class="heading"><span>Tutorial for building tools using LibTooling and LibASTMatchers</span></h2>
+      </div>
+      <div class="topnav">
+      
+        <p>
+        «  <a href="RAVFrontendAction.html">How to write RecursiveASTVisitor based ASTFrontendActions.</a>
+          ::  
+        <a class="uplink" href="index.html">Contents</a>
+          ::  
+        <a href="LibASTMatchers.html">Matching the Clang AST</a>  Â»
+        </p>
+
+      </div>
+      <div class="content">
+        
+        
+  <div class="section" id="tutorial-for-building-tools-using-libtooling-and-libastmatchers">
+<h1>Tutorial for building tools using LibTooling and LibASTMatchers<a class="headerlink" href="#tutorial-for-building-tools-using-libtooling-and-libastmatchers" title="Permalink to this headline">¶</a></h1>
+<p>This document is intended to show how to build a useful source-to-source
+translation tool based on Clang’s <a class="reference external" href="LibTooling.html">LibTooling</a>. It is
+explicitly aimed at people who are new to Clang, so all you should need
+is a working knowledge of C++ and the command line.</p>
+<p>In order to work on the compiler, you need some basic knowledge of the
+abstract syntax tree (AST). To this end, the reader is incouraged to
+skim the <a class="reference internal" href="IntroductionToTheClangAST.html"><em>Introduction to the Clang
+AST</em></a></p>
+<div class="section" id="step-0-obtaining-clang">
+<h2>Step 0: Obtaining Clang<a class="headerlink" href="#step-0-obtaining-clang" title="Permalink to this headline">¶</a></h2>
+<p>As Clang is part of the LLVM project, you’ll need to download LLVM’s
+source code first. Both Clang and LLVM are maintained as Subversion
+repositories, but we’ll be accessing them through the git mirror. For
+further information, see the <a class="reference external" href="http://llvm.org/docs/GettingStarted.html">getting started
+guide</a>.</p>
+<div class="highlight-console"><div class="highlight"><pre><span class="go">mkdir ~/clang-llvm && cd ~/clang-llvm</span>
+<span class="go">git clone http://llvm.org/git/llvm.git</span>
+<span class="go">cd llvm/tools</span>
+<span class="go">git clone http://llvm.org/git/clang.git</span>
+<span class="go">cd clang/tools</span>
+<span class="go">git clone http://llvm.org/git/clang-tools-extra.git extra</span>
+</pre></div>
+</div>
+<p>Next you need to obtain the CMake build system and Ninja build tool. You
+may already have CMake installed, but current binary versions of CMake
+aren’t built with Ninja support.</p>
+<div class="highlight-console"><div class="highlight"><pre><span class="go">cd ~/clang-llvm</span>
+<span class="go">git clone https://github.com/martine/ninja.git</span>
+<span class="go">cd ninja</span>
+<span class="go">git checkout release</span>
+<span class="go">./bootstrap.py</span>
+<span class="go">sudo cp ninja /usr/bin/</span>
+
+<span class="go">cd ~/clang-llvm</span>
+<span class="go">git clone git://cmake.org/stage/cmake.git</span>
+<span class="go">cd cmake</span>
+<span class="go">git checkout next</span>
+<span class="go">./bootstrap</span>
+<span class="go">make</span>
+<span class="go">sudo make install</span>
+</pre></div>
+</div>
+<p>Okay. Now we’ll build Clang!</p>
+<div class="highlight-console"><div class="highlight"><pre><span class="go">cd ~/clang-llvm</span>
+<span class="go">mkdir build && cd build</span>
+<span class="go">cmake -G Ninja ../llvm -DLLVM_BUILD_TESTS=ON  # Enable tests; default is off.</span>
+<span class="go">ninja</span>
+<span class="go">ninja check       # Test LLVM only.</span>
+<span class="go">ninja clang-test  # Test Clang only.</span>
+<span class="go">ninja install</span>
+</pre></div>
+</div>
+<p>And we’re live.</p>
+<p>All of the tests should pass, though there is a (very) small chance that
+you can catch LLVM and Clang out of sync. Running <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">'git</span> <span class="pre">svn</span> <span class="pre">rebase'</span></tt>
+in both the llvm and clang directories should fix any problems.</p>
+<p>Finally, we want to set Clang as its own compiler.</p>
+<div class="highlight-console"><div class="highlight"><pre><span class="go">cd ~/clang-llvm/build</span>
+<span class="go">ccmake ../llvm</span>
+</pre></div>
+</div>
+<p>The second command will bring up a GUI for configuring Clang. You need
+to set the entry for <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">CMAKE_CXX_COMPILER</span></tt>. Press <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">'t'</span></tt> to turn on
+advanced mode. Scroll down to <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">CMAKE_CXX_COMPILER</span></tt>, and set it to
+<tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">/usr/bin/clang++</span></tt>, or wherever you installed it. Press <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">'c'</span></tt> to
+configure, then <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">'g'</span></tt> to generate CMake’s files.</p>
+<p>Finally, run ninja one last time, and you’re done.</p>
+</div>
+<div class="section" id="step-1-create-a-clangtool">
+<h2>Step 1: Create a ClangTool<a class="headerlink" href="#step-1-create-a-clangtool" title="Permalink to this headline">¶</a></h2>
+<p>Now that we have enough background knowledge, it’s time to create the
+simplest productive ClangTool in existence: a syntax checker. While this
+already exists as <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">clang-check</span></tt>, it’s important to understand what’s
+going on.</p>
+<p>First, we’ll need to create a new directory for our tool and tell CMake
+that it exists. As this is not going to be a core clang tool, it will
+live in the <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">tools/extra</span></tt> repository.</p>
+<div class="highlight-console"><div class="highlight"><pre><span class="go">cd ~/clang-llvm/llvm/tools/clang</span>
+<span class="go">mkdir tools/extra/loop-convert</span>
+<span class="go">echo 'add_subdirectory(loop-convert)' >> tools/extra/CMakeLists.txt</span>
+<span class="go">vim tools/extra/loop-convert/CMakeLists.txt</span>
+</pre></div>
+</div>
+<p>CMakeLists.txt should have the following contents:</p>
+<div class="highlight-python"><pre>set(LLVM_LINK_COMPONENTS support)
+set(LLVM_USED_LIBS clangTooling clangBasic clangAST)
+
+add_clang_executable(loop-convert
+  LoopConvert.cpp
+  )
+target_link_libraries(loop-convert
+  clangTooling
+  clangBasic
+  clangASTMatchers
+  )</pre>
+</div>
+<p>With that done, Ninja will be able to compile our tool. Let’s give it
+something to compile! Put the following into
+<tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">tools/extra/loop-convert/LoopConvert.cpp</span></tt>. A detailed explanation of
+why the different parts are needed can be found in the <a class="reference external" href="LibTooling.html">LibTooling
+documentation</a>.</p>
+<div class="highlight-c++"><div class="highlight"><pre><span class="c1">// Declares clang::SyntaxOnlyAction.</span>
+<span class="cp">#include "clang/Frontend/FrontendActions.h"</span>
+<span class="cp">#include "clang/Tooling/CommonOptionsParser.h"</span>
+<span class="cp">#include "clang/Tooling/Tooling.h"</span>
+<span class="c1">// Declares llvm::cl::extrahelp.</span>
+<span class="cp">#include "llvm/Support/CommandLine.h"</span>
+
+<span class="k">using</span> <span class="k">namespace</span> <span class="n">clang</span><span class="o">::</span><span class="n">tooling</span><span class="p">;</span>
+<span class="k">using</span> <span class="k">namespace</span> <span class="n">llvm</span><span class="p">;</span>
+
+<span class="c1">// Apply a custom category to all command-line options so that they are the</span>
+<span class="c1">// only ones displayed.</span>
+<span class="k">static</span> <span class="n">llvm</span><span class="o">::</span><span class="n">cl</span><span class="o">::</span><span class="n">OptionCategory</span> <span class="n">MyToolCategory</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="s">"my-tool options"</span><span class="p">);</span>
+
+<span class="c1">// CommonOptionsParser declares HelpMessage with a description of the common</span>
+<span class="c1">// command-line options related to the compilation database and input files.</span>
+<span class="c1">// It's nice to have this help message in all tools.</span>
+<span class="k">static</span> <span class="n">cl</span><span class="o">::</span><span class="n">extrahelp</span> <span class="n">CommonHelp</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="n">CommonOptionsParser</span><span class="o">::</span><span class="n">HelpMessage</span><span class="p">);</span>
+
+<span class="c1">// A help message for this specific tool can be added afterwards.</span>
+<span class="k">static</span> <span class="n">cl</span><span class="o">::</span><span class="n">extrahelp</span> <span class="n">MoreHelp</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="s">"</span><span class="se">\n</span><span class="s">More help text..."</span><span class="p">);</span>
+
+<span class="kt">int</span> <span class="nf">main</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="kt">int</span> <span class="n">argc</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="k">const</span> <span class="kt">char</span> <span class="o">**</span><span class="n">argv</span><span class="p">)</span> <span class="p">{</span>
+  <span class="n">CommonOptionsParser</span> <span class="n">OptionsParser</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="n">argc</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="n">argv</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="n">MyToolCategory</span><span class="p">);</span>
+  <span class="n">ClangTool</span> <span class="n">Tool</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="n">OptionsParser</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="n">getCompilations</span><span class="p">(),</span>
+                 <span class="n">OptionsParser</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="n">getSourcePathList</span><span class="p">());</span>
+  <span class="k">return</span> <span class="n">Tool</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="n">run</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="n">newFrontendActionFactory</span><span class="o"><</span><span class="n">clang</span><span class="o">::</span><span class="n">SyntaxOnlyAction</span><span class="o">></span><span class="p">().</span><span class="n">get</span><span class="p">());</span>
+<span class="p">}</span>
+</pre></div>
+</div>
+<p>And that’s it! You can compile our new tool by running ninja from the
+<tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">build</span></tt> directory.</p>
+<div class="highlight-console"><div class="highlight"><pre><span class="go">cd ~/clang-llvm/build</span>
+<span class="go">ninja</span>
+</pre></div>
+</div>
+<p>You should now be able to run the syntax checker, which is located in
+<tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">~/clang-llvm/build/bin</span></tt>, on any source file. Try it!</p>
+<div class="highlight-console"><div class="highlight"><pre><span class="go">cat "int main() { return 0; }" > test.cpp</span>
+<span class="go">bin/loop-convert test.cpp --</span>
+</pre></div>
+</div>
+<p>Note the two dashes after we specify the source file. The additional
+options for the compiler are passed after the dashes rather than loading
+them from a compilation database - there just aren’t any options needed
+right now.</p>
+</div>
+<div class="section" id="intermezzo-learn-ast-matcher-basics">
+<h2>Intermezzo: Learn AST matcher basics<a class="headerlink" href="#intermezzo-learn-ast-matcher-basics" title="Permalink to this headline">¶</a></h2>
+<p>Clang recently introduced the <a class="reference internal" href="LibASTMatchers.html"><em>ASTMatcher
+library</em></a> to provide a simple, powerful, and
+concise way to describe specific patterns in the AST. Implemented as a
+DSL powered by macros and templates (see
+<a class="reference external" href="../doxygen/ASTMatchers_8h_source.html">ASTMatchers.h</a> if you’re
+curious), matchers offer the feel of algebraic data types common to
+functional programming languages.</p>
+<p>For example, suppose you wanted to examine only binary operators. There
+is a matcher to do exactly that, conveniently named <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">binaryOperator</span></tt>.
+I’ll give you one guess what this matcher does:</p>
+<div class="highlight-c++"><div class="highlight"><pre><span class="n">binaryOperator</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="n">hasOperatorName</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="s">"+"</span><span class="p">),</span> <span class="n">hasLHS</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="n">integerLiteral</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="n">equals</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="mi">0</span><span class="p">))))</span>
+</pre></div>
+</div>
+<p>Shockingly, it will match against addition expressions whose left hand
+side is exactly the literal 0. It will not match against other forms of
+0, such as <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">'\0'</span></tt> or <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">NULL</span></tt>, but it will match against macros that
+expand to 0. The matcher will also not match against calls to the
+overloaded operator <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">'+'</span></tt>, as there is a separate <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">operatorCallExpr</span></tt>
+matcher to handle overloaded operators.</p>
+<p>There are AST matchers to match all the different nodes of the AST,
+narrowing matchers to only match AST nodes fulfilling specific criteria,
+and traversal matchers to get from one kind of AST node to another. For
+a complete list of AST matchers, take a look at the <a class="reference external" href="LibASTMatchersReference.html">AST Matcher
+References</a></p>
+<p>All matcher that are nouns describe entities in the AST and can be
+bound, so that they can be referred to whenever a match is found. To do
+so, simply call the method <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">bind</span></tt> on these matchers, e.g.:</p>
+<div class="highlight-c++"><div class="highlight"><pre><span class="n">variable</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="n">hasType</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="n">isInteger</span><span class="p">())).</span><span class="n">bind</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="s">"intvar"</span><span class="p">)</span>
+</pre></div>
+</div>
+</div>
+<div class="section" id="step-2-using-ast-matchers">
+<h2>Step 2: Using AST matchers<a class="headerlink" href="#step-2-using-ast-matchers" title="Permalink to this headline">¶</a></h2>
+<p>Okay, on to using matchers for real. Let’s start by defining a matcher
+which will capture all <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">for</span></tt> statements that define a new variable
+initialized to zero. Let’s start with matching all <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">for</span></tt> loops:</p>
+<div class="highlight-c++"><div class="highlight"><pre><span class="n">forStmt</span><span class="p">()</span>
+</pre></div>
+</div>
+<p>Next, we want to specify that a single variable is declared in the first
+portion of the loop, so we can extend the matcher to</p>
+<div class="highlight-c++"><div class="highlight"><pre><span class="n">forStmt</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="n">hasLoopInit</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="n">declStmt</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="n">hasSingleDecl</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="n">varDecl</span><span class="p">()))))</span>
+</pre></div>
+</div>
+<p>Finally, we can add the condition that the variable is initialized to
+zero.</p>
+<div class="highlight-c++"><div class="highlight"><pre><span class="n">forStmt</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="n">hasLoopInit</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="n">declStmt</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="n">hasSingleDecl</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="n">varDecl</span><span class="p">(</span>
+  <span class="n">hasInitializer</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="n">integerLiteral</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="n">equals</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="mi">0</span><span class="p">))))))))</span>
+</pre></div>
+</div>
+<p>It is fairly easy to read and understand the matcher definition (“match
+loops whose init portion declares a single variable which is initialized
+to the integer literal 0”), but deciding that every piece is necessary
+is more difficult. Note that this matcher will not match loops whose
+variables are initialized to <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">'\0'</span></tt>, <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">0.0</span></tt>, <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">NULL</span></tt>, or any form of
+zero besides the integer 0.</p>
+<p>The last step is giving the matcher a name and binding the <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">ForStmt</span></tt>
+as we will want to do something with it:</p>
+<div class="highlight-c++"><div class="highlight"><pre><span class="n">StatementMatcher</span> <span class="n">LoopMatcher</span> <span class="o">=</span>
+  <span class="n">forStmt</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="n">hasLoopInit</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="n">declStmt</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="n">hasSingleDecl</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="n">varDecl</span><span class="p">(</span>
+    <span class="n">hasInitializer</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="n">integerLiteral</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="n">equals</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="mi">0</span><span class="p">)))))))).</span><span class="n">bind</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="s">"forLoop"</span><span class="p">);</span>
+</pre></div>
+</div>
+<p>Once you have defined your matchers, you will need to add a little more
+scaffolding in order to run them. Matchers are paired with a
+<tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">MatchCallback</span></tt> and registered with a <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">MatchFinder</span></tt> object, then run
+from a <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">ClangTool</span></tt>. More code!</p>
+<p>Add the following to <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">LoopConvert.cpp</span></tt>:</p>
+<div class="highlight-c++"><div class="highlight"><pre><span class="cp">#include "clang/ASTMatchers/ASTMatchers.h"</span>
+<span class="cp">#include "clang/ASTMatchers/ASTMatchFinder.h"</span>
+
+<span class="k">using</span> <span class="k">namespace</span> <span class="n">clang</span><span class="p">;</span>
+<span class="k">using</span> <span class="k">namespace</span> <span class="n">clang</span><span class="o">::</span><span class="n">ast_matchers</span><span class="p">;</span>
+
+<span class="n">StatementMatcher</span> <span class="n">LoopMatcher</span> <span class="o">=</span>
+  <span class="n">forStmt</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="n">hasLoopInit</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="n">declStmt</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="n">hasSingleDecl</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="n">varDecl</span><span class="p">(</span>
+    <span class="n">hasInitializer</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="n">integerLiteral</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="n">equals</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="mi">0</span><span class="p">)))))))).</span><span class="n">bind</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="s">"forLoop"</span><span class="p">);</span>
+
+<span class="k">class</span> <span class="nc">LoopPrinter</span> <span class="o">:</span> <span class="k">public</span> <span class="n">MatchFinder</span><span class="o">::</span><span class="n">MatchCallback</span> <span class="p">{</span>
+<span class="k">public</span> <span class="o">:</span>
+  <span class="k">virtual</span> <span class="kt">void</span> <span class="n">run</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="k">const</span> <span class="n">MatchFinder</span><span class="o">::</span><span class="n">MatchResult</span> <span class="o">&</span><span class="n">Result</span><span class="p">)</span> <span class="p">{</span>
+    <span class="k">if</span> <span class="p">(</span><span class="k">const</span> <span class="n">ForStmt</span> <span class="o">*</span><span class="n">FS</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="n">Result</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="n">Nodes</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="n">getNodeAs</span><span class="o"><</span><span class="n">clang</span><span class="o">::</span><span class="n">ForStmt</span><span class="o">></span><span class="p">(</span><span class="s">"forLoop"</span><span class="p">))</span>
+      <span class="n">FS</span><span class="o">-></span><span class="n">dump</span><span class="p">();</span>
+  <span class="p">}</span>
+<span class="p">};</span>
+</pre></div>
+</div>
+<p>And change <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">main()</span></tt> to:</p>
+<div class="highlight-c++"><div class="highlight"><pre><span class="kt">int</span> <span class="nf">main</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="kt">int</span> <span class="n">argc</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="k">const</span> <span class="kt">char</span> <span class="o">**</span><span class="n">argv</span><span class="p">)</span> <span class="p">{</span>
+  <span class="n">CommonOptionsParser</span> <span class="n">OptionsParser</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="n">argc</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="n">argv</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="n">MyToolCategory</span><span class="p">);</span>
+  <span class="n">ClangTool</span> <span class="n">Tool</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="n">OptionsParser</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="n">getCompilations</span><span class="p">(),</span>
+                 <span class="n">OptionsParser</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="n">getSourcePathList</span><span class="p">());</span>
+
+  <span class="n">LoopPrinter</span> <span class="n">Printer</span><span class="p">;</span>
+  <span class="n">MatchFinder</span> <span class="n">Finder</span><span class="p">;</span>
+  <span class="n">Finder</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="n">addMatcher</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="n">LoopMatcher</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="o">&</span><span class="n">Printer</span><span class="p">);</span>
+
+  <span class="k">return</span> <span class="n">Tool</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="n">run</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="n">newFrontendActionFactory</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="o">&</span><span class="n">Finder</span><span class="p">).</span><span class="n">get</span><span class="p">());</span>
+<span class="p">}</span>
+</pre></div>
+</div>
+<p>Now, you should be able to recompile and run the code to discover for
+loops. Create a new file with a few examples, and test out our new
+handiwork:</p>
+<div class="highlight-console"><div class="highlight"><pre><span class="go">cd ~/clang-llvm/llvm/llvm_build/</span>
+<span class="go">ninja loop-convert</span>
+<span class="go">vim ~/test-files/simple-loops.cc</span>
+<span class="go">bin/loop-convert ~/test-files/simple-loops.cc</span>
+</pre></div>
+</div>
+</div>
+<div class="section" id="step-3-5-more-complicated-matchers">
+<h2>Step 3.5: More Complicated Matchers<a class="headerlink" href="#step-3-5-more-complicated-matchers" title="Permalink to this headline">¶</a></h2>
+<p>Our simple matcher is capable of discovering for loops, but we would
+still need to filter out many more ourselves. We can do a good portion
+of the remaining work with some cleverly chosen matchers, but first we
+need to decide exactly which properties we want to allow.</p>
+<p>How can we characterize for loops over arrays which would be eligible
+for translation to range-based syntax? Range based loops over arrays of
+size <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">N</span></tt> that:</p>
+<ul class="simple">
+<li>start at index <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">0</span></tt></li>
+<li>iterate consecutively</li>
+<li>end at index <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">N-1</span></tt></li>
+</ul>
+<p>We already check for (1), so all we need to add is a check to the loop’s
+condition to ensure that the loop’s index variable is compared against
+<tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">N</span></tt> and another check to ensure that the increment step just
+increments this same variable. The matcher for (2) is straightforward:
+require a pre- or post-increment of the same variable declared in the
+init portion.</p>
+<p>Unfortunately, such a matcher is impossible to write. Matchers contain
+no logic for comparing two arbitrary AST nodes and determining whether
+or not they are equal, so the best we can do is matching more than we
+would like to allow, and punting extra comparisons to the callback.</p>
+<p>In any case, we can start building this sub-matcher. We can require that
+the increment step be a unary increment like this:</p>
+<div class="highlight-c++"><div class="highlight"><pre><span class="n">hasIncrement</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="n">unaryOperator</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="n">hasOperatorName</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="s">"++"</span><span class="p">)))</span>
+</pre></div>
+</div>
+<p>Specifying what is incremented introduces another quirk of Clang’s AST:
+Usages of variables are represented as <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">DeclRefExpr</span></tt>‘s (“declaration
+reference expressions”) because they are expressions which refer to
+variable declarations. To find a <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">unaryOperator</span></tt> that refers to a
+specific declaration, we can simply add a second condition to it:</p>
+<div class="highlight-c++"><div class="highlight"><pre><span class="n">hasIncrement</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="n">unaryOperator</span><span class="p">(</span>
+  <span class="n">hasOperatorName</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="s">"++"</span><span class="p">),</span>
+  <span class="n">hasUnaryOperand</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="n">declRefExpr</span><span class="p">())))</span>
+</pre></div>
+</div>
+<p>Furthermore, we can restrict our matcher to only match if the
+incremented variable is an integer:</p>
+<div class="highlight-c++"><div class="highlight"><pre><span class="n">hasIncrement</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="n">unaryOperator</span><span class="p">(</span>
+  <span class="n">hasOperatorName</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="s">"++"</span><span class="p">),</span>
+  <span class="n">hasUnaryOperand</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="n">declRefExpr</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="n">to</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="n">varDecl</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="n">hasType</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="n">isInteger</span><span class="p">())))))))</span>
+</pre></div>
+</div>
+<p>And the last step will be to attach an identifier to this variable, so
+that we can retrieve it in the callback:</p>
+<div class="highlight-c++"><div class="highlight"><pre><span class="n">hasIncrement</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="n">unaryOperator</span><span class="p">(</span>
+  <span class="n">hasOperatorName</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="s">"++"</span><span class="p">),</span>
+  <span class="n">hasUnaryOperand</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="n">declRefExpr</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="n">to</span><span class="p">(</span>
+    <span class="n">varDecl</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="n">hasType</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="n">isInteger</span><span class="p">())).</span><span class="n">bind</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="s">"incrementVariable"</span><span class="p">))))))</span>
+</pre></div>
+</div>
+<p>We can add this code to the definition of <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">LoopMatcher</span></tt> and make sure
+that our program, outfitted with the new matcher, only prints out loops
+that declare a single variable initialized to zero and have an increment
+step consisting of a unary increment of some variable.</p>
+<p>Now, we just need to add a matcher to check if the condition part of the
+<tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">for</span></tt> loop compares a variable against the size of the array. There is
+only one problem - we don’t know which array we’re iterating over
+without looking at the body of the loop! We are again restricted to
+approximating the result we want with matchers, filling in the details
+in the callback. So we start with:</p>
+<div class="highlight-c++"><div class="highlight"><pre><span class="n">hasCondition</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="n">binaryOperator</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="n">hasOperatorName</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="s">"<"</span><span class="p">))</span>
+</pre></div>
+</div>
+<p>It makes sense to ensure that the left-hand side is a reference to a
+variable, and that the right-hand side has integer type.</p>
+<div class="highlight-c++"><div class="highlight"><pre><span class="n">hasCondition</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="n">binaryOperator</span><span class="p">(</span>
+  <span class="n">hasOperatorName</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="s">"<"</span><span class="p">),</span>
+  <span class="n">hasLHS</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="n">declRefExpr</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="n">to</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="n">varDecl</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="n">hasType</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="n">isInteger</span><span class="p">()))))),</span>
+  <span class="n">hasRHS</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="n">expr</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="n">hasType</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="n">isInteger</span><span class="p">())))))</span>
+</pre></div>
+</div>
+<p>Why? Because it doesn’t work. Of the three loops provided in
+<tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">test-files/simple.cpp</span></tt>, zero of them have a matching condition. A
+quick look at the AST dump of the first for loop, produced by the
+previous iteration of loop-convert, shows us the answer:</p>
+<div class="highlight-python"><pre>(ForStmt 0x173b240
+  (DeclStmt 0x173afc8
+    0x173af50 "int i =
+      (IntegerLiteral 0x173afa8 'int' 0)")
+  <<>>
+  (BinaryOperator 0x173b060 '_Bool' '<'
+    (ImplicitCastExpr 0x173b030 'int'
+      (DeclRefExpr 0x173afe0 'int' lvalue Var 0x173af50 'i' 'int'))
+    (ImplicitCastExpr 0x173b048 'int'
+      (DeclRefExpr 0x173b008 'const int' lvalue Var 0x170fa80 'N' 'const int')))
+  (UnaryOperator 0x173b0b0 'int' lvalue prefix '++'
+    (DeclRefExpr 0x173b088 'int' lvalue Var 0x173af50 'i' 'int'))
+  (CompoundStatement ...</pre>
+</div>
+<p>We already know that the declaration and increments both match, or this
+loop wouldn’t have been dumped. The culprit lies in the implicit cast
+applied to the first operand (i.e. the LHS) of the less-than operator,
+an L-value to R-value conversion applied to the expression referencing
+<tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">i</span></tt>. Thankfully, the matcher library offers a solution to this problem
+in the form of <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">ignoringParenImpCasts</span></tt>, which instructs the matcher to
+ignore implicit casts and parentheses before continuing to match.
+Adjusting the condition operator will restore the desired match.</p>
+<div class="highlight-c++"><div class="highlight"><pre><span class="n">hasCondition</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="n">binaryOperator</span><span class="p">(</span>
+  <span class="n">hasOperatorName</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="s">"<"</span><span class="p">),</span>
+  <span class="n">hasLHS</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="n">ignoringParenImpCasts</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="n">declRefExpr</span><span class="p">(</span>
+    <span class="n">to</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="n">varDecl</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="n">hasType</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="n">isInteger</span><span class="p">())))))),</span>
+  <span class="n">hasRHS</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="n">expr</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="n">hasType</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="n">isInteger</span><span class="p">())))))</span>
+</pre></div>
+</div>
+<p>After adding binds to the expressions we wished to capture and
+extracting the identifier strings into variables, we have array-step-2
+completed.</p>
+</div>
+<div class="section" id="step-4-retrieving-matched-nodes">
+<h2>Step 4: Retrieving Matched Nodes<a class="headerlink" href="#step-4-retrieving-matched-nodes" title="Permalink to this headline">¶</a></h2>
+<p>So far, the matcher callback isn’t very interesting: it just dumps the
+loop’s AST. At some point, we will need to make changes to the input
+source code. Next, we’ll work on using the nodes we bound in the
+previous step.</p>
+<p>The <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">MatchFinder::run()</span></tt> callback takes a
+<tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">MatchFinder::MatchResult&</span></tt> as its parameter. We’re most interested in
+its <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">Context</span></tt> and <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">Nodes</span></tt> members. Clang uses the <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">ASTContext</span></tt>
+class to represent contextual information about the AST, as the name
+implies, though the most functionally important detail is that several
+operations require an <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">ASTContext*</span></tt> parameter. More immediately useful
+is the set of matched nodes, and how we retrieve them.</p>
+<p>Since we bind three variables (identified by ConditionVarName,
+InitVarName, and IncrementVarName), we can obtain the matched nodes by
+using the <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">getNodeAs()</span></tt> member function.</p>
+<p>In <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">LoopConvert.cpp</span></tt> add</p>
+<div class="highlight-c++"><div class="highlight"><pre><span class="cp">#include "clang/AST/ASTContext.h"</span>
+</pre></div>
+</div>
+<p>Change <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">LoopMatcher</span></tt> to</p>
+<div class="highlight-c++"><div class="highlight"><pre><span class="n">StatementMatcher</span> <span class="n">LoopMatcher</span> <span class="o">=</span>
+    <span class="n">forStmt</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="n">hasLoopInit</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="n">declStmt</span><span class="p">(</span>
+                <span class="n">hasSingleDecl</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="n">varDecl</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="n">hasInitializer</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="n">integerLiteral</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="n">equals</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="mi">0</span><span class="p">))))</span>
+                                  <span class="p">.</span><span class="n">bind</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="s">"initVarName"</span><span class="p">)))),</span>
+            <span class="n">hasIncrement</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="n">unaryOperator</span><span class="p">(</span>
+                <span class="n">hasOperatorName</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="s">"++"</span><span class="p">),</span>
+                <span class="n">hasUnaryOperand</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="n">declRefExpr</span><span class="p">(</span>
+                    <span class="n">to</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="n">varDecl</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="n">hasType</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="n">isInteger</span><span class="p">())).</span><span class="n">bind</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="s">"incVarName"</span><span class="p">)))))),</span>
+            <span class="n">hasCondition</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="n">binaryOperator</span><span class="p">(</span>
+                <span class="n">hasOperatorName</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="s">"<"</span><span class="p">),</span>
+                <span class="n">hasLHS</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="n">ignoringParenImpCasts</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="n">declRefExpr</span><span class="p">(</span>
+                    <span class="n">to</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="n">varDecl</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="n">hasType</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="n">isInteger</span><span class="p">())).</span><span class="n">bind</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="s">"condVarName"</span><span class="p">))))),</span>
+                <span class="n">hasRHS</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="n">expr</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="n">hasType</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="n">isInteger</span><span class="p">())))))).</span><span class="n">bind</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="s">"forLoop"</span><span class="p">);</span>
+</pre></div>
+</div>
+<p>And change <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">LoopPrinter::run</span></tt> to</p>
+<div class="highlight-c++"><div class="highlight"><pre><span class="kt">void</span> <span class="n">LoopPrinter</span><span class="o">::</span><span class="n">run</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="k">const</span> <span class="n">MatchFinder</span><span class="o">::</span><span class="n">MatchResult</span> <span class="o">&</span><span class="n">Result</span><span class="p">)</span> <span class="p">{</span>
+  <span class="n">ASTContext</span> <span class="o">*</span><span class="n">Context</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="n">Result</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="n">Context</span><span class="p">;</span>
+  <span class="k">const</span> <span class="n">ForStmt</span> <span class="o">*</span><span class="n">FS</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="n">Result</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="n">Nodes</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="n">getStmtAs</span><span class="o"><</span><span class="n">ForStmt</span><span class="o">></span><span class="p">(</span><span class="s">"forLoop"</span><span class="p">);</span>
+  <span class="c1">// We do not want to convert header files!</span>
+  <span class="k">if</span> <span class="p">(</span><span class="o">!</span><span class="n">FS</span> <span class="o">||</span> <span class="o">!</span><span class="n">Context</span><span class="o">-></span><span class="n">getSourceManager</span><span class="p">().</span><span class="n">isFromMainFile</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="n">FS</span><span class="o">-></span><span class="n">getForLoc</span><span class="p">()))</span>
+    <span class="k">return</span><span class="p">;</span>
+  <span class="k">const</span> <span class="n">VarDecl</span> <span class="o">*</span><span class="n">IncVar</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="n">Result</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="n">Nodes</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="n">getNodeAs</span><span class="o"><</span><span class="n">VarDecl</span><span class="o">></span><span class="p">(</span><span class="s">"incVarName"</span><span class="p">);</span>
+  <span class="k">const</span> <span class="n">VarDecl</span> <span class="o">*</span><span class="n">CondVar</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="n">Result</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="n">Nodes</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="n">getNodeAs</span><span class="o"><</span><span class="n">VarDecl</span><span class="o">></span><span class="p">(</span><span class="s">"condVarName"</span><span class="p">);</span>
+  <span class="k">const</span> <span class="n">VarDecl</span> <span class="o">*</span><span class="n">InitVar</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="n">Result</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="n">Nodes</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="n">getNodeAs</span><span class="o"><</span><span class="n">VarDecl</span><span class="o">></span><span class="p">(</span><span class="s">"initVarName"</span><span class="p">);</span>
+
+  <span class="k">if</span> <span class="p">(</span><span class="o">!</span><span class="n">areSameVariable</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="n">IncVar</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="n">CondVar</span><span class="p">)</span> <span class="o">||</span> <span class="o">!</span><span class="n">areSameVariable</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="n">IncVar</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="n">InitVar</span><span class="p">))</span>
+    <span class="k">return</span><span class="p">;</span>
+  <span class="n">llvm</span><span class="o">::</span><span class="n">outs</span><span class="p">()</span> <span class="o"><<</span> <span class="s">"Potential array-based loop discovered.</span><span class="se">\n</span><span class="s">"</span><span class="p">;</span>
+<span class="p">}</span>
+</pre></div>
+</div>
+<p>Clang associates a <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">VarDecl</span></tt> with each variable to represent the variable’s
+declaration. Since the “canonical” form of each declaration is unique by
+address, all we need to do is make sure neither <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">ValueDecl</span></tt> (base class of
+<tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">VarDecl</span></tt>) is <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">NULL</span></tt> and compare the canonical Decls.</p>
+<div class="highlight-c++"><div class="highlight"><pre><span class="k">static</span> <span class="kt">bool</span> <span class="nf">areSameVariable</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="k">const</span> <span class="n">ValueDecl</span> <span class="o">*</span><span class="n">First</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="k">const</span> <span class="n">ValueDecl</span> <span class="o">*</span><span class="n">Second</span><span class="p">)</span> <span class="p">{</span>
+  <span class="k">return</span> <span class="n">First</span> <span class="o">&&</span> <span class="n">Second</span> <span class="o">&&</span>
+         <span class="n">First</span><span class="o">-></span><span class="n">getCanonicalDecl</span><span class="p">()</span> <span class="o">==</span> <span class="n">Second</span><span class="o">-></span><span class="n">getCanonicalDecl</span><span class="p">();</span>
+<span class="p">}</span>
+</pre></div>
+</div>
+<p>If execution reaches the end of <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">LoopPrinter::run()</span></tt>, we know that the
+loop shell that looks like</p>
+<div class="highlight-c++"><div class="highlight"><pre><span class="k">for</span> <span class="p">(</span><span class="kt">int</span> <span class="n">i</span><span class="o">=</span> <span class="mi">0</span><span class="p">;</span> <span class="n">i</span> <span class="o"><</span> <span class="n">expr</span><span class="p">();</span> <span class="o">++</span><span class="n">i</span><span class="p">)</span> <span class="p">{</span> <span class="p">...</span> <span class="p">}</span>
+</pre></div>
+</div>
+<p>For now, we will just print a message explaining that we found a loop.
+The next section will deal with recursively traversing the AST to
+discover all changes needed.</p>
+<p>As a side note, it’s not as trivial to test if two expressions are the same,
+though Clang has already done the hard work for us by providing a way to
+canonicalize expressions:</p>
+<div class="highlight-c++"><div class="highlight"><pre><span class="k">static</span> <span class="kt">bool</span> <span class="nf">areSameExpr</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="n">ASTContext</span> <span class="o">*</span><span class="n">Context</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="k">const</span> <span class="n">Expr</span> <span class="o">*</span><span class="n">First</span><span class="p">,</span>
+                        <span class="k">const</span> <span class="n">Expr</span> <span class="o">*</span><span class="n">Second</span><span class="p">)</span> <span class="p">{</span>
+  <span class="k">if</span> <span class="p">(</span><span class="o">!</span><span class="n">First</span> <span class="o">||</span> <span class="o">!</span><span class="n">Second</span><span class="p">)</span>
+    <span class="k">return</span> <span class="nb">false</span><span class="p">;</span>
+  <span class="n">llvm</span><span class="o">::</span><span class="n">FoldingSetNodeID</span> <span class="n">FirstID</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="n">SecondID</span><span class="p">;</span>
+  <span class="n">First</span><span class="o">-></span><span class="n">Profile</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="n">FirstID</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="o">*</span><span class="n">Context</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="nb">true</span><span class="p">);</span>
+  <span class="n">Second</span><span class="o">-></span><span class="n">Profile</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="n">SecondID</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="o">*</span><span class="n">Context</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="nb">true</span><span class="p">);</span>
+  <span class="k">return</span> <span class="n">FirstID</span> <span class="o">==</span> <span class="n">SecondID</span><span class="p">;</span>
+<span class="p">}</span>
+</pre></div>
+</div>
+<p>This code relies on the comparison between two
+<tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">llvm::FoldingSetNodeIDs</span></tt>. As the documentation for
+<tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">Stmt::Profile()</span></tt> indicates, the <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">Profile()</span></tt> member function builds
+a description of a node in the AST, based on its properties, along with
+those of its children. <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">FoldingSetNodeID</span></tt> then serves as a hash we can
+use to compare expressions. We will need <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">areSameExpr</span></tt> later. Before
+you run the new code on the additional loops added to
+test-files/simple.cpp, try to figure out which ones will be considered
+potentially convertible.</p>
+</div>
+</div>
+
+
+      </div>
+      <div class="bottomnav">
+      
+        <p>
+        «  <a href="RAVFrontendAction.html">How to write RecursiveASTVisitor based ASTFrontendActions.</a>
+          ::  
+        <a class="uplink" href="index.html">Contents</a>
+          ::  
+        <a href="LibASTMatchers.html">Matching the Clang AST</a>  Â»
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+
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+    <div class="footer">
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+      Created using <a href="http://sphinx.pocoo.org/">Sphinx</a> 1.1.3.
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+      <div class="header"><h1 class="heading"><a href="index.html">
+          <span>Clang 3.5 documentation</span></a></h1>
+        <h2 class="heading"><span>LibFormat</span></h2>
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+      
+        <p>
+        «  <a href="LibTooling.html">LibTooling</a>
+          ::  
+        <a class="uplink" href="index.html">Contents</a>
+          ::  
+        <a href="ClangPlugins.html">Clang Plugins</a>  Â»
+        </p>
+
+      </div>
+      <div class="content">
+        
+        
+  <div class="section" id="libformat">
+<h1>LibFormat<a class="headerlink" href="#libformat" title="Permalink to this headline">¶</a></h1>
+<p>LibFormat is a library that implements automatic source code formatting based
+on Clang. This documents describes the LibFormat interface and design as well
+as some basic style discussions.</p>
+<p>If you just want to use <cite>clang-format</cite> as a tool or integrated into an editor,
+checkout <a class="reference internal" href="ClangFormat.html"><em>ClangFormat</em></a>.</p>
+<div class="section" id="design">
+<h2>Design<a class="headerlink" href="#design" title="Permalink to this headline">¶</a></h2>
+<p>FIXME: Write up design.</p>
+</div>
+<div class="section" id="interface">
+<h2>Interface<a class="headerlink" href="#interface" title="Permalink to this headline">¶</a></h2>
+<p>The core routine of LibFormat is <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">reformat()</span></tt>:</p>
+<div class="highlight-c++"><div class="highlight"><pre><span class="n">tooling</span><span class="o">::</span><span class="n">Replacements</span> <span class="n">reformat</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="k">const</span> <span class="n">FormatStyle</span> <span class="o">&</span><span class="n">Style</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="n">Lexer</span> <span class="o">&</span><span class="n">Lex</span><span class="p">,</span>
+                               <span class="n">SourceManager</span> <span class="o">&</span><span class="n">SourceMgr</span><span class="p">,</span>
+                               <span class="n">std</span><span class="o">::</span><span class="n">vector</span><span class="o"><</span><span class="n">CharSourceRange</span><span class="o">></span> <span class="n">Ranges</span><span class="p">);</span>
+</pre></div>
+</div>
+<p>This reads a token stream out of the lexer <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">Lex</span></tt> and reformats all the code
+ranges in <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">Ranges</span></tt>. The <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">FormatStyle</span></tt> controls basic decisions made during
+formatting. A list of options can be found under <a class="reference internal" href="#style-options"><em>Style Options</em></a>.</p>
+</div>
+<div class="section" id="style-options">
+<span id="id1"></span><h2>Style Options<a class="headerlink" href="#style-options" title="Permalink to this headline">¶</a></h2>
+<p>The style options describe specific formatting options that can be used in
+order to make <cite>ClangFormat</cite> comply with different style guides. Currently,
+two style guides are hard-coded:</p>
+<div class="highlight-c++"><div class="highlight"><pre><span class="c1">/// \brief Returns a format style complying with the LLVM coding standards:</span>
+<span class="c1">/// http://llvm.org/docs/CodingStandards.html.</span>
+<span class="n">FormatStyle</span> <span class="nf">getLLVMStyle</span><span class="p">();</span>
+
+<span class="c1">/// \brief Returns a format style complying with Google's C++ style guide:</span>
+<span class="c1">/// http://google-styleguide.googlecode.com/svn/trunk/cppguide.xml.</span>
+<span class="n">FormatStyle</span> <span class="nf">getGoogleStyle</span><span class="p">();</span>
+</pre></div>
+</div>
+<p>These options are also exposed in the <a class="reference internal" href="ClangFormat.html"><em>standalone tools</em></a>
+through the <cite>-style</cite> option.</p>
+<p>In the future, we plan on making this configurable.</p>
+</div>
+</div>
+
+
+      </div>
+      <div class="bottomnav">
+      
+        <p>
+        «  <a href="LibTooling.html">LibTooling</a>
+          ::  
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+          ::  
+        <a href="ClangPlugins.html">Clang Plugins</a>  Â»
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+
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+
+    <div class="footer">
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+      Created using <a href="http://sphinx.pocoo.org/">Sphinx</a> 1.1.3.
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+</html>
\ No newline at end of file

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+  </head>
+  <body>
+      <div class="header"><h1 class="heading"><a href="index.html">
+          <span>Clang 3.5 documentation</span></a></h1>
+        <h2 class="heading"><span>LibTooling</span></h2>
+      </div>
+      <div class="topnav">
+      
+        <p>
+        «  <a href="IntroductionToTheClangAST.html">Introduction to the Clang AST</a>
+          ::  
+        <a class="uplink" href="index.html">Contents</a>
+          ::  
+        <a href="LibFormat.html">LibFormat</a>  Â»
+        </p>
+
+      </div>
+      <div class="content">
+        
+        
+  <div class="section" id="libtooling">
+<h1>LibTooling<a class="headerlink" href="#libtooling" title="Permalink to this headline">¶</a></h1>
+<p>LibTooling is a library to support writing standalone tools based on Clang.
+This document will provide a basic walkthrough of how to write a tool using
+LibTooling.</p>
+<p>For the information on how to setup Clang Tooling for LLVM see
+<a class="reference internal" href="HowToSetupToolingForLLVM.html"><em>How To Setup Clang Tooling For LLVM</em></a></p>
+<div class="section" id="introduction">
+<h2>Introduction<a class="headerlink" href="#introduction" title="Permalink to this headline">¶</a></h2>
+<p>Tools built with LibTooling, like Clang Plugins, run <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">FrontendActions</span></tt> over
+code.</p>
+<p>In this tutorial, we’ll demonstrate the different ways of running Clang’s
+<tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">SyntaxOnlyAction</span></tt>, which runs a quick syntax check, over a bunch of code.</p>
+</div>
+<div class="section" id="parsing-a-code-snippet-in-memory">
+<h2>Parsing a code snippet in memory<a class="headerlink" href="#parsing-a-code-snippet-in-memory" title="Permalink to this headline">¶</a></h2>
+<p>If you ever wanted to run a <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">FrontendAction</span></tt> over some sample code, for
+example to unit test parts of the Clang AST, <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">runToolOnCode</span></tt> is what you
+looked for.  Let me give you an example:</p>
+<div class="highlight-c++"><div class="highlight"><pre><span class="cp">#include "clang/Tooling/Tooling.h"</span>
+
+<span class="n">TEST</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="n">runToolOnCode</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="n">CanSyntaxCheckCode</span><span class="p">)</span> <span class="p">{</span>
+  <span class="c1">// runToolOnCode returns whether the action was correctly run over the</span>
+  <span class="c1">// given code.</span>
+  <span class="n">EXPECT_TRUE</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="n">runToolOnCode</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="k">new</span> <span class="n">clang</span><span class="o">::</span><span class="n">SyntaxOnlyAction</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="s">"class X {};"</span><span class="p">));</span>
+<span class="p">}</span>
+</pre></div>
+</div>
+</div>
+<div class="section" id="writing-a-standalone-tool">
+<h2>Writing a standalone tool<a class="headerlink" href="#writing-a-standalone-tool" title="Permalink to this headline">¶</a></h2>
+<p>Once you unit tested your <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">FrontendAction</span></tt> to the point where it cannot
+possibly break, it’s time to create a standalone tool.  For a standalone tool
+to run clang, it first needs to figure out what command line arguments to use
+for a specified file.  To that end we create a <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">CompilationDatabase</span></tt>.  There
+are different ways to create a compilation database, and we need to support all
+of them depending on command-line options.  There’s the <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">CommonOptionsParser</span></tt>
+class that takes the responsibility to parse command-line parameters related to
+compilation databases and inputs, so that all tools share the implementation.</p>
+<div class="section" id="parsing-common-tools-options">
+<h3>Parsing common tools options<a class="headerlink" href="#parsing-common-tools-options" title="Permalink to this headline">¶</a></h3>
+<p><tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">CompilationDatabase</span></tt> can be read from a build directory or the command line.
+Using <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">CommonOptionsParser</span></tt> allows for explicit specification of a compile
+command line, specification of build path using the <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">-p</span></tt> command-line option,
+and automatic location of the compilation database using source files paths.</p>
+<div class="highlight-c++"><div class="highlight"><pre><span class="cp">#include "clang/Tooling/CommonOptionsParser.h"</span>
+<span class="cp">#include "llvm/Support/CommandLine.h"</span>
+
+<span class="k">using</span> <span class="k">namespace</span> <span class="n">clang</span><span class="o">::</span><span class="n">tooling</span><span class="p">;</span>
+
+<span class="c1">// Apply a custom category to all command-line options so that they are the</span>
+<span class="c1">// only ones displayed.</span>
+<span class="k">static</span> <span class="n">llvm</span><span class="o">::</span><span class="n">cl</span><span class="o">::</span><span class="n">OptionCategory</span> <span class="n">MyToolCategory</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="s">"my-tool options"</span><span class="p">);</span>
+
+<span class="kt">int</span> <span class="nf">main</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="kt">int</span> <span class="n">argc</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="k">const</span> <span class="kt">char</span> <span class="o">**</span><span class="n">argv</span><span class="p">)</span> <span class="p">{</span>
+  <span class="c1">// CommonOptionsParser constructor will parse arguments and create a</span>
+  <span class="c1">// CompilationDatabase.  In case of error it will terminate the program.</span>
+  <span class="n">CommonOptionsParser</span> <span class="n">OptionsParser</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="n">argc</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="n">argv</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="n">MyToolCategory</span><span class="p">);</span>
+
+  <span class="c1">// Use OptionsParser.getCompilations() and OptionsParser.getSourcePathList()</span>
+  <span class="c1">// to retrieve CompilationDatabase and the list of input file paths.</span>
+<span class="p">}</span>
+</pre></div>
+</div>
+</div>
+<div class="section" id="creating-and-running-a-clangtool">
+<h3>Creating and running a ClangTool<a class="headerlink" href="#creating-and-running-a-clangtool" title="Permalink to this headline">¶</a></h3>
+<p>Once we have a <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">CompilationDatabase</span></tt>, we can create a <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">ClangTool</span></tt> and run
+our <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">FrontendAction</span></tt> over some code.  For example, to run the
+<tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">SyntaxOnlyAction</span></tt> over the files “a.cc” and “b.cc” one would write:</p>
+<div class="highlight-c++"><div class="highlight"><pre><span class="c1">// A clang tool can run over a number of sources in the same process...</span>
+<span class="n">std</span><span class="o">::</span><span class="n">vector</span><span class="o"><</span><span class="n">std</span><span class="o">::</span><span class="n">string</span><span class="o">></span> <span class="n">Sources</span><span class="p">;</span>
+<span class="n">Sources</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="n">push_back</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="s">"a.cc"</span><span class="p">);</span>
+<span class="n">Sources</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="n">push_back</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="s">"b.cc"</span><span class="p">);</span>
+
+<span class="c1">// We hand the CompilationDatabase we created and the sources to run over into</span>
+<span class="c1">// the tool constructor.</span>
+<span class="n">ClangTool</span> <span class="nf">Tool</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="n">OptionsParser</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="n">getCompilations</span><span class="p">(),</span> <span class="n">Sources</span><span class="p">);</span>
+
+<span class="c1">// The ClangTool needs a new FrontendAction for each translation unit we run</span>
+<span class="c1">// on.  Thus, it takes a FrontendActionFactory as parameter.  To create a</span>
+<span class="c1">// FrontendActionFactory from a given FrontendAction type, we call</span>
+<span class="c1">// newFrontendActionFactory<clang::SyntaxOnlyAction>().</span>
+<span class="kt">int</span> <span class="n">result</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="n">Tool</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="n">run</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="n">newFrontendActionFactory</span><span class="o"><</span><span class="n">clang</span><span class="o">::</span><span class="n">SyntaxOnlyAction</span><span class="o">></span><span class="p">().</span><span class="n">get</span><span class="p">());</span>
+</pre></div>
+</div>
+</div>
+<div class="section" id="putting-it-together-the-first-tool">
+<h3>Putting it together — the first tool<a class="headerlink" href="#putting-it-together-the-first-tool" title="Permalink to this headline">¶</a></h3>
+<p>Now we combine the two previous steps into our first real tool.  A more advanced
+version of this example tool is also checked into the clang tree at
+<tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">tools/clang-check/ClangCheck.cpp</span></tt>.</p>
+<div class="highlight-c++"><div class="highlight"><pre><span class="c1">// Declares clang::SyntaxOnlyAction.</span>
+<span class="cp">#include "clang/Frontend/FrontendActions.h"</span>
+<span class="cp">#include "clang/Tooling/CommonOptionsParser.h"</span>
+<span class="cp">#include "clang/Tooling/Tooling.h"</span>
+<span class="c1">// Declares llvm::cl::extrahelp.</span>
+<span class="cp">#include "llvm/Support/CommandLine.h"</span>
+
+<span class="k">using</span> <span class="k">namespace</span> <span class="n">clang</span><span class="o">::</span><span class="n">tooling</span><span class="p">;</span>
+<span class="k">using</span> <span class="k">namespace</span> <span class="n">llvm</span><span class="p">;</span>
+
+<span class="c1">// Apply a custom category to all command-line options so that they are the</span>
+<span class="c1">// only ones displayed.</span>
+<span class="k">static</span> <span class="n">cl</span><span class="o">::</span><span class="n">OptionCategory</span> <span class="n">MyToolCategory</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="s">"my-tool options"</span><span class="p">);</span>
+
+<span class="c1">// CommonOptionsParser declares HelpMessage with a description of the common</span>
+<span class="c1">// command-line options related to the compilation database and input files.</span>
+<span class="c1">// It's nice to have this help message in all tools.</span>
+<span class="k">static</span> <span class="n">cl</span><span class="o">::</span><span class="n">extrahelp</span> <span class="n">CommonHelp</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="n">CommonOptionsParser</span><span class="o">::</span><span class="n">HelpMessage</span><span class="p">);</span>
+
+<span class="c1">// A help message for this specific tool can be added afterwards.</span>
+<span class="k">static</span> <span class="n">cl</span><span class="o">::</span><span class="n">extrahelp</span> <span class="n">MoreHelp</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="s">"</span><span class="se">\n</span><span class="s">More help text..."</span><span class="p">);</span>
+
+<span class="kt">int</span> <span class="nf">main</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="kt">int</span> <span class="n">argc</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="k">const</span> <span class="kt">char</span> <span class="o">**</span><span class="n">argv</span><span class="p">)</span> <span class="p">{</span>
+  <span class="n">CommonOptionsParser</span> <span class="n">OptionsParser</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="n">argc</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="n">argv</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="n">MyToolCategory</span><span class="p">);</span>
+  <span class="n">ClangTool</span> <span class="n">Tool</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="n">OptionsParser</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="n">getCompilations</span><span class="p">(),</span>
+                 <span class="n">OptionsParser</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="n">getSourcePathList</span><span class="p">());</span>
+  <span class="k">return</span> <span class="n">Tool</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="n">run</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="n">newFrontendActionFactory</span><span class="o"><</span><span class="n">clang</span><span class="o">::</span><span class="n">SyntaxOnlyAction</span><span class="o">></span><span class="p">().</span><span class="n">get</span><span class="p">());</span>
+<span class="p">}</span>
+</pre></div>
+</div>
+</div>
+<div class="section" id="running-the-tool-on-some-code">
+<h3>Running the tool on some code<a class="headerlink" href="#running-the-tool-on-some-code" title="Permalink to this headline">¶</a></h3>
+<p>When you check out and build clang, clang-check is already built and available
+to you in bin/clang-check inside your build directory.</p>
+<p>You can run clang-check on a file in the llvm repository by specifying all the
+needed parameters after a “<tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">--</span></tt>” separator:</p>
+<div class="highlight-bash"><div class="highlight"><pre><span class="nv">$ </span><span class="nb">cd</span> /path/to/source/llvm
+<span class="nv">$ </span><span class="nb">export </span><span class="nv">BD</span><span class="o">=</span>/path/to/build/llvm
+<span class="nv">$ $BD</span>/bin/clang-check tools/clang/tools/clang-check/ClangCheck.cpp -- <span class="se">\</span>
+      clang++ -D__STDC_CONSTANT_MACROS -D__STDC_LIMIT_MACROS <span class="se">\</span>
+      -Itools/clang/include -I<span class="nv">$BD</span>/include -Iinclude <span class="se">\</span>
+      -Itools/clang/lib/Headers -c
+</pre></div>
+</div>
+<p>As an alternative, you can also configure cmake to output a compile command
+database into its build directory:</p>
+<div class="highlight-bash"><div class="highlight"><pre><span class="c"># Alternatively to calling cmake, use ccmake, toggle to advanced mode and</span>
+<span class="c"># set the parameter CMAKE_EXPORT_COMPILE_COMMANDS from the UI.</span>
+<span class="nv">$ </span>cmake -DCMAKE_EXPORT_COMPILE_COMMANDS<span class="o">=</span>ON .
+</pre></div>
+</div>
+<p>This creates a file called <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">compile_commands.json</span></tt> in the build directory.
+Now you can run <strong class="program">clang-check</strong> over files in the project by specifying
+the build path as first argument and some source files as further positional
+arguments:</p>
+<div class="highlight-bash"><div class="highlight"><pre><span class="nv">$ </span><span class="nb">cd</span> /path/to/source/llvm
+<span class="nv">$ </span><span class="nb">export </span><span class="nv">BD</span><span class="o">=</span>/path/to/build/llvm
+<span class="nv">$ $BD</span>/bin/clang-check -p <span class="nv">$BD</span> tools/clang/tools/clang-check/ClangCheck.cpp
+</pre></div>
+</div>
+</div>
+<div class="section" id="builtin-includes">
+<span id="libtooling-builtin-includes"></span><h3>Builtin includes<a class="headerlink" href="#builtin-includes" title="Permalink to this headline">¶</a></h3>
+<p>Clang tools need their builtin headers and search for them the same way Clang
+does.  Thus, the default location to look for builtin headers is in a path
+<tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">$(dirname</span> <span class="pre">/path/to/tool)/../lib/clang/3.3/include</span></tt> relative to the tool
+binary.  This works out-of-the-box for tools running from llvm’s toplevel
+binary directory after building clang-headers, or if the tool is running from
+the binary directory of a clang install next to the clang binary.</p>
+<p>Tips: if your tool fails to find <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">stddef.h</span></tt> or similar headers, call the tool
+with <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">-v</span></tt> and look at the search paths it looks through.</p>
+</div>
+<div class="section" id="linking">
+<h3>Linking<a class="headerlink" href="#linking" title="Permalink to this headline">¶</a></h3>
+<p>For a list of libraries to link, look at one of the tools’ Makefiles (for
+example <a class="reference external" href="http://llvm.org/viewvc/llvm-project/cfe/trunk/tools/clang-check/Makefile?view=markup">clang-check/Makefile</a>).</p>
+</div>
+</div>
+</div>
+
+
+      </div>
+      <div class="bottomnav">
+      
+        <p>
+        «  <a href="IntroductionToTheClangAST.html">Introduction to the Clang AST</a>
+          ::  
+        <a class="uplink" href="index.html">Contents</a>
+          ::  
+        <a href="LibFormat.html">LibFormat</a>  Â»
+        </p>
+
+      </div>
+
+    <div class="footer">
+        © Copyright 2007-2014, The Clang Team.
+      Created using <a href="http://sphinx.pocoo.org/">Sphinx</a> 1.1.3.
+    </div>
+  </body>
+</html>
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+
+
+<!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD XHTML 1.0 Transitional//EN"
+  "http://www.w3.org/TR/xhtml1/DTD/xhtml1-transitional.dtd">
+
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+  <head>
+    <meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=utf-8" />
+    
+    <title>MSVC compatibility — Clang 3.5 documentation</title>
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+        URL_ROOT:    '',
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+  </head>
+  <body>
+      <div class="header"><h1 class="heading"><a href="index.html">
+          <span>Clang 3.5 documentation</span></a></h1>
+        <h2 class="heading"><span>MSVC compatibility</span></h2>
+      </div>
+      <div class="topnav">
+      
+        <p>
+        «  <a href="Modules.html">Modules</a>
+          ::  
+        <a class="uplink" href="index.html">Contents</a>
+          ::  
+        <a href="FAQ.html">Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ)</a>  Â»
+        </p>
+
+      </div>
+      <div class="content">
+        
+        
+  <style type="text/css">
+  .none { background-color: #FFCCCC }
+  .partial { background-color: #FFFF99 }
+  .good { background-color: #CCFF99 }
+</style><div class="section" id="msvc-compatibility">
+<h1>MSVC compatibility<a class="headerlink" href="#msvc-compatibility" title="Permalink to this headline">¶</a></h1>
+<p>When Clang compiles C++ code for Windows, it attempts to be compatible with
+MSVC.  There are multiple dimensions to compatibility.</p>
+<p>First, Clang attempts to be ABI-compatible, meaning that Clang-compiled code
+should be able to link against MSVC-compiled code successfully.  However, C++
+ABIs are particularly large and complicated, and Clang’s support for MSVC’s C++
+ABI is a work in progress.  If you don’t require MSVC ABI compatibility or don’t
+want to use Microsoft’s C and C++ runtimes, the mingw32 toolchain might be a
+better fit for your project.</p>
+<p>Second, Clang implements many MSVC language extensions, such as
+<tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">__declspec(dllexport)</span></tt> and a handful of pragmas.  These are typically
+controlled by <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">-fms-extensions</span></tt>.</p>
+<p>Third, MSVC accepts some C++ code that Clang will typically diagnose as
+invalid.  When these constructs are present in widely included system headers,
+Clang attempts to recover and continue compiling the user’s program.  Most
+parsing and semantic compatibility tweaks are controlled by
+<tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">-fms-compatibility</span></tt> and <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">-fdelayed-template-parsing</span></tt>, and they are a work
+in progress.</p>
+<p>Finally, there is <a class="reference internal" href="UsersManual.html#clang-cl"><em>clang-cl</em></a>, a driver program for clang that attempts to
+be compatible with MSVC’s cl.exe.</p>
+<div class="section" id="abi-features">
+<h2>ABI features<a class="headerlink" href="#abi-features" title="Permalink to this headline">¶</a></h2>
+<p>The status of major ABI-impacting C++ features:</p>
+<ul class="simple">
+<li>Record layout: <span class="good">Complete</span>.  We’ve tested this with a fuzzer and have
+fixed all known bugs.</li>
+<li>Class inheritance: <span class="good">Mostly complete</span>.  This covers all of the standard
+OO features you would expect: virtual method inheritance, multiple
+inheritance, and virtual inheritance.  Every so often we uncover a bug where
+our tables are incompatible, but this is pretty well in hand.  This feature
+has also been fuzz tested.</li>
+<li>Name mangling: <span class="good">Ongoing</span>.  Every new C++ feature generally needs its own
+mangling.  For example, member pointer template arguments have an interesting
+and distinct mangling.  Fortunately, incorrect manglings usually do not result
+in runtime errors.  Non-inline functions with incorrect manglings usually
+result in link errors, which are relatively easy to diagnose.  Incorrect
+manglings for inline functions and templates result in multiple copies in the
+final image.  The C++ standard requires that those addresses be equal, but few
+programs rely on this.</li>
+<li>Member pointers: <span class="good">Mostly complete</span>.  Standard C++ member pointers are
+fully implemented and should be ABI compatible.  Both <a class="reference external" href="http://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/83cch5a6.aspx">#pragma
+pointers_to_members</a> and the <a class="reference external" href="http://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/yad46a6z.aspx">/vm</a> flags are supported. However, MSVC
+supports an extension to allow creating a <a class="reference external" href="http://llvm.org/PR15713">pointer to a member of a virtual
+base class</a>.  Clang does not yet support this.</li>
+</ul>
+<ul class="simple">
+<li>Debug info: <span class="partial">Minimal</span>.  Clang emits CodeView line tables into the
+object file, similar to what MSVC emits when given the <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">/Z7</span></tt> flag.
+Microsoft’s link.exe will read this information and use it to create a PDB,
+enabling stack traces in all modern Windows debuggers.  Clang does not emit
+any type info or description of variable layout.</li>
+<li>RTTI: <span class="good">Complete</span>.  Generation of RTTI data structures has been
+finished, along with support for the <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">/GR</span></tt> flag.</li>
+<li>Exceptions and SEH: <span class="none">Unstarted</span>.  Clang can parse both constructs, but
+does not know how to emit compatible handlers.</li>
+<li>Thread-safe initialization of local statics: <span class="none">Unstarted</span>.  We are ABI
+compatible with MSVC 2013, which does not support thread-safe local statics.
+MSVC “14” changed the ABI to make initialization of local statics thread safe,
+and we have not yet implemented this.</li>
+<li>Lambdas: <span class="good">Mostly complete</span>.  Clang is compatible with Microsoft’s
+implementation of lambdas except for providing overloads for conversion to
+function pointer for different calling conventions.  However, Microsoft’s
+extension is non-conforming.</li>
+</ul>
+</div>
+<div class="section" id="template-instantiation-and-name-lookup">
+<h2>Template instantiation and name lookup<a class="headerlink" href="#template-instantiation-and-name-lookup" title="Permalink to this headline">¶</a></h2>
+<p>MSVC allows many invalid constructs in class templates that Clang has
+historically rejected.  In order to parse widely distributed headers for
+libraries such as the Active Template Library (ATL) and Windows Runtime Library
+(WRL), some template rules have been relaxed or extended in Clang on Windows.</p>
+<p>The first major semantic difference is that MSVC appears to defer all parsing
+an analysis of inline method bodies in class templates until instantiation
+time.  By default on Windows, Clang attempts to follow suit.  This behavior is
+controlled by the <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">-fdelayed-template-parsing</span></tt> flag.  While Clang delays
+parsing of method bodies, it still parses the bodies <em>before</em> template argument
+substitution, which is not what MSVC does.  The following compatibility tweaks
+are necessary to parse the the template in those cases.</p>
+<p>MSVC allows some name lookup into dependent base classes.  Even on other
+platforms, this has been a <a class="reference external" href="http://clang.llvm.org/compatibility.html#dep_lookup">frequently asked question</a> for Clang users.  A
+dependent base class is a base class that depends on the value of a template
+parameter.  Clang cannot see any of the names inside dependent bases while it
+is parsing your template, so the user is sometimes required to use the
+<tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">typename</span></tt> keyword to assist the parser.  On Windows, Clang attempts to
+follow the normal lookup rules, but if lookup fails, it will assume that the
+user intended to find the name in a dependent base.  While parsing the
+following program, Clang will recover as if the user had written the
+commented-out code:</p>
+<div class="highlight-c++"><div class="highlight"><pre><span class="k">template</span> <span class="o"><</span><span class="k">typename</span> <span class="n">T</span><span class="o">></span>
+<span class="k">struct</span> <span class="n">Foo</span> <span class="o">:</span> <span class="n">T</span> <span class="p">{</span>
+  <span class="kt">void</span> <span class="n">f</span><span class="p">()</span> <span class="p">{</span>
+    <span class="cm">/*typename*/</span> <span class="n">T</span><span class="o">::</span><span class="n">UnknownType</span> <span class="n">x</span> <span class="o">=</span>  <span class="cm">/*this->*/</span><span class="n">unknownMember</span><span class="p">;</span>
+  <span class="p">}</span>
+<span class="p">};</span>
+</pre></div>
+</div>
+<p>After recovery, Clang warns the user that this code is non-standard and issues
+a hint suggesting how to fix the problem.</p>
+<p>As of this writing, Clang is able to compile a simple ATL hello world
+application.  There are still issues parsing WRL headers for modern Windows 8
+apps, but they should be addressed soon.</p>
+</div>
+</div>
+
+
+      </div>
+      <div class="bottomnav">
+      
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+
+      </div>
+
+    <div class="footer">
+        © Copyright 2007-2014, The Clang Team.
+      Created using <a href="http://sphinx.pocoo.org/">Sphinx</a> 1.1.3.
+    </div>
+  </body>
+</html>
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+
+
+<!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD XHTML 1.0 Transitional//EN"
+  "http://www.w3.org/TR/xhtml1/DTD/xhtml1-transitional.dtd">
+
+
+<html xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml">
+  <head>
+    <meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=utf-8" />
+    
+    <title>MemorySanitizer — Clang 3.5 documentation</title>
+    
+    <link rel="stylesheet" href="_static/haiku.css" type="text/css" />
+    <link rel="stylesheet" href="_static/pygments.css" type="text/css" />
+    <link rel="stylesheet" href="_static/print.css" type="text/css" />
+    
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+      };
+    </script>
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+    <script type="text/javascript" src="_static/underscore.js"></script>
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+    <script type="text/javascript" src="_static/theme_extras.js"></script>
+    <link rel="top" title="Clang 3.5 documentation" href="index.html" />
+    <link rel="next" title="DataFlowSanitizer" href="DataFlowSanitizer.html" />
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+  </head>
+  <body>
+      <div class="header"><h1 class="heading"><a href="index.html">
+          <span>Clang 3.5 documentation</span></a></h1>
+        <h2 class="heading"><span>MemorySanitizer</span></h2>
+      </div>
+      <div class="topnav">
+      
+        <p>
+        «  <a href="ThreadSanitizer.html">ThreadSanitizer</a>
+          ::  
+        <a class="uplink" href="index.html">Contents</a>
+          ::  
+        <a href="DataFlowSanitizer.html">DataFlowSanitizer</a>  Â»
+        </p>
+
+      </div>
+      <div class="content">
+        
+        
+  <div class="section" id="memorysanitizer">
+<h1>MemorySanitizer<a class="headerlink" href="#memorysanitizer" title="Permalink to this headline">¶</a></h1>
+<div class="contents local topic" id="contents">
+<ul class="simple">
+<li><a class="reference internal" href="#introduction" id="id1">Introduction</a></li>
+<li><a class="reference internal" href="#how-to-build" id="id2">How to build</a></li>
+<li><a class="reference internal" href="#usage" id="id3">Usage</a><ul>
+<li><a class="reference internal" href="#has-feature-memory-sanitizer" id="id4"><tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">__has_feature(memory_sanitizer)</span></tt></a></li>
+<li><a class="reference internal" href="#attribute-no-sanitize-memory" id="id5"><tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">__attribute__((no_sanitize_memory))</span></tt></a></li>
+<li><a class="reference internal" href="#blacklist" id="id6">Blacklist</a></li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li><a class="reference internal" href="#report-symbolization" id="id7">Report symbolization</a></li>
+<li><a class="reference internal" href="#origin-tracking" id="id8">Origin Tracking</a></li>
+<li><a class="reference internal" href="#handling-external-code" id="id9">Handling external code</a></li>
+<li><a class="reference internal" href="#supported-platforms" id="id10">Supported Platforms</a></li>
+<li><a class="reference internal" href="#limitations" id="id11">Limitations</a></li>
+<li><a class="reference internal" href="#current-status" id="id12">Current Status</a></li>
+<li><a class="reference internal" href="#more-information" id="id13">More Information</a></li>
+</ul>
+</div>
+<div class="section" id="introduction">
+<h2><a class="toc-backref" href="#id1">Introduction</a><a class="headerlink" href="#introduction" title="Permalink to this headline">¶</a></h2>
+<p>MemorySanitizer is a detector of uninitialized reads. It consists of a
+compiler instrumentation module and a run-time library.</p>
+<p>Typical slowdown introduced by MemorySanitizer is <strong>3x</strong>.</p>
+</div>
+<div class="section" id="how-to-build">
+<h2><a class="toc-backref" href="#id2">How to build</a><a class="headerlink" href="#how-to-build" title="Permalink to this headline">¶</a></h2>
+<p>Follow the <a class="reference external" href="../get_started.html">clang build instructions</a>. CMake
+build is supported.</p>
+</div>
+<div class="section" id="usage">
+<h2><a class="toc-backref" href="#id3">Usage</a><a class="headerlink" href="#usage" title="Permalink to this headline">¶</a></h2>
+<p>Simply compile and link your program with <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">-fsanitize=memory</span></tt> flag.
+The MemorySanitizer run-time library should be linked to the final
+executable, so make sure to use <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">clang</span></tt> (not <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">ld</span></tt>) for the final
+link step. When linking shared libraries, the MemorySanitizer run-time
+is not linked, so <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">-Wl,-z,defs</span></tt> may cause link errors (don’t use it
+with MemorySanitizer). To get a reasonable performance add <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">-O1</span></tt> or
+higher. To get meaninful stack traces in error messages add
+<tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">-fno-omit-frame-pointer</span></tt>. To get perfect stack traces you may need
+to disable inlining (just use <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">-O1</span></tt>) and tail call elimination
+(<tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">-fno-optimize-sibling-calls</span></tt>).</p>
+<div class="highlight-console"><div class="highlight"><pre><span class="gp">%</span> cat umr.cc
+<span class="gp">#</span>include <stdio.h>
+
+<span class="go">int main(int argc, char** argv) {</span>
+<span class="go">  int* a = new int[10];</span>
+<span class="go">  a[5] = 0;</span>
+<span class="go">  if (a[argc])</span>
+<span class="go">    printf("xx\n");</span>
+<span class="go">  return 0;</span>
+<span class="go">}</span>
+
+<span class="gp">%</span> clang -fsanitize<span class="o">=</span>memory -fno-omit-frame-pointer -g -O2 umr.cc
+</pre></div>
+</div>
+<p>If a bug is detected, the program will print an error message to
+stderr and exit with a non-zero exit code. Currently, MemorySanitizer
+does not symbolize its output by default, so you may need to use a
+separate script to symbolize the result offline (this will be fixed in
+future).</p>
+<div class="highlight-console"><div class="highlight"><pre><span class="gp">%</span> ./a.out
+<span class="go">WARNING: MemorySanitizer: use-of-uninitialized-value</span>
+<span class="go">    #0 0x7f45944b418a in main umr.cc:6</span>
+<span class="go">    #1 0x7f45938b676c in __libc_start_main libc-start.c:226</span>
+</pre></div>
+</div>
+<p>By default, MemorySanitizer exits on the first detected error.</p>
+<div class="section" id="has-feature-memory-sanitizer">
+<h3><a class="toc-backref" href="#id4"><tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">__has_feature(memory_sanitizer)</span></tt></a><a class="headerlink" href="#has-feature-memory-sanitizer" title="Permalink to this headline">¶</a></h3>
+<p>In some cases one may need to execute different code depending on
+whether MemorySanitizer is enabled. <a class="reference internal" href="LanguageExtensions.html#langext-has-feature-has-extension"><em>__has_feature</em></a> can be used for this purpose.</p>
+<div class="highlight-c"><div class="highlight"><pre><span class="cp">#if defined(__has_feature)</span>
+<span class="cp">#  if __has_feature(memory_sanitizer)</span>
+<span class="c1">// code that builds only under MemorySanitizer</span>
+<span class="cp">#  endif</span>
+<span class="cp">#endif</span>
+</pre></div>
+</div>
+</div>
+<div class="section" id="attribute-no-sanitize-memory">
+<h3><a class="toc-backref" href="#id5"><tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">__attribute__((no_sanitize_memory))</span></tt></a><a class="headerlink" href="#attribute-no-sanitize-memory" title="Permalink to this headline">¶</a></h3>
+<p>Some code should not be checked by MemorySanitizer.
+One may use the function attribute
+<a class="reference internal" href="AttributeReference.html#langext-memory-sanitizer"><em>no_sanitize_memory</em></a>
+to disable uninitialized checks in a particular function.
+MemorySanitizer may still instrument such functions to avoid false positives.
+This attribute may not be
+supported by other compilers, so we suggest to use it together with
+<tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">__has_feature(memory_sanitizer)</span></tt>.</p>
+</div>
+<div class="section" id="blacklist">
+<h3><a class="toc-backref" href="#id6">Blacklist</a><a class="headerlink" href="#blacklist" title="Permalink to this headline">¶</a></h3>
+<p>MemorySanitizer supports <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">src</span></tt> and <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">fun</span></tt> entity types in
+<a class="reference internal" href="SanitizerSpecialCaseList.html"><em>Sanitizer special case list</em></a>, that can be used to relax MemorySanitizer
+checks for certain source files and functions. All “Use of uninitialized value”
+warnings will be suppressed and all values loaded from memory will be
+considered fully initialized.</p>
+</div>
+</div>
+<div class="section" id="report-symbolization">
+<h2><a class="toc-backref" href="#id7">Report symbolization</a><a class="headerlink" href="#report-symbolization" title="Permalink to this headline">¶</a></h2>
+<p>MemorySanitizer uses an external symbolizer to print files and line numbers in
+reports. Make sure that <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">llvm-symbolizer</span></tt> binary is in <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">PATH</span></tt>,
+or set environment variable <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">MSAN_SYMBOLIZER_PATH</span></tt> to point to it.</p>
+</div>
+<div class="section" id="origin-tracking">
+<h2><a class="toc-backref" href="#id8">Origin Tracking</a><a class="headerlink" href="#origin-tracking" title="Permalink to this headline">¶</a></h2>
+<p>MemorySanitizer can track origins of unitialized values, similar to
+Valgrind’s –track-origins option. This feature is enabled by
+<tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">-fsanitize-memory-track-origins</span></tt> Clang option. With the code from
+the example above,</p>
+<div class="highlight-console"><div class="highlight"><pre><span class="gp">%</span> clang -fsanitize<span class="o">=</span>memory -fsanitize-memory-track-origins -fno-omit-frame-pointer -g -O2 umr.cc
+<span class="gp">%</span> ./a.out
+<span class="go">WARNING: MemorySanitizer: use-of-uninitialized-value</span>
+<span class="go">    #0 0x7f7893912f0b in main umr2.cc:6</span>
+<span class="go">    #1 0x7f789249b76c in __libc_start_main libc-start.c:226</span>
+
+<span class="go">  Uninitialized value was created by a heap allocation</span>
+<span class="go">    #0 0x7f7893901cbd in operator new[](unsigned long) msan_new_delete.cc:44</span>
+<span class="go">    #1 0x7f7893912e06 in main umr2.cc:4</span>
+</pre></div>
+</div>
+<p>Origin tracking has proved to be very useful for debugging MemorySanitizer
+reports. It slows down program execution by a factor of 1.5x-2x on top
+of the usual MemorySanitizer slowdown.</p>
+<p>MemorySanitizer can provide even more information with
+<tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">-fsanitize-memory-track-origins=2</span></tt> flag. In this mode reports
+include information about intermediate stores the uninitialized value went
+through.</p>
+<div class="highlight-console"><div class="highlight"><pre><span class="gp">%</span> cat umr2.cc
+<span class="gp">#</span>include <stdio.h>
+
+<span class="go">int main(int argc, char** argv) {</span>
+<span class="go">  int* a = new int[10];</span>
+<span class="go">  a[5] = 0;</span>
+<span class="go">  volatile int b = a[argc];</span>
+<span class="go">  if (b)</span>
+<span class="go">    printf("xx\n");</span>
+<span class="go">  return 0;</span>
+<span class="go">}</span>
+
+<span class="gp">%</span> clang -fsanitize<span class="o">=</span>memory -fsanitize-memory-track-origins<span class="o">=</span>2 -fno-omit-frame-pointer -g -O2 umr2.cc
+<span class="gp">%</span> ./a.out
+<span class="go">WARNING: MemorySanitizer: use-of-uninitialized-value</span>
+<span class="go">    #0 0x7f7893912f0b in main umr2.cc:7</span>
+<span class="go">    #1 0x7f789249b76c in __libc_start_main libc-start.c:226</span>
+
+<span class="go">  Uninitialized value was stored to memory at</span>
+<span class="go">    #0 0x7f78938b5c25 in __msan_chain_origin msan.cc:484</span>
+<span class="go">    #1 0x7f7893912ecd in main umr2.cc:6</span>
+
+<span class="go">  Uninitialized value was created by a heap allocation</span>
+<span class="go">    #0 0x7f7893901cbd in operator new[](unsigned long) msan_new_delete.cc:44</span>
+<span class="go">    #1 0x7f7893912e06 in main umr2.cc:4</span>
+</pre></div>
+</div>
+</div>
+<div class="section" id="handling-external-code">
+<h2><a class="toc-backref" href="#id9">Handling external code</a><a class="headerlink" href="#handling-external-code" title="Permalink to this headline">¶</a></h2>
+<p>MemorySanitizer requires that all program code is instrumented. This
+also includes any libraries that the program depends on, even libc.
+Failing to achieve this may result in false reports.</p>
+<p>Full MemorySanitizer instrumentation is very difficult to achieve. To
+make it easier, MemorySanitizer runtime library includes 70+
+interceptors for the most common libc functions. They make it possible
+to run MemorySanitizer-instrumented programs linked with
+uninstrumented libc. For example, the authors were able to bootstrap
+MemorySanitizer-instrumented Clang compiler by linking it with
+self-built instrumented libcxx (as a replacement for libstdc++).</p>
+<p>In the case when rebuilding all program dependencies with
+MemorySanitizer is problematic, an experimental MSanDR tool can be
+used. It is a DynamoRio-based tool that uses dynamic instrumentation
+to avoid false positives due to uninstrumented code. The tool simply
+marks memory from instrumented libraries as fully initialized. See
+<cite>http://code.google.com/p/memory-sanitizer/wiki/Running#Running_with_the_dynamic_tool</cite>
+for more information.</p>
+</div>
+<div class="section" id="supported-platforms">
+<h2><a class="toc-backref" href="#id10">Supported Platforms</a><a class="headerlink" href="#supported-platforms" title="Permalink to this headline">¶</a></h2>
+<p>MemorySanitizer is supported on</p>
+<ul class="simple">
+<li>Linux x86_64 (tested on Ubuntu 12.04);</li>
+</ul>
+</div>
+<div class="section" id="limitations">
+<h2><a class="toc-backref" href="#id11">Limitations</a><a class="headerlink" href="#limitations" title="Permalink to this headline">¶</a></h2>
+<ul class="simple">
+<li>MemorySanitizer uses 2x more real memory than a native run, 3x with
+origin tracking.</li>
+<li>MemorySanitizer maps (but not reserves) 64 Terabytes of virtual
+address space. This means that tools like <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">ulimit</span></tt> may not work as
+usually expected.</li>
+<li>Static linking is not supported.</li>
+<li>Non-position-independent executables are not supported.  Therefore, the
+<tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">fsanitize=memory</span></tt> flag will cause Clang to act as though the <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">-fPIE</span></tt>
+flag had been supplied if compiling without <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">-fPIC</span></tt>, and as though the
+<tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">-pie</span></tt> flag had been supplied if linking an executable.</li>
+<li>Depending on the version of Linux kernel, running without ASLR may
+be not supported. Note that GDB disables ASLR by default. To debug
+instrumented programs, use “set disable-randomization off”.</li>
+</ul>
+</div>
+<div class="section" id="current-status">
+<h2><a class="toc-backref" href="#id12">Current Status</a><a class="headerlink" href="#current-status" title="Permalink to this headline">¶</a></h2>
+<p>MemorySanitizer is an experimental tool. It is known to work on large
+real-world programs, like Clang/LLVM itself.</p>
+</div>
+<div class="section" id="more-information">
+<h2><a class="toc-backref" href="#id13">More Information</a><a class="headerlink" href="#more-information" title="Permalink to this headline">¶</a></h2>
+<p><a class="reference external" href="http://code.google.com/p/memory-sanitizer/">http://code.google.com/p/memory-sanitizer</a></p>
+</div>
+</div>
+
+
+      </div>
+      <div class="bottomnav">
+      
+        <p>
+        «  <a href="ThreadSanitizer.html">ThreadSanitizer</a>
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+
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+
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+  </body>
+</html>
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==============================================================================
--- www-releases/trunk/3.5.1/tools/clang/docs/Modules.html (added)
+++ www-releases/trunk/3.5.1/tools/clang/docs/Modules.html Tue Jan 13 17:58:20 2015
@@ -0,0 +1,858 @@
+
+
+<!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD XHTML 1.0 Transitional//EN"
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+  <body>
+      <div class="header"><h1 class="heading"><a href="index.html">
+          <span>Clang 3.5 documentation</span></a></h1>
+        <h2 class="heading"><span>Modules</span></h2>
+      </div>
+      <div class="topnav">
+      
+        <p>
+        «  <a href="SanitizerSpecialCaseList.html">Sanitizer special case list</a>
+          ::  
+        <a class="uplink" href="index.html">Contents</a>
+          ::  
+        <a href="MSVCCompatibility.html">MSVC compatibility</a>  Â»
+        </p>
+
+      </div>
+      <div class="content">
+        
+        
+  <div class="section" id="modules">
+<h1>Modules<a class="headerlink" href="#modules" title="Permalink to this headline">¶</a></h1>
+<div class="admonition warning">
+<p class="first admonition-title">Warning</p>
+<p class="last">The functionality described on this page is supported for C and
+Objective-C. C++ support is experimental.</p>
+</div>
+<div class="contents local topic" id="contents">
+<ul class="simple">
+<li><a class="reference internal" href="#introduction" id="id11">Introduction</a><ul>
+<li><a class="reference internal" href="#problems-with-the-current-model" id="id12">Problems with the current model</a></li>
+<li><a class="reference internal" href="#semantic-import" id="id13">Semantic import</a></li>
+<li><a class="reference internal" href="#problems-modules-do-not-solve" id="id14">Problems modules do not solve</a></li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li><a class="reference internal" href="#using-modules" id="id15">Using Modules</a><ul>
+<li><a class="reference internal" href="#objective-c-import-declaration" id="id16">Objective-C Import declaration</a></li>
+<li><a class="reference internal" href="#includes-as-imports" id="id17">Includes as imports</a></li>
+<li><a class="reference internal" href="#module-maps" id="id18">Module maps</a></li>
+<li><a class="reference internal" href="#compilation-model" id="id19">Compilation model</a></li>
+<li><a class="reference internal" href="#command-line-parameters" id="id20">Command-line parameters</a></li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li><a class="reference internal" href="#module-semantics" id="id21">Module Semantics</a><ul>
+<li><a class="reference internal" href="#macros" id="id22">Macros</a></li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li><a class="reference internal" href="#module-map-language" id="id23">Module Map Language</a><ul>
+<li><a class="reference internal" href="#lexical-structure" id="id24">Lexical structure</a></li>
+<li><a class="reference internal" href="#module-map-file" id="id25">Module map file</a></li>
+<li><a class="reference internal" href="#module-declaration" id="id26">Module declaration</a><ul>
+<li><a class="reference internal" href="#requires-declaration" id="id27">Requires declaration</a></li>
+<li><a class="reference internal" href="#header-declaration" id="id28">Header declaration</a></li>
+<li><a class="reference internal" href="#umbrella-directory-declaration" id="id29">Umbrella directory declaration</a></li>
+<li><a class="reference internal" href="#submodule-declaration" id="id30">Submodule declaration</a></li>
+<li><a class="reference internal" href="#export-declaration" id="id31">Export declaration</a></li>
+<li><a class="reference internal" href="#use-declaration" id="id32">Use declaration</a></li>
+<li><a class="reference internal" href="#link-declaration" id="id33">Link declaration</a></li>
+<li><a class="reference internal" href="#configuration-macros-declaration" id="id34">Configuration macros declaration</a></li>
+<li><a class="reference internal" href="#conflict-declarations" id="id35">Conflict declarations</a></li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li><a class="reference internal" href="#attributes" id="id36">Attributes</a></li>
+<li><a class="reference internal" href="#private-module-map-files" id="id37">Private Module Map Files</a></li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li><a class="reference internal" href="#modularizing-a-platform" id="id38">Modularizing a Platform</a></li>
+<li><a class="reference internal" href="#future-directions" id="id39">Future Directions</a></li>
+<li><a class="reference internal" href="#where-to-learn-more-about-modules" id="id40">Where To Learn More About Modules</a></li>
+</ul>
+</div>
+<div class="section" id="introduction">
+<h2><a class="toc-backref" href="#id11">Introduction</a><a class="headerlink" href="#introduction" title="Permalink to this headline">¶</a></h2>
+<p>Most software is built using a number of software libraries, including libraries supplied by the platform, internal libraries built as part of the software itself to provide structure, and third-party libraries. For each library, one needs to access both its interface (API) and its implementation. In the C family of languages, the interface to a library is accessed by including the appropriate header files(s):</p>
+<div class="highlight-c"><div class="highlight"><pre><span class="cp">#include <SomeLib.h></span>
+</pre></div>
+</div>
+<p>The implementation is handled separately by linking against the appropriate library. For example, by passing <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">-lSomeLib</span></tt> to the linker.</p>
+<p>Modules provide an alternative, simpler way to use software libraries that provides better compile-time scalability and eliminates many of the problems inherent to using the C preprocessor to access the API of a library.</p>
+<div class="section" id="problems-with-the-current-model">
+<h3><a class="toc-backref" href="#id12">Problems with the current model</a><a class="headerlink" href="#problems-with-the-current-model" title="Permalink to this headline">¶</a></h3>
+<p>The <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">#include</span></tt> mechanism provided by the C preprocessor is a very poor way to access the API of a library, for a number of reasons:</p>
+<ul class="simple">
+<li><strong>Compile-time scalability</strong>: Each time a header is included, the
+compiler must preprocess and parse the text in that header and every
+header it includes, transitively. This process must be repeated for
+every translation unit in the application, which involves a huge
+amount of redundant work. In a project with <em>N</em> translation units
+and <em>M</em> headers included in each translation unit, the compiler is
+performing <em>M x N</em> work even though most of the <em>M</em> headers are
+shared among multiple translation units. C++ is particularly bad,
+because the compilation model for templates forces a huge amount of
+code into headers.</li>
+<li><strong>Fragility</strong>: <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">#include</span></tt> directives are treated as textual
+inclusion by the preprocessor, and are therefore subject to any
+active macro definitions at the time of inclusion. If any of the
+active macro definitions happens to collide with a name in the
+library, it can break the library API or cause compilation failures
+in the library header itself. For an extreme example,
+<tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">#define</span> <span class="pre">std</span> <span class="pre">"The</span> <span class="pre">C++</span> <span class="pre">Standard"</span></tt> and then include a standard
+library header: the result is a horrific cascade of failures in the
+C++ Standard Library’s implementation. More subtle real-world
+problems occur when the headers for two different libraries interact
+due to macro collisions, and users are forced to reorder
+<tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">#include</span></tt> directives or introduce <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">#undef</span></tt> directives to break
+the (unintended) dependency.</li>
+<li><strong>Conventional workarounds</strong>: C programmers have
+adopted a number of conventions to work around the fragility of the
+C preprocessor model. Include guards, for example, are required for
+the vast majority of headers to ensure that multiple inclusion
+doesn’t break the compile. Macro names are written with
+<tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">LONG_PREFIXED_UPPERCASE_IDENTIFIERS</span></tt> to avoid collisions, and some
+library/framework developers even use <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">__underscored</span></tt> names
+in headers to avoid collisions with “normal” names that (by
+convention) shouldn’t even be macros. These conventions are a
+barrier to entry for developers coming from non-C languages, are
+boilerplate for more experienced developers, and make our headers
+far uglier than they should be.</li>
+<li><strong>Tool confusion</strong>: In a C-based language, it is hard to build tools
+that work well with software libraries, because the boundaries of
+the libraries are not clear. Which headers belong to a particular
+library, and in what order should those headers be included to
+guarantee that they compile correctly? Are the headers C, C++,
+Objective-C++, or one of the variants of these languages? What
+declarations in those headers are actually meant to be part of the
+API, and what declarations are present only because they had to be
+written as part of the header file?</li>
+</ul>
+</div>
+<div class="section" id="semantic-import">
+<h3><a class="toc-backref" href="#id13">Semantic import</a><a class="headerlink" href="#semantic-import" title="Permalink to this headline">¶</a></h3>
+<p>Modules improve access to the API of software libraries by replacing the textual preprocessor inclusion model with a more robust, more efficient semantic model. From the user’s perspective, the code looks only slightly different, because one uses an <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">import</span></tt> declaration rather than a <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">#include</span></tt> preprocessor directive:</p>
+<div class="highlight-c"><div class="highlight"><pre><span class="n">import</span> <span class="n">std</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="n">io</span><span class="p">;</span> <span class="c1">// pseudo-code; see below for syntax discussion</span>
+</pre></div>
+</div>
+<p>However, this module import behaves quite differently from the corresponding <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">#include</span> <span class="pre"><stdio.h></span></tt>: when the compiler sees the module import above, it loads a binary representation of the <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">std.io</span></tt> module and makes its API available to the application directly. Preprocessor definitions that precede the import declaration have no impact on the API provided by <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">std.io</span></tt>, because the module itself was compiled as a separate, standalone module. Additionally, any linker flags required to use the <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">std.io</span></tt> module will automatically be provided when the module is imported <a class="footnote-reference" href="#id6" id="id1">[1]</a>
+This semantic import model addresses many of the problems of the preprocessor inclusion model:</p>
+<ul class="simple">
+<li><strong>Compile-time scalability</strong>: The <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">std.io</span></tt> module is only compiled once, and importing the module into a translation unit is a constant-time operation (independent of module system). Thus, the API of each software library is only parsed once, reducing the <em>M x N</em> compilation problem to an <em>M + N</em> problem.</li>
+<li><strong>Fragility</strong>: Each module is parsed as a standalone entity, so it has a consistent preprocessor environment. This completely eliminates the need for <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">__underscored</span></tt> names and similarly defensive tricks. Moreover, the current preprocessor definitions when an import declaration is encountered are ignored, so one software library can not affect how another software library is compiled, eliminating include-order dependencies.</li>
+<li><strong>Tool confusion</strong>: Modules describe the API of software libraries, and tools can reason about and present a module as a representation of that API. Because modules can only be built standalone, tools can rely on the module definition to ensure that they get the complete API for the library. Moreover, modules can specify which languages they work with, so, e.g., one can not accidentally attempt to load a C++ module into a C program.</li>
+</ul>
+</div>
+<div class="section" id="problems-modules-do-not-solve">
+<h3><a class="toc-backref" href="#id14">Problems modules do not solve</a><a class="headerlink" href="#problems-modules-do-not-solve" title="Permalink to this headline">¶</a></h3>
+<p>Many programming languages have a module or package system, and because of the variety of features provided by these languages it is important to define what modules do <em>not</em> do. In particular, all of the following are considered out-of-scope for modules:</p>
+<ul class="simple">
+<li><strong>Rewrite the world’s code</strong>: It is not realistic to require applications or software libraries to make drastic or non-backward-compatible changes, nor is it feasible to completely eliminate headers. Modules must interoperate with existing software libraries and allow a gradual transition.</li>
+<li><strong>Versioning</strong>: Modules have no notion of version information. Programmers must still rely on the existing versioning mechanisms of the underlying language (if any exist) to version software libraries.</li>
+<li><strong>Namespaces</strong>: Unlike in some languages, modules do not imply any notion of namespaces. Thus, a struct declared in one module will still conflict with a struct of the same name declared in a different module, just as they would if declared in two different headers. This aspect is important for backward compatibility, because (for example) the mangled names of entities in software libraries must not change when introducing modules.</li>
+<li><strong>Binary distribution of modules</strong>: Headers (particularly C++ headers) expose the full complexity of the language. Maintaining a stable binary module format across architectures, compiler versions, and compiler vendors is technically infeasible.</li>
+</ul>
+</div>
+</div>
+<div class="section" id="using-modules">
+<h2><a class="toc-backref" href="#id15">Using Modules</a><a class="headerlink" href="#using-modules" title="Permalink to this headline">¶</a></h2>
+<p>To enable modules, pass the command-line flag <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">-fmodules</span></tt> <a class="footnote-reference" href="#id7" id="id2">[2]</a>. This will make any modules-enabled software libraries available as modules as well as introducing any modules-specific syntax. Additional <a class="reference internal" href="#command-line-parameters">command-line parameters</a> are described in a separate section later.</p>
+<div class="section" id="objective-c-import-declaration">
+<h3><a class="toc-backref" href="#id16">Objective-C Import declaration</a><a class="headerlink" href="#objective-c-import-declaration" title="Permalink to this headline">¶</a></h3>
+<p>Objective-C provides syntax for importing a module via an <em>@import declaration</em>, which imports the named module:</p>
+<div class="highlight-python"><pre>@import std;</pre>
+</div>
+<p>The @import declaration above imports the entire contents of the <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">std</span></tt> module (which would contain, e.g., the entire C or C++ standard library) and make its API available within the current translation unit. To import only part of a module, one may use dot syntax to specific a particular submodule, e.g.,</p>
+<div class="highlight-python"><pre>@import std.io;</pre>
+</div>
+<p>Redundant import declarations are ignored, and one is free to import modules at any point within the translation unit, so long as the import declaration is at global scope.</p>
+<p>At present, there is no C or C++ syntax for import declarations. Clang
+will track the modules proposal in the C++ committee. See the section
+<a class="reference internal" href="#includes-as-imports">Includes as imports</a> to see how modules get imported today.</p>
+</div>
+<div class="section" id="includes-as-imports">
+<h3><a class="toc-backref" href="#id17">Includes as imports</a><a class="headerlink" href="#includes-as-imports" title="Permalink to this headline">¶</a></h3>
+<p>The primary user-level feature of modules is the import operation, which provides access to the API of software libraries. However, today’s programs make extensive use of <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">#include</span></tt>, and it is unrealistic to assume that all of this code will change overnight. Instead, modules automatically translate <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">#include</span></tt> directives into the corresponding module import. For example, the include directive</p>
+<div class="highlight-c"><div class="highlight"><pre><span class="cp">#include <stdio.h></span>
+</pre></div>
+</div>
+<p>will be automatically mapped to an import of the module <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">std.io</span></tt>. Even with specific <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">import</span></tt> syntax in the language, this particular feature is important for both adoption and backward compatibility: automatic translation of <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">#include</span></tt> to <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">import</span></tt> allows an application to get the benefits of modules (for all modules-enabled libraries) without any changes to the application itself. Thus, users can easily use modules with one compiler while falling back to the preprocessor-inclusion mechanism with other compilers.</p>
+<div class="admonition note">
+<p class="first admonition-title">Note</p>
+<p class="last">The automatic mapping of <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">#include</span></tt> to <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">import</span></tt> also solves an implementation problem: importing a module with a definition of some entity (say, a <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">struct</span> <span class="pre">Point</span></tt>) and then parsing a header containing another definition of <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">struct</span> <span class="pre">Point</span></tt> would cause a redefinition error, even if it is the same <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">struct</span> <span class="pre">Point</span></tt>. By mapping <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">#include</span></tt> to <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">import</span></tt>, the compiler can guarantee that it always sees just the already-parsed definition from the module.</p>
+</div>
+</div>
+<div class="section" id="module-maps">
+<h3><a class="toc-backref" href="#id18">Module maps</a><a class="headerlink" href="#module-maps" title="Permalink to this headline">¶</a></h3>
+<p>The crucial link between modules and headers is described by a <em>module map</em>, which describes how a collection of existing headers maps on to the (logical) structure of a module. For example, one could imagine a module <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">std</span></tt> covering the C standard library. Each of the C standard library headers (<tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre"><stdio.h></span></tt>, <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre"><stdlib.h></span></tt>, <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre"><math.h></span></tt>, etc.) would contribute to the <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">std</span></tt> module, by placing their respective APIs into the corresponding submodule (<tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">std.io</span></tt>, <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">std.lib</span></tt>, <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">std.math</span></tt>, etc.). Having a list of the headers that are part of the <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">std</span></tt> module allows the compiler to build the <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">std</span></tt> module as a standalone entity, and having the mapping from header names to (sub)modules allows the automatic translation of <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">#include</span></tt> directives to module imports.</p>
+<p>Module maps are specified as separate files (each named <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">module.modulemap</span></tt>) alongside the headers they describe, which allows them to be added to existing software libraries without having to change the library headers themselves (in most cases <a class="footnote-reference" href="#id8" id="id3">[3]</a>). The actual <a class="reference internal" href="#module-map-language">Module map language</a> is described in a later section.</p>
+<div class="admonition note">
+<p class="first admonition-title">Note</p>
+<p class="last">To actually see any benefits from modules, one first has to introduce module maps for the underlying C standard library and the libraries and headers on which it depends. The section <a class="reference internal" href="#modularizing-a-platform">Modularizing a Platform</a> describes the steps one must take to write these module maps.</p>
+</div>
+<p>One can use module maps without modules to check the integrity of the use of header files. To do this, use the <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">-fmodule-maps</span></tt> option instead of the <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">-fmodules</span></tt> option.</p>
+</div>
+<div class="section" id="compilation-model">
+<h3><a class="toc-backref" href="#id19">Compilation model</a><a class="headerlink" href="#compilation-model" title="Permalink to this headline">¶</a></h3>
+<p>The binary representation of modules is automatically generated by the compiler on an as-needed basis. When a module is imported (e.g., by an <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">#include</span></tt> of one of the module’s headers), the compiler will spawn a second instance of itself <a class="footnote-reference" href="#id9" id="id4">[4]</a>, with a fresh preprocessing context <a class="footnote-reference" href="#id10" id="id5">[5]</a>, to parse just the headers in that module. The resulting Abstract Syntax Tree (AST) is then persisted into the binary representation of the module that is then loaded into translation unit where the module import was encountered.</p>
+<p>The binary representation of modules is persisted in the <em>module cache</em>. Imports of a module will first query the module cache and, if a binary representation of the required module is already available, will load that representation directly. Thus, a module’s headers will only be parsed once per language configuration, rather than once per translation unit that uses the module.</p>
+<p>Modules maintain references to each of the headers that were part of the module build. If any of those headers changes, or if any of the modules on which a module depends change, then the module will be (automatically) recompiled. The process should never require any user intervention.</p>
+</div>
+<div class="section" id="command-line-parameters">
+<h3><a class="toc-backref" href="#id20">Command-line parameters</a><a class="headerlink" href="#command-line-parameters" title="Permalink to this headline">¶</a></h3>
+<dl class="docutils">
+<dt><tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">-fmodules</span></tt></dt>
+<dd>Enable the modules feature (EXPERIMENTAL).</dd>
+<dt><tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">-fcxx-modules</span></tt></dt>
+<dd>Enable the modules feature for C++ (EXPERIMENTAL and VERY BROKEN).</dd>
+<dt><tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">-fmodule-maps</span></tt></dt>
+<dd>Enable interpretation of module maps (EXPERIMENTAL). This option is implied by <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">-fmodules</span></tt>.</dd>
+<dt><tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">-fmodules-cache-path=<directory></span></tt></dt>
+<dd>Specify the path to the modules cache. If not provided, Clang will select a system-appropriate default.</dd>
+<dt><tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">-fno-autolink</span></tt></dt>
+<dd>Disable automatic linking against the libraries associated with imported modules.</dd>
+<dt><tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">-fmodules-ignore-macro=macroname</span></tt></dt>
+<dd>Instruct modules to ignore the named macro when selecting an appropriate module variant. Use this for macros defined on the command line that don’t affect how modules are built, to improve sharing of compiled module files.</dd>
+<dt><tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">-fmodules-prune-interval=seconds</span></tt></dt>
+<dd>Specify the minimum delay (in seconds) between attempts to prune the module cache. Module cache pruning attempts to clear out old, unused module files so that the module cache itself does not grow without bound. The default delay is large (604,800 seconds, or 7 days) because this is an expensive operation. Set this value to 0 to turn off pruning.</dd>
+<dt><tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">-fmodules-prune-after=seconds</span></tt></dt>
+<dd>Specify the minimum time (in seconds) for which a file in the module cache must be unused (according to access time) before module pruning will remove it. The default delay is large (2,678,400 seconds, or 31 days) to avoid excessive module rebuilding.</dd>
+<dt><tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">-module-file-info</span> <span class="pre"><module</span> <span class="pre">file</span> <span class="pre">name></span></tt></dt>
+<dd>Debugging aid that prints information about a given module file (with a <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">.pcm</span></tt> extension), including the language and preprocessor options that particular module variant was built with.</dd>
+<dt><tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">-fmodules-decluse</span></tt></dt>
+<dd>Enable checking of module <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">use</span></tt> declarations.</dd>
+<dt><tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">-fmodule-name=module-id</span></tt></dt>
+<dd>Consider a source file as a part of the given module.</dd>
+<dt><tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">-fmodule-map-file=<file></span></tt></dt>
+<dd>Load the given module map file if a header from its directory or one of its subdirectories is loaded.</dd>
+<dt><tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">-fmodules-search-all</span></tt></dt>
+<dd>If a symbol is not found, search modules referenced in the current module maps but not imported for symbols, so the error message can reference the module by name.  Note that if the global module index has not been built before, this might take some time as it needs to build all the modules.  Note that this option doesn’t apply in module builds, to avoid the recursion.</dd>
+</dl>
+</div>
+</div>
+<div class="section" id="module-semantics">
+<h2><a class="toc-backref" href="#id21">Module Semantics</a><a class="headerlink" href="#module-semantics" title="Permalink to this headline">¶</a></h2>
+<p>Modules are modeled as if each submodule were a separate translation unit, and a module import makes names from the other translation unit visible. Each submodule starts with a new preprocessor state and an empty translation unit.</p>
+<div class="admonition note">
+<p class="first admonition-title">Note</p>
+<p class="last">This behavior is currently only approximated when building a module. Entities within a submodule that has already been built are visible when building later submodules in that module. This can lead to fragile modules that depend on the build order used for the submodules of the module, and should not be relied upon.</p>
+</div>
+<p>As an example, in C, this implies that if two structs are defined in different submodules with the same name, those two types are distinct types (but may be <em>compatible</em> types if their definitions match. In C++, two structs defined with the same name in different submodules are the <em>same</em> type, and must be equivalent under C++’s One Definition Rule.</p>
+<div class="admonition note">
+<p class="first admonition-title">Note</p>
+<p class="last">Clang currently only performs minimal checking for violations of the One Definition Rule.</p>
+</div>
+<div class="section" id="macros">
+<h3><a class="toc-backref" href="#id22">Macros</a><a class="headerlink" href="#macros" title="Permalink to this headline">¶</a></h3>
+<p>The C and C++ preprocessor assumes that the input text is a single linear buffer, but with modules this is not the case. It is possible to import two modules that have conflicting definitions for a macro (or where one <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">#define</span></tt>s a macro and the other <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">#undef</span></tt>ines it). The rules for handling macro definitions in the presence of modules are as follows:</p>
+<ul class="simple">
+<li>Each definition and undefinition of a macro is considered to be a distinct entity.</li>
+<li>Such entities are <em>visible</em> if they are from the current submodule or translation unit, or if they were exported from a submodule that has been imported.</li>
+<li>A <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">#define</span> <span class="pre">X</span></tt> or <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">#undef</span> <span class="pre">X</span></tt> directive <em>overrides</em> all definitions of <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">X</span></tt> that are visible at the point of the directive.</li>
+<li>A <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">#define</span></tt> or <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">#undef</span></tt> directive is <em>active</em> if it is visible and no visible directive overrides it.</li>
+<li>A set of macro directives is <em>consistent</em> if it consists of only <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">#undef</span></tt> directives, or if all <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">#define</span></tt> directives in the set define the macro name to the same sequence of tokens (following the usual rules for macro redefinitions).</li>
+<li>If a macro name is used and the set of active directives is not consistent, the program is ill-formed. Otherwise, the (unique) meaning of the macro name is used.</li>
+</ul>
+<p>For example, suppose:</p>
+<ul class="simple">
+<li><tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre"><stdio.h></span></tt> defines a macro <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">getc</span></tt> (and exports its <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">#define</span></tt>)</li>
+<li><tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre"><cstdio></span></tt> imports the <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre"><stdio.h></span></tt> module and undefines the macro (and exports its <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">#undef</span></tt>)</li>
+</ul>
+<p>The <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">#undef</span></tt> overrides the <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">#define</span></tt>, and a source file that imports both modules <em>in any order</em> will not see <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">getc</span></tt> defined as a macro.</p>
+</div>
+</div>
+<div class="section" id="module-map-language">
+<h2><a class="toc-backref" href="#id23">Module Map Language</a><a class="headerlink" href="#module-map-language" title="Permalink to this headline">¶</a></h2>
+<p>The module map language describes the mapping from header files to the
+logical structure of modules. To enable support for using a library as
+a module, one must write a <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">module.modulemap</span></tt> file for that library. The
+<tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">module.modulemap</span></tt> file is placed alongside the header files themselves,
+and is written in the module map language described below.</p>
+<div class="admonition note">
+<p class="first admonition-title">Note</p>
+<p class="last">For compatibility with previous releases, if a module map file named
+<tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">module.modulemap</span></tt> is not found, Clang will also search for a file named
+<tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">module.map</span></tt>. This behavior is deprecated and we plan to eventually
+remove it.</p>
+</div>
+<p>As an example, the module map file for the C standard library might look a bit like this:</p>
+<div class="highlight-python"><pre>module std [system] [extern_c] {
+  module complex {
+    header "complex.h"
+    export *
+  }
+
+  module ctype {
+    header "ctype.h"
+    export *
+  }
+
+  module errno {
+    header "errno.h"
+    header "sys/errno.h"
+    export *
+  }
+
+  module fenv {
+    header "fenv.h"
+    export *
+  }
+
+  // ...more headers follow...
+}</pre>
+</div>
+<p>Here, the top-level module <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">std</span></tt> encompasses the whole C standard library. It has a number of submodules containing different parts of the standard library: <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">complex</span></tt> for complex numbers, <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">ctype</span></tt> for character types, etc. Each submodule lists one of more headers that provide the contents for that submodule. Finally, the <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">export</span> <span class="pre">*</span></tt> command specifies that anything included by that submodule will be automatically re-exported.</p>
+<div class="section" id="lexical-structure">
+<h3><a class="toc-backref" href="#id24">Lexical structure</a><a class="headerlink" href="#lexical-structure" title="Permalink to this headline">¶</a></h3>
+<p>Module map files use a simplified form of the C99 lexer, with the same rules for identifiers, tokens, string literals, <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">/*</span> <span class="pre">*/</span></tt> and <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">//</span></tt> comments. The module map language has the following reserved words; all other C identifiers are valid identifiers.</p>
+<pre class="literal-block">
+<tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">config_macros</span></tt> <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">export</span></tt>     <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">module</span></tt>
+<tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">conflict</span></tt>      <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">framework</span></tt>  <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">requires</span></tt>
+<tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">exclude</span></tt>       <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">header</span></tt>     <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">private</span></tt>
+<tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">explicit</span></tt>      <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">link</span></tt>       <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">umbrella</span></tt>
+<tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">extern</span></tt>        <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">use</span></tt>
+</pre>
+</div>
+<div class="section" id="module-map-file">
+<h3><a class="toc-backref" href="#id25">Module map file</a><a class="headerlink" href="#module-map-file" title="Permalink to this headline">¶</a></h3>
+<p>A module map file consists of a series of module declarations:</p>
+<pre class="literal-block">
+<em>module-map-file</em>:
+  <em>module-declaration*</em>
+</pre>
+<p>Within a module map file, modules are referred to by a <em>module-id</em>, which uses periods to separate each part of a module’s name:</p>
+<pre class="literal-block">
+<em>module-id</em>:
+  <em>identifier</em> ('.' <em>identifier</em>)*
+</pre>
+</div>
+<div class="section" id="module-declaration">
+<h3><a class="toc-backref" href="#id26">Module declaration</a><a class="headerlink" href="#module-declaration" title="Permalink to this headline">¶</a></h3>
+<p>A module declaration describes a module, including the headers that contribute to that module, its submodules, and other aspects of the module.</p>
+<pre class="literal-block">
+<em>module-declaration</em>:
+  <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">explicit</span></tt><sub>opt</sub> <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">framework</span></tt><sub>opt</sub> <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">module</span></tt> <em>module-id</em> <em>attributes</em><sub>opt</sub> '{' <em>module-member*</em> '}'
+  <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">extern</span></tt> <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">module</span></tt> <em>module-id</em> <em>string-literal</em>
+</pre>
+<p>The <em>module-id</em> should consist of only a single <em>identifier</em>, which provides the name of the module being defined. Each module shall have a single definition.</p>
+<p>The <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">explicit</span></tt> qualifier can only be applied to a submodule, i.e., a module that is nested within another module. The contents of explicit submodules are only made available when the submodule itself was explicitly named in an import declaration or was re-exported from an imported module.</p>
+<p>The <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">framework</span></tt> qualifier specifies that this module corresponds to a Darwin-style framework. A Darwin-style framework (used primarily on Mac OS X and iOS) is contained entirely in directory <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">Name.framework</span></tt>, where <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">Name</span></tt> is the name of the framework (and, therefore, the name of the module). That directory has the following layout:</p>
+<div class="highlight-python"><pre>Name.framework/
+  Modules/module.modulemap  Module map for the framework
+  Headers/                  Subdirectory containing framework headers
+  Frameworks/               Subdirectory containing embedded frameworks
+  Resources/                Subdirectory containing additional resources
+  Name                      Symbolic link to the shared library for the framework</pre>
+</div>
+<p>The <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">system</span></tt> attribute specifies that the module is a system module. When a system module is rebuilt, all of the module’s headers will be considered system headers, which suppresses warnings. This is equivalent to placing <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">#pragma</span> <span class="pre">GCC</span> <span class="pre">system_header</span></tt> in each of the module’s headers. The form of attributes is described in the section <a class="reference internal" href="#attributes">Attributes</a>, below.</p>
+<p>The <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">extern_c</span></tt> attribute specifies that the module contains C code that can be used from within C++. When such a module is built for use in C++ code, all of the module’s headers will be treated as if they were contained within an implicit <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">extern</span> <span class="pre">"C"</span></tt> block. An import for a module with this attribute can appear within an <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">extern</span> <span class="pre">"C"</span></tt> block. No other restrictions are lifted, however: the module currently cannot be imported within an <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">extern</span> <span class="pre">"C"</span></tt> block in a namespace.</p>
+<p>Modules can have a number of different kinds of members, each of which is described below:</p>
+<pre class="literal-block">
+<em>module-member</em>:
+  <em>requires-declaration</em>
+  <em>header-declaration</em>
+  <em>umbrella-dir-declaration</em>
+  <em>submodule-declaration</em>
+  <em>export-declaration</em>
+  <em>use-declaration</em>
+  <em>link-declaration</em>
+  <em>config-macros-declaration</em>
+  <em>conflict-declaration</em>
+</pre>
+<p>An extern module references a module defined by the <em>module-id</em> in a file given by the <em>string-literal</em>. The file can be referenced either by an absolute path or by a path relative to the current map file.</p>
+<div class="section" id="requires-declaration">
+<h4><a class="toc-backref" href="#id27">Requires declaration</a><a class="headerlink" href="#requires-declaration" title="Permalink to this headline">¶</a></h4>
+<p>A <em>requires-declaration</em> specifies the requirements that an importing translation unit must satisfy to use the module.</p>
+<pre class="literal-block">
+<em>requires-declaration</em>:
+  <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">requires</span></tt> <em>feature-list</em>
+
+<em>feature-list</em>:
+  <em>feature</em> (',' <em>feature</em>)*
+
+<em>feature</em>:
+  <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">!</span></tt><sub>opt</sub> <em>identifier</em>
+</pre>
+<p>The requirements clause allows specific modules or submodules to specify that they are only accessible with certain language dialects or on certain platforms. The feature list is a set of identifiers, defined below. If any of the features is not available in a given translation unit, that translation unit shall not import the module. The optional <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">!</span></tt> indicates that a feature is incompatible with the module.</p>
+<p>The following features are defined:</p>
+<dl class="docutils">
+<dt>altivec</dt>
+<dd>The target supports AltiVec.</dd>
+<dt>blocks</dt>
+<dd>The “blocks” language feature is available.</dd>
+<dt>cplusplus</dt>
+<dd>C++ support is available.</dd>
+<dt>cplusplus11</dt>
+<dd>C++11 support is available.</dd>
+<dt>objc</dt>
+<dd>Objective-C support is available.</dd>
+<dt>objc_arc</dt>
+<dd>Objective-C Automatic Reference Counting (ARC) is available</dd>
+<dt>opencl</dt>
+<dd>OpenCL is available</dd>
+<dt>tls</dt>
+<dd>Thread local storage is available.</dd>
+<dt><em>target feature</em></dt>
+<dd>A specific target feature (e.g., <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">sse4</span></tt>, <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">avx</span></tt>, <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">neon</span></tt>) is available.</dd>
+</dl>
+<p><strong>Example</strong>: The <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">std</span></tt> module can be extended to also include C++ and C++11 headers using a <em>requires-declaration</em>:</p>
+<div class="highlight-python"><pre>module std {
+   // C standard library...
+
+   module vector {
+     requires cplusplus
+     header "vector"
+   }
+
+   module type_traits {
+     requires cplusplus11
+     header "type_traits"
+   }
+ }</pre>
+</div>
+</div>
+<div class="section" id="header-declaration">
+<h4><a class="toc-backref" href="#id28">Header declaration</a><a class="headerlink" href="#header-declaration" title="Permalink to this headline">¶</a></h4>
+<p>A header declaration specifies that a particular header is associated with the enclosing module.</p>
+<pre class="literal-block">
+<em>header-declaration</em>:
+  <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">umbrella</span></tt><sub>opt</sub> <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">header</span></tt> <em>string-literal</em>
+  <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">private</span></tt> <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">header</span></tt> <em>string-literal</em>
+  <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">exclude</span></tt> <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">header</span></tt> <em>string-literal</em>
+</pre>
+<p>A header declaration that does not contain <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">exclude</span></tt> specifies a header that contributes to the enclosing module. Specifically, when the module is built, the named header will be parsed and its declarations will be (logically) placed into the enclosing submodule.</p>
+<p>A header with the <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">umbrella</span></tt> specifier is called an umbrella header. An umbrella header includes all of the headers within its directory (and any subdirectories), and is typically used (in the <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">#include</span></tt> world) to easily access the full API provided by a particular library. With modules, an umbrella header is a convenient shortcut that eliminates the need to write out <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">header</span></tt> declarations for every library header. A given directory can only contain a single umbrella header.</p>
+<div class="admonition note">
+<p class="first admonition-title">Note</p>
+<p class="last">Any headers not included by the umbrella header should have
+explicit <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">header</span></tt> declarations. Use the
+<tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">-Wincomplete-umbrella</span></tt> warning option to ask Clang to complain
+about headers not covered by the umbrella header or the module map.</p>
+</div>
+<p>A header with the <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">private</span></tt> specifier may not be included from outside the module itself.</p>
+<p>A header with the <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">exclude</span></tt> specifier is excluded from the module. It will not be included when the module is built, nor will it be considered to be part of the module.</p>
+<p><strong>Example</strong>: The C header <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">assert.h</span></tt> is an excellent candidate for an excluded header, because it is meant to be included multiple times (possibly with different <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">NDEBUG</span></tt> settings).</p>
+<div class="highlight-python"><pre>module std [system] {
+  exclude header "assert.h"
+}</pre>
+</div>
+<p>A given header shall not be referenced by more than one <em>header-declaration</em>.</p>
+</div>
+<div class="section" id="umbrella-directory-declaration">
+<h4><a class="toc-backref" href="#id29">Umbrella directory declaration</a><a class="headerlink" href="#umbrella-directory-declaration" title="Permalink to this headline">¶</a></h4>
+<p>An umbrella directory declaration specifies that all of the headers in the specified directory should be included within the module.</p>
+<pre class="literal-block">
+<em>umbrella-dir-declaration</em>:
+  <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">umbrella</span></tt> <em>string-literal</em>
+</pre>
+<p>The <em>string-literal</em> refers to a directory. When the module is built, all of the header files in that directory (and its subdirectories) are included in the module.</p>
+<p>An <em>umbrella-dir-declaration</em> shall not refer to the same directory as the location of an umbrella <em>header-declaration</em>. In other words, only a single kind of umbrella can be specified for a given directory.</p>
+<div class="admonition note">
+<p class="first admonition-title">Note</p>
+<p class="last">Umbrella directories are useful for libraries that have a large number of headers but do not have an umbrella header.</p>
+</div>
+</div>
+<div class="section" id="submodule-declaration">
+<h4><a class="toc-backref" href="#id30">Submodule declaration</a><a class="headerlink" href="#submodule-declaration" title="Permalink to this headline">¶</a></h4>
+<p>Submodule declarations describe modules that are nested within their enclosing module.</p>
+<pre class="literal-block">
+<em>submodule-declaration</em>:
+  <em>module-declaration</em>
+  <em>inferred-submodule-declaration</em>
+</pre>
+<p>A <em>submodule-declaration</em> that is a <em>module-declaration</em> is a nested module. If the <em>module-declaration</em> has a <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">framework</span></tt> specifier, the enclosing module shall have a <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">framework</span></tt> specifier; the submodule’s contents shall be contained within the subdirectory <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">Frameworks/SubName.framework</span></tt>, where <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">SubName</span></tt> is the name of the submodule.</p>
+<p>A <em>submodule-declaration</em> that is an <em>inferred-submodule-declaration</em> describes a set of submodules that correspond to any headers that are part of the module but are not explicitly described by a <em>header-declaration</em>.</p>
+<pre class="literal-block">
+<em>inferred-submodule-declaration</em>:
+  <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">explicit</span></tt><sub>opt</sub> <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">framework</span></tt><sub>opt</sub> <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">module</span></tt> '*' <em>attributes</em><sub>opt</sub> '{' <em>inferred-submodule-member*</em> '}'
+
+<em>inferred-submodule-member</em>:
+  <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">export</span></tt> '*'
+</pre>
+<p>A module containing an <em>inferred-submodule-declaration</em> shall have either an umbrella header or an umbrella directory. The headers to which the <em>inferred-submodule-declaration</em> applies are exactly those headers included by the umbrella header (transitively) or included in the module because they reside within the umbrella directory (or its subdirectories).</p>
+<p>For each header included by the umbrella header or in the umbrella directory that is not named by a <em>header-declaration</em>, a module declaration is implicitly generated from the <em>inferred-submodule-declaration</em>. The module will:</p>
+<ul class="simple">
+<li>Have the same name as the header (without the file extension)</li>
+<li>Have the <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">explicit</span></tt> specifier, if the <em>inferred-submodule-declaration</em> has the <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">explicit</span></tt> specifier</li>
+<li>Have the <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">framework</span></tt> specifier, if the
+<em>inferred-submodule-declaration</em> has the <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">framework</span></tt> specifier</li>
+<li>Have the attributes specified by the <em>inferred-submodule-declaration</em></li>
+<li>Contain a single <em>header-declaration</em> naming that header</li>
+<li>Contain a single <em>export-declaration</em> <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">export</span> <span class="pre">*</span></tt>, if the <em>inferred-submodule-declaration</em> contains the <em>inferred-submodule-member</em> <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">export</span> <span class="pre">*</span></tt></li>
+</ul>
+<p><strong>Example</strong>: If the subdirectory “MyLib” contains the headers <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">A.h</span></tt> and <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">B.h</span></tt>, then the following module map:</p>
+<div class="highlight-python"><pre>module MyLib {
+  umbrella "MyLib"
+  explicit module * {
+    export *
+  }
+}</pre>
+</div>
+<p>is equivalent to the (more verbose) module map:</p>
+<div class="highlight-python"><pre>module MyLib {
+  explicit module A {
+    header "A.h"
+    export *
+  }
+
+  explicit module B {
+    header "B.h"
+    export *
+  }
+}</pre>
+</div>
+</div>
+<div class="section" id="export-declaration">
+<h4><a class="toc-backref" href="#id31">Export declaration</a><a class="headerlink" href="#export-declaration" title="Permalink to this headline">¶</a></h4>
+<p>An <em>export-declaration</em> specifies which imported modules will automatically be re-exported as part of a given module’s API.</p>
+<pre class="literal-block">
+<em>export-declaration</em>:
+  <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">export</span></tt> <em>wildcard-module-id</em>
+
+<em>wildcard-module-id</em>:
+  <em>identifier</em>
+  '*'
+  <em>identifier</em> '.' <em>wildcard-module-id</em>
+</pre>
+<p>The <em>export-declaration</em> names a module or a set of modules that will be re-exported to any translation unit that imports the enclosing module. Each imported module that matches the <em>wildcard-module-id</em> up to, but not including, the first <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">*</span></tt> will be re-exported.</p>
+<p><strong>Example</strong>:: In the following example, importing <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">MyLib.Derived</span></tt> also provides the API for <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">MyLib.Base</span></tt>:</p>
+<div class="highlight-python"><pre>module MyLib {
+  module Base {
+    header "Base.h"
+  }
+
+  module Derived {
+    header "Derived.h"
+    export Base
+  }
+}</pre>
+</div>
+<p>Note that, if <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">Derived.h</span></tt> includes <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">Base.h</span></tt>, one can simply use a wildcard export to re-export everything <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">Derived.h</span></tt> includes:</p>
+<div class="highlight-python"><pre>module MyLib {
+  module Base {
+    header "Base.h"
+  }
+
+  module Derived {
+    header "Derived.h"
+    export *
+  }
+}</pre>
+</div>
+<div class="admonition note">
+<p class="first admonition-title">Note</p>
+<p class="last">The wildcard export syntax <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">export</span> <span class="pre">*</span></tt> re-exports all of the
+modules that were imported in the actual header file. Because
+<tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">#include</span></tt> directives are automatically mapped to module imports,
+<tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">export</span> <span class="pre">*</span></tt> provides the same transitive-inclusion behavior
+provided by the C preprocessor, e.g., importing a given module
+implicitly imports all of the modules on which it depends.
+Therefore, liberal use of <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">export</span> <span class="pre">*</span></tt> provides excellent backward
+compatibility for programs that rely on transitive inclusion (i.e.,
+all of them).</p>
+</div>
+</div>
+<div class="section" id="use-declaration">
+<h4><a class="toc-backref" href="#id32">Use declaration</a><a class="headerlink" href="#use-declaration" title="Permalink to this headline">¶</a></h4>
+<p>A <em>use-declaration</em> specifies one of the other modules that the module is allowed to use. An import or include not matching one of these is rejected when the option <em>-fmodules-decluse</em>.</p>
+<pre class="literal-block">
+<em>use-declaration</em>:
+  <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">use</span></tt> <em>module-id</em>
+</pre>
+<p><strong>Example</strong>:: In the following example, use of A from C is not declared, so will trigger a warning.</p>
+<div class="highlight-python"><pre>module A {
+  header "a.h"
+}
+
+module B {
+  header "b.h"
+}
+
+module C {
+  header "c.h"
+  use B
+}</pre>
+</div>
+<p>When compiling a source file that implements a module, use the option <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">-fmodule-name=module-id</span></tt> to indicate that the source file is logically part of that module.</p>
+<p>The compiler at present only applies restrictions to the module directly being built.</p>
+</div>
+<div class="section" id="link-declaration">
+<h4><a class="toc-backref" href="#id33">Link declaration</a><a class="headerlink" href="#link-declaration" title="Permalink to this headline">¶</a></h4>
+<p>A <em>link-declaration</em> specifies a library or framework against which a program should be linked if the enclosing module is imported in any translation unit in that program.</p>
+<pre class="literal-block">
+<em>link-declaration</em>:
+  <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">link</span></tt> <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">framework</span></tt><sub>opt</sub> <em>string-literal</em>
+</pre>
+<p>The <em>string-literal</em> specifies the name of the library or framework against which the program should be linked. For example, specifying “clangBasic” would instruct the linker to link with <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">-lclangBasic</span></tt> for a Unix-style linker.</p>
+<p>A <em>link-declaration</em> with the <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">framework</span></tt> specifies that the linker should link against the named framework, e.g., with <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">-framework</span> <span class="pre">MyFramework</span></tt>.</p>
+<div class="admonition note">
+<p class="first admonition-title">Note</p>
+<p class="last">Automatic linking with the <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">link</span></tt> directive is not yet widely
+implemented, because it requires support from both the object file
+format and the linker. The notion is similar to Microsoft Visual
+Studio’s <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">#pragma</span> <span class="pre">comment(lib...)</span></tt>.</p>
+</div>
+</div>
+<div class="section" id="configuration-macros-declaration">
+<h4><a class="toc-backref" href="#id34">Configuration macros declaration</a><a class="headerlink" href="#configuration-macros-declaration" title="Permalink to this headline">¶</a></h4>
+<p>The <em>config-macros-declaration</em> specifies the set of configuration macros that have an effect on the the API of the enclosing module.</p>
+<pre class="literal-block">
+<em>config-macros-declaration</em>:
+  <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">config_macros</span></tt> <em>attributes</em><sub>opt</sub> <em>config-macro-list</em><sub>opt</sub>
+
+<em>config-macro-list</em>:
+  <em>identifier</em> (',' <em>identifier</em>)*
+</pre>
+<p>Each <em>identifier</em> in the <em>config-macro-list</em> specifies the name of a macro. The compiler is required to maintain different variants of the given module for differing definitions of any of the named macros.</p>
+<p>A <em>config-macros-declaration</em> shall only be present on a top-level module, i.e., a module that is not nested within an enclosing module.</p>
+<p>The <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">exhaustive</span></tt> attribute specifies that the list of macros in the <em>config-macros-declaration</em> is exhaustive, meaning that no other macro definition is intended to have an effect on the API of that module.</p>
+<div class="admonition note">
+<p class="first admonition-title">Note</p>
+<p class="last">The <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">exhaustive</span></tt> attribute implies that any macro definitions
+for macros not listed as configuration macros should be ignored
+completely when building the module. As an optimization, the
+compiler could reduce the number of unique module variants by not
+considering these non-configuration macros. This optimization is not
+yet implemented in Clang.</p>
+</div>
+<p>A translation unit shall not import the same module under different definitions of the configuration macros.</p>
+<div class="admonition note">
+<p class="first admonition-title">Note</p>
+<p class="last">Clang implements a weak form of this requirement: the definitions
+used for configuration macros are fixed based on the definitions
+provided by the command line. If an import occurs and the definition
+of any configuration macro has changed, the compiler will produce a
+warning (under the control of <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">-Wconfig-macros</span></tt>).</p>
+</div>
+<p><strong>Example:</strong> A logging library might provide different API (e.g., in the form of different definitions for a logging macro) based on the <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">NDEBUG</span></tt> macro setting:</p>
+<div class="highlight-python"><pre>module MyLogger {
+  umbrella header "MyLogger.h"
+  config_macros [exhaustive] NDEBUG
+}</pre>
+</div>
+</div>
+<div class="section" id="conflict-declarations">
+<h4><a class="toc-backref" href="#id35">Conflict declarations</a><a class="headerlink" href="#conflict-declarations" title="Permalink to this headline">¶</a></h4>
+<p>A <em>conflict-declaration</em> describes a case where the presence of two different modules in the same translation unit is likely to cause a problem. For example, two modules may provide similar-but-incompatible functionality.</p>
+<pre class="literal-block">
+<em>conflict-declaration</em>:
+  <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">conflict</span></tt> <em>module-id</em> ',' <em>string-literal</em>
+</pre>
+<p>The <em>module-id</em> of the <em>conflict-declaration</em> specifies the module with which the enclosing module conflicts. The specified module shall not have been imported in the translation unit when the enclosing module is imported.</p>
+<p>The <em>string-literal</em> provides a message to be provided as part of the compiler diagnostic when two modules conflict.</p>
+<div class="admonition note">
+<p class="first admonition-title">Note</p>
+<p class="last">Clang emits a warning (under the control of <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">-Wmodule-conflict</span></tt>)
+when a module conflict is discovered.</p>
+</div>
+<p><strong>Example:</strong></p>
+<div class="highlight-python"><pre>module Conflicts {
+  explicit module A {
+    header "conflict_a.h"
+    conflict B, "we just don't like B"
+  }
+
+  module B {
+    header "conflict_b.h"
+  }
+}</pre>
+</div>
+</div>
+</div>
+<div class="section" id="attributes">
+<h3><a class="toc-backref" href="#id36">Attributes</a><a class="headerlink" href="#attributes" title="Permalink to this headline">¶</a></h3>
+<p>Attributes are used in a number of places in the grammar to describe specific behavior of other declarations. The format of attributes is fairly simple.</p>
+<pre class="literal-block">
+<em>attributes</em>:
+  <em>attribute</em> <em>attributes</em><sub>opt</sub>
+
+<em>attribute</em>:
+  '[' <em>identifier</em> ']'
+</pre>
+<p>Any <em>identifier</em> can be used as an attribute, and each declaration specifies what attributes can be applied to it.</p>
+</div>
+<div class="section" id="private-module-map-files">
+<h3><a class="toc-backref" href="#id37">Private Module Map Files</a><a class="headerlink" href="#private-module-map-files" title="Permalink to this headline">¶</a></h3>
+<p>Module map files are typically named <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">module.modulemap</span></tt> and live
+either alongside the headers they describe or in a parent directory of
+the headers they describe. These module maps typically describe all of
+the API for the library.</p>
+<p>However, in some cases, the presence or absence of particular headers
+is used to distinguish between the “public” and “private” APIs of a
+particular library. For example, a library may contain the headers
+<tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">Foo.h</span></tt> and <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">Foo_Private.h</span></tt>, providing public and private APIs,
+respectively. Additionally, <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">Foo_Private.h</span></tt> may only be available on
+some versions of library, and absent in others. One cannot easily
+express this with a single module map file in the library:</p>
+<div class="highlight-python"><pre>module Foo {
+  header "Foo.h"
+
+  explicit module Private {
+    header "Foo_Private.h"
+  }
+}</pre>
+</div>
+<p>because the header <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">Foo_Private.h</span></tt> won’t always be available. The
+module map file could be customized based on whether
+<tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">Foo_Private.h</span></tt> is available or not, but doing so requires custom
+build machinery.</p>
+<p>Private module map files, which are named <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">module.private.modulemap</span></tt>
+(or, for backward compatibility, <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">module_private.map</span></tt>), allow one to
+augment the primary module map file with an additional submodule. For
+example, we would split the module map file above into two module map
+files:</p>
+<div class="highlight-c"><div class="highlight"><pre><span class="cm">/* module.modulemap */</span>
+<span class="n">module</span> <span class="n">Foo</span> <span class="p">{</span>
+  <span class="n">header</span> <span class="s">"Foo.h"</span>
+<span class="p">}</span>
+
+<span class="cm">/* module.private.modulemap */</span>
+<span class="n">explicit</span> <span class="n">module</span> <span class="n">Foo</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="n">Private</span> <span class="p">{</span>
+  <span class="n">header</span> <span class="s">"Foo_Private.h"</span>
+<span class="p">}</span>
+</pre></div>
+</div>
+<p>When a <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">module.private.modulemap</span></tt> file is found alongside a
+<tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">module.modulemap</span></tt> file, it is loaded after the <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">module.modulemap</span></tt>
+file. In our example library, the <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">module.private.modulemap</span></tt> file
+would be available when <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">Foo_Private.h</span></tt> is available, making it
+easier to split a library’s public and private APIs along header
+boundaries.</p>
+</div>
+</div>
+<div class="section" id="modularizing-a-platform">
+<h2><a class="toc-backref" href="#id38">Modularizing a Platform</a><a class="headerlink" href="#modularizing-a-platform" title="Permalink to this headline">¶</a></h2>
+<p>To get any benefit out of modules, one needs to introduce module maps for software libraries starting at the bottom of the stack. This typically means introducing a module map covering the operating system’s headers and the C standard library headers (in <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">/usr/include</span></tt>, for a Unix system).</p>
+<p>The module maps will be written using the <a class="reference internal" href="#module-map-language">module map language</a>, which provides the tools necessary to describe the mapping between headers and modules. Because the set of headers differs from one system to the next, the module map will likely have to be somewhat customized for, e.g., a particular distribution and version of the operating system. Moreover, the system headers themselves may require some modification, if they exhibit any anti-patterns that break modules. Such common patterns are described below.</p>
+<dl class="docutils">
+<dt><strong>Macro-guarded copy-and-pasted definitions</strong></dt>
+<dd><p class="first">System headers vend core types such as <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">size_t</span></tt> for users. These types are often needed in a number of system headers, and are almost trivial to write. Hence, it is fairly common to see a definition such as the following copy-and-pasted throughout the headers:</p>
+<div class="highlight-python"><pre>#ifndef _SIZE_T
+#define _SIZE_T
+typedef __SIZE_TYPE__ size_t;
+#endif</pre>
+</div>
+<p class="last">Unfortunately, when modules compiles all of the C library headers together into a single module, only the first actual type definition of <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">size_t</span></tt> will be visible, and then only in the submodule corresponding to the lucky first header. Any other headers that have copy-and-pasted versions of this pattern will <em>not</em> have a definition of <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">size_t</span></tt>. Importing the submodule corresponding to one of those headers will therefore not yield <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">size_t</span></tt> as part of the API, because it wasn’t there when the header was parsed. The fix for this problem is either to pull the copied declarations into a common header that gets included everywhere <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">size_t</span></tt> is part of the API, or to eliminate the <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">#ifndef</span></tt> and redefine the <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">size_t</span></tt> type. The latter works for C++ headers and C11, but will cause an error for non-modules C90/C99, where redefinition of <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">typedefs</span></tt> is not permitted.</p>
+</dd>
+<dt><strong>Conflicting definitions</strong></dt>
+<dd>Different system headers may provide conflicting definitions for various macros, functions, or types. These conflicting definitions don’t tend to cause problems in a pre-modules world unless someone happens to include both headers in one translation unit. Since the fix is often simply “don’t do that”, such problems persist. Modules requires that the conflicting definitions be eliminated or that they be placed in separate modules (the former is generally the better answer).</dd>
+<dt><strong>Missing includes</strong></dt>
+<dd>Headers are often missing <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">#include</span></tt> directives for headers that they actually depend on. As with the problem of conflicting definitions, this only affects unlucky users who don’t happen to include headers in the right order. With modules, the headers of a particular module will be parsed in isolation, so the module may fail to build if there are missing includes.</dd>
+<dt><strong>Headers that vend multiple APIs at different times</strong></dt>
+<dd>Some systems have headers that contain a number of different kinds of API definitions, only some of which are made available with a given include. For example, the header may vend <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">size_t</span></tt> only when the macro <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">__need_size_t</span></tt> is defined before that header is included, and also vend <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">wchar_t</span></tt> only when the macro <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">__need_wchar_t</span></tt> is defined. Such headers are often included many times in a single translation unit, and will have no include guards. There is no sane way to map this header to a submodule. One can either eliminate the header (e.g., by splitting it into separate headers, one per actual API) or simply <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">exclude</span></tt> it in the module map.</dd>
+</dl>
+<p>To detect and help address some of these problems, the <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">clang-tools-extra</span></tt> repository contains a <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">modularize</span></tt> tool that parses a set of given headers and attempts to detect these problems and produce a report. See the tool’s in-source documentation for information on how to check your system or library headers.</p>
+</div>
+<div class="section" id="future-directions">
+<h2><a class="toc-backref" href="#id39">Future Directions</a><a class="headerlink" href="#future-directions" title="Permalink to this headline">¶</a></h2>
+<p>Modules is an experimental feature, and there is much work left to do to make it both real and useful. Here are a few ideas:</p>
+<dl class="docutils">
+<dt><strong>Detect unused module imports</strong></dt>
+<dd>Unlike with <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">#include</span></tt> directives, it should be fairly simple to track whether a directly-imported module has ever been used. By doing so, Clang can emit <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">unused</span> <span class="pre">import</span></tt> or <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">unused</span> <span class="pre">#include</span></tt> diagnostics, including Fix-Its to remove the useless imports/includes.</dd>
+<dt><strong>Fix-Its for missing imports</strong></dt>
+<dd>It’s fairly common for one to make use of some API while writing code, only to get a compiler error about “unknown type” or “no function named” because the corresponding header has not been included. Clang should detect such cases and auto-import the required module (with a Fix-It!).</dd>
+<dt><strong>Improve modularize</strong></dt>
+<dd>The modularize tool is both extremely important (for deployment) and extremely crude. It needs better UI, better detection of problems (especially for C++), and perhaps an assistant mode to help write module maps for you.</dd>
+<dt><strong>C++ Support</strong></dt>
+<dd>Modules clearly has to work for C++, or we’ll never get to use it for the Clang code base.</dd>
+</dl>
+</div>
+<div class="section" id="where-to-learn-more-about-modules">
+<h2><a class="toc-backref" href="#id40">Where To Learn More About Modules</a><a class="headerlink" href="#where-to-learn-more-about-modules" title="Permalink to this headline">¶</a></h2>
+<p>The Clang source code provides additional information about modules:</p>
+<dl class="docutils">
+<dt><tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">clang/lib/Headers/module.modulemap</span></tt></dt>
+<dd>Module map for Clang’s compiler-specific header files.</dd>
+<dt><tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">clang/test/Modules/</span></tt></dt>
+<dd>Tests specifically related to modules functionality.</dd>
+<dt><tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">clang/include/clang/Basic/Module.h</span></tt></dt>
+<dd>The <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">Module</span></tt> class in this header describes a module, and is used throughout the compiler to implement modules.</dd>
+<dt><tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">clang/include/clang/Lex/ModuleMap.h</span></tt></dt>
+<dd>The <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">ModuleMap</span></tt> class in this header describes the full module map, consisting of all of the module map files that have been parsed, and providing facilities for looking up module maps and mapping between modules and headers (in both directions).</dd>
+<dt><a class="reference external" href="PCHInternals.html">PCHInternals</a></dt>
+<dd>Information about the serialized AST format used for precompiled headers and modules. The actual implementation is in the <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">clangSerialization</span></tt> library.</dd>
+</dl>
+<table class="docutils footnote" frame="void" id="id6" rules="none">
+<colgroup><col class="label" /><col /></colgroup>
+<tbody valign="top">
+<tr><td class="label"><a class="fn-backref" href="#id1">[1]</a></td><td>Automatic linking against the libraries of modules requires specific linker support, which is not widely available.</td></tr>
+</tbody>
+</table>
+<table class="docutils footnote" frame="void" id="id7" rules="none">
+<colgroup><col class="label" /><col /></colgroup>
+<tbody valign="top">
+<tr><td class="label"><a class="fn-backref" href="#id2">[2]</a></td><td>Modules are only available in C and Objective-C; a separate flag <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">-fcxx-modules</span></tt> enables modules support for C++, which is even more experimental and broken.</td></tr>
+</tbody>
+</table>
+<table class="docutils footnote" frame="void" id="id8" rules="none">
+<colgroup><col class="label" /><col /></colgroup>
+<tbody valign="top">
+<tr><td class="label"><a class="fn-backref" href="#id3">[3]</a></td><td>There are certain anti-patterns that occur in headers, particularly system headers, that cause problems for modules. The section <a class="reference internal" href="#modularizing-a-platform">Modularizing a Platform</a> describes some of them.</td></tr>
+</tbody>
+</table>
+<table class="docutils footnote" frame="void" id="id9" rules="none">
+<colgroup><col class="label" /><col /></colgroup>
+<tbody valign="top">
+<tr><td class="label"><a class="fn-backref" href="#id4">[4]</a></td><td>The second instance is actually a new thread within the current process, not a separate process. However, the original compiler instance is blocked on the execution of this thread.</td></tr>
+</tbody>
+</table>
+<table class="docutils footnote" frame="void" id="id10" rules="none">
+<colgroup><col class="label" /><col /></colgroup>
+<tbody valign="top">
+<tr><td class="label"><a class="fn-backref" href="#id5">[5]</a></td><td>The preprocessing context in which the modules are parsed is actually dependent on the command-line options provided to the compiler, including the language dialect and any <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">-D</span></tt> options. However, the compiled modules for different command-line options are kept distinct, and any preprocessor directives that occur within the translation unit are ignored. See the section on the <a class="reference internal" href="#configuration-macros-declaration">Configuration macros declaration</a> for more information.</td></tr>
+</tbody>
+</table>
+</div>
+</div>
+
+
+      </div>
+      <div class="bottomnav">
+      
+        <p>
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+      Created using <a href="http://sphinx.pocoo.org/">Sphinx</a> 1.1.3.
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+</html>
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@@ -0,0 +1,536 @@
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+  <body>
+      <div class="header"><h1 class="heading"><a href="index.html">
+          <span>Clang 3.5 documentation</span></a></h1>
+        <h2 class="heading"><span>Objective-C Literals</span></h2>
+      </div>
+      <div class="topnav">
+      
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+
+      </div>
+      <div class="content">
+        
+        
+  <div class="section" id="objective-c-literals">
+<h1>Objective-C Literals<a class="headerlink" href="#objective-c-literals" title="Permalink to this headline">¶</a></h1>
+<div class="section" id="introduction">
+<h2>Introduction<a class="headerlink" href="#introduction" title="Permalink to this headline">¶</a></h2>
+<p>Three new features were introduced into clang at the same time:
+<em>NSNumber Literals</em> provide a syntax for creating <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">NSNumber</span></tt> from
+scalar literal expressions; <em>Collection Literals</em> provide a short-hand
+for creating arrays and dictionaries; <em>Object Subscripting</em> provides a
+way to use subscripting with Objective-C objects. Users of Apple
+compiler releases can use these features starting with the Apple LLVM
+Compiler 4.0. Users of open-source LLVM.org compiler releases can use
+these features starting with clang v3.1.</p>
+<p>These language additions simplify common Objective-C programming
+patterns, make programs more concise, and improve the safety of
+container creation.</p>
+<p>This document describes how the features are implemented in clang, and
+how to use them in your own programs.</p>
+</div>
+<div class="section" id="nsnumber-literals">
+<h2>NSNumber Literals<a class="headerlink" href="#nsnumber-literals" title="Permalink to this headline">¶</a></h2>
+<p>The framework class <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">NSNumber</span></tt> is used to wrap scalar values inside
+objects: signed and unsigned integers (<tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">char</span></tt>, <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">short</span></tt>, <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">int</span></tt>,
+<tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">long</span></tt>, <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">long</span> <span class="pre">long</span></tt>), floating point numbers (<tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">float</span></tt>,
+<tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">double</span></tt>), and boolean values (<tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">BOOL</span></tt>, C++ <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">bool</span></tt>). Scalar values
+wrapped in objects are also known as <em>boxed</em> values.</p>
+<p>In Objective-C, any character, numeric or boolean literal prefixed with
+the <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">'@'</span></tt> character will evaluate to a pointer to an <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">NSNumber</span></tt>
+object initialized with that value. C’s type suffixes may be used to
+control the size of numeric literals.</p>
+<div class="section" id="examples">
+<h3>Examples<a class="headerlink" href="#examples" title="Permalink to this headline">¶</a></h3>
+<p>The following program illustrates the rules for <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">NSNumber</span></tt> literals:</p>
+<div class="highlight-objc"><pre>void main(int argc, const char *argv[]) {
+  // character literals.
+  NSNumber *theLetterZ = @'Z';          // equivalent to [NSNumber numberWithChar:'Z']
+
+  // integral literals.
+  NSNumber *fortyTwo = @42;             // equivalent to [NSNumber numberWithInt:42]
+  NSNumber *fortyTwoUnsigned = @42U;    // equivalent to [NSNumber numberWithUnsignedInt:42U]
+  NSNumber *fortyTwoLong = @42L;        // equivalent to [NSNumber numberWithLong:42L]
+  NSNumber *fortyTwoLongLong = @42LL;   // equivalent to [NSNumber numberWithLongLong:42LL]
+
+  // floating point literals.
+  NSNumber *piFloat = @3.141592654F;    // equivalent to [NSNumber numberWithFloat:3.141592654F]
+  NSNumber *piDouble = @3.1415926535;   // equivalent to [NSNumber numberWithDouble:3.1415926535]
+
+  // BOOL literals.
+  NSNumber *yesNumber = @YES;           // equivalent to [NSNumber numberWithBool:YES]
+  NSNumber *noNumber = @NO;             // equivalent to [NSNumber numberWithBool:NO]
+
+#ifdef __cplusplus
+  NSNumber *trueNumber = @true;         // equivalent to [NSNumber numberWithBool:(BOOL)true]
+  NSNumber *falseNumber = @false;       // equivalent to [NSNumber numberWithBool:(BOOL)false]
+#endif
+}</pre>
+</div>
+</div>
+<div class="section" id="discussion">
+<h3>Discussion<a class="headerlink" href="#discussion" title="Permalink to this headline">¶</a></h3>
+<p>NSNumber literals only support literal scalar values after the <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">'@'</span></tt>.
+Consequently, <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">@INT_MAX</span></tt> works, but <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">@INT_MIN</span></tt> does not, because
+they are defined like this:</p>
+<div class="highlight-objc"><div class="highlight"><pre><span class="cp">#define INT_MAX   2147483647  </span><span class="cm">/* max value for an int */</span><span class="cp"></span>
+<span class="cp">#define INT_MIN   (-2147483647-1) </span><span class="cm">/* min value for an int */</span><span class="cp"></span>
+</pre></div>
+</div>
+<p>The definition of <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">INT_MIN</span></tt> is not a simple literal, but a
+parenthesized expression. Parenthesized expressions are supported using
+the <a class="reference external" href="#objc_boxed_expressions">boxed expression</a> syntax, which is
+described in the next section.</p>
+<p>Because <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">NSNumber</span></tt> does not currently support wrapping <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">long</span> <span class="pre">double</span></tt>
+values, the use of a <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">long</span> <span class="pre">double</span> <span class="pre">NSNumber</span></tt> literal (e.g.
+<tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">@123.23L</span></tt>) will be rejected by the compiler.</p>
+<p>Previously, the <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">BOOL</span></tt> type was simply a typedef for <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">signed</span> <span class="pre">char</span></tt>,
+and <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">YES</span></tt> and <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">NO</span></tt> were macros that expand to <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">(BOOL)1</span></tt> and
+<tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">(BOOL)0</span></tt> respectively. To support <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">@YES</span></tt> and <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">@NO</span></tt> expressions,
+these macros are now defined using new language keywords in
+<tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre"><objc/objc.h></span></tt>:</p>
+<div class="highlight-objc"><div class="highlight"><pre><span class="cp">#if __has_feature(objc_bool)</span>
+<span class="cp">#define YES             __objc_yes</span>
+<span class="cp">#define NO              __objc_no</span>
+<span class="cp">#else</span>
+<span class="cp">#define YES             ((BOOL)1)</span>
+<span class="cp">#define NO              ((BOOL)0)</span>
+<span class="cp">#endif</span>
+</pre></div>
+</div>
+<p>The compiler implicitly converts <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">__objc_yes</span></tt> and <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">__objc_no</span></tt> to
+<tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">(BOOL)1</span></tt> and <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">(BOOL)0</span></tt>. The keywords are used to disambiguate
+<tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">BOOL</span></tt> and integer literals.</p>
+<p>Objective-C++ also supports <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">@true</span></tt> and <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">@false</span></tt> expressions, which
+are equivalent to <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">@YES</span></tt> and <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">@NO</span></tt>.</p>
+</div>
+</div>
+<div class="section" id="boxed-expressions">
+<h2>Boxed Expressions<a class="headerlink" href="#boxed-expressions" title="Permalink to this headline">¶</a></h2>
+<p>Objective-C provides a new syntax for boxing C expressions:</p>
+<div class="highlight-objc"><pre>@( <expression> )</pre>
+</div>
+<p>Expressions of scalar (numeric, enumerated, BOOL) and C string pointer
+types are supported:</p>
+<div class="highlight-objc"><pre>// numbers.
+NSNumber *smallestInt = @(-INT_MAX - 1);  // [NSNumber numberWithInt:(-INT_MAX - 1)]
+NSNumber *piOverTwo = @(M_PI / 2);        // [NSNumber numberWithDouble:(M_PI / 2)]
+
+// enumerated types.
+typedef enum { Red, Green, Blue } Color;
+NSNumber *favoriteColor = @(Green);       // [NSNumber numberWithInt:((int)Green)]
+
+// strings.
+NSString *path = @(getenv("PATH"));       // [NSString stringWithUTF8String:(getenv("PATH"))]
+NSArray *pathComponents = [path componentsSeparatedByString:@":"];</pre>
+</div>
+<div class="section" id="boxed-enums">
+<h3>Boxed Enums<a class="headerlink" href="#boxed-enums" title="Permalink to this headline">¶</a></h3>
+<p>Cocoa frameworks frequently define constant values using <em>enums.</em>
+Although enum values are integral, they may not be used directly as
+boxed literals (this avoids conflicts with future <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">'@'</span></tt>-prefixed
+Objective-C keywords). Instead, an enum value must be placed inside a
+boxed expression. The following example demonstrates configuring an
+<tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">AVAudioRecorder</span></tt> using a dictionary that contains a boxed enumeration
+value:</p>
+<div class="highlight-objc"><pre>enum {
+  AVAudioQualityMin = 0,
+  AVAudioQualityLow = 0x20,
+  AVAudioQualityMedium = 0x40,
+  AVAudioQualityHigh = 0x60,
+  AVAudioQualityMax = 0x7F
+};
+
+- (AVAudioRecorder *)recordToFile:(NSURL *)fileURL {
+  NSDictionary *settings = @{ AVEncoderAudioQualityKey : @(AVAudioQualityMax) };
+  return [[AVAudioRecorder alloc] initWithURL:fileURL settings:settings error:NULL];
+}</pre>
+</div>
+<p>The expression <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">@(AVAudioQualityMax)</span></tt> converts <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">AVAudioQualityMax</span></tt>
+to an integer type, and boxes the value accordingly. If the enum has a
+<a class="reference internal" href="LanguageExtensions.html#objc-fixed-enum"><em>fixed underlying type</em></a> as in:</p>
+<div class="highlight-objc"><pre>typedef enum : unsigned char { Red, Green, Blue } Color;
+NSNumber *red = @(Red), *green = @(Green), *blue = @(Blue); // => [NSNumber numberWithUnsignedChar:]</pre>
+</div>
+<p>then the fixed underlying type will be used to select the correct
+<tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">NSNumber</span></tt> creation method.</p>
+<p>Boxing a value of enum type will result in a <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">NSNumber</span></tt> pointer with a
+creation method according to the underlying type of the enum, which can
+be a <a class="reference internal" href="LanguageExtensions.html#objc-fixed-enum"><em>fixed underlying type</em></a>
+or a compiler-defined integer type capable of representing the values of
+all the members of the enumeration:</p>
+<div class="highlight-objc"><pre>typedef enum : unsigned char { Red, Green, Blue } Color;
+Color col = Red;
+NSNumber *nsCol = @(col); // => [NSNumber numberWithUnsignedChar:]</pre>
+</div>
+</div>
+<div class="section" id="boxed-c-strings">
+<h3>Boxed C Strings<a class="headerlink" href="#boxed-c-strings" title="Permalink to this headline">¶</a></h3>
+<p>A C string literal prefixed by the <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">'@'</span></tt> token denotes an <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">NSString</span></tt>
+literal in the same way a numeric literal prefixed by the <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">'@'</span></tt> token
+denotes an <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">NSNumber</span></tt> literal. When the type of the parenthesized
+expression is <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">(char</span> <span class="pre">*)</span></tt> or <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">(const</span> <span class="pre">char</span> <span class="pre">*)</span></tt>, the result of the
+boxed expression is a pointer to an <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">NSString</span></tt> object containing
+equivalent character data, which is assumed to be ‘\0’-terminated and
+UTF-8 encoded. The following example converts C-style command line
+arguments into <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">NSString</span></tt> objects.</p>
+<div class="highlight-objc"><pre>// Partition command line arguments into positional and option arguments.
+NSMutableArray *args = [NSMutableArray new];
+NSMutableDictionary *options = [NSMutableDictionary new];
+while (--argc) {
+    const char *arg = *++argv;
+    if (strncmp(arg, "--", 2) == 0) {
+        options[@(arg + 2)] = @(*++argv);   // --key value
+    } else {
+        [args addObject:@(arg)];            // positional argument
+    }
+}</pre>
+</div>
+<p>As with all C pointers, character pointer expressions can involve
+arbitrary pointer arithmetic, therefore programmers must ensure that the
+character data is valid. Passing <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">NULL</span></tt> as the character pointer will
+raise an exception at runtime. When possible, the compiler will reject
+<tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">NULL</span></tt> character pointers used in boxed expressions.</p>
+</div>
+</div>
+<div class="section" id="container-literals">
+<h2>Container Literals<a class="headerlink" href="#container-literals" title="Permalink to this headline">¶</a></h2>
+<p>Objective-C now supports a new expression syntax for creating immutable
+array and dictionary container objects.</p>
+<div class="section" id="id1">
+<h3>Examples<a class="headerlink" href="#id1" title="Permalink to this headline">¶</a></h3>
+<p>Immutable array expression:</p>
+<div class="highlight-objc"><pre>NSArray *array = @[ @"Hello", NSApp, [NSNumber numberWithInt:42] ];</pre>
+</div>
+<p>This creates an <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">NSArray</span></tt> with 3 elements. The comma-separated
+sub-expressions of an array literal can be any Objective-C object
+pointer typed expression.</p>
+<p>Immutable dictionary expression:</p>
+<div class="highlight-objc"><pre>NSDictionary *dictionary = @{
+    @"name" : NSUserName(),
+    @"date" : [NSDate date],
+    @"processInfo" : [NSProcessInfo processInfo]
+};</pre>
+</div>
+<p>This creates an <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">NSDictionary</span></tt> with 3 key/value pairs. Value
+sub-expressions of a dictionary literal must be Objective-C object
+pointer typed, as in array literals. Key sub-expressions must be of an
+Objective-C object pointer type that implements the
+<tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre"><NSCopying></span></tt> protocol.</p>
+</div>
+<div class="section" id="id2">
+<h3>Discussion<a class="headerlink" href="#id2" title="Permalink to this headline">¶</a></h3>
+<p>Neither keys nor values can have the value <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">nil</span></tt> in containers. If the
+compiler can prove that a key or value is <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">nil</span></tt> at compile time, then
+a warning will be emitted. Otherwise, a runtime error will occur.</p>
+<p>Using array and dictionary literals is safer than the variadic creation
+forms commonly in use today. Array literal expressions expand to calls
+to <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">+[NSArray</span> <span class="pre">arrayWithObjects:count:]</span></tt>, which validates that all
+objects are non-<tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">nil</span></tt>. The variadic form,
+<tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">+[NSArray</span> <span class="pre">arrayWithObjects:]</span></tt> uses <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">nil</span></tt> as an argument list
+terminator, which can lead to malformed array objects. Dictionary
+literals are similarly created with
+<tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">+[NSDictionary</span> <span class="pre">dictionaryWithObjects:forKeys:count:]</span></tt> which validates
+all objects and keys, unlike
+<tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">+[NSDictionary</span> <span class="pre">dictionaryWithObjectsAndKeys:]</span></tt> which also uses a
+<tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">nil</span></tt> parameter as an argument list terminator.</p>
+</div>
+</div>
+<div class="section" id="object-subscripting">
+<h2>Object Subscripting<a class="headerlink" href="#object-subscripting" title="Permalink to this headline">¶</a></h2>
+<p>Objective-C object pointer values can now be used with C’s subscripting
+operator.</p>
+<div class="section" id="id3">
+<h3>Examples<a class="headerlink" href="#id3" title="Permalink to this headline">¶</a></h3>
+<p>The following code demonstrates the use of object subscripting syntax
+with <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">NSMutableArray</span></tt> and <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">NSMutableDictionary</span></tt> objects:</p>
+<div class="highlight-objc"><div class="highlight"><pre><span class="n">NSMutableArray</span> <span class="o">*</span><span class="n">array</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="p">...;</span>
+<span class="n">NSUInteger</span> <span class="n">idx</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="p">...;</span>
+<span class="kt">id</span> <span class="n">newObject</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="p">...;</span>
+<span class="kt">id</span> <span class="n">oldObject</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="n">array</span><span class="p">[</span><span class="n">idx</span><span class="p">];</span>
+<span class="n">array</span><span class="p">[</span><span class="n">idx</span><span class="p">]</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="n">newObject</span><span class="p">;</span>         <span class="c1">// replace oldObject with newObject</span>
+
+<span class="n">NSMutableDictionary</span> <span class="o">*</span><span class="n">dictionary</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="p">...;</span>
+<span class="n">NSString</span> <span class="o">*</span><span class="n">key</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="p">...;</span>
+<span class="n">oldObject</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="n">dictionary</span><span class="p">[</span><span class="n">key</span><span class="p">];</span>
+<span class="n">dictionary</span><span class="p">[</span><span class="n">key</span><span class="p">]</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="n">newObject</span><span class="p">;</span>    <span class="c1">// replace oldObject with newObject</span>
+</pre></div>
+</div>
+<p>The next section explains how subscripting expressions map to accessor
+methods.</p>
+</div>
+<div class="section" id="subscripting-methods">
+<h3>Subscripting Methods<a class="headerlink" href="#subscripting-methods" title="Permalink to this headline">¶</a></h3>
+<p>Objective-C supports two kinds of subscript expressions: <em>array-style</em>
+subscript expressions use integer typed subscripts; <em>dictionary-style</em>
+subscript expressions use Objective-C object pointer typed subscripts.
+Each type of subscript expression is mapped to a message send using a
+predefined selector. The advantage of this design is flexibility: class
+designers are free to introduce subscripting by declaring methods or by
+adopting protocols. Moreover, because the method names are selected by
+the type of the subscript, an object can be subscripted using both array
+and dictionary styles.</p>
+<div class="section" id="array-style-subscripting">
+<h4>Array-Style Subscripting<a class="headerlink" href="#array-style-subscripting" title="Permalink to this headline">¶</a></h4>
+<p>When the subscript operand has an integral type, the expression is
+rewritten to use one of two different selectors, depending on whether
+the element is being read or written. When an expression reads an
+element using an integral index, as in the following example:</p>
+<div class="highlight-objc"><div class="highlight"><pre><span class="n">NSUInteger</span> <span class="n">idx</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="p">...;</span>
+<span class="kt">id</span> <span class="n">value</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="n">object</span><span class="p">[</span><span class="n">idx</span><span class="p">];</span>
+</pre></div>
+</div>
+<p>it is translated into a call to <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">objectAtIndexedSubscript:</span></tt></p>
+<div class="highlight-objc"><div class="highlight"><pre><span class="kt">id</span> <span class="n">value</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="p">[</span><span class="n">object</span> <span class="n">objectAtIndexedSubscript</span><span class="o">:</span><span class="n">idx</span><span class="p">];</span>
+</pre></div>
+</div>
+<p>When an expression writes an element using an integral index:</p>
+<div class="highlight-objc"><div class="highlight"><pre><span class="n">object</span><span class="p">[</span><span class="n">idx</span><span class="p">]</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="n">newValue</span><span class="p">;</span>
+</pre></div>
+</div>
+<p>it is translated to a call to <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">setObject:atIndexedSubscript:</span></tt></p>
+<div class="highlight-objc"><div class="highlight"><pre><span class="p">[</span><span class="n">object</span> <span class="n">setObject</span><span class="o">:</span><span class="n">newValue</span> <span class="n">atIndexedSubscript</span><span class="o">:</span><span class="n">idx</span><span class="p">];</span>
+</pre></div>
+</div>
+<p>These message sends are then type-checked and performed just like
+explicit message sends. The method used for objectAtIndexedSubscript:
+must be declared with an argument of integral type and a return value of
+some Objective-C object pointer type. The method used for
+setObject:atIndexedSubscript: must be declared with its first argument
+having some Objective-C pointer type and its second argument having
+integral type.</p>
+<p>The meaning of indexes is left up to the declaring class. The compiler
+will coerce the index to the appropriate argument type of the method it
+uses for type-checking. For an instance of <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">NSArray</span></tt>, reading an
+element using an index outside the range <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">[0,</span> <span class="pre">array.count)</span></tt> will raise
+an exception. For an instance of <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">NSMutableArray</span></tt>, assigning to an
+element using an index within this range will replace that element, but
+assigning to an element using an index outside this range will raise an
+exception; no syntax is provided for inserting, appending, or removing
+elements for mutable arrays.</p>
+<p>A class need not declare both methods in order to take advantage of this
+language feature. For example, the class <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">NSArray</span></tt> declares only
+<tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">objectAtIndexedSubscript:</span></tt>, so that assignments to elements will fail
+to type-check; moreover, its subclass <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">NSMutableArray</span></tt> declares
+<tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">setObject:atIndexedSubscript:</span></tt>.</p>
+</div>
+<div class="section" id="dictionary-style-subscripting">
+<h4>Dictionary-Style Subscripting<a class="headerlink" href="#dictionary-style-subscripting" title="Permalink to this headline">¶</a></h4>
+<p>When the subscript operand has an Objective-C object pointer type, the
+expression is rewritten to use one of two different selectors, depending
+on whether the element is being read from or written to. When an
+expression reads an element using an Objective-C object pointer
+subscript operand, as in the following example:</p>
+<div class="highlight-objc"><div class="highlight"><pre><span class="kt">id</span> <span class="n">key</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="p">...;</span>
+<span class="kt">id</span> <span class="n">value</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="n">object</span><span class="p">[</span><span class="n">key</span><span class="p">];</span>
+</pre></div>
+</div>
+<p>it is translated into a call to the <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">objectForKeyedSubscript:</span></tt> method:</p>
+<div class="highlight-objc"><div class="highlight"><pre><span class="kt">id</span> <span class="n">value</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="p">[</span><span class="n">object</span> <span class="n">objectForKeyedSubscript</span><span class="o">:</span><span class="n">key</span><span class="p">];</span>
+</pre></div>
+</div>
+<p>When an expression writes an element using an Objective-C object pointer
+subscript:</p>
+<div class="highlight-objc"><div class="highlight"><pre><span class="n">object</span><span class="p">[</span><span class="n">key</span><span class="p">]</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="n">newValue</span><span class="p">;</span>
+</pre></div>
+</div>
+<p>it is translated to a call to <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">setObject:forKeyedSubscript:</span></tt></p>
+<div class="highlight-objc"><div class="highlight"><pre><span class="p">[</span><span class="n">object</span> <span class="n">setObject</span><span class="o">:</span><span class="n">newValue</span> <span class="n">forKeyedSubscript</span><span class="o">:</span><span class="n">key</span><span class="p">];</span>
+</pre></div>
+</div>
+<p>The behavior of <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">setObject:forKeyedSubscript:</span></tt> is class-specific; but
+in general it should replace an existing value if one is already
+associated with a key, otherwise it should add a new value for the key.
+No syntax is provided for removing elements from mutable dictionaries.</p>
+</div>
+</div>
+<div class="section" id="id4">
+<h3>Discussion<a class="headerlink" href="#id4" title="Permalink to this headline">¶</a></h3>
+<p>An Objective-C subscript expression occurs when the base operand of the
+C subscript operator has an Objective-C object pointer type. Since this
+potentially collides with pointer arithmetic on the value, these
+expressions are only supported under the modern Objective-C runtime,
+which categorically forbids such arithmetic.</p>
+<p>Currently, only subscripts of integral or Objective-C object pointer
+type are supported. In C++, a class type can be used if it has a single
+conversion function to an integral or Objective-C pointer type, in which
+case that conversion is applied and analysis continues as appropriate.
+Otherwise, the expression is ill-formed.</p>
+<p>An Objective-C object subscript expression is always an l-value. If the
+expression appears on the left-hand side of a simple assignment operator
+(=), the element is written as described below. If the expression
+appears on the left-hand side of a compound assignment operator (e.g.
++=), the program is ill-formed, because the result of reading an element
+is always an Objective-C object pointer and no binary operators are
+legal on such pointers. If the expression appears in any other position,
+the element is read as described below. It is an error to take the
+address of a subscript expression, or (in C++) to bind a reference to
+it.</p>
+<p>Programs can use object subscripting with Objective-C object pointers of
+type <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">id</span></tt>. Normal dynamic message send rules apply; the compiler must
+see <em>some</em> declaration of the subscripting methods, and will pick the
+declaration seen first.</p>
+</div>
+</div>
+<div class="section" id="caveats">
+<h2>Caveats<a class="headerlink" href="#caveats" title="Permalink to this headline">¶</a></h2>
+<p>Objects created using the literal or boxed expression syntax are not
+guaranteed to be uniqued by the runtime, but nor are they guaranteed to
+be newly-allocated. As such, the result of performing direct comparisons
+against the location of an object literal (using <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">==</span></tt>, <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">!=</span></tt>, <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre"><</span></tt>,
+<tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre"><=</span></tt>, <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">></span></tt>, or <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">>=</span></tt>) is not well-defined. This is usually a simple
+mistake in code that intended to call the <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">isEqual:</span></tt> method (or the
+<tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">compare:</span></tt> method).</p>
+<p>This caveat applies to compile-time string literals as well.
+Historically, string literals (using the <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">@"..."</span></tt> syntax) have been
+uniqued across translation units during linking. This is an
+implementation detail of the compiler and should not be relied upon. If
+you are using such code, please use global string constants instead
+(<tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">NSString</span> <span class="pre">*</span> <span class="pre">const</span> <span class="pre">MyConst</span> <span class="pre">=</span> <span class="pre">@"..."</span></tt>) or use <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">isEqual:</span></tt>.</p>
+</div>
+<div class="section" id="grammar-additions">
+<h2>Grammar Additions<a class="headerlink" href="#grammar-additions" title="Permalink to this headline">¶</a></h2>
+<p>To support the new syntax described above, the Objective-C
+<tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">@</span></tt>-expression grammar has the following new productions:</p>
+<div class="highlight-python"><pre>objc-at-expression : '@' (string-literal | encode-literal | selector-literal | protocol-literal | object-literal)
+                   ;
+
+object-literal : ('+' | '-')? numeric-constant
+               | character-constant
+               | boolean-constant
+               | array-literal
+               | dictionary-literal
+               ;
+
+boolean-constant : '__objc_yes' | '__objc_no' | 'true' | 'false'  /* boolean keywords. */
+                 ;
+
+array-literal : '[' assignment-expression-list ']'
+              ;
+
+assignment-expression-list : assignment-expression (',' assignment-expression-list)?
+                           | /* empty */
+                           ;
+
+dictionary-literal : '{' key-value-list '}'
+                   ;
+
+key-value-list : key-value-pair (',' key-value-list)?
+               | /* empty */
+               ;
+
+key-value-pair : assignment-expression ':' assignment-expression
+               ;</pre>
+</div>
+<p>Note: <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">@true</span></tt> and <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">@false</span></tt> are only supported in Objective-C++.</p>
+</div>
+<div class="section" id="availability-checks">
+<h2>Availability Checks<a class="headerlink" href="#availability-checks" title="Permalink to this headline">¶</a></h2>
+<p>Programs test for the new features by using clang’s __has_feature
+checks. Here are examples of their use:</p>
+<div class="highlight-objc"><pre>#if __has_feature(objc_array_literals)
+    // new way.
+    NSArray *elements = @[ @"H", @"He", @"O", @"C" ];
+#else
+    // old way (equivalent).
+    id objects[] = { @"H", @"He", @"O", @"C" };
+    NSArray *elements = [NSArray arrayWithObjects:objects count:4];
+#endif
+
+#if __has_feature(objc_dictionary_literals)
+    // new way.
+    NSDictionary *masses = @{ @"H" : @1.0078,  @"He" : @4.0026, @"O" : @15.9990, @"C" : @12.0096 };
+#else
+    // old way (equivalent).
+    id keys[] = { @"H", @"He", @"O", @"C" };
+    id values[] = { [NSNumber numberWithDouble:1.0078], [NSNumber numberWithDouble:4.0026],
+                    [NSNumber numberWithDouble:15.9990], [NSNumber numberWithDouble:12.0096] };
+    NSDictionary *masses = [NSDictionary dictionaryWithObjects:objects forKeys:keys count:4];
+#endif
+
+#if __has_feature(objc_subscripting)
+    NSUInteger i, count = elements.count;
+    for (i = 0; i < count; ++i) {
+        NSString *element = elements[i];
+        NSNumber *mass = masses[element];
+        NSLog(@"the mass of %@ is %@", element, mass);
+    }
+#else
+    NSUInteger i, count = [elements count];
+    for (i = 0; i < count; ++i) {
+        NSString *element = [elements objectAtIndex:i];
+        NSNumber *mass = [masses objectForKey:element];
+        NSLog(@"the mass of %@ is %@", element, mass);
+    }
+#endif</pre>
+</div>
+<p>Code can use also <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">__has_feature(objc_bool)</span></tt> to check for the
+availability of numeric literals support. This checks for the new
+<tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">__objc_yes</span> <span class="pre">/</span> <span class="pre">__objc_no</span></tt> keywords, which enable the use of
+<tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">@YES</span> <span class="pre">/</span> <span class="pre">@NO</span></tt> literals.</p>
+<p>To check whether boxed expressions are supported, use
+<tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">__has_feature(objc_boxed_expressions)</span></tt> feature macro.</p>
+</div>
+</div>
+
+
+      </div>
+      <div class="bottomnav">
+      
+        <p>
+        «  <a href="LanguageExtensions.html">Clang Language Extensions</a>
+          ::  
+        <a class="uplink" href="index.html">Contents</a>
+          ::  
+        <a href="BlockLanguageSpec.html">Language Specification for Blocks</a>  Â»
+        </p>
+
+      </div>
+
+    <div class="footer">
+        © Copyright 2007-2014, The Clang Team.
+      Created using <a href="http://sphinx.pocoo.org/">Sphinx</a> 1.1.3.
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+  </body>
+</html>
\ No newline at end of file

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+++ www-releases/trunk/3.5.1/tools/clang/docs/PCHInternals.html Tue Jan 13 17:58:20 2015
@@ -0,0 +1,581 @@
+
+
+<!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD XHTML 1.0 Transitional//EN"
+  "http://www.w3.org/TR/xhtml1/DTD/xhtml1-transitional.dtd">
+
+
+<html xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml">
+  <head>
+    <meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=utf-8" />
+    
+    <title>Precompiled Header and Modules Internals — Clang 3.5 documentation</title>
+    
+    <link rel="stylesheet" href="_static/haiku.css" type="text/css" />
+    <link rel="stylesheet" href="_static/pygments.css" type="text/css" />
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+    
+    <script type="text/javascript">
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+    <script type="text/javascript" src="_static/jquery.js"></script>
+    <script type="text/javascript" src="_static/underscore.js"></script>
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+    <script type="text/javascript" src="_static/theme_extras.js"></script>
+    <link rel="top" title="Clang 3.5 documentation" href="index.html" />
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+  </head>
+  <body>
+      <div class="header"><h1 class="heading"><a href="index.html">
+          <span>Clang 3.5 documentation</span></a></h1>
+        <h2 class="heading"><span>Precompiled Header and Modules Internals</span></h2>
+      </div>
+      <div class="topnav">
+      
+        <p>
+        «  <a href="PTHInternals.html">Pretokenized Headers (PTH)</a>
+          ::  
+        <a class="uplink" href="index.html">Contents</a>
+        </p>
+
+      </div>
+      <div class="content">
+        
+        
+  <div class="section" id="precompiled-header-and-modules-internals">
+<h1>Precompiled Header and Modules Internals<a class="headerlink" href="#precompiled-header-and-modules-internals" title="Permalink to this headline">¶</a></h1>
+<div class="contents local topic" id="contents">
+<ul class="simple">
+<li><a class="reference internal" href="#using-precompiled-headers-with-clang" id="id1">Using Precompiled Headers with <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">clang</span></tt></a></li>
+<li><a class="reference internal" href="#design-philosophy" id="id2">Design Philosophy</a></li>
+<li><a class="reference internal" href="#ast-file-contents" id="id3">AST File Contents</a><ul>
+<li><a class="reference internal" href="#metadata-block" id="id4">Metadata Block</a></li>
+<li><a class="reference internal" href="#source-manager-block" id="id5">Source Manager Block</a></li>
+<li><a class="reference internal" href="#preprocessor-block" id="id6">Preprocessor Block</a></li>
+<li><a class="reference internal" href="#types-block" id="id7">Types Block</a></li>
+<li><a class="reference internal" href="#declarations-block" id="id8">Declarations Block</a></li>
+<li><a class="reference internal" href="#statements-and-expressions" id="id9">Statements and Expressions</a></li>
+<li><a class="reference internal" href="#pchinternals-ident-table" id="id10">Identifier Table Block</a></li>
+<li><a class="reference internal" href="#method-pool-block" id="id11">Method Pool Block</a></li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li><a class="reference internal" href="#ast-reader-integration-points" id="id12">AST Reader Integration Points</a></li>
+<li><a class="reference internal" href="#chained-precompiled-headers" id="id13">Chained precompiled headers</a></li>
+<li><a class="reference internal" href="#modules" id="id14">Modules</a></li>
+</ul>
+</div>
+<p>This document describes the design and implementation of Clang’s precompiled
+headers (PCH) and modules.  If you are interested in the end-user view, please
+see the <a class="reference internal" href="UsersManual.html#usersmanual-precompiled-headers"><em>User’s Manual</em></a>.</p>
+<div class="section" id="using-precompiled-headers-with-clang">
+<h2><a class="toc-backref" href="#id1">Using Precompiled Headers with <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">clang</span></tt></a><a class="headerlink" href="#using-precompiled-headers-with-clang" title="Permalink to this headline">¶</a></h2>
+<p>The Clang compiler frontend, <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">clang</span> <span class="pre">-cc1</span></tt>, supports two command line options
+for generating and using PCH files.</p>
+<p>To generate PCH files using <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">clang</span> <span class="pre">-cc1</span></tt>, use the option <em class="xref std std-option">-emit-pch</em>:</p>
+<div class="highlight-bash"><div class="highlight"><pre><span class="nv">$ </span>clang -cc1 test.h -emit-pch -o test.h.pch
+</pre></div>
+</div>
+<p>This option is transparently used by <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">clang</span></tt> when generating PCH files.  The
+resulting PCH file contains the serialized form of the compiler’s internal
+representation after it has completed parsing and semantic analysis.  The PCH
+file can then be used as a prefix header with the <em class="xref std std-option">-include-pch</em>
+option:</p>
+<div class="highlight-bash"><div class="highlight"><pre><span class="nv">$ </span>clang -cc1 -include-pch test.h.pch test.c -o test.s
+</pre></div>
+</div>
+</div>
+<div class="section" id="design-philosophy">
+<h2><a class="toc-backref" href="#id2">Design Philosophy</a><a class="headerlink" href="#design-philosophy" title="Permalink to this headline">¶</a></h2>
+<p>Precompiled headers are meant to improve overall compile times for projects, so
+the design of precompiled headers is entirely driven by performance concerns.
+The use case for precompiled headers is relatively simple: when there is a
+common set of headers that is included in nearly every source file in the
+project, we <em>precompile</em> that bundle of headers into a single precompiled
+header (PCH file).  Then, when compiling the source files in the project, we
+load the PCH file first (as a prefix header), which acts as a stand-in for that
+bundle of headers.</p>
+<p>A precompiled header implementation improves performance when:</p>
+<ul class="simple">
+<li>Loading the PCH file is significantly faster than re-parsing the bundle of
+headers stored within the PCH file.  Thus, a precompiled header design
+attempts to minimize the cost of reading the PCH file.  Ideally, this cost
+should not vary with the size of the precompiled header file.</li>
+<li>The cost of generating the PCH file initially is not so large that it
+counters the per-source-file performance improvement due to eliminating the
+need to parse the bundled headers in the first place.  This is particularly
+important on multi-core systems, because PCH file generation serializes the
+build when all compilations require the PCH file to be up-to-date.</li>
+</ul>
+<p>Modules, as implemented in Clang, use the same mechanisms as precompiled
+headers to save a serialized AST file (one per module) and use those AST
+modules.  From an implementation standpoint, modules are a generalization of
+precompiled headers, lifting a number of restrictions placed on precompiled
+headers.  In particular, there can only be one precompiled header and it must
+be included at the beginning of the translation unit.  The extensions to the
+AST file format required for modules are discussed in the section on
+<a class="reference internal" href="#pchinternals-modules"><em>modules</em></a>.</p>
+<p>Clang’s AST files are designed with a compact on-disk representation, which
+minimizes both creation time and the time required to initially load the AST
+file.  The AST file itself contains a serialized representation of Clang’s
+abstract syntax trees and supporting data structures, stored using the same
+compressed bitstream as <a class="reference external" href="http://llvm.org/docs/BitCodeFormat.html">LLVM’s bitcode file format</a>.</p>
+<p>Clang’s AST files are loaded “lazily” from disk.  When an AST file is initially
+loaded, Clang reads only a small amount of data from the AST file to establish
+where certain important data structures are stored.  The amount of data read in
+this initial load is independent of the size of the AST file, such that a
+larger AST file does not lead to longer AST load times.  The actual header data
+in the AST file — macros, functions, variables, types, etc. — is loaded
+only when it is referenced from the user’s code, at which point only that
+entity (and those entities it depends on) are deserialized from the AST file.
+With this approach, the cost of using an AST file for a translation unit is
+proportional to the amount of code actually used from the AST file, rather than
+being proportional to the size of the AST file itself.</p>
+<p>When given the <em class="xref std std-option">-print-stats</em> option, Clang produces statistics
+describing how much of the AST file was actually loaded from disk.  For a
+simple “Hello, World!” program that includes the Apple <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">Cocoa.h</span></tt> header
+(which is built as a precompiled header), this option illustrates how little of
+the actual precompiled header is required:</p>
+<div class="highlight-none"><div class="highlight"><pre>*** AST File Statistics:
+  895/39981 source location entries read (2.238563%)
+  19/15315 types read (0.124061%)
+  20/82685 declarations read (0.024188%)
+  154/58070 identifiers read (0.265197%)
+  0/7260 selectors read (0.000000%)
+  0/30842 statements read (0.000000%)
+  4/8400 macros read (0.047619%)
+  1/4995 lexical declcontexts read (0.020020%)
+  0/4413 visible declcontexts read (0.000000%)
+  0/7230 method pool entries read (0.000000%)
+  0 method pool misses
+</pre></div>
+</div>
+<p>For this small program, only a tiny fraction of the source locations, types,
+declarations, identifiers, and macros were actually deserialized from the
+precompiled header.  These statistics can be useful to determine whether the
+AST file implementation can be improved by making more of the implementation
+lazy.</p>
+<p>Precompiled headers can be chained.  When you create a PCH while including an
+existing PCH, Clang can create the new PCH by referencing the original file and
+only writing the new data to the new file.  For example, you could create a PCH
+out of all the headers that are very commonly used throughout your project, and
+then create a PCH for every single source file in the project that includes the
+code that is specific to that file, so that recompiling the file itself is very
+fast, without duplicating the data from the common headers for every file.  The
+mechanisms behind chained precompiled headers are discussed in a <a class="reference internal" href="#pchinternals-chained"><em>later
+section</em></a>.</p>
+</div>
+<div class="section" id="ast-file-contents">
+<h2><a class="toc-backref" href="#id3">AST File Contents</a><a class="headerlink" href="#ast-file-contents" title="Permalink to this headline">¶</a></h2>
+<p>Clang’s AST files are organized into several different blocks, each of which
+contains the serialized representation of a part of Clang’s internal
+representation.  Each of the blocks corresponds to either a block or a record
+within <a class="reference external" href="http://llvm.org/docs/BitCodeFormat.html">LLVM’s bitstream format</a>.
+The contents of each of these logical blocks are described below.</p>
+<img alt="_images/PCHLayout.png" src="_images/PCHLayout.png" />
+<p>For a given AST file, the <a class="reference external" href="http://llvm.org/docs/CommandGuide/llvm-bcanalyzer.html">llvm-bcanalyzer</a> utility can be used
+to examine the actual structure of the bitstream for the AST file.  This
+information can be used both to help understand the structure of the AST file
+and to isolate areas where AST files can still be optimized, e.g., through the
+introduction of abbreviations.</p>
+<div class="section" id="metadata-block">
+<h3><a class="toc-backref" href="#id4">Metadata Block</a><a class="headerlink" href="#metadata-block" title="Permalink to this headline">¶</a></h3>
+<p>The metadata block contains several records that provide information about how
+the AST file was built.  This metadata is primarily used to validate the use of
+an AST file.  For example, a precompiled header built for a 32-bit x86 target
+cannot be used when compiling for a 64-bit x86 target.  The metadata block
+contains information about:</p>
+<dl class="docutils">
+<dt>Language options</dt>
+<dd>Describes the particular language dialect used to compile the AST file,
+including major options (e.g., Objective-C support) and more minor options
+(e.g., support for “<tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">//</span></tt>” comments).  The contents of this record correspond to
+the <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">LangOptions</span></tt> class.</dd>
+<dt>Target architecture</dt>
+<dd>The target triple that describes the architecture, platform, and ABI for
+which the AST file was generated, e.g., <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">i386-apple-darwin9</span></tt>.</dd>
+<dt>AST version</dt>
+<dd>The major and minor version numbers of the AST file format.  Changes in the
+minor version number should not affect backward compatibility, while changes
+in the major version number imply that a newer compiler cannot read an older
+precompiled header (and vice-versa).</dd>
+<dt>Original file name</dt>
+<dd>The full path of the header that was used to generate the AST file.</dd>
+<dt>Predefines buffer</dt>
+<dd>Although not explicitly stored as part of the metadata, the predefines buffer
+is used in the validation of the AST file.  The predefines buffer itself
+contains code generated by the compiler to initialize the preprocessor state
+according to the current target, platform, and command-line options.  For
+example, the predefines buffer will contain “<tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">#define</span> <span class="pre">__STDC__</span> <span class="pre">1</span></tt>” when we
+are compiling C without Microsoft extensions.  The predefines buffer itself
+is stored within the <a class="reference internal" href="#pchinternals-sourcemgr"><em>Source Manager Block</em></a>, but its contents are
+verified along with the rest of the metadata.</dd>
+</dl>
+<p>A chained PCH file (that is, one that references another PCH) and a module
+(which may import other modules) have additional metadata containing the list
+of all AST files that this AST file depends on.  Each of those files will be
+loaded along with this AST file.</p>
+<p>For chained precompiled headers, the language options, target architecture and
+predefines buffer data is taken from the end of the chain, since they have to
+match anyway.</p>
+</div>
+<div class="section" id="source-manager-block">
+<span id="pchinternals-sourcemgr"></span><h3><a class="toc-backref" href="#id5">Source Manager Block</a><a class="headerlink" href="#source-manager-block" title="Permalink to this headline">¶</a></h3>
+<p>The source manager block contains the serialized representation of Clang’s
+<a class="reference internal" href="InternalsManual.html#sourcemanager"><em>SourceManager</em></a> class, which handles the mapping from
+source locations (as represented in Clang’s abstract syntax tree) into actual
+column/line positions within a source file or macro instantiation.  The AST
+file’s representation of the source manager also includes information about all
+of the headers that were (transitively) included when building the AST file.</p>
+<p>The bulk of the source manager block is dedicated to information about the
+various files, buffers, and macro instantiations into which a source location
+can refer.  Each of these is referenced by a numeric “file ID”, which is a
+unique number (allocated starting at 1) stored in the source location.  Clang
+serializes the information for each kind of file ID, along with an index that
+maps file IDs to the position within the AST file where the information about
+that file ID is stored.  The data associated with a file ID is loaded only when
+required by the front end, e.g., to emit a diagnostic that includes a macro
+instantiation history inside the header itself.</p>
+<p>The source manager block also contains information about all of the headers
+that were included when building the AST file.  This includes information about
+the controlling macro for the header (e.g., when the preprocessor identified
+that the contents of the header dependent on a macro like
+<tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">LLVM_CLANG_SOURCEMANAGER_H</span></tt>).</p>
+</div>
+<div class="section" id="preprocessor-block">
+<span id="pchinternals-preprocessor"></span><h3><a class="toc-backref" href="#id6">Preprocessor Block</a><a class="headerlink" href="#preprocessor-block" title="Permalink to this headline">¶</a></h3>
+<p>The preprocessor block contains the serialized representation of the
+preprocessor.  Specifically, it contains all of the macros that have been
+defined by the end of the header used to build the AST file, along with the
+token sequences that comprise each macro.  The macro definitions are only read
+from the AST file when the name of the macro first occurs in the program.  This
+lazy loading of macro definitions is triggered by lookups into the
+<a class="reference internal" href="#pchinternals-ident-table"><em>identifier table</em></a>.</p>
+</div>
+<div class="section" id="types-block">
+<span id="pchinternals-types"></span><h3><a class="toc-backref" href="#id7">Types Block</a><a class="headerlink" href="#types-block" title="Permalink to this headline">¶</a></h3>
+<p>The types block contains the serialized representation of all of the types
+referenced in the translation unit.  Each Clang type node (<tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">PointerType</span></tt>,
+<tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">FunctionProtoType</span></tt>, etc.) has a corresponding record type in the AST file.
+When types are deserialized from the AST file, the data within the record is
+used to reconstruct the appropriate type node using the AST context.</p>
+<p>Each type has a unique type ID, which is an integer that uniquely identifies
+that type.  Type ID 0 represents the NULL type, type IDs less than
+<tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">NUM_PREDEF_TYPE_IDS</span></tt> represent predefined types (<tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">void</span></tt>, <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">float</span></tt>, etc.),
+while other “user-defined” type IDs are assigned consecutively from
+<tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">NUM_PREDEF_TYPE_IDS</span></tt> upward as the types are encountered.  The AST file has
+an associated mapping from the user-defined types block to the location within
+the types block where the serialized representation of that type resides,
+enabling lazy deserialization of types.  When a type is referenced from within
+the AST file, that reference is encoded using the type ID shifted left by 3
+bits.  The lower three bits are used to represent the <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">const</span></tt>, <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">volatile</span></tt>,
+and <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">restrict</span></tt> qualifiers, as in Clang’s <a class="reference internal" href="InternalsManual.html#qualtype"><em>QualType</em></a> class.</p>
+</div>
+<div class="section" id="declarations-block">
+<span id="pchinternals-decls"></span><h3><a class="toc-backref" href="#id8">Declarations Block</a><a class="headerlink" href="#declarations-block" title="Permalink to this headline">¶</a></h3>
+<p>The declarations block contains the serialized representation of all of the
+declarations referenced in the translation unit.  Each Clang declaration node
+(<tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">VarDecl</span></tt>, <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">FunctionDecl</span></tt>, etc.) has a corresponding record type in the
+AST file.  When declarations are deserialized from the AST file, the data
+within the record is used to build and populate a new instance of the
+corresponding <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">Decl</span></tt> node.  As with types, each declaration node has a
+numeric ID that is used to refer to that declaration within the AST file.  In
+addition, a lookup table provides a mapping from that numeric ID to the offset
+within the precompiled header where that declaration is described.</p>
+<p>Declarations in Clang’s abstract syntax trees are stored hierarchically.  At
+the top of the hierarchy is the translation unit (<tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">TranslationUnitDecl</span></tt>),
+which contains all of the declarations in the translation unit but is not
+actually written as a specific declaration node.  Its child declarations (such
+as functions or struct types) may also contain other declarations inside them,
+and so on.  Within Clang, each declaration is stored within a <a class="reference internal" href="InternalsManual.html#declcontext"><em>declaration
+context</em></a>, as represented by the <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">DeclContext</span></tt> class.
+Declaration contexts provide the mechanism to perform name lookup within a
+given declaration (e.g., find the member named <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">x</span></tt> in a structure) and
+iterate over the declarations stored within a context (e.g., iterate over all
+of the fields of a structure for structure layout).</p>
+<p>In Clang’s AST file format, deserializing a declaration that is a
+<tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">DeclContext</span></tt> is a separate operation from deserializing all of the
+declarations stored within that declaration context.  Therefore, Clang will
+deserialize the translation unit declaration without deserializing the
+declarations within that translation unit.  When required, the declarations
+stored within a declaration context will be deserialized.  There are two
+representations of the declarations within a declaration context, which
+correspond to the name-lookup and iteration behavior described above:</p>
+<ul class="simple">
+<li>When the front end performs name lookup to find a name <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">x</span></tt> within a given
+declaration context (for example, during semantic analysis of the expression
+<tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">p->x</span></tt>, where <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">p</span></tt>‘s type is defined in the precompiled header), Clang
+refers to an on-disk hash table that maps from the names within that
+declaration context to the declaration IDs that represent each visible
+declaration with that name.  The actual declarations will then be
+deserialized to provide the results of name lookup.</li>
+<li>When the front end performs iteration over all of the declarations within a
+declaration context, all of those declarations are immediately
+de-serialized.  For large declaration contexts (e.g., the translation unit),
+this operation is expensive; however, large declaration contexts are not
+traversed in normal compilation, since such a traversal is unnecessary.
+However, it is common for the code generator and semantic analysis to
+traverse declaration contexts for structs, classes, unions, and
+enumerations, although those contexts contain relatively few declarations in
+the common case.</li>
+</ul>
+</div>
+<div class="section" id="statements-and-expressions">
+<h3><a class="toc-backref" href="#id9">Statements and Expressions</a><a class="headerlink" href="#statements-and-expressions" title="Permalink to this headline">¶</a></h3>
+<p>Statements and expressions are stored in the AST file in both the <a class="reference internal" href="#pchinternals-types"><em>types</em></a> and the <a class="reference internal" href="#pchinternals-decls"><em>declarations</em></a> blocks,
+because every statement or expression will be associated with either a type or
+declaration.  The actual statement and expression records are stored
+immediately following the declaration or type that owns the statement or
+expression.  For example, the statement representing the body of a function
+will be stored directly following the declaration of the function.</p>
+<p>As with types and declarations, each statement and expression kind in Clang’s
+abstract syntax tree (<tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">ForStmt</span></tt>, <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">CallExpr</span></tt>, etc.) has a corresponding
+record type in the AST file, which contains the serialized representation of
+that statement or expression.  Each substatement or subexpression within an
+expression is stored as a separate record (which keeps most records to a fixed
+size).  Within the AST file, the subexpressions of an expression are stored, in
+reverse order, prior to the expression that owns those expression, using a form
+of <a class="reference external" href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Reverse_Polish_notation">Reverse Polish Notation</a>.  For example, an
+expression <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">3</span> <span class="pre">-</span> <span class="pre">4</span> <span class="pre">+</span> <span class="pre">5</span></tt> would be represented as follows:</p>
+<table border="1" class="docutils">
+<colgroup>
+<col width="100%" />
+</colgroup>
+<tbody valign="top">
+<tr class="row-odd"><td><tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">IntegerLiteral(5)</span></tt></td>
+</tr>
+<tr class="row-even"><td><tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">IntegerLiteral(4)</span></tt></td>
+</tr>
+<tr class="row-odd"><td><tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">IntegerLiteral(3)</span></tt></td>
+</tr>
+<tr class="row-even"><td><tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">IntegerLiteral(-)</span></tt></td>
+</tr>
+<tr class="row-odd"><td><tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">IntegerLiteral(+)</span></tt></td>
+</tr>
+<tr class="row-even"><td><tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">STOP</span></tt></td>
+</tr>
+</tbody>
+</table>
+<p>When reading this representation, Clang evaluates each expression record it
+encounters, builds the appropriate abstract syntax tree node, and then pushes
+that expression on to a stack.  When a record contains <em>N</em> subexpressions —
+<tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">BinaryOperator</span></tt> has two of them — those expressions are popped from the
+top of the stack.  The special STOP code indicates that we have reached the end
+of a serialized expression or statement; other expression or statement records
+may follow, but they are part of a different expression.</p>
+</div>
+<div class="section" id="pchinternals-ident-table">
+<span id="identifier-table-block"></span><h3><a class="toc-backref" href="#id10">Identifier Table Block</a><a class="headerlink" href="#pchinternals-ident-table" title="Permalink to this headline">¶</a></h3>
+<p>The identifier table block contains an on-disk hash table that maps each
+identifier mentioned within the AST file to the serialized representation of
+the identifier’s information (e.g, the <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">IdentifierInfo</span></tt> structure).  The
+serialized representation contains:</p>
+<ul class="simple">
+<li>The actual identifier string.</li>
+<li>Flags that describe whether this identifier is the name of a built-in, a
+poisoned identifier, an extension token, or a macro.</li>
+<li>If the identifier names a macro, the offset of the macro definition within
+the <a class="reference internal" href="#pchinternals-preprocessor"><em>Preprocessor Block</em></a>.</li>
+<li>If the identifier names one or more declarations visible from translation
+unit scope, the <a class="reference internal" href="#pchinternals-decls"><em>declaration IDs</em></a> of these
+declarations.</li>
+</ul>
+<p>When an AST file is loaded, the AST file reader mechanism introduces itself
+into the identifier table as an external lookup source.  Thus, when the user
+program refers to an identifier that has not yet been seen, Clang will perform
+a lookup into the identifier table.  If an identifier is found, its contents
+(macro definitions, flags, top-level declarations, etc.) will be deserialized,
+at which point the corresponding <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">IdentifierInfo</span></tt> structure will have the
+same contents it would have after parsing the headers in the AST file.</p>
+<p>Within the AST file, the identifiers used to name declarations are represented
+with an integral value.  A separate table provides a mapping from this integral
+value (the identifier ID) to the location within the on-disk hash table where
+that identifier is stored.  This mapping is used when deserializing the name of
+a declaration, the identifier of a token, or any other construct in the AST
+file that refers to a name.</p>
+</div>
+<div class="section" id="method-pool-block">
+<span id="pchinternals-method-pool"></span><h3><a class="toc-backref" href="#id11">Method Pool Block</a><a class="headerlink" href="#method-pool-block" title="Permalink to this headline">¶</a></h3>
+<p>The method pool block is represented as an on-disk hash table that serves two
+purposes: it provides a mapping from the names of Objective-C selectors to the
+set of Objective-C instance and class methods that have that particular
+selector (which is required for semantic analysis in Objective-C) and also
+stores all of the selectors used by entities within the AST file.  The design
+of the method pool is similar to that of the <a class="reference internal" href="#pchinternals-ident-table"><em>identifier table</em></a>: the first time a particular selector is formed
+during the compilation of the program, Clang will search in the on-disk hash
+table of selectors; if found, Clang will read the Objective-C methods
+associated with that selector into the appropriate front-end data structure
+(<tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">Sema::InstanceMethodPool</span></tt> and <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">Sema::FactoryMethodPool</span></tt> for instance and
+class methods, respectively).</p>
+<p>As with identifiers, selectors are represented by numeric values within the AST
+file.  A separate index maps these numeric selector values to the offset of the
+selector within the on-disk hash table, and will be used when de-serializing an
+Objective-C method declaration (or other Objective-C construct) that refers to
+the selector.</p>
+</div>
+</div>
+<div class="section" id="ast-reader-integration-points">
+<h2><a class="toc-backref" href="#id12">AST Reader Integration Points</a><a class="headerlink" href="#ast-reader-integration-points" title="Permalink to this headline">¶</a></h2>
+<p>The “lazy” deserialization behavior of AST files requires their integration
+into several completely different submodules of Clang.  For example, lazily
+deserializing the declarations during name lookup requires that the name-lookup
+routines be able to query the AST file to find entities stored there.</p>
+<p>For each Clang data structure that requires direct interaction with the AST
+reader logic, there is an abstract class that provides the interface between
+the two modules.  The <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">ASTReader</span></tt> class, which handles the loading of an AST
+file, inherits from all of these abstract classes to provide lazy
+deserialization of Clang’s data structures.  <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">ASTReader</span></tt> implements the
+following abstract classes:</p>
+<dl class="docutils">
+<dt><tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">ExternalSLocEntrySource</span></tt></dt>
+<dd>This abstract interface is associated with the <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">SourceManager</span></tt> class, and
+is used whenever the <a class="reference internal" href="#pchinternals-sourcemgr"><em>source manager</em></a> needs to
+load the details of a file, buffer, or macro instantiation.</dd>
+<dt><tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">IdentifierInfoLookup</span></tt></dt>
+<dd>This abstract interface is associated with the <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">IdentifierTable</span></tt> class, and
+is used whenever the program source refers to an identifier that has not yet
+been seen.  In this case, the AST reader searches for this identifier within
+its <a class="reference internal" href="#pchinternals-ident-table"><em>identifier table</em></a> to load any top-level
+declarations or macros associated with that identifier.</dd>
+<dt><tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">ExternalASTSource</span></tt></dt>
+<dd>This abstract interface is associated with the <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">ASTContext</span></tt> class, and is
+used whenever the abstract syntax tree nodes need to loaded from the AST
+file.  It provides the ability to de-serialize declarations and types
+identified by their numeric values, read the bodies of functions when
+required, and read the declarations stored within a declaration context
+(either for iteration or for name lookup).</dd>
+<dt><tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">ExternalSemaSource</span></tt></dt>
+<dd>This abstract interface is associated with the <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">Sema</span></tt> class, and is used
+whenever semantic analysis needs to read information from the <a class="reference internal" href="#pchinternals-method-pool"><em>global
+method pool</em></a>.</dd>
+</dl>
+</div>
+<div class="section" id="chained-precompiled-headers">
+<span id="pchinternals-chained"></span><h2><a class="toc-backref" href="#id13">Chained precompiled headers</a><a class="headerlink" href="#chained-precompiled-headers" title="Permalink to this headline">¶</a></h2>
+<p>Chained precompiled headers were initially intended to improve the performance
+of IDE-centric operations such as syntax highlighting and code completion while
+a particular source file is being edited by the user.  To minimize the amount
+of reparsing required after a change to the file, a form of precompiled header
+— called a precompiled <em>preamble</em> — is automatically generated by parsing
+all of the headers in the source file, up to and including the last
+<tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">#include</span></tt>.  When only the source file changes (and none of the headers it
+depends on), reparsing of that source file can use the precompiled preamble and
+start parsing after the <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">#include</span></tt>s, so parsing time is proportional to the
+size of the source file (rather than all of its includes).  However, the
+compilation of that translation unit may already use a precompiled header: in
+this case, Clang will create the precompiled preamble as a chained precompiled
+header that refers to the original precompiled header.  This drastically
+reduces the time needed to serialize the precompiled preamble for use in
+reparsing.</p>
+<p>Chained precompiled headers get their name because each precompiled header can
+depend on one other precompiled header, forming a chain of dependencies.  A
+translation unit will then include the precompiled header that starts the chain
+(i.e., nothing depends on it).  This linearity of dependencies is important for
+the semantic model of chained precompiled headers, because the most-recent
+precompiled header can provide information that overrides the information
+provided by the precompiled headers it depends on, just like a header file
+<tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">B.h</span></tt> that includes another header <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">A.h</span></tt> can modify the state produced by
+parsing <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">A.h</span></tt>, e.g., by <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">#undef</span></tt>‘ing a macro defined in <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">A.h</span></tt>.</p>
+<p>There are several ways in which chained precompiled headers generalize the AST
+file model:</p>
+<dl class="docutils">
+<dt>Numbering of IDs</dt>
+<dd>Many different kinds of entities — identifiers, declarations, types, etc.
+— have ID numbers that start at 1 or some other predefined constant and
+grow upward.  Each precompiled header records the maximum ID number it has
+assigned in each category.  Then, when a new precompiled header is generated
+that depends on (chains to) another precompiled header, it will start
+counting at the next available ID number.  This way, one can determine, given
+an ID number, which AST file actually contains the entity.</dd>
+<dt>Name lookup</dt>
+<dd>When writing a chained precompiled header, Clang attempts to write only
+information that has changed from the precompiled header on which it is
+based.  This changes the lookup algorithm for the various tables, such as the
+<a class="reference internal" href="#pchinternals-ident-table"><em>identifier table</em></a>: the search starts at the
+most-recent precompiled header.  If no entry is found, lookup then proceeds
+to the identifier table in the precompiled header it depends on, and so one.
+Once a lookup succeeds, that result is considered definitive, overriding any
+results from earlier precompiled headers.</dd>
+<dt>Update records</dt>
+<dd>There are various ways in which a later precompiled header can modify the
+entities described in an earlier precompiled header.  For example, later
+precompiled headers can add entries into the various name-lookup tables for
+the translation unit or namespaces, or add new categories to an Objective-C
+class.  Each of these updates is captured in an “update record” that is
+stored in the chained precompiled header file and will be loaded along with
+the original entity.</dd>
+</dl>
+</div>
+<div class="section" id="modules">
+<span id="pchinternals-modules"></span><h2><a class="toc-backref" href="#id14">Modules</a><a class="headerlink" href="#modules" title="Permalink to this headline">¶</a></h2>
+<p>Modules generalize the chained precompiled header model yet further, from a
+linear chain of precompiled headers to an arbitrary directed acyclic graph
+(DAG) of AST files.  All of the same techniques used to make chained
+precompiled headers work — ID number, name lookup, update records — are
+shared with modules.  However, the DAG nature of modules introduce a number of
+additional complications to the model:</p>
+<dl class="docutils">
+<dt>Numbering of IDs</dt>
+<dd>The simple, linear numbering scheme used in chained precompiled headers falls
+apart with the module DAG, because different modules may end up with
+different numbering schemes for entities they imported from common shared
+modules.  To account for this, each module file provides information about
+which modules it depends on and which ID numbers it assigned to the entities
+in those modules, as well as which ID numbers it took for its own new
+entities.  The AST reader then maps these “local” ID numbers into a “global”
+ID number space for the current translation unit, providing a 1-1 mapping
+between entities (in whatever AST file they inhabit) and global ID numbers.
+If that translation unit is then serialized into an AST file, this mapping
+will be stored for use when the AST file is imported.</dd>
+<dt>Declaration merging</dt>
+<dd>It is possible for a given entity (from the language’s perspective) to be
+declared multiple times in different places.  For example, two different
+headers can have the declaration of <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">printf</span></tt> or could forward-declare
+<tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">struct</span> <span class="pre">stat</span></tt>.  If each of those headers is included in a module, and some
+third party imports both of those modules, there is a potentially serious
+problem: name lookup for <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">printf</span></tt> or <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">struct</span> <span class="pre">stat</span></tt> will find both
+declarations, but the AST nodes are unrelated.  This would result in a
+compilation error, due to an ambiguity in name lookup.  Therefore, the AST
+reader performs declaration merging according to the appropriate language
+semantics, ensuring that the two disjoint declarations are merged into a
+single redeclaration chain (with a common canonical declaration), so that it
+is as if one of the headers had been included before the other.</dd>
+<dt>Name Visibility</dt>
+<dd>Modules allow certain names that occur during module creation to be “hidden”,
+so that they are not part of the public interface of the module and are not
+visible to its clients.  The AST reader maintains a “visible” bit on various
+AST nodes (declarations, macros, etc.) to indicate whether that particular
+AST node is currently visible; the various name lookup mechanisms in Clang
+inspect the visible bit to determine whether that entity, which is still in
+the AST (because other, visible AST nodes may depend on it), can actually be
+found by name lookup.  When a new (sub)module is imported, it may make
+existing, non-visible, already-deserialized AST nodes visible; it is the
+responsibility of the AST reader to find and update these AST nodes when it
+is notified of the import.</dd>
+</dl>
+</div>
+</div>
+
+
+      </div>
+      <div class="bottomnav">
+      
+        <p>
+        «  <a href="PTHInternals.html">Pretokenized Headers (PTH)</a>
+          ::  
+        <a class="uplink" href="index.html">Contents</a>
+        </p>
+
+      </div>
+
+    <div class="footer">
+        © Copyright 2007-2014, The Clang Team.
+      Created using <a href="http://sphinx.pocoo.org/">Sphinx</a> 1.1.3.
+    </div>
+  </body>
+</html>
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+
+<!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD XHTML 1.0 Transitional//EN"
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+    <script type="text/javascript">
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+    <script type="text/javascript" src="_static/underscore.js"></script>
+    <script type="text/javascript" src="_static/doctools.js"></script>
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+    <link rel="top" title="Clang 3.5 documentation" href="index.html" />
+    <link rel="next" title="Precompiled Header and Modules Internals" href="PCHInternals.html" />
+    <link rel="prev" title="Driver Design & Internals" href="DriverInternals.html" /> 
+  </head>
+  <body>
+      <div class="header"><h1 class="heading"><a href="index.html">
+          <span>Clang 3.5 documentation</span></a></h1>
+        <h2 class="heading"><span>Pretokenized Headers (PTH)</span></h2>
+      </div>
+      <div class="topnav">
+      
+        <p>
+        «  <a href="DriverInternals.html">Driver Design & Internals</a>
+          ::  
+        <a class="uplink" href="index.html">Contents</a>
+          ::  
+        <a href="PCHInternals.html">Precompiled Header and Modules Internals</a>  Â»
+        </p>
+
+      </div>
+      <div class="content">
+        
+        
+  <div class="section" id="pretokenized-headers-pth">
+<h1>Pretokenized Headers (PTH)<a class="headerlink" href="#pretokenized-headers-pth" title="Permalink to this headline">¶</a></h1>
+<p>This document first describes the low-level interface for using PTH and
+then briefly elaborates on its design and implementation. If you are
+interested in the end-user view, please see the <a class="reference internal" href="UsersManual.html#usersmanual-precompiled-headers"><em>User’s Manual</em></a>.</p>
+<div class="section" id="using-pretokenized-headers-with-clang-low-level-interface">
+<h2>Using Pretokenized Headers with <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">clang</span></tt> (Low-level Interface)<a class="headerlink" href="#using-pretokenized-headers-with-clang-low-level-interface" title="Permalink to this headline">¶</a></h2>
+<p>The Clang compiler frontend, <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">clang</span> <span class="pre">-cc1</span></tt>, supports three command line
+options for generating and using PTH files.</p>
+<p>To generate PTH files using <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">clang</span> <span class="pre">-cc1</span></tt>, use the option <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">-emit-pth</span></tt>:</p>
+<div class="highlight-console"><div class="highlight"><pre><span class="gp">$</span> clang -cc1 test.h -emit-pth -o test.h.pth
+</pre></div>
+</div>
+<p>This option is transparently used by <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">clang</span></tt> when generating PTH
+files. Similarly, PTH files can be used as prefix headers using the
+<tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">-include-pth</span></tt> option:</p>
+<div class="highlight-console"><div class="highlight"><pre><span class="gp">$</span> clang -cc1 -include-pth test.h.pth test.c -o test.s
+</pre></div>
+</div>
+<p>Alternatively, Clang’s PTH files can be used as a raw “token-cache” (or
+“content” cache) of the source included by the original header file.
+This means that the contents of the PTH file are searched as substitutes
+for <em>any</em> source files that are used by <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">clang</span> <span class="pre">-cc1</span></tt> to process a
+source file. This is done by specifying the <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">-token-cache</span></tt> option:</p>
+<div class="highlight-console"><div class="highlight"><pre><span class="gp">$</span> cat test.h
+<span class="gp">#</span>include <stdio.h>
+<span class="gp">$</span> clang -cc1 -emit-pth test.h -o test.h.pth
+<span class="gp">$</span> cat test.c
+<span class="gp">#</span>include <span class="s2">"test.h"</span>
+<span class="gp">$</span> clang -cc1 test.c -o <span class="nb">test</span> -token-cache test.h.pth
+</pre></div>
+</div>
+<p>In this example the contents of <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">stdio.h</span></tt> (and the files it includes)
+will be retrieved from <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">test.h.pth</span></tt>, as the PTH file is being used in
+this case as a raw cache of the contents of <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">test.h</span></tt>. This is a
+low-level interface used to both implement the high-level PTH interface
+as well as to provide alternative means to use PTH-style caching.</p>
+</div>
+<div class="section" id="pth-design-and-implementation">
+<h2>PTH Design and Implementation<a class="headerlink" href="#pth-design-and-implementation" title="Permalink to this headline">¶</a></h2>
+<p>Unlike GCC’s precompiled headers, which cache the full ASTs and
+preprocessor state of a header file, Clang’s pretokenized header files
+mainly cache the raw lexer <em>tokens</em> that are needed to segment the
+stream of characters in a source file into keywords, identifiers, and
+operators. Consequently, PTH serves to mainly directly speed up the
+lexing and preprocessing of a source file, while parsing and
+type-checking must be completely redone every time a PTH file is used.</p>
+<div class="section" id="basic-design-tradeoffs">
+<h3>Basic Design Tradeoffs<a class="headerlink" href="#basic-design-tradeoffs" title="Permalink to this headline">¶</a></h3>
+<p>In the long term there are plans to provide an alternate PCH
+implementation for Clang that also caches the work for parsing and type
+checking the contents of header files. The current implementation of PCH
+in Clang as pretokenized header files was motivated by the following
+factors:</p>
+<dl class="docutils">
+<dt><strong>Language independence</strong></dt>
+<dd>PTH files work with any language that
+Clang’s lexer can handle, including C, Objective-C, and (in the early
+stages) C++. This means development on language features at the
+parsing level or above (which is basically almost all interesting
+pieces) does not require PTH to be modified.</dd>
+<dt><strong>Simple design</strong></dt>
+<dd>Relatively speaking, PTH has a simple design and
+implementation, making it easy to test. Further, because the
+machinery for PTH resides at the lower-levels of the Clang library
+stack it is fairly straightforward to profile and optimize.</dd>
+</dl>
+<p>Further, compared to GCC’s PCH implementation (which is the dominate
+precompiled header file implementation that Clang can be directly
+compared against) the PTH design in Clang yields several attractive
+features:</p>
+<dl class="docutils">
+<dt><strong>Architecture independence</strong></dt>
+<dd><p class="first">In contrast to GCC’s PCH files (and
+those of several other compilers), Clang’s PTH files are architecture
+independent, requiring only a single PTH file when building a
+program for multiple architectures.</p>
+<p class="last">For example, on Mac OS X one may wish to compile a “universal binary”
+that runs on PowerPC, 32-bit Intel (i386), and 64-bit Intel
+architectures. In contrast, GCC requires a PCH file for each
+architecture, as the definitions of types in the AST are
+architecture-specific. Since a Clang PTH file essentially represents
+a lexical cache of header files, a single PTH file can be safely used
+when compiling for multiple architectures. This can also reduce
+compile times because only a single PTH file needs to be generated
+during a build instead of several.</p>
+</dd>
+<dt><strong>Reduced memory pressure</strong></dt>
+<dd>Similar to GCC, Clang reads PTH files
+via the use of memory mapping (i.e., <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">mmap</span></tt>). Clang, however,
+memory maps PTH files as read-only, meaning that multiple invocations
+of <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">clang</span> <span class="pre">-cc1</span></tt> can share the same pages in memory from a
+memory-mapped PTH file. In comparison, GCC also memory maps its PCH
+files but also modifies those pages in memory, incurring the
+copy-on-write costs. The read-only nature of PTH can greatly reduce
+memory pressure for builds involving multiple cores, thus improving
+overall scalability.</dd>
+<dt><strong>Fast generation</strong></dt>
+<dd>PTH files can be generated in a small fraction
+of the time needed to generate GCC’s PCH files. Since PTH/PCH
+generation is a serial operation that typically blocks progress
+during a build, faster generation time leads to improved processor
+utilization with parallel builds on multicore machines.</dd>
+</dl>
+<p>Despite these strengths, PTH’s simple design suffers some algorithmic
+handicaps compared to other PCH strategies such as those used by GCC.
+While PTH can greatly speed up the processing time of a header file, the
+amount of work required to process a header file is still roughly linear
+in the size of the header file. In contrast, the amount of work done by
+GCC to process a precompiled header is (theoretically) constant (the
+ASTs for the header are literally memory mapped into the compiler). This
+means that only the pieces of the header file that are referenced by the
+source file including the header are the only ones the compiler needs to
+process during actual compilation. While GCC’s particular implementation
+of PCH mitigates some of these algorithmic strengths via the use of
+copy-on-write pages, the approach itself can fundamentally dominate at
+an algorithmic level, especially when one considers header files of
+arbitrary size.</p>
+<p>There is also a PCH implementation for Clang based on the lazy
+deserialization of ASTs. This approach theoretically has the same
+constant-time algorithmic advantages just mentioned but also retains some
+of the strengths of PTH such as reduced memory pressure (ideal for
+multi-core builds).</p>
+</div>
+<div class="section" id="internal-pth-optimizations">
+<h3>Internal PTH Optimizations<a class="headerlink" href="#internal-pth-optimizations" title="Permalink to this headline">¶</a></h3>
+<p>While the main optimization employed by PTH is to reduce lexing time of
+header files by caching pre-lexed tokens, PTH also employs several other
+optimizations to speed up the processing of header files:</p>
+<ul class="simple">
+<li><tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">stat</span></tt> caching: PTH files cache information obtained via calls to
+<tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">stat</span></tt> that <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">clang</span> <span class="pre">-cc1</span></tt> uses to resolve which files are included
+by <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">#include</span></tt> directives. This greatly reduces the overhead
+involved in context-switching to the kernel to resolve included
+files.</li>
+<li>Fast skipping of <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">#ifdef</span></tt> ... <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">#endif</span></tt> chains: PTH files
+record the basic structure of nested preprocessor blocks. When the
+condition of the preprocessor block is false, all of its tokens are
+immediately skipped instead of requiring them to be handled by
+Clang’s preprocessor.</li>
+</ul>
+</div>
+</div>
+</div>
+
+
+      </div>
+      <div class="bottomnav">
+      
+        <p>
+        «  <a href="DriverInternals.html">Driver Design & Internals</a>
+          ::  
+        <a class="uplink" href="index.html">Contents</a>
+          ::  
+        <a href="PCHInternals.html">Precompiled Header and Modules Internals</a>  Â»
+        </p>
+
+      </div>
+
+    <div class="footer">
+        © Copyright 2007-2014, The Clang Team.
+      Created using <a href="http://sphinx.pocoo.org/">Sphinx</a> 1.1.3.
+    </div>
+  </body>
+</html>
\ No newline at end of file

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+
+
+<!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD XHTML 1.0 Transitional//EN"
+  "http://www.w3.org/TR/xhtml1/DTD/xhtml1-transitional.dtd">
+
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+<html xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml">
+  <head>
+    <meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=utf-8" />
+    
+    <title>How to write RecursiveASTVisitor based ASTFrontendActions. — Clang 3.5 documentation</title>
+    
+    <link rel="stylesheet" href="_static/haiku.css" type="text/css" />
+    <link rel="stylesheet" href="_static/pygments.css" type="text/css" />
+    <link rel="stylesheet" href="_static/print.css" type="text/css" />
+    
+    <script type="text/javascript">
+      var DOCUMENTATION_OPTIONS = {
+        URL_ROOT:    '',
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+    <script type="text/javascript" src="_static/underscore.js"></script>
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+    <link rel="top" title="Clang 3.5 documentation" href="index.html" />
+    <link rel="next" title="Tutorial for building tools using LibTooling and LibASTMatchers" href="LibASTMatchersTutorial.html" />
+    <link rel="prev" title="Clang Plugins" href="ClangPlugins.html" /> 
+  </head>
+  <body>
+      <div class="header"><h1 class="heading"><a href="index.html">
+          <span>Clang 3.5 documentation</span></a></h1>
+        <h2 class="heading"><span>How to write RecursiveASTVisitor based ASTFrontendActions.</span></h2>
+      </div>
+      <div class="topnav">
+      
+        <p>
+        «  <a href="ClangPlugins.html">Clang Plugins</a>
+          ::  
+        <a class="uplink" href="index.html">Contents</a>
+          ::  
+        <a href="LibASTMatchersTutorial.html">Tutorial for building tools using LibTooling and LibASTMatchers</a>  Â»
+        </p>
+
+      </div>
+      <div class="content">
+        
+        
+  <div class="section" id="how-to-write-recursiveastvisitor-based-astfrontendactions">
+<h1>How to write RecursiveASTVisitor based ASTFrontendActions.<a class="headerlink" href="#how-to-write-recursiveastvisitor-based-astfrontendactions" title="Permalink to this headline">¶</a></h1>
+<div class="section" id="introduction">
+<h2>Introduction<a class="headerlink" href="#introduction" title="Permalink to this headline">¶</a></h2>
+<p>In this tutorial you will learn how to create a FrontendAction that uses
+a RecursiveASTVisitor to find CXXRecordDecl AST nodes with a specified
+name.</p>
+</div>
+<div class="section" id="creating-a-frontendaction">
+<h2>Creating a FrontendAction<a class="headerlink" href="#creating-a-frontendaction" title="Permalink to this headline">¶</a></h2>
+<p>When writing a clang based tool like a Clang Plugin or a standalone tool
+based on LibTooling, the common entry point is the FrontendAction.
+FrontendAction is an interface that allows execution of user specific
+actions as part of the compilation. To run tools over the AST clang
+provides the convenience interface ASTFrontendAction, which takes care
+of executing the action. The only part left is to implement the
+CreateASTConsumer method that returns an ASTConsumer per translation
+unit.</p>
+<div class="highlight-python"><pre>class FindNamedClassAction : public clang::ASTFrontendAction {
+public:
+  virtual clang::ASTConsumer *CreateASTConsumer(
+    clang::CompilerInstance &Compiler, llvm::StringRef InFile) {
+    return new FindNamedClassConsumer;
+  }
+};</pre>
+</div>
+</div>
+<div class="section" id="creating-an-astconsumer">
+<h2>Creating an ASTConsumer<a class="headerlink" href="#creating-an-astconsumer" title="Permalink to this headline">¶</a></h2>
+<p>ASTConsumer is an interface used to write generic actions on an AST,
+regardless of how the AST was produced. ASTConsumer provides many
+different entry points, but for our use case the only one needed is
+HandleTranslationUnit, which is called with the ASTContext for the
+translation unit.</p>
+<div class="highlight-python"><pre>class FindNamedClassConsumer : public clang::ASTConsumer {
+public:
+  virtual void HandleTranslationUnit(clang::ASTContext &Context) {
+    // Traversing the translation unit decl via a RecursiveASTVisitor
+    // will visit all nodes in the AST.
+    Visitor.TraverseDecl(Context.getTranslationUnitDecl());
+  }
+private:
+  // A RecursiveASTVisitor implementation.
+  FindNamedClassVisitor Visitor;
+};</pre>
+</div>
+</div>
+<div class="section" id="using-the-recursiveastvisitor">
+<h2>Using the RecursiveASTVisitor<a class="headerlink" href="#using-the-recursiveastvisitor" title="Permalink to this headline">¶</a></h2>
+<p>Now that everything is hooked up, the next step is to implement a
+RecursiveASTVisitor to extract the relevant information from the AST.</p>
+<p>The RecursiveASTVisitor provides hooks of the form bool
+VisitNodeType(NodeType *) for most AST nodes; the exception are TypeLoc
+nodes, which are passed by-value. We only need to implement the methods
+for the relevant node types.</p>
+<p>Let’s start by writing a RecursiveASTVisitor that visits all
+CXXRecordDecl’s.</p>
+<div class="highlight-python"><pre>class FindNamedClassVisitor
+  : public RecursiveASTVisitor<FindNamedClassVisitor> {
+public:
+  bool VisitCXXRecordDecl(CXXRecordDecl *Declaration) {
+    // For debugging, dumping the AST nodes will show which nodes are already
+    // being visited.
+    Declaration->dump();
+
+    // The return value indicates whether we want the visitation to proceed.
+    // Return false to stop the traversal of the AST.
+    return true;
+  }
+};</pre>
+</div>
+<p>In the methods of our RecursiveASTVisitor we can now use the full power
+of the Clang AST to drill through to the parts that are interesting for
+us. For example, to find all class declaration with a certain name, we
+can check for a specific qualified name:</p>
+<div class="highlight-python"><pre>bool VisitCXXRecordDecl(CXXRecordDecl *Declaration) {
+  if (Declaration->getQualifiedNameAsString() == "n::m::C")
+    Declaration->dump();
+  return true;
+}</pre>
+</div>
+</div>
+<div class="section" id="accessing-the-sourcemanager-and-astcontext">
+<h2>Accessing the SourceManager and ASTContext<a class="headerlink" href="#accessing-the-sourcemanager-and-astcontext" title="Permalink to this headline">¶</a></h2>
+<p>Some of the information about the AST, like source locations and global
+identifier information, are not stored in the AST nodes themselves, but
+in the ASTContext and its associated source manager. To retrieve them we
+need to hand the ASTContext into our RecursiveASTVisitor implementation.</p>
+<p>The ASTContext is available from the CompilerInstance during the call to
+CreateASTConsumer. We can thus extract it there and hand it into our
+freshly created FindNamedClassConsumer:</p>
+<div class="highlight-python"><pre>virtual clang::ASTConsumer *CreateASTConsumer(
+  clang::CompilerInstance &Compiler, llvm::StringRef InFile) {
+  return new FindNamedClassConsumer(&Compiler.getASTContext());
+}</pre>
+</div>
+<p>Now that the ASTContext is available in the RecursiveASTVisitor, we can
+do more interesting things with AST nodes, like looking up their source
+locations:</p>
+<div class="highlight-python"><pre>bool VisitCXXRecordDecl(CXXRecordDecl *Declaration) {
+  if (Declaration->getQualifiedNameAsString() == "n::m::C") {
+    // getFullLoc uses the ASTContext's SourceManager to resolve the source
+    // location and break it up into its line and column parts.
+    FullSourceLoc FullLocation = Context->getFullLoc(Declaration->getLocStart());
+    if (FullLocation.isValid())
+      llvm::outs() << "Found declaration at "
+                   << FullLocation.getSpellingLineNumber() << ":"
+                   << FullLocation.getSpellingColumnNumber() << "\n";
+  }
+  return true;
+}</pre>
+</div>
+</div>
+<div class="section" id="putting-it-all-together">
+<h2>Putting it all together<a class="headerlink" href="#putting-it-all-together" title="Permalink to this headline">¶</a></h2>
+<p>Now we can combine all of the above into a small example program:</p>
+<div class="highlight-python"><pre>#include "clang/AST/ASTConsumer.h"
+#include "clang/AST/RecursiveASTVisitor.h"
+#include "clang/Frontend/CompilerInstance.h"
+#include "clang/Frontend/FrontendAction.h"
+#include "clang/Tooling/Tooling.h"
+
+using namespace clang;
+
+class FindNamedClassVisitor
+  : public RecursiveASTVisitor<FindNamedClassVisitor> {
+public:
+  explicit FindNamedClassVisitor(ASTContext *Context)
+    : Context(Context) {}
+
+  bool VisitCXXRecordDecl(CXXRecordDecl *Declaration) {
+    if (Declaration->getQualifiedNameAsString() == "n::m::C") {
+      FullSourceLoc FullLocation = Context->getFullLoc(Declaration->getLocStart());
+      if (FullLocation.isValid())
+        llvm::outs() << "Found declaration at "
+                     << FullLocation.getSpellingLineNumber() << ":"
+                     << FullLocation.getSpellingColumnNumber() << "\n";
+    }
+    return true;
+  }
+
+private:
+  ASTContext *Context;
+};
+
+class FindNamedClassConsumer : public clang::ASTConsumer {
+public:
+  explicit FindNamedClassConsumer(ASTContext *Context)
+    : Visitor(Context) {}
+
+  virtual void HandleTranslationUnit(clang::ASTContext &Context) {
+    Visitor.TraverseDecl(Context.getTranslationUnitDecl());
+  }
+private:
+  FindNamedClassVisitor Visitor;
+};
+
+class FindNamedClassAction : public clang::ASTFrontendAction {
+public:
+  virtual clang::ASTConsumer *CreateASTConsumer(
+    clang::CompilerInstance &Compiler, llvm::StringRef InFile) {
+    return new FindNamedClassConsumer(&Compiler.getASTContext());
+  }
+};
+
+int main(int argc, char **argv) {
+  if (argc > 1) {
+    clang::tooling::runToolOnCode(new FindNamedClassAction, argv[1]);
+  }
+}</pre>
+</div>
+<p>We store this into a file called FindClassDecls.cpp and create the
+following CMakeLists.txt to link it:</p>
+<div class="highlight-python"><pre>set(LLVM_USED_LIBS clangTooling)
+
+add_clang_executable(find-class-decls FindClassDecls.cpp)</pre>
+</div>
+<p>When running this tool over a small code snippet it will output all
+declarations of a class n::m::C it found:</p>
+<div class="highlight-python"><pre>$ ./bin/find-class-decls "namespace n { namespace m { class C {}; } }"
+Found declaration at 1:29</pre>
+</div>
+</div>
+</div>
+
+
+      </div>
+      <div class="bottomnav">
+      
+        <p>
+        «  <a href="ClangPlugins.html">Clang Plugins</a>
+          ::  
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+          ::  
+        <a href="LibASTMatchersTutorial.html">Tutorial for building tools using LibTooling and LibASTMatchers</a>  Â»
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+
+      </div>
+
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@@ -0,0 +1,321 @@
+
+
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+
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+<html xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml">
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+    <meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=utf-8" />
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+    
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+  </head>
+  <body>
+      <div class="header"><h1 class="heading"><a href="index.html">
+          <span>Clang 3.5 documentation</span></a></h1>
+        <h2 class="heading"><span>Clang 3.5 Release Notes</span></h2>
+      </div>
+      <div class="topnav">
+      
+        <p>
+        «  <a href="index.html">Using Clang as a Compiler</a>
+          ::  
+        <a class="uplink" href="index.html">Contents</a>
+          ::  
+        <a href="UsersManual.html">Clang Compiler User’s Manual</a>  Â»
+        </p>
+
+      </div>
+      <div class="content">
+        
+        
+  <div class="section" id="clang-3-5-release-notes">
+<h1>Clang 3.5 Release Notes<a class="headerlink" href="#clang-3-5-release-notes" title="Permalink to this headline">¶</a></h1>
+<div class="contents local topic" id="contents">
+<ul class="simple">
+<li><a class="reference internal" href="#introduction" id="id1">Introduction</a></li>
+<li><a class="reference internal" href="#what-s-new-in-clang-3-5" id="id2">What’s New in Clang 3.5?</a><ul>
+<li><a class="reference internal" href="#major-new-features" id="id3">Major New Features</a></li>
+<li><a class="reference internal" href="#new-compiler-flags" id="id4">New Compiler Flags</a></li>
+<li><a class="reference internal" href="#new-pragmas-in-clang" id="id5">New Pragmas in Clang</a></li>
+<li><a class="reference internal" href="#c-language-changes-in-clang" id="id6">C++ Language Changes in Clang</a></li>
+<li><a class="reference internal" href="#openmp-c-c-language-changes-in-clang" id="id7">OpenMP C/C++ Language Changes in Clang</a></li>
+<li><a class="reference internal" href="#internal-api-changes" id="id8">Internal API Changes</a></li>
+<li><a class="reference internal" href="#static-analyzer" id="id9">Static Analyzer</a></li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li><a class="reference internal" href="#significant-known-problems" id="id10">Significant Known Problems</a></li>
+<li><a class="reference internal" href="#additional-information" id="id11">Additional Information</a></li>
+</ul>
+</div>
+<p>Written by the <a class="reference external" href="http://llvm.org/">LLVM Team</a></p>
+<div class="section" id="introduction">
+<h2><a class="toc-backref" href="#id1">Introduction</a><a class="headerlink" href="#introduction" title="Permalink to this headline">¶</a></h2>
+<p>This document contains the release notes for the Clang C/C++/Objective-C
+frontend, part of the LLVM Compiler Infrastructure, release 3.5. Here we
+describe the status of Clang in some detail, including major
+improvements from the previous release and new feature work. For the
+general LLVM release notes, see <a class="reference external" href="http://llvm.org/docs/ReleaseNotes.html">the LLVM
+documentation</a>. All LLVM
+releases may be downloaded from the <a class="reference external" href="http://llvm.org/releases/">LLVM releases web
+site</a>.</p>
+<p>For more information about Clang or LLVM, including information about
+the latest release, please check out the main please see the <a class="reference external" href="http://clang.llvm.org">Clang Web
+Site</a> or the <a class="reference external" href="http://llvm.org">LLVM Web
+Site</a>.</p>
+<p>Note that if you are reading this file from a Subversion checkout or the
+main Clang web page, this document applies to the <em>next</em> release, not
+the current one. To see the release notes for a specific release, please
+see the <a class="reference external" href="http://llvm.org/releases/">releases page</a>.</p>
+</div>
+<div class="section" id="what-s-new-in-clang-3-5">
+<h2><a class="toc-backref" href="#id2">What’s New in Clang 3.5?</a><a class="headerlink" href="#what-s-new-in-clang-3-5" title="Permalink to this headline">¶</a></h2>
+<p>Some of the major new features and improvements to Clang are listed
+here. Generic improvements to Clang as a whole or to its underlying
+infrastructure are described first, followed by language-specific
+sections with improvements to Clang’s support for those languages.</p>
+<div class="section" id="major-new-features">
+<h3><a class="toc-backref" href="#id3">Major New Features</a><a class="headerlink" href="#major-new-features" title="Permalink to this headline">¶</a></h3>
+<ul class="simple">
+<li>Clang uses the new MingW ABI
+GCC 4.7 changed the mingw ABI. Clang 3.4 and older use the GCC 4.6
+ABI. Clang 3.5 and newer use the GCC 4.7 abi.</li>
+<li>The __has_attribute feature test is now target-aware. Older versions of Clang
+would return true when the attribute spelling was known, regardless of whether
+the attribute was available to the specific target. Clang now returns true
+only when the attribute pertains to the current compilation target.</li>
+<li>Clang 3.5 now has parsing and semantic-analysis support for all OpenMP 3.1
+pragmas (except atomics and ordered). LLVM’s OpenMP runtime library,
+originally developed by Intel, has been modified to work on ARM, PowerPC,
+as well as X86. Code generation support is minimal at this point and will
+continue to be developed for 3.6, along with the rest of OpenMP 3.1.
+Support for OpenMP 4.0 features, such as SIMD and target accelerator
+directives, is also in progress. Contributors to this work include AMD,
+Argonne National Lab., IBM, Intel, Texas Instruments, University of Houston
+and many others.</li>
+</ul>
+<div class="section" id="improvements-to-clang-s-diagnostics">
+<h4>Improvements to Clang’s diagnostics<a class="headerlink" href="#improvements-to-clang-s-diagnostics" title="Permalink to this headline">¶</a></h4>
+<p>Clang’s diagnostics are constantly being improved to catch more issues,
+explain them more clearly, and provide more accurate source information
+about them. The improvements since the 3.4 release include:</p>
+<ul>
+<li><p class="first">GCC compatibility: Clang displays a warning on unsupported gcc
+optimization flags instead of an error.</p>
+</li>
+<li><p class="first">Remarks system: Clang supports <cite>-R</cite> flags for enabling remarks. These are
+diagnostic messages that provide information about the compilation process,
+but don’t suggest that a problem has been detected. As such, they cannot
+be upgraded to errors with <cite>-Werror</cite> or <cite>-Rerror</cite>. A <cite>-Reverything</cite> flag
+is provided (paralleling <cite>-Weverything</cite>) to turn on all remarks.</p>
+</li>
+<li><p class="first">New remark <cite>-Rpass</cite>: Clang provides information about decisions made by
+optimization passes during compilation. See <a class="reference internal" href="UsersManual.html#opt-rpass"><em>Options to Emit Optimization Reports</em></a>.</p>
+</li>
+<li><p class="first">New warning <cite>-Wabsolute-value</cite>: Clang warns about incorrect or useless usage
+of the absolute functions (<cite>abs</cite>, <cite>fabsf</cite>, etc).</p>
+<div class="highlight-c"><div class="highlight"><pre><span class="cp">#include <stdlib.h></span>
+<span class="kt">void</span> <span class="nf">foo</span><span class="p">()</span> <span class="p">{</span>
+ <span class="kt">unsigned</span> <span class="kt">int</span> <span class="n">i</span><span class="o">=</span><span class="mi">0</span><span class="p">;</span>
+ <span class="n">abs</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="n">i</span><span class="p">);</span>
+<span class="p">}</span>
+</pre></div>
+</div>
+<p>returns
+<cite>warning: taking the absolute value of unsigned type ‘unsigned int’ has no effect [-Wabsolute-value]</cite></p>
+<p>or</p>
+<div class="highlight-c"><div class="highlight"><pre><span class="cp">#include <stdlib.h></span>
+<span class="kt">void</span> <span class="nf">plop</span><span class="p">()</span> <span class="p">{</span>
+  <span class="kt">long</span> <span class="kt">long</span> <span class="n">i</span><span class="o">=</span><span class="mi">0</span><span class="p">;</span>
+  <span class="n">abs</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="n">i</span><span class="p">);</span>
+<span class="p">}</span>
+</pre></div>
+</div>
+<p>returns
+<cite>warning: absolute value function ‘abs’ given an argument of type ‘long long’ but has parameter of type ‘int’ which may cause truncation of value [-Wabsolute-value] use function ‘llabs’ instead</cite></p>
+</li>
+<li><p class="first">New warning <cite>-Wtautological-pointer-compare</cite>:</p>
+<div class="highlight-c++"><div class="highlight"><pre><span class="cp">#include <stddef.h></span>
+<span class="kt">void</span> <span class="nf">foo</span><span class="p">()</span> <span class="p">{</span>
+ <span class="kt">int</span> <span class="n">arr</span><span class="p">[</span><span class="mi">5</span><span class="p">];</span>
+ <span class="kt">int</span> <span class="n">x</span><span class="p">;</span>
+ <span class="c1">// warn on these conditionals</span>
+ <span class="k">if</span> <span class="p">(</span><span class="n">foo</span><span class="p">);</span>
+ <span class="k">if</span> <span class="p">(</span><span class="n">arr</span><span class="p">);</span>
+ <span class="k">if</span> <span class="p">(</span><span class="o">&</span><span class="n">x</span><span class="p">);</span>
+ <span class="k">if</span> <span class="p">(</span><span class="n">foo</span> <span class="o">==</span> <span class="nb">NULL</span><span class="p">);</span>
+ <span class="k">if</span> <span class="p">(</span><span class="n">arr</span> <span class="o">==</span> <span class="nb">NULL</span><span class="p">);</span>
+ <span class="k">if</span> <span class="p">(</span><span class="o">&</span><span class="n">x</span> <span class="o">==</span> <span class="nb">NULL</span><span class="p">);</span>
+<span class="p">}</span>
+</pre></div>
+</div>
+<p>returns
+<cite>warning: comparison of address of ‘x’ equal to a null pointer is always false [-Wtautological-pointer-compare]</cite></p>
+</li>
+<li><p class="first">New warning <cite>-Wtautological-undefined-compare</cite>:</p>
+<div class="highlight-c++"><div class="highlight"><pre><span class="cp">#include <stddef.h></span>
+<span class="kt">void</span> <span class="nf">f</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="kt">int</span> <span class="o">&</span><span class="n">x</span><span class="p">)</span> <span class="p">{</span>
+   <span class="k">if</span> <span class="p">(</span><span class="o">&</span><span class="n">x</span> <span class="o">==</span> <span class="n">nullptr</span><span class="p">)</span> <span class="p">{</span> <span class="p">}</span>
+<span class="p">}</span>
+</pre></div>
+</div>
+<p>returns
+<cite>warning: reference cannot be bound to dereferenced null pointer in well-defined C++ code; comparison may be assumed to always evaluate to false [-Wtautological-undefined-compare]</cite></p>
+</li>
+<li><p class="first">...</p>
+</li>
+</ul>
+</div>
+</div>
+<div class="section" id="new-compiler-flags">
+<h3><a class="toc-backref" href="#id4">New Compiler Flags</a><a class="headerlink" href="#new-compiler-flags" title="Permalink to this headline">¶</a></h3>
+<p>The integrated assembler is now turned on by default on ARM (and Thumb),
+so the use of the option <cite>-fintegrated-as</cite> is now redundant on those
+architectures. This is an important move to both <em>eat our own dog food</em>
+and to ease cross-compilation tremendously.</p>
+<p>We are aware of the problems that this may cause for code bases that
+rely on specific GNU syntax or extensions, and we’re working towards
+getting them all fixed. Please, report bugs or feature requests if
+you find anything. In the meantime, use <cite>-fno-integrated-as</cite> to revert
+back the call to GNU assembler.</p>
+<p>In order to provide better diagnostics, the integrated assembler validates
+inline assembly when the integrated assembler is enabled.  Because this is
+considered a feature of the compiler, it is controlled via the <cite>fintegrated-as</cite>
+and <cite>fno-integrated-as</cite> flags which enable and disable the integrated assembler
+respectively.  <cite>-integrated-as</cite> and <cite>-no-integrated-as</cite> are now considered
+legacy flags (but are available as an alias to prevent breaking existing users),
+and users are encouraged to switch to the equivalent new feature flag.</p>
+<p>Deprecated flags <cite>-faddress-sanitizer</cite>, <cite>-fthread-sanitizer</cite>,
+<cite>-fcatch-undefined-behavior</cite> and <cite>-fbounds-checking</cite> were removed in favor of
+<cite>-fsanitize=</cite> family of flags.</p>
+<p>It is now possible to get optimization reports from the major transformation
+passes via three new flags: <cite>-Rpass</cite>, <cite>-Rpass-missed</cite> and <cite>-Rpass-analysis</cite>.
+These flags take a POSIX regular expression which indicates the name
+of the pass (or passes) that should emit optimization remarks.</p>
+<p>Options <cite>-u</cite> and <cite>-z</cite> are forwarded to the linker on gnutools toolchains.</p>
+</div>
+<div class="section" id="new-pragmas-in-clang">
+<h3><a class="toc-backref" href="#id5">New Pragmas in Clang</a><a class="headerlink" href="#new-pragmas-in-clang" title="Permalink to this headline">¶</a></h3>
+<p>Loop optimization hints can be specified using the new <cite>#pragma clang loop</cite>
+directive just prior to the desired loop. The directive allows vectorization and
+interleaving to be enabled or disabled. Vector width as well as interleave count
+can be manually specified.  See <a class="reference internal" href="LanguageExtensions.html#langext-pragma-loop"><em>Extensions for loop hint optimizations</em></a> for details.</p>
+</div>
+<div class="section" id="c-language-changes-in-clang">
+<h3><a class="toc-backref" href="#id6">C++ Language Changes in Clang</a><a class="headerlink" href="#c-language-changes-in-clang" title="Permalink to this headline">¶</a></h3>
+<ul class="simple">
+<li>Reference parameters and return values from functions are more aggressively
+assumed to refer to valid objects when optimizing. Clang will attempt to
+issue a warning by default if it sees null checks being performed on
+references, and <cite>-fsanitize=null</cite> can be used to detect null references
+being formed at runtime.</li>
+</ul>
+<div class="section" id="c-17-feature-support">
+<h4>C++17 Feature Support<a class="headerlink" href="#c-17-feature-support" title="Permalink to this headline">¶</a></h4>
+<p>Clang has experimental support for some proposed C++1z (tentatively, C++17)
+features. This support can be enabled using the <cite>-std=c++1z</cite> flag. The
+supported features are:</p>
+<ul class="simple">
+<li><cite>static_assert(expr)</cite> with no message</li>
+<li><cite>for (identifier : range)</cite> as a synonym for <cite>for (auto &&identifier : range)</cite></li>
+<li><cite>template<template<...> typename></cite> as a synonym for <cite>template<template<...> class></cite></li>
+</ul>
+<p>Additionally, trigraphs are not recognized by default in this mode.
+<cite>-ftrigraphs</cite> can be used if you need to parse legacy code that uses trigraphs.
+Note that these features may be changed or removed in future Clang releases
+without notice.</p>
+</div>
+</div>
+<div class="section" id="openmp-c-c-language-changes-in-clang">
+<h3><a class="toc-backref" href="#id7">OpenMP C/C++ Language Changes in Clang</a><a class="headerlink" href="#openmp-c-c-language-changes-in-clang" title="Permalink to this headline">¶</a></h3>
+<ul class="simple">
+<li><a class="reference external" href="https://github.com/clang-omp/clang/wiki/Status-of-supported-OpenMP-constructs">Status of supported OpenMP constructs</a>.</li>
+</ul>
+</div>
+<div class="section" id="internal-api-changes">
+<h3><a class="toc-backref" href="#id8">Internal API Changes</a><a class="headerlink" href="#internal-api-changes" title="Permalink to this headline">¶</a></h3>
+<p>These are major API changes that have happened since the 3.4 release of
+Clang. If upgrading an external codebase that uses Clang as a library,
+this section should help get you past the largest hurdles of upgrading.</p>
+<ul class="simple">
+<li>Clang uses <cite>std::unique_ptr<T></cite> in many places where it used to use
+raw <cite>T *</cite> pointers.</li>
+</ul>
+</div>
+<div class="section" id="static-analyzer">
+<h3><a class="toc-backref" href="#id9">Static Analyzer</a><a class="headerlink" href="#static-analyzer" title="Permalink to this headline">¶</a></h3>
+<p>Check for code testing a variable for 0 after using it as a denominator.
+This new checker, alpha.core.TestAfterDivZero, catches issues like this:</p>
+<div class="highlight-c"><div class="highlight"><pre><span class="kt">int</span> <span class="n">sum</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="p">...</span>
+<span class="kt">int</span> <span class="n">avg</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="n">sum</span> <span class="o">/</span> <span class="n">count</span><span class="p">;</span> <span class="c1">// potential division by zero...</span>
+<span class="k">if</span> <span class="p">(</span><span class="n">count</span> <span class="o">==</span> <span class="mi">0</span><span class="p">)</span> <span class="p">{</span> <span class="p">...</span> <span class="p">}</span> <span class="c1">// ...caught here</span>
+</pre></div>
+</div>
+<p>The <cite>-analyzer-config</cite> options are now passed from scan-build through to
+ccc-analyzer and then to Clang.</p>
+<p>With the option <cite>-analyzer-config stable-report-filename=true</cite>,
+instead of <cite>report-XXXXXX.html</cite>, scan-build/clang analyzer generate
+<cite>report-<filename>-<function, method name>-<function position>-<id>.html</cite>.
+(id = i++ for several issues found in the same function/method).</p>
+<p>List the function/method name in the index page of scan-build.</p>
+</div>
+</div>
+<div class="section" id="significant-known-problems">
+<h2><a class="toc-backref" href="#id10">Significant Known Problems</a><a class="headerlink" href="#significant-known-problems" title="Permalink to this headline">¶</a></h2>
+</div>
+<div class="section" id="additional-information">
+<h2><a class="toc-backref" href="#id11">Additional Information</a><a class="headerlink" href="#additional-information" title="Permalink to this headline">¶</a></h2>
+<p>A wide variety of additional information is available on the <a class="reference external" href="http://clang.llvm.org/">Clang web
+page</a>. The web page contains versions of the
+API documentation which are up-to-date with the Subversion version of
+the source code. You can access versions of these documents specific to
+this release by going into the “<tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">clang/docs/</span></tt>” directory in the Clang
+tree.</p>
+<p>If you have any questions or comments about Clang, please feel free to
+contact us via the <a class="reference external" href="http://lists.cs.uiuc.edu/mailman/listinfo/cfe-dev">mailing
+list</a>.</p>
+</div>
+</div>
+
+
+      </div>
+      <div class="bottomnav">
+      
+        <p>
+        «  <a href="index.html">Using Clang as a Compiler</a>
+          ::  
+        <a class="uplink" href="index.html">Contents</a>
+          ::  
+        <a href="UsersManual.html">Clang Compiler User’s Manual</a>  Â»
+        </p>
+
+      </div>
+
+    <div class="footer">
+        © Copyright 2007-2014, The Clang Team.
+      Created using <a href="http://sphinx.pocoo.org/">Sphinx</a> 1.1.3.
+    </div>
+  </body>
+</html>
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Added: www-releases/trunk/3.5.1/tools/clang/docs/SanitizerSpecialCaseList.html
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--- www-releases/trunk/3.5.1/tools/clang/docs/SanitizerSpecialCaseList.html (added)
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+
+
+<!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD XHTML 1.0 Transitional//EN"
+  "http://www.w3.org/TR/xhtml1/DTD/xhtml1-transitional.dtd">
+
+
+<html xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml">
+  <head>
+    <meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=utf-8" />
+    
+    <title>Sanitizer special case list — Clang 3.5 documentation</title>
+    
+    <link rel="stylesheet" href="_static/haiku.css" type="text/css" />
+    <link rel="stylesheet" href="_static/pygments.css" type="text/css" />
+    <link rel="stylesheet" href="_static/print.css"