[www-releases] r225843 - Add documentation for 3.5.1

Tom Stellard thomas.stellard at amd.com
Tue Jan 13 14:55:45 PST 2015


Added: www-releases/trunk/3.5.1/docs/_sources/SphinxQuickstartTemplate.txt
URL: http://llvm.org/viewvc/llvm-project/www-releases/trunk/3.5.1/docs/_sources/SphinxQuickstartTemplate.txt?rev=225843&view=auto
==============================================================================
--- www-releases/trunk/3.5.1/docs/_sources/SphinxQuickstartTemplate.txt (added)
+++ www-releases/trunk/3.5.1/docs/_sources/SphinxQuickstartTemplate.txt Tue Jan 13 16:55:20 2015
@@ -0,0 +1,160 @@
+==========================
+Sphinx Quickstart Template
+==========================
+
+Introduction and Quickstart
+===========================
+
+This document is meant to get you writing documentation as fast as possible
+even if you have no previous experience with Sphinx. The goal is to take
+someone in the state of "I want to write documentation and get it added to
+LLVM's docs" and turn that into useful documentation mailed to llvm-commits
+with as little nonsense as possible.
+
+You can find this document in ``docs/SphinxQuickstartTemplate.rst``. You
+should copy it, open the new file in your text editor, write your docs, and
+then send the new document to llvm-commits for review.
+
+Focus on *content*. It is easy to fix the Sphinx (reStructuredText) syntax
+later if necessary, although reStructuredText tries to imitate common
+plain-text conventions so it should be quite natural. A basic knowledge of
+reStructuredText syntax is useful when writing the document, so the last
+~half of this document (starting with `Example Section`_) gives examples
+which should cover 99% of use cases.
+
+Let me say that again: focus on *content*. But if you really need to verify
+Sphinx's output, see ``docs/README.txt`` for information.
+
+Once you have finished with the content, please send the ``.rst`` file to
+llvm-commits for review.
+
+Guidelines
+==========
+
+Try to answer the following questions in your first section:
+
+#. Why would I want to read this document?
+
+#. What should I know to be able to follow along with this document?
+
+#. What will I have learned by the end of this document?
+
+Common names for the first section are ``Introduction``, ``Overview``, or
+``Background``.
+
+If possible, make your document a "how to". Give it a name ``HowTo*.rst``
+like the other "how to" documents. This format is usually the easiest
+for another person to understand and also the most useful.
+
+You generally should not be writing documentation other than a "how to"
+unless there is already a "how to" about your topic. The reason for this
+is that without a "how to" document to read first, it is difficult for a
+person to understand a more advanced document.
+
+Focus on content (yes, I had to say it again).
+
+The rest of this document shows example reStructuredText markup constructs
+that are meant to be read by you in your text editor after you have copied
+this file into a new file for the documentation you are about to write.
+
+Example Section
+===============
+
+Your text can be *emphasized*, **bold**, or ``monospace``.
+
+Use blank lines to separate paragraphs.
+
+Headings (like ``Example Section`` just above) give your document its
+structure. Use the same kind of adornments (e.g. ``======`` vs. ``------``)
+as are used in this document. The adornment must be the same length as the
+text above it. For Vim users, variations of ``yypVr=`` might be handy.
+
+Example Subsection
+------------------
+
+Make a link `like this <http://llvm.org/>`_. There is also a more
+sophisticated syntax which `can be more readable`_ for longer links since
+it disrupts the flow less. You can put the ``.. _`link text`: <URL>`` block
+pretty much anywhere later in the document.
+
+.. _`can be more readable`: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/LLVM
+
+Lists can be made like this:
+
+#. A list starting with ``#.`` will be automatically numbered.
+
+#. This is a second list element.
+
+   #. Use indentation to create nested lists.
+
+You can also use unordered lists.
+
+* Stuff.
+
+  + Deeper stuff.
+
+* More stuff.
+
+Example Subsubsection
+^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
+
+You can make blocks of code like this:
+
+.. code-block:: c++
+
+   int main() {
+     return 0;
+   }
+
+For a shell session, use a ``console`` code block (some existing docs use
+``bash``):
+
+.. code-block:: console
+
+   $ echo "Goodbye cruel world!"
+   $ rm -rf /
+
+If you need to show LLVM IR use the ``llvm`` code block.
+
+.. code-block:: llvm
+
+   define i32 @test1() {
+   entry:
+     ret i32 0
+   }
+
+Some other common code blocks you might need are ``c``, ``objc``, ``make``,
+and ``cmake``. If you need something beyond that, you can look at the `full
+list`_ of supported code blocks.
+
+.. _`full list`: http://pygments.org/docs/lexers/
+
+However, don't waste time fiddling with syntax highlighting when you could
+be adding meaningful content. When in doubt, show preformatted text
+without any syntax highlighting like this:
+
+::
+
+                          .
+                           +:.
+                       ..:: ::
+                    .++:+:: ::+:.:.
+                   .:+           :
+            ::.::..::            .+.
+          ..:+    ::              :
+    ......+:.                    ..
+          :++.    ..              :
+            .+:::+::              :
+            ..   . .+            ::
+                     +.:      .::+.
+                      ...+. .: .
+                         .++:..
+                          ...
+
+Hopefully you won't need to be this deep
+""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""
+
+If you need to do fancier things than what has been shown in this document,
+you can mail the list or check Sphinx's `reStructuredText Primer`_.
+
+.. _`reStructuredText Primer`: http://sphinx.pocoo.org/rest.html

Added: www-releases/trunk/3.5.1/docs/_sources/StackMaps.txt
URL: http://llvm.org/viewvc/llvm-project/www-releases/trunk/3.5.1/docs/_sources/StackMaps.txt?rev=225843&view=auto
==============================================================================
--- www-releases/trunk/3.5.1/docs/_sources/StackMaps.txt (added)
+++ www-releases/trunk/3.5.1/docs/_sources/StackMaps.txt Tue Jan 13 16:55:20 2015
@@ -0,0 +1,496 @@
+===================================
+Stack maps and patch points in LLVM
+===================================
+
+.. contents::
+   :local:
+   :depth: 2
+
+Definitions
+===========
+
+In this document we refer to the "runtime" collectively as all
+components that serve as the LLVM client, including the LLVM IR
+generator, object code consumer, and code patcher.
+
+A stack map records the location of ``live values`` at a particular
+instruction address. These ``live values`` do not refer to all the
+LLVM values live across the stack map. Instead, they are only the
+values that the runtime requires to be live at this point. For
+example, they may be the values the runtime will need to resume
+program execution at that point independent of the compiled function
+containing the stack map.
+
+LLVM emits stack map data into the object code within a designated
+:ref:`stackmap-section`. This stack map data contains a record for
+each stack map. The record stores the stack map's instruction address
+and contains a entry for each mapped value. Each entry encodes a
+value's location as a register, stack offset, or constant.
+
+A patch point is an instruction address at which space is reserved for
+patching a new instruction sequence at run time. Patch points look
+much like calls to LLVM. They take arguments that follow a calling
+convention and may return a value. They also imply stack map
+generation, which allows the runtime to locate the patchpoint and
+find the location of ``live values`` at that point.
+
+Motivation
+==========
+
+This functionality is currently experimental but is potentially useful
+in a variety of settings, the most obvious being a runtime (JIT)
+compiler. Example applications of the patchpoint intrinsics are
+implementing an inline call cache for polymorphic method dispatch or
+optimizing the retrieval of properties in dynamically typed languages
+such as JavaScript.
+
+The intrinsics documented here are currently used by the JavaScript
+compiler within the open source WebKit project, see the `FTL JIT
+<https://trac.webkit.org/wiki/FTLJIT>`_, but they are designed to be
+used whenever stack maps or code patching are needed. Because the
+intrinsics have experimental status, compatibility across LLVM
+releases is not guaranteed.
+
+The stack map functionality described in this document is separate
+from the functionality described in
+:ref:`stack-map`. `GCFunctionMetadata` provides the location of
+pointers into a collected heap captured by the `GCRoot` intrinsic,
+which can also be considered a "stack map". Unlike the stack maps
+defined above, the `GCFunctionMetadata` stack map interface does not
+provide a way to associate live register values of arbitrary type with
+an instruction address, nor does it specify a format for the resulting
+stack map. The stack maps described here could potentially provide
+richer information to a garbage collecting runtime, but that usage
+will not be discussed in this document.
+
+Intrinsics
+==========
+
+The following two kinds of intrinsics can be used to implement stack
+maps and patch points: ``llvm.experimental.stackmap`` and
+``llvm.experimental.patchpoint``. Both kinds of intrinsics generate a
+stack map record, and they both allow some form of code patching. They
+can be used independently (i.e. ``llvm.experimental.patchpoint``
+implicitly generates a stack map without the need for an additional
+call to ``llvm.experimental.stackmap``). The choice of which to use
+depends on whether it is necessary to reserve space for code patching
+and whether any of the intrinsic arguments should be lowered according
+to calling conventions. ``llvm.experimental.stackmap`` does not
+reserve any space, nor does it expect any call arguments. If the
+runtime patches code at the stack map's address, it will destructively
+overwrite the program text. This is unlike
+``llvm.experimental.patchpoint``, which reserves space for in-place
+patching without overwriting surrounding code. The
+``llvm.experimental.patchpoint`` intrinsic also lowers a specified
+number of arguments according to its calling convention. This allows
+patched code to make in-place function calls without marshaling.
+
+Each instance of one of these intrinsics generates a stack map record
+in the :ref:`stackmap-section`. The record includes an ID, allowing
+the runtime to uniquely identify the stack map, and the offset within
+the code from the beginning of the enclosing function.
+
+'``llvm.experimental.stackmap``' Intrinsic
+^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
+
+Syntax:
+"""""""
+
+::
+
+      declare void
+        @llvm.experimental.stackmap(i64 <id>, i32 <numShadowBytes>, ...)
+
+Overview:
+"""""""""
+
+The '``llvm.experimental.stackmap``' intrinsic records the location of
+specified values in the stack map without generating any code.
+
+Operands:
+"""""""""
+
+The first operand is an ID to be encoded within the stack map. The
+second operand is the number of shadow bytes following the
+intrinsic. The variable number of operands that follow are the ``live
+values`` for which locations will be recorded in the stack map.
+
+To use this intrinsic as a bare-bones stack map, with no code patching
+support, the number of shadow bytes can be set to zero.
+
+Semantics:
+""""""""""
+
+The stack map intrinsic generates no code in place, unless nops are
+needed to cover its shadow (see below). However, its offset from
+function entry is stored in the stack map. This is the relative
+instruction address immediately following the instructions that
+precede the stack map.
+
+The stack map ID allows a runtime to locate the desired stack map
+record. LLVM passes this ID through directly to the stack map
+record without checking uniqueness.
+
+LLVM guarantees a shadow of instructions following the stack map's
+instruction offset during which neither the end of the basic block nor
+another call to ``llvm.experimental.stackmap`` or
+``llvm.experimental.patchpoint`` may occur. This allows the runtime to
+patch the code at this point in response to an event triggered from
+outside the code. The code for instructions following the stack map
+may be emitted in the stack map's shadow, and these instructions may
+be overwritten by destructive patching. Without shadow bytes, this
+destructive patching could overwrite program text or data outside the
+current function. We disallow overlapping stack map shadows so that
+the runtime does not need to consider this corner case.
+
+For example, a stack map with 8 byte shadow:
+
+.. code-block:: llvm
+
+  call void @runtime()
+  call void (i64, i32, ...)* @llvm.experimental.stackmap(i64 77, i32 8,
+                                                         i64* %ptr)
+  %val = load i64* %ptr
+  %add = add i64 %val, 3
+  ret i64 %add
+
+May require one byte of nop-padding:
+
+.. code-block:: none
+
+  0x00 callq _runtime
+  0x05 nop                <--- stack map address
+  0x06 movq (%rdi), %rax
+  0x07 addq $3, %rax
+  0x0a popq %rdx
+  0x0b ret                <---- end of 8-byte shadow
+
+Now, if the runtime needs to invalidate the compiled code, it may
+patch 8 bytes of code at the stack map's address at follows:
+
+.. code-block:: none
+
+  0x00 callq _runtime
+  0x05 movl  $0xffff, %rax <--- patched code at stack map address
+  0x0a callq *%rax         <---- end of 8-byte shadow
+
+This way, after the normal call to the runtime returns, the code will
+execute a patched call to a special entry point that can rebuild a
+stack frame from the values located by the stack map.
+
+'``llvm.experimental.patchpoint.*``' Intrinsic
+^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
+
+Syntax:
+"""""""
+
+::
+
+      declare void
+        @llvm.experimental.patchpoint.void(i64 <id>, i32 <numBytes>,
+                                           i8* <target>, i32 <numArgs>, ...)
+      declare i64
+        @llvm.experimental.patchpoint.i64(i64 <id>, i32 <numBytes>,
+                                          i8* <target>, i32 <numArgs>, ...)
+
+Overview:
+"""""""""
+
+The '``llvm.experimental.patchpoint.*``' intrinsics creates a function
+call to the specified ``<target>`` and records the location of specified
+values in the stack map.
+
+Operands:
+"""""""""
+
+The first operand is an ID, the second operand is the number of bytes
+reserved for the patchable region, the third operand is the target
+address of a function (optionally null), and the fourth operand
+specifies how many of the following variable operands are considered
+function call arguments. The remaining variable number of operands are
+the ``live values`` for which locations will be recorded in the stack
+map.
+
+Semantics:
+""""""""""
+
+The patch point intrinsic generates a stack map. It also emits a
+function call to the address specified by ``<target>`` if the address
+is not a constant null. The function call and its arguments are
+lowered according to the calling convention specified at the
+intrinsic's callsite. Variants of the intrinsic with non-void return
+type also return a value according to calling convention.
+
+Requesting zero patch point arguments is valid. In this case, all
+variable operands are handled just like
+``llvm.experimental.stackmap.*``. The difference is that space will
+still be reserved for patching, a call will be emitted, and a return
+value is allowed.
+
+The location of the arguments are not normally recorded in the stack
+map because they are already fixed by the calling convention. The
+remaining ``live values`` will have their location recorded, which
+could be a register, stack location, or constant. A special calling
+convention has been introduced for use with stack maps, anyregcc,
+which forces the arguments to be loaded into registers but allows
+those register to be dynamically allocated. These argument registers
+will have their register locations recorded in the stack map in
+addition to the remaining ``live values``.
+
+The patch point also emits nops to cover at least ``<numBytes>`` of
+instruction encoding space. Hence, the client must ensure that
+``<numBytes>`` is enough to encode a call to the target address on the
+supported targets. If the call target is constant null, then there is
+no minimum requirement. A zero-byte null target patchpoint is
+valid.
+
+The runtime may patch the code emitted for the patch point, including
+the call sequence and nops. However, the runtime may not assume
+anything about the code LLVM emits within the reserved space. Partial
+patching is not allowed. The runtime must patch all reserved bytes,
+padding with nops if necessary.
+
+This example shows a patch point reserving 15 bytes, with one argument
+in $rdi, and a return value in $rax per native calling convention:
+
+.. code-block:: llvm
+
+  %target = inttoptr i64 -281474976710654 to i8*
+  %val = call i64 (i64, i32, ...)*
+           @llvm.experimental.patchpoint.i64(i64 78, i32 15,
+                                             i8* %target, i32 1, i64* %ptr)
+  %add = add i64 %val, 3
+  ret i64 %add
+
+May generate:
+
+.. code-block:: none
+
+  0x00 movabsq $0xffff000000000002, %r11 <--- patch point address
+  0x0a callq   *%r11
+  0x0d nop
+  0x0e nop                               <--- end of reserved 15-bytes
+  0x0f addq    $0x3, %rax
+  0x10 movl    %rax, 8(%rsp)
+
+Note that no stack map locations will be recorded. If the patched code
+sequence does not need arguments fixed to specific calling convention
+registers, then the ``anyregcc`` convention may be used:
+
+.. code-block:: none
+
+  %val = call anyregcc @llvm.experimental.patchpoint(i64 78, i32 15,
+                                                     i8* %target, i32 1,
+                                                     i64* %ptr)
+
+The stack map now indicates the location of the %ptr argument and
+return value:
+
+.. code-block:: none
+
+  Stack Map: ID=78, Loc0=%r9 Loc1=%r8
+
+The patch code sequence may now use the argument that happened to be
+allocated in %r8 and return a value allocated in %r9:
+
+.. code-block:: none
+
+  0x00 movslq 4(%r8) %r9              <--- patched code at patch point address
+  0x03 nop
+  ...
+  0x0e nop                            <--- end of reserved 15-bytes
+  0x0f addq    $0x3, %r9
+  0x10 movl    %r9, 8(%rsp)
+
+.. _stackmap-format:
+
+Stack Map Format
+================
+
+The existence of a stack map or patch point intrinsic within an LLVM
+Module forces code emission to create a :ref:`stackmap-section`. The
+format of this section follows:
+
+.. code-block:: none
+
+  Header {
+    uint8  : Stack Map Version (current version is 1)
+    uint8  : Reserved (expected to be 0)
+    uint16 : Reserved (expected to be 0)
+  }
+  uint32 : NumFunctions
+  uint32 : NumConstants
+  uint32 : NumRecords
+  StkSizeRecord[NumFunctions] {
+    uint64 : Function Address
+    uint64 : Stack Size
+  }
+  Constants[NumConstants] {
+    uint64 : LargeConstant
+  }
+  StkMapRecord[NumRecords] {
+    uint64 : PatchPoint ID
+    uint32 : Instruction Offset
+    uint16 : Reserved (record flags)
+    uint16 : NumLocations
+    Location[NumLocations] {
+      uint8  : Register | Direct | Indirect | Constant | ConstantIndex
+      uint8  : Reserved (location flags)
+      uint16 : Dwarf RegNum
+      int32  : Offset or SmallConstant
+    }
+    uint16 : Padding
+    uint16 : NumLiveOuts
+    LiveOuts[NumLiveOuts]
+      uint16 : Dwarf RegNum
+      uint8  : Reserved
+      uint8  : Size in Bytes
+    }
+    uint32 : Padding (only if required to align to 8 byte)
+  }
+
+The first byte of each location encodes a type that indicates how to
+interpret the ``RegNum`` and ``Offset`` fields as follows:
+
+======== ========== =================== ===========================
+Encoding Type       Value               Description
+-------- ---------- ------------------- ---------------------------
+0x1      Register   Reg                 Value in a register
+0x2      Direct     Reg + Offset        Frame index value
+0x3      Indirect   [Reg + Offset]      Spilled value
+0x4      Constant   Offset              Small constant
+0x5      ConstIndex Constants[Offset]   Large constant
+======== ========== =================== ===========================
+
+In the common case, a value is available in a register, and the
+``Offset`` field will be zero. Values spilled to the stack are encoded
+as ``Indirect`` locations. The runtime must load those values from a
+stack address, typically in the form ``[BP + Offset]``. If an
+``alloca`` value is passed directly to a stack map intrinsic, then
+LLVM may fold the frame index into the stack map as an optimization to
+avoid allocating a register or stack slot. These frame indices will be
+encoded as ``Direct`` locations in the form ``BP + Offset``. LLVM may
+also optimize constants by emitting them directly in the stack map,
+either in the ``Offset`` of a ``Constant`` location or in the constant
+pool, referred to by ``ConstantIndex`` locations.
+
+At each callsite, a "liveout" register list is also recorded. These
+are the registers that are live across the stackmap and therefore must
+be saved by the runtime. This is an important optimization when the
+patchpoint intrinsic is used with a calling convention that by default
+preserves most registers as callee-save.
+
+Each entry in the liveout register list contains a DWARF register
+number and size in bytes. The stackmap format deliberately omits
+specific subregister information. Instead the runtime must interpret
+this information conservatively. For example, if the stackmap reports
+one byte at ``%rax``, then the value may be in either ``%al`` or
+``%ah``. It doesn't matter in practice, because the runtime will
+simply save ``%rax``. However, if the stackmap reports 16 bytes at
+``%ymm0``, then the runtime can safely optimize by saving only
+``%xmm0``.
+
+The stack map format is a contract between an LLVM SVN revision and
+the runtime. It is currently experimental and may change in the short
+term, but minimizing the need to update the runtime is
+important. Consequently, the stack map design is motivated by
+simplicity and extensibility. Compactness of the representation is
+secondary because the runtime is expected to parse the data
+immediately after compiling a module and encode the information in its
+own format. Since the runtime controls the allocation of sections, it
+can reuse the same stack map space for multiple modules.
+
+Stackmap support is currently only implemented for 64-bit
+platforms. However, a 32-bit implementation should be able to use the
+same format with an insignificant amount of wasted space.
+
+.. _stackmap-section:
+
+Stack Map Section
+^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
+
+A JIT compiler can easily access this section by providing its own
+memory manager via the LLVM C API
+``LLVMCreateSimpleMCJITMemoryManager()``. When creating the memory
+manager, the JIT provides a callback:
+``LLVMMemoryManagerAllocateDataSectionCallback()``. When LLVM creates
+this section, it invokes the callback and passes the section name. The
+JIT can record the in-memory address of the section at this time and
+later parse it to recover the stack map data.
+
+On Darwin, the stack map section name is "__llvm_stackmaps". The
+segment name is "__LLVM_STACKMAPS".
+
+Stack Map Usage
+===============
+
+The stack map support described in this document can be used to
+precisely determine the location of values at a specific position in
+the code. LLVM does not maintain any mapping between those values and
+any higher-level entity. The runtime must be able to interpret the
+stack map record given only the ID, offset, and the order of the
+locations, which LLVM preserves.
+
+Note that this is quite different from the goal of debug information,
+which is a best-effort attempt to track the location of named
+variables at every instruction.
+
+An important motivation for this design is to allow a runtime to
+commandeer a stack frame when execution reaches an instruction address
+associated with a stack map. The runtime must be able to rebuild a
+stack frame and resume program execution using the information
+provided by the stack map. For example, execution may resume in an
+interpreter or a recompiled version of the same function.
+
+This usage restricts LLVM optimization. Clearly, LLVM must not move
+stores across a stack map. However, loads must also be handled
+conservatively. If the load may trigger an exception, hoisting it
+above a stack map could be invalid. For example, the runtime may
+determine that a load is safe to execute without a type check given
+the current state of the type system. If the type system changes while
+some activation of the load's function exists on the stack, the load
+becomes unsafe. The runtime can prevent subsequent execution of that
+load by immediately patching any stack map location that lies between
+the current call site and the load (typically, the runtime would
+simply patch all stack map locations to invalidate the function). If
+the compiler had hoisted the load above the stack map, then the
+program could crash before the runtime could take back control.
+
+To enforce these semantics, stackmap and patchpoint intrinsics are
+considered to potentially read and write all memory. This may limit
+optimization more than some clients desire. This limitation may be
+avoided by marking the call site as "readonly". In the future we may
+also allow meta-data to be added to the intrinsic call to express
+aliasing, thereby allowing optimizations to hoist certain loads above
+stack maps.
+
+Direct Stack Map Entries
+^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
+
+As shown in :ref:`stackmap-section`, a Direct stack map location
+records the address of frame index. This address is itself the value
+that the runtime requested. This differs from Indirect locations,
+which refer to a stack locations from which the requested values must
+be loaded. Direct locations can communicate the address if an alloca,
+while Indirect locations handle register spills.
+
+For example:
+
+.. code-block:: none
+
+  entry:
+    %a = alloca i64...
+    llvm.experimental.stackmap(i64 <ID>, i32 <shadowBytes>, i64* %a)
+
+The runtime can determine this alloca's relative location on the
+stack immediately after compilation, or at any time thereafter. This
+differs from Register and Indirect locations, because the runtime can
+only read the values in those locations when execution reaches the
+instruction address of the stack map.
+
+This functionality requires LLVM to treat entry-block allocas
+specially when they are directly consumed by an intrinsics. (This is
+the same requirement imposed by the llvm.gcroot intrinsic.) LLVM
+transformations must not substitute the alloca with any intervening
+value. This can be verified by the runtime simply by checking that the
+stack map's location is a Direct location type.

Added: www-releases/trunk/3.5.1/docs/_sources/SystemLibrary.txt
URL: http://llvm.org/viewvc/llvm-project/www-releases/trunk/3.5.1/docs/_sources/SystemLibrary.txt?rev=225843&view=auto
==============================================================================
--- www-releases/trunk/3.5.1/docs/_sources/SystemLibrary.txt (added)
+++ www-releases/trunk/3.5.1/docs/_sources/SystemLibrary.txt Tue Jan 13 16:55:20 2015
@@ -0,0 +1,247 @@
+==============
+System Library
+==============
+
+Abstract
+========
+
+This document provides some details on LLVM's System Library, located in the
+source at ``lib/System`` and ``include/llvm/System``. The library's purpose is
+to shield LLVM from the differences between operating systems for the few
+services LLVM needs from the operating system. Much of LLVM is written using
+portability features of standard C++. However, in a few areas, system dependent
+facilities are needed and the System Library is the wrapper around those system
+calls.
+
+By centralizing LLVM's use of operating system interfaces, we make it possible
+for the LLVM tool chain and runtime libraries to be more easily ported to new
+platforms since (theoretically) only ``lib/System`` needs to be ported.  This
+library also unclutters the rest of LLVM from #ifdef use and special cases for
+specific operating systems. Such uses are replaced with simple calls to the
+interfaces provided in ``include/llvm/System``.
+
+Note that the System Library is not intended to be a complete operating system
+wrapper (such as the Adaptive Communications Environment (ACE) or Apache
+Portable Runtime (APR)), but only provides the functionality necessary to
+support LLVM.
+
+The System Library was written by Reid Spencer who formulated the design based
+on similar work originating from the eXtensible Programming System (XPS).
+Several people helped with the effort; especially, Jeff Cohen and Henrik Bach
+on the Win32 port.
+
+Keeping LLVM Portable
+=====================
+
+In order to keep LLVM portable, LLVM developers should adhere to a set of
+portability rules associated with the System Library. Adherence to these rules
+should help the System Library achieve its goal of shielding LLVM from the
+variations in operating system interfaces and doing so efficiently.  The
+following sections define the rules needed to fulfill this objective.
+
+Don't Include System Headers
+----------------------------
+
+Except in ``lib/System``, no LLVM source code should directly ``#include`` a
+system header. Care has been taken to remove all such ``#includes`` from LLVM
+while ``lib/System`` was being developed.  Specifically this means that header
+files like "``unistd.h``", "``windows.h``", "``stdio.h``", and "``string.h``"
+are forbidden to be included by LLVM source code outside the implementation of
+``lib/System``.
+
+To obtain system-dependent functionality, existing interfaces to the system
+found in ``include/llvm/System`` should be used. If an appropriate interface is
+not available, it should be added to ``include/llvm/System`` and implemented in
+``lib/System`` for all supported platforms.
+
+Don't Expose System Headers
+---------------------------
+
+The System Library must shield LLVM from **all** system headers. To obtain
+system level functionality, LLVM source must ``#include "llvm/System/Thing.h"``
+and nothing else. This means that ``Thing.h`` cannot expose any system header
+files. This protects LLVM from accidentally using system specific functionality
+and only allows it via the ``lib/System`` interface.
+
+Use Standard C Headers
+----------------------
+
+The **standard** C headers (the ones beginning with "c") are allowed to be
+exposed through the ``lib/System`` interface. These headers and the things they
+declare are considered to be platform agnostic. LLVM source files may include
+them directly or obtain their inclusion through ``lib/System`` interfaces.
+
+Use Standard C++ Headers
+------------------------
+
+The **standard** C++ headers from the standard C++ library and standard
+template library may be exposed through the ``lib/System`` interface. These
+headers and the things they declare are considered to be platform agnostic.
+LLVM source files may include them or obtain their inclusion through
+``lib/System`` interfaces.
+
+High Level Interface
+--------------------
+
+The entry points specified in the interface of ``lib/System`` must be aimed at
+completing some reasonably high level task needed by LLVM. We do not want to
+simply wrap each operating system call. It would be preferable to wrap several
+operating system calls that are always used in conjunction with one another by
+LLVM.
+
+For example, consider what is needed to execute a program, wait for it to
+complete, and return its result code. On Unix, this involves the following
+operating system calls: ``getenv``, ``fork``, ``execve``, and ``wait``. The
+correct thing for ``lib/System`` to provide is a function, say
+``ExecuteProgramAndWait``, that implements the functionality completely.  what
+we don't want is wrappers for the operating system calls involved.
+
+There must **not** be a one-to-one relationship between operating system
+calls and the System library's interface. Any such interface function will be
+suspicious.
+
+No Unused Functionality
+-----------------------
+
+There must be no functionality specified in the interface of ``lib/System``
+that isn't actually used by LLVM. We're not writing a general purpose operating
+system wrapper here, just enough to satisfy LLVM's needs. And, LLVM doesn't
+need much. This design goal aims to keep the ``lib/System`` interface small and
+understandable which should foster its actual use and adoption.
+
+No Duplicate Implementations
+----------------------------
+
+The implementation of a function for a given platform must be written exactly
+once. This implies that it must be possible to apply a function's
+implementation to multiple operating systems if those operating systems can
+share the same implementation. This rule applies to the set of operating
+systems supported for a given class of operating system (e.g. Unix, Win32).
+
+No Virtual Methods
+------------------
+
+The System Library interfaces can be called quite frequently by LLVM. In order
+to make those calls as efficient as possible, we discourage the use of virtual
+methods. There is no need to use inheritance for implementation differences, it
+just adds complexity. The ``#include`` mechanism works just fine.
+
+No Exposed Functions
+--------------------
+
+Any functions defined by system libraries (i.e. not defined by ``lib/System``)
+must not be exposed through the ``lib/System`` interface, even if the header
+file for that function is not exposed. This prevents inadvertent use of system
+specific functionality.
+
+For example, the ``stat`` system call is notorious for having variations in the
+data it provides. ``lib/System`` must not declare ``stat`` nor allow it to be
+declared. Instead it should provide its own interface to discovering
+information about files and directories. Those interfaces may be implemented in
+terms of ``stat`` but that is strictly an implementation detail. The interface
+provided by the System Library must be implemented on all platforms (even those
+without ``stat``).
+
+No Exposed Data
+---------------
+
+Any data defined by system libraries (i.e. not defined by ``lib/System``) must
+not be exposed through the ``lib/System`` interface, even if the header file
+for that function is not exposed. As with functions, this prevents inadvertent
+use of data that might not exist on all platforms.
+
+Minimize Soft Errors
+--------------------
+
+Operating system interfaces will generally provide error results for every
+little thing that could go wrong. In almost all cases, you can divide these
+error results into two groups: normal/good/soft and abnormal/bad/hard. That is,
+some of the errors are simply information like "file not found", "insufficient
+privileges", etc. while other errors are much harder like "out of space", "bad
+disk sector", or "system call interrupted". We'll call the first group "*soft*"
+errors and the second group "*hard*" errors.
+
+``lib/System`` must always attempt to minimize soft errors.  This is a design
+requirement because the minimization of soft errors can affect the granularity
+and the nature of the interface. In general, if you find that you're wanting to
+throw soft errors, you must review the granularity of the interface because it
+is likely you're trying to implement something that is too low level. The rule
+of thumb is to provide interface functions that **can't** fail, except when
+faced with hard errors.
+
+For a trivial example, suppose we wanted to add an "``OpenFileForWriting``"
+function. For many operating systems, if the file doesn't exist, attempting to
+open the file will produce an error.  However, ``lib/System`` should not simply
+throw that error if it occurs because its a soft error. The problem is that the
+interface function, ``OpenFileForWriting`` is too low level. It should be
+``OpenOrCreateFileForWriting``. In the case of the soft "doesn't exist" error,
+this function would just create it and then open it for writing.
+
+This design principle needs to be maintained in ``lib/System`` because it
+avoids the propagation of soft error handling throughout the rest of LLVM.
+Hard errors will generally just cause a termination for an LLVM tool so don't
+be bashful about throwing them.
+
+Rules of thumb:
+
+#. Don't throw soft errors, only hard errors.
+
+#. If you're tempted to throw a soft error, re-think the interface.
+
+#. Handle internally the most common normal/good/soft error conditions
+   so the rest of LLVM doesn't have to.
+
+No throw Specifications
+-----------------------
+
+None of the ``lib/System`` interface functions may be declared with C++
+``throw()`` specifications on them. This requirement makes sure that the
+compiler does not insert additional exception handling code into the interface
+functions. This is a performance consideration: ``lib/System`` functions are at
+the bottom of many call chains and as such can be frequently called. We need
+them to be as efficient as possible.  However, no routines in the system
+library should actually throw exceptions.
+
+Code Organization
+-----------------
+
+Implementations of the System Library interface are separated by their general
+class of operating system. Currently only Unix and Win32 classes are defined
+but more could be added for other operating system classifications.  To
+distinguish which implementation to compile, the code in ``lib/System`` uses
+the ``LLVM_ON_UNIX`` and ``LLVM_ON_WIN32`` ``#defines`` provided via configure
+through the ``llvm/Config/config.h`` file. Each source file in ``lib/System``,
+after implementing the generic (operating system independent) functionality
+needs to include the correct implementation using a set of
+``#if defined(LLVM_ON_XYZ)`` directives. For example, if we had
+``lib/System/File.cpp``, we'd expect to see in that file:
+
+.. code-block:: c++
+
+  #if defined(LLVM_ON_UNIX)
+  #include "Unix/File.cpp"
+  #endif
+  #if defined(LLVM_ON_WIN32)
+  #include "Win32/File.cpp"
+  #endif
+
+The implementation in ``lib/System/Unix/File.cpp`` should handle all Unix
+variants. The implementation in ``lib/System/Win32/File.cpp`` should handle all
+Win32 variants.  What this does is quickly differentiate the basic class of
+operating system that will provide the implementation. The specific details for
+a given platform must still be determined through the use of ``#ifdef``.
+
+Consistent Semantics
+--------------------
+
+The implementation of a ``lib/System`` interface can vary drastically between
+platforms. That's okay as long as the end result of the interface function is
+the same. For example, a function to create a directory is pretty straight
+forward on all operating system. System V IPC on the other hand isn't even
+supported on all platforms. Instead of "supporting" System V IPC,
+``lib/System`` should provide an interface to the basic concept of
+inter-process communications. The implementations might use System V IPC if
+that was available or named pipes, or whatever gets the job done effectively
+for a given operating system.  In all cases, the interface and the
+implementation must be semantically consistent.
+

Added: www-releases/trunk/3.5.1/docs/_sources/TableGen/BackEnds.txt
URL: http://llvm.org/viewvc/llvm-project/www-releases/trunk/3.5.1/docs/_sources/TableGen/BackEnds.txt?rev=225843&view=auto
==============================================================================
--- www-releases/trunk/3.5.1/docs/_sources/TableGen/BackEnds.txt (added)
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@@ -0,0 +1,428 @@
+=================
+TableGen BackEnds
+=================
+
+.. contents::
+   :local:
+
+Introduction
+============
+
+TableGen backends are at the core of TableGen's functionality. The source files
+provide the semantics to a generated (in memory) structure, but it's up to the
+backend to print this out in a way that is meaningful to the user (normally a
+C program including a file or a textual list of warnings, options and error
+messages).
+
+TableGen is used by both LLVM and Clang with very different goals. LLVM uses it
+as a way to automate the generation of massive amounts of information regarding
+instructions, schedules, cores and architecture features. Some backends generate
+output that is consumed by more than one source file, so they need to be created
+in a way that is easy to use pre-processor tricks. Some backends can also print
+C code structures, so that they can be directly included as-is.
+
+Clang, on the other hand, uses it mainly for diagnostic messages (errors,
+warnings, tips) and attributes, so more on the textual end of the scale.
+
+LLVM BackEnds
+=============
+
+.. warning::
+   This document is raw. Each section below needs three sub-sections: description
+   of its purpose with a list of users, output generated from generic input, and
+   finally why it needed a new backend (in case there's something similar).
+
+Overall, each backend will take the same TableGen file type and transform into
+similar output for different targets/uses. There is an implicit contract between
+the TableGen files, the back-ends and their users.
+
+For instance, a global contract is that each back-end produces macro-guarded
+sections. Based on whether the file is included by a header or a source file,
+or even in which context of each file the include is being used, you have
+todefine a macro just before including it, to get the right output:
+
+.. code-block:: c++
+
+  #define GET_REGINFO_TARGET_DESC
+  #include "ARMGenRegisterInfo.inc"
+
+And just part of the generated file would be included. This is useful if
+you need the same information in multiple formats (instantiation, initialization,
+getter/setter functions, etc) from the same source TableGen file without having
+to re-compile the TableGen file multiple times.
+
+Sometimes, multiple macros might be defined before the same include file to
+output multiple blocks:
+
+.. code-block:: c++
+
+  #define GET_REGISTER_MATCHER
+  #define GET_SUBTARGET_FEATURE_NAME
+  #define GET_MATCHER_IMPLEMENTATION
+  #include "ARMGenAsmMatcher.inc"
+
+The macros will be undef'd automatically as they're used, in the include file.
+
+On all LLVM back-ends, the ``llvm-tblgen`` binary will be executed on the root
+TableGen file ``<Target>.td``, which should include all others. This guarantees
+that all information needed is accessible, and that no duplication is needed
+in the TbleGen files.
+
+CodeEmitter
+-----------
+
+**Purpose**: CodeEmitterGen uses the descriptions of instructions and their fields to
+construct an automated code emitter: a function that, given a MachineInstr,
+returns the (currently, 32-bit unsigned) value of the instruction.
+
+**Output**: C++ code, implementing the target's CodeEmitter
+class by overriding the virtual functions as ``<Target>CodeEmitter::function()``.
+
+**Usage**: Used to include directly at the end of ``<Target>CodeEmitter.cpp``, and
+with option `-mc-emitter` to be included in ``<Target>MCCodeEmitter.cpp``.
+
+RegisterInfo
+------------
+
+**Purpose**: This tablegen backend is responsible for emitting a description of a target
+register file for a code generator.  It uses instances of the Register,
+RegisterAliases, and RegisterClass classes to gather this information.
+
+**Output**: C++ code with enums and structures representing the register mappings,
+properties, masks, etc.
+
+**Usage**: Both on ``<Target>BaseRegisterInfo`` and ``<Target>MCTargetDesc`` (headers
+and source files) with macros defining in which they are for declaration vs.
+initialization issues.
+
+InstrInfo
+---------
+
+**Purpose**: This tablegen backend is responsible for emitting a description of the target
+instruction set for the code generator. (what are the differences from CodeEmitter?)
+
+**Output**: C++ code with enums and structures representing the register mappings,
+properties, masks, etc.
+
+**Usage**: Both on ``<Target>BaseInstrInfo`` and ``<Target>MCTargetDesc`` (headers
+and source files) with macros defining in which they are for declaration vs.
+
+AsmWriter
+---------
+
+**Purpose**: Emits an assembly printer for the current target.
+
+**Output**: Implementation of ``<Target>InstPrinter::printInstruction()``, among
+other things.
+
+**Usage**: Included directly into ``InstPrinter/<Target>InstPrinter.cpp``.
+
+AsmMatcher
+----------
+
+**Purpose**: Emits a target specifier matcher for
+converting parsed assembly operands in the MCInst structures. It also
+emits a matcher for custom operand parsing. Extensive documentation is
+written on the ``AsmMatcherEmitter.cpp`` file.
+
+**Output**: Assembler parsers' matcher functions, declarations, etc.
+
+**Usage**: Used in back-ends' ``AsmParser/<Target>AsmParser.cpp`` for
+building the AsmParser class.
+
+Disassembler
+------------
+
+**Purpose**: Contains disassembler table emitters for various
+architectures. Extensive documentation is written on the
+``DisassemblerEmitter.cpp`` file.
+
+**Output**: Decoding tables, static decoding functions, etc.
+
+**Usage**: Directly included in ``Disassembler/<Target>Disassembler.cpp``
+to cater for all default decodings, after all hand-made ones.
+
+PseudoLowering
+--------------
+
+**Purpose**: Generate pseudo instruction lowering.
+
+**Output**: Implements ``ARMAsmPrinter::emitPseudoExpansionLowering()``.
+
+**Usage**: Included directly into ``<Target>AsmPrinter.cpp``.
+
+CallingConv
+-----------
+
+**Purpose**: Responsible for emitting descriptions of the calling
+conventions supported by this target.
+
+**Output**: Implement static functions to deal with calling conventions
+chained by matching styles, returning false on no match.
+
+**Usage**: Used in ISelLowering and FastIsel as function pointers to
+implementation returned by a CC sellection function.
+
+DAGISel
+-------
+
+**Purpose**: Generate a DAG instruction selector.
+
+**Output**: Creates huge functions for automating DAG selection.
+
+**Usage**: Included in ``<Target>ISelDAGToDAG.cpp`` inside the target's
+implementation of ``SelectionDAGISel``.
+
+DFAPacketizer
+-------------
+
+**Purpose**: This class parses the Schedule.td file and produces an API that
+can be used to reason about whether an instruction can be added to a packet
+on a VLIW architecture. The class internally generates a deterministic finite
+automaton (DFA) that models all possible mappings of machine instructions
+to functional units as instructions are added to a packet.
+
+**Output**: Scheduling tables for GPU back-ends (Hexagon, AMD).
+
+**Usage**: Included directly on ``<Target>InstrInfo.cpp``.
+
+FastISel
+--------
+
+**Purpose**: This tablegen backend emits code for use by the "fast"
+instruction selection algorithm. See the comments at the top of
+lib/CodeGen/SelectionDAG/FastISel.cpp for background. This file
+scans through the target's tablegen instruction-info files
+and extracts instructions with obvious-looking patterns, and it emits
+code to look up these instructions by type and operator.
+
+**Output**: Generates ``Predicate`` and ``FastEmit`` methods.
+
+**Usage**: Implements private methods of the targets' implementation
+of ``FastISel`` class.
+
+Subtarget
+---------
+
+**Purpose**: Generate subtarget enumerations.
+
+**Output**: Enums, globals, local tables for sub-target information.
+
+**Usage**: Populates ``<Target>Subtarget`` and
+``MCTargetDesc/<Target>MCTargetDesc`` files (both headers and source).
+
+Intrinsic
+---------
+
+**Purpose**: Generate (target) intrinsic information.
+
+OptParserDefs
+-------------
+
+**Purpose**: Print enum values for a class.
+
+CTags
+-----
+
+**Purpose**: This tablegen backend emits an index of definitions in ctags(1)
+format. A helper script, utils/TableGen/tdtags, provides an easier-to-use
+interface; run 'tdtags -H' for documentation.
+
+Clang BackEnds
+==============
+
+ClangAttrClasses
+----------------
+
+**Purpose**: Creates Attrs.inc, which contains semantic attribute class
+declarations for any attribute in ``Attr.td`` that has not set ``ASTNode = 0``.
+This file is included as part of ``Attr.h``.
+
+ClangAttrParserStringSwitches
+-----------------------------
+
+**Purpose**: Creates AttrParserStringSwitches.inc, which contains
+StringSwitch::Case statements for parser-related string switches. Each switch
+is given its own macro (such as ``CLANG_ATTR_ARG_CONTEXT_LIST``, or
+``CLANG_ATTR_IDENTIFIER_ARG_LIST``), which is expected to be defined before
+including AttrParserStringSwitches.inc, and undefined after.
+
+ClangAttrImpl
+-------------
+
+**Purpose**: Creates AttrImpl.inc, which contains semantic attribute class
+definitions for any attribute in ``Attr.td`` that has not set ``ASTNode = 0``.
+This file is included as part of ``AttrImpl.cpp``.
+
+ClangAttrList
+-------------
+
+**Purpose**: Creates AttrList.inc, which is used when a list of semantic
+attribute identifiers is required. For instance, ``AttrKinds.h`` includes this
+file to generate the list of ``attr::Kind`` enumeration values. This list is
+separated out into multiple categories: attributes, inheritable attributes, and
+inheritable parameter attributes. This categorization happens automatically
+based on information in ``Attr.td`` and is used to implement the ``classof``
+functionality required for ``dyn_cast`` and similar APIs.
+
+ClangAttrPCHRead
+----------------
+
+**Purpose**: Creates AttrPCHRead.inc, which is used to deserialize attributes
+in the ``ASTReader::ReadAttributes`` function.
+
+ClangAttrPCHWrite
+-----------------
+
+**Purpose**: Creates AttrPCHWrite.inc, which is used to serialize attributes in
+the ``ASTWriter::WriteAttributes`` function.
+
+ClangAttrSpellings
+---------------------
+
+**Purpose**: Creates AttrSpellings.inc, which is used to implement the
+``__has_attribute`` feature test macro.
+
+ClangAttrSpellingListIndex
+--------------------------
+
+**Purpose**: Creates AttrSpellingListIndex.inc, which is used to map parsed
+attribute spellings (including which syntax or scope was used) to an attribute
+spelling list index. These spelling list index values are internal
+implementation details exposed via
+``AttributeList::getAttributeSpellingListIndex``.
+
+ClangAttrVisitor
+-------------------
+
+**Purpose**: Creates AttrVisitor.inc, which is used when implementing 
+recursive AST visitors.
+
+ClangAttrTemplateInstantiate
+----------------------------
+
+**Purpose**: Creates AttrTemplateInstantiate.inc, which implements the
+``instantiateTemplateAttribute`` function, used when instantiating a template
+that requires an attribute to be cloned.
+
+ClangAttrParsedAttrList
+-----------------------
+
+**Purpose**: Creates AttrParsedAttrList.inc, which is used to generate the
+``AttributeList::Kind`` parsed attribute enumeration.
+
+ClangAttrParsedAttrImpl
+-----------------------
+
+**Purpose**: Creates AttrParsedAttrImpl.inc, which is used by
+``AttributeList.cpp`` to implement several functions on the ``AttributeList``
+class. This functionality is implemented via the ``AttrInfoMap ParsedAttrInfo``
+array, which contains one element per parsed attribute object.
+
+ClangAttrParsedAttrKinds
+------------------------
+
+**Purpose**: Creates AttrParsedAttrKinds.inc, which is used to implement the
+``AttributeList::getKind`` function, mapping a string (and syntax) to a parsed
+attribute ``AttributeList::Kind`` enumeration.
+
+ClangAttrDump
+-------------
+
+**Purpose**: Creates AttrDump.inc, which dumps information about an attribute.
+It is used to implement ``ASTDumper::dumpAttr``.
+
+ClangDiagsDefs
+--------------
+
+Generate Clang diagnostics definitions.
+
+ClangDiagGroups
+---------------
+
+Generate Clang diagnostic groups.
+
+ClangDiagsIndexName
+-------------------
+
+Generate Clang diagnostic name index.
+
+ClangCommentNodes
+-----------------
+
+Generate Clang AST comment nodes.
+
+ClangDeclNodes
+--------------
+
+Generate Clang AST declaration nodes.
+
+ClangStmtNodes
+--------------
+
+Generate Clang AST statement nodes.
+
+ClangSACheckers
+---------------
+
+Generate Clang Static Analyzer checkers.
+
+ClangCommentHTMLTags
+--------------------
+
+Generate efficient matchers for HTML tag names that are used in documentation comments.
+
+ClangCommentHTMLTagsProperties
+------------------------------
+
+Generate efficient matchers for HTML tag properties.
+
+ClangCommentHTMLNamedCharacterReferences
+----------------------------------------
+
+Generate function to translate named character references to UTF-8 sequences.
+
+ClangCommentCommandInfo
+-----------------------
+
+Generate command properties for commands that are used in documentation comments.
+
+ClangCommentCommandList
+-----------------------
+
+Generate list of commands that are used in documentation comments.
+
+ArmNeon
+-------
+
+Generate arm_neon.h for clang.
+
+ArmNeonSema
+-----------
+
+Generate ARM NEON sema support for clang.
+
+ArmNeonTest
+-----------
+
+Generate ARM NEON tests for clang.
+
+AttrDocs
+--------
+
+**Purpose**: Creates ``AttributeReference.rst`` from ``AttrDocs.td``, and is
+used for documenting user-facing attributes.
+
+How to write a back-end
+=======================
+
+TODO.
+
+Until we get a step-by-step HowTo for writing TableGen backends, you can at
+least grab the boilerplate (build system, new files, etc.) from Clang's
+r173931.
+
+TODO: How they work, how to write one.  This section should not contain details
+about any particular backend, except maybe ``-print-enums`` as an example.  This
+should highlight the APIs in ``TableGen/Record.h``.
+

Added: www-releases/trunk/3.5.1/docs/_sources/TableGen/Deficiencies.txt
URL: http://llvm.org/viewvc/llvm-project/www-releases/trunk/3.5.1/docs/_sources/TableGen/Deficiencies.txt?rev=225843&view=auto
==============================================================================
--- www-releases/trunk/3.5.1/docs/_sources/TableGen/Deficiencies.txt (added)
+++ www-releases/trunk/3.5.1/docs/_sources/TableGen/Deficiencies.txt Tue Jan 13 16:55:20 2015
@@ -0,0 +1,31 @@
+=====================
+TableGen Deficiencies
+=====================
+
+.. contents::
+   :local:
+
+Introduction
+============
+
+Despite being very generic, TableGen has some deficiencies that have been
+pointed out numerous times. The common theme is that, while TableGen allows
+you to build Domain-Specific-Languages, the final languages that you create
+lack the power of other DSLs, which in turn increase considerably the size
+and complexity of TableGen files.
+
+At the same time, TableGen allows you to create virtually any meaning of
+the basic concepts via custom-made back-ends, which can pervert the original
+design and make it very hard for newcomers to understand it.
+
+There are some in favour of extending the semantics even more, but making sure
+back-ends adhere to strict rules. Others suggesting we should move to more
+powerful DSLs designed with specific purposes, or even re-using existing
+DSLs.
+
+Known Problems
+==============
+
+TODO: Add here frequently asked questions about why TableGen doesn't do
+what you want, how it might, and how we could extend/restrict it to
+be more use friendly.

Added: www-releases/trunk/3.5.1/docs/_sources/TableGen/LangIntro.txt
URL: http://llvm.org/viewvc/llvm-project/www-releases/trunk/3.5.1/docs/_sources/TableGen/LangIntro.txt?rev=225843&view=auto
==============================================================================
--- www-releases/trunk/3.5.1/docs/_sources/TableGen/LangIntro.txt (added)
+++ www-releases/trunk/3.5.1/docs/_sources/TableGen/LangIntro.txt Tue Jan 13 16:55:20 2015
@@ -0,0 +1,612 @@
+==============================
+TableGen Language Introduction
+==============================
+
+.. contents::
+   :local:
+
+.. warning::
+   This document is extremely rough. If you find something lacking, please
+   fix it, file a documentation bug, or ask about it on llvmdev.
+
+Introduction
+============
+
+This document is not meant to be a normative spec about the TableGen language
+in and of itself (i.e. how to understand a given construct in terms of how
+it affects the final set of records represented by the TableGen file). For
+the formal language specification, see :doc:`LangRef`.
+
+TableGen syntax
+===============
+
+TableGen doesn't care about the meaning of data (that is up to the backend to
+define), but it does care about syntax, and it enforces a simple type system.
+This section describes the syntax and the constructs allowed in a TableGen file.
+
+TableGen primitives
+-------------------
+
+TableGen comments
+^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
+
+TableGen supports C++ style "``//``" comments, which run to the end of the
+line, and it also supports **nestable** "``/* */``" comments.
+
+.. _TableGen type:
+
+The TableGen type system
+^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
+
+TableGen files are strongly typed, in a simple (but complete) type-system.
+These types are used to perform automatic conversions, check for errors, and to
+help interface designers constrain the input that they allow.  Every `value
+definition`_ is required to have an associated type.
+
+TableGen supports a mixture of very low-level types (such as ``bit``) and very
+high-level types (such as ``dag``).  This flexibility is what allows it to
+describe a wide range of information conveniently and compactly.  The TableGen
+types are:
+
+``bit``
+    A 'bit' is a boolean value that can hold either 0 or 1.
+
+``int``
+    The 'int' type represents a simple 32-bit integer value, such as 5.
+
+``string``
+    The 'string' type represents an ordered sequence of characters of arbitrary
+    length.
+
+``bits<n>``
+    A 'bits' type is an arbitrary, but fixed, size integer that is broken up
+    into individual bits.  This type is useful because it can handle some bits
+    being defined while others are undefined.
+
+``list<ty>``
+    This type represents a list whose elements are some other type.  The
+    contained type is arbitrary: it can even be another list type.
+
+Class type
+    Specifying a class name in a type context means that the defined value must
+    be a subclass of the specified class.  This is useful in conjunction with
+    the ``list`` type, for example, to constrain the elements of the list to a
+    common base class (e.g., a ``list<Register>`` can only contain definitions
+    derived from the "``Register``" class).
+
+``dag``
+    This type represents a nestable directed graph of elements.
+
+To date, these types have been sufficient for describing things that TableGen
+has been used for, but it is straight-forward to extend this list if needed.
+
+.. _TableGen expressions:
+
+TableGen values and expressions
+^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
+
+TableGen allows for a pretty reasonable number of different expression forms
+when building up values.  These forms allow the TableGen file to be written in a
+natural syntax and flavor for the application.  The current expression forms
+supported include:
+
+``?``
+    uninitialized field
+
+``0b1001011``
+    binary integer value
+
+``07654321``
+    octal integer value (indicated by a leading 0)
+
+``7``
+    decimal integer value
+
+``0x7F``
+    hexadecimal integer value
+
+``"foo"``
+    string value
+
+``[{ ... }]``
+    usually called a "code fragment", but is just a multiline string literal
+
+``[ X, Y, Z ]<type>``
+    list value.  <type> is the type of the list element and is usually optional.
+    In rare cases, TableGen is unable to deduce the element type in which case
+    the user must specify it explicitly.
+
+``{ a, b, c }``
+    initializer for a "bits<3>" value
+
+``value``
+    value reference
+
+``value{17}``
+    access to one bit of a value
+
+``value{15-17}``
+    access to multiple bits of a value
+
+``DEF``
+    reference to a record definition
+
+``CLASS<val list>``
+    reference to a new anonymous definition of CLASS with the specified template
+    arguments.
+
+``X.Y``
+    reference to the subfield of a value
+
+``list[4-7,17,2-3]``
+    A slice of the 'list' list, including elements 4,5,6,7,17,2, and 3 from it.
+    Elements may be included multiple times.
+
+``foreach <var> = [ <list> ] in { <body> }``
+
+``foreach <var> = [ <list> ] in <def>``
+    Replicate <body> or <def>, replacing instances of <var> with each value
+    in <list>.  <var> is scoped at the level of the ``foreach`` loop and must
+    not conflict with any other object introduced in <body> or <def>.  Currently
+    only ``def``\s are expanded within <body>.
+
+``foreach <var> = 0-15 in ...``
+
+``foreach <var> = {0-15,32-47} in ...``
+    Loop over ranges of integers. The braces are required for multiple ranges.
+
+``(DEF a, b)``
+    a dag value.  The first element is required to be a record definition, the
+    remaining elements in the list may be arbitrary other values, including
+    nested ```dag``' values.
+
+``!listconcat(a, b, ...)``
+    A list value that is the result of concatenating the 'a' and 'b' lists.
+    The lists must have the same element type.
+    More than two arguments are accepted with the result being the concatenation
+    of all the lists given.
+
+``!strconcat(a, b, ...)``
+    A string value that is the result of concatenating the 'a' and 'b' strings.
+    More than two arguments are accepted with the result being the concatenation
+    of all the strings given.
+
+``str1#str2``
+    "#" (paste) is a shorthand for !strconcat.  It may concatenate things that
+    are not quoted strings, in which case an implicit !cast<string> is done on
+    the operand of the paste.
+
+``!cast<type>(a)``
+    A symbol of type *type* obtained by looking up the string 'a' in the symbol
+    table.  If the type of 'a' does not match *type*, TableGen aborts with an
+    error. !cast<string> is a special case in that the argument must be an
+    object defined by a 'def' construct.
+
+``!subst(a, b, c)``
+    If 'a' and 'b' are of string type or are symbol references, substitute 'b'
+    for 'a' in 'c.'  This operation is analogous to $(subst) in GNU make.
+
+``!foreach(a, b, c)``
+    For each member 'b' of dag or list 'a' apply operator 'c.'  'b' is a dummy
+    variable that should be declared as a member variable of an instantiated
+    class.  This operation is analogous to $(foreach) in GNU make.
+
+``!head(a)``
+    The first element of list 'a.'
+
+``!tail(a)``
+    The 2nd-N elements of list 'a.'
+
+``!empty(a)``
+    An integer {0,1} indicating whether list 'a' is empty.
+
+``!if(a,b,c)``
+  'b' if the result of 'int' or 'bit' operator 'a' is nonzero, 'c' otherwise.
+
+``!eq(a,b)``
+    'bit 1' if string a is equal to string b, 0 otherwise.  This only operates
+    on string, int and bit objects.  Use !cast<string> to compare other types of
+    objects.
+
+``!shl(a,b)`` ``!srl(a,b)`` ``!sra(a,b)`` ``!add(a,b)``
+    The usual logical and arithmetic operators.
+
+Note that all of the values have rules specifying how they convert to values
+for different types.  These rules allow you to assign a value like "``7``"
+to a "``bits<4>``" value, for example.
+
+Classes and definitions
+-----------------------
+
+As mentioned in the :doc:`introduction <index>`, classes and definitions (collectively known as
+'records') in TableGen are the main high-level unit of information that TableGen
+collects.  Records are defined with a ``def`` or ``class`` keyword, the record
+name, and an optional list of "`template arguments`_".  If the record has
+superclasses, they are specified as a comma separated list that starts with a
+colon character ("``:``").  If `value definitions`_ or `let expressions`_ are
+needed for the class, they are enclosed in curly braces ("``{}``"); otherwise,
+the record ends with a semicolon.
+
+Here is a simple TableGen file:
+
+.. code-block:: llvm
+
+  class C { bit V = 1; }
+  def X : C;
+  def Y : C {
+    string Greeting = "hello";
+  }
+
+This example defines two definitions, ``X`` and ``Y``, both of which derive from
+the ``C`` class.  Because of this, they both get the ``V`` bit value.  The ``Y``
+definition also gets the Greeting member as well.
+
+In general, classes are useful for collecting together the commonality between a
+group of records and isolating it in a single place.  Also, classes permit the
+specification of default values for their subclasses, allowing the subclasses to
+override them as they wish.
+
+.. _value definition:
+.. _value definitions:
+
+Value definitions
+^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
+
+Value definitions define named entries in records.  A value must be defined
+before it can be referred to as the operand for another value definition or
+before the value is reset with a `let expression`_.  A value is defined by
+specifying a `TableGen type`_ and a name.  If an initial value is available, it
+may be specified after the type with an equal sign.  Value definitions require
+terminating semicolons.
+
+.. _let expression:
+.. _let expressions:
+.. _"let" expressions within a record:
+
+'let' expressions
+^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
+
+A record-level let expression is used to change the value of a value definition
+in a record.  This is primarily useful when a superclass defines a value that a
+derived class or definition wants to override.  Let expressions consist of the
+'``let``' keyword followed by a value name, an equal sign ("``=``"), and a new
+value.  For example, a new class could be added to the example above, redefining
+the ``V`` field for all of its subclasses:
+
+.. code-block:: llvm
+
+  class D : C { let V = 0; }
+  def Z : D;
+
+In this case, the ``Z`` definition will have a zero value for its ``V`` value,
+despite the fact that it derives (indirectly) from the ``C`` class, because the
+``D`` class overrode its value.
+
+.. _template arguments:
+
+Class template arguments
+^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
+
+TableGen permits the definition of parameterized classes as well as normal
+concrete classes.  Parameterized TableGen classes specify a list of variable
+bindings (which may optionally have defaults) that are bound when used.  Here is
+a simple example:
+
+.. code-block:: llvm
+
+  class FPFormat<bits<3> val> {
+    bits<3> Value = val;
+  }
+  def NotFP      : FPFormat<0>;
+  def ZeroArgFP  : FPFormat<1>;
+  def OneArgFP   : FPFormat<2>;
+  def OneArgFPRW : FPFormat<3>;
+  def TwoArgFP   : FPFormat<4>;
+  def CompareFP  : FPFormat<5>;
+  def CondMovFP  : FPFormat<6>;
+  def SpecialFP  : FPFormat<7>;
+
+In this case, template arguments are used as a space efficient way to specify a
+list of "enumeration values", each with a "``Value``" field set to the specified
+integer.
+
+The more esoteric forms of `TableGen expressions`_ are useful in conjunction
+with template arguments.  As an example:
+
+.. code-block:: llvm
+
+  class ModRefVal<bits<2> val> {
+    bits<2> Value = val;
+  }
+
+  def None   : ModRefVal<0>;
+  def Mod    : ModRefVal<1>;
+  def Ref    : ModRefVal<2>;
+  def ModRef : ModRefVal<3>;
+
+  class Value<ModRefVal MR> {
+    // Decode some information into a more convenient format, while providing
+    // a nice interface to the user of the "Value" class.
+    bit isMod = MR.Value{0};
+    bit isRef = MR.Value{1};
+
+    // other stuff...
+  }
+
+  // Example uses
+  def bork : Value<Mod>;
+  def zork : Value<Ref>;
+  def hork : Value<ModRef>;
+
+This is obviously a contrived example, but it shows how template arguments can
+be used to decouple the interface provided to the user of the class from the
+actual internal data representation expected by the class.  In this case,
+running ``llvm-tblgen`` on the example prints the following definitions:
+
+.. code-block:: llvm
+
+  def bork {      // Value
+    bit isMod = 1;
+    bit isRef = 0;
+  }
+  def hork {      // Value
+    bit isMod = 1;
+    bit isRef = 1;
+  }
+  def zork {      // Value
+    bit isMod = 0;
+    bit isRef = 1;
+  }
+
+This shows that TableGen was able to dig into the argument and extract a piece
+of information that was requested by the designer of the "Value" class.  For
+more realistic examples, please see existing users of TableGen, such as the X86
+backend.
+
+Multiclass definitions and instances
+^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
+
+While classes with template arguments are a good way to factor commonality
+between two instances of a definition, multiclasses allow a convenient notation
+for defining multiple definitions at once (instances of implicitly constructed
+classes).  For example, consider an 3-address instruction set whose instructions
+come in two forms: "``reg = reg op reg``" and "``reg = reg op imm``"
+(e.g. SPARC). In this case, you'd like to specify in one place that this
+commonality exists, then in a separate place indicate what all the ops are.
+
+Here is an example TableGen fragment that shows this idea:
+
+.. code-block:: llvm
+
+  def ops;
+  def GPR;
+  def Imm;
+  class inst<int opc, string asmstr, dag operandlist>;
+
+  multiclass ri_inst<int opc, string asmstr> {
+    def _rr : inst<opc, !strconcat(asmstr, " $dst, $src1, $src2"),
+                   (ops GPR:$dst, GPR:$src1, GPR:$src2)>;
+    def _ri : inst<opc, !strconcat(asmstr, " $dst, $src1, $src2"),
+                   (ops GPR:$dst, GPR:$src1, Imm:$src2)>;
+  }
+
+  // Instantiations of the ri_inst multiclass.
+  defm ADD : ri_inst<0b111, "add">;
+  defm SUB : ri_inst<0b101, "sub">;
+  defm MUL : ri_inst<0b100, "mul">;
+  ...
+
+The name of the resultant definitions has the multidef fragment names appended
+to them, so this defines ``ADD_rr``, ``ADD_ri``, ``SUB_rr``, etc.  A defm may
+inherit from multiple multiclasses, instantiating definitions from each
+multiclass.  Using a multiclass this way is exactly equivalent to instantiating
+the classes multiple times yourself, e.g. by writing:
+
+.. code-block:: llvm
+
+  def ops;
+  def GPR;
+  def Imm;
+  class inst<int opc, string asmstr, dag operandlist>;
+
+  class rrinst<int opc, string asmstr>
+    : inst<opc, !strconcat(asmstr, " $dst, $src1, $src2"),
+           (ops GPR:$dst, GPR:$src1, GPR:$src2)>;
+
+  class riinst<int opc, string asmstr>
+    : inst<opc, !strconcat(asmstr, " $dst, $src1, $src2"),
+           (ops GPR:$dst, GPR:$src1, Imm:$src2)>;
+
+  // Instantiations of the ri_inst multiclass.
+  def ADD_rr : rrinst<0b111, "add">;
+  def ADD_ri : riinst<0b111, "add">;
+  def SUB_rr : rrinst<0b101, "sub">;
+  def SUB_ri : riinst<0b101, "sub">;
+  def MUL_rr : rrinst<0b100, "mul">;
+  def MUL_ri : riinst<0b100, "mul">;
+  ...
+
+A ``defm`` can also be used inside a multiclass providing several levels of
+multiclass instantiations.
+
+.. code-block:: llvm
+
+  class Instruction<bits<4> opc, string Name> {
+    bits<4> opcode = opc;
+    string name = Name;
+  }
+
+  multiclass basic_r<bits<4> opc> {
+    def rr : Instruction<opc, "rr">;
+    def rm : Instruction<opc, "rm">;
+  }
+
+  multiclass basic_s<bits<4> opc> {
+    defm SS : basic_r<opc>;
+    defm SD : basic_r<opc>;
+    def X : Instruction<opc, "x">;
+  }
+
+  multiclass basic_p<bits<4> opc> {
+    defm PS : basic_r<opc>;
+    defm PD : basic_r<opc>;
+    def Y : Instruction<opc, "y">;
+  }
+
+  defm ADD : basic_s<0xf>, basic_p<0xf>;
+  ...
+
+  // Results
+  def ADDPDrm { ...
+  def ADDPDrr { ...
+  def ADDPSrm { ...
+  def ADDPSrr { ...
+  def ADDSDrm { ...
+  def ADDSDrr { ...
+  def ADDY { ...
+  def ADDX { ...
+
+``defm`` declarations can inherit from classes too, the rule to follow is that
+the class list must start after the last multiclass, and there must be at least
+one multiclass before them.
+
+.. code-block:: llvm
+
+  class XD { bits<4> Prefix = 11; }
+  class XS { bits<4> Prefix = 12; }
+
+  class I<bits<4> op> {
+    bits<4> opcode = op;
+  }
+
+  multiclass R {
+    def rr : I<4>;
+    def rm : I<2>;
+  }
+
+  multiclass Y {
+    defm SS : R, XD;
+    defm SD : R, XS;
+  }
+
+  defm Instr : Y;
+
+  // Results
+  def InstrSDrm {
+    bits<4> opcode = { 0, 0, 1, 0 };
+    bits<4> Prefix = { 1, 1, 0, 0 };
+  }
+  ...
+  def InstrSSrr {
+    bits<4> opcode = { 0, 1, 0, 0 };
+    bits<4> Prefix = { 1, 0, 1, 1 };
+  }
+
+File scope entities
+-------------------
+
+File inclusion
+^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
+
+TableGen supports the '``include``' token, which textually substitutes the
+specified file in place of the include directive.  The filename should be
+specified as a double quoted string immediately after the '``include``' keyword.
+Example:
+
+.. code-block:: llvm
+
+  include "foo.td"
+
+'let' expressions
+^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
+
+"Let" expressions at file scope are similar to `"let" expressions within a
+record`_, except they can specify a value binding for multiple records at a
+time, and may be useful in certain other cases.  File-scope let expressions are
+really just another way that TableGen allows the end-user to factor out
+commonality from the records.
+
+File-scope "let" expressions take a comma-separated list of bindings to apply,
+and one or more records to bind the values in.  Here are some examples:
+
+.. code-block:: llvm
+
+  let isTerminator = 1, isReturn = 1, isBarrier = 1, hasCtrlDep = 1 in
+    def RET : I<0xC3, RawFrm, (outs), (ins), "ret", [(X86retflag 0)]>;
+
+  let isCall = 1 in
+    // All calls clobber the non-callee saved registers...
+    let Defs = [EAX, ECX, EDX, FP0, FP1, FP2, FP3, FP4, FP5, FP6, ST0,
+                MM0, MM1, MM2, MM3, MM4, MM5, MM6, MM7,
+                XMM0, XMM1, XMM2, XMM3, XMM4, XMM5, XMM6, XMM7, EFLAGS] in {
+      def CALLpcrel32 : Ii32<0xE8, RawFrm, (outs), (ins i32imm:$dst,variable_ops),
+                             "call\t${dst:call}", []>;
+      def CALL32r     : I<0xFF, MRM2r, (outs), (ins GR32:$dst, variable_ops),
+                          "call\t{*}$dst", [(X86call GR32:$dst)]>;
+      def CALL32m     : I<0xFF, MRM2m, (outs), (ins i32mem:$dst, variable_ops),
+                          "call\t{*}$dst", []>;
+    }
+
+File-scope "let" expressions are often useful when a couple of definitions need
+to be added to several records, and the records do not otherwise need to be
+opened, as in the case with the ``CALL*`` instructions above.
+
+It's also possible to use "let" expressions inside multiclasses, providing more
+ways to factor out commonality from the records, specially if using several
+levels of multiclass instantiations. This also avoids the need of using "let"
+expressions within subsequent records inside a multiclass.
+
+.. code-block:: llvm
+
+  multiclass basic_r<bits<4> opc> {
+    let Predicates = [HasSSE2] in {
+      def rr : Instruction<opc, "rr">;
+      def rm : Instruction<opc, "rm">;
+    }
+    let Predicates = [HasSSE3] in
+      def rx : Instruction<opc, "rx">;
+  }
+
+  multiclass basic_ss<bits<4> opc> {
+    let IsDouble = 0 in
+      defm SS : basic_r<opc>;
+
+    let IsDouble = 1 in
+      defm SD : basic_r<opc>;
+  }
+
+  defm ADD : basic_ss<0xf>;
+
+Looping
+^^^^^^^
+
+TableGen supports the '``foreach``' block, which textually replicates the loop
+body, substituting iterator values for iterator references in the body.
+Example:
+
+.. code-block:: llvm
+
+  foreach i = [0, 1, 2, 3] in {
+    def R#i : Register<...>;
+    def F#i : Register<...>;
+  }
+
+This will create objects ``R0``, ``R1``, ``R2`` and ``R3``.  ``foreach`` blocks
+may be nested. If there is only one item in the body the braces may be
+elided:
+
+.. code-block:: llvm
+
+  foreach i = [0, 1, 2, 3] in
+    def R#i : Register<...>;
+
+Code Generator backend info
+===========================
+
+Expressions used by code generator to describe instructions and isel patterns:
+
+``(implicit a)``
+    an implicitly defined physical register.  This tells the dag instruction
+    selection emitter the input pattern's extra definitions matches implicit
+    physical register definitions.
+

Added: www-releases/trunk/3.5.1/docs/_sources/TableGen/LangRef.txt
URL: http://llvm.org/viewvc/llvm-project/www-releases/trunk/3.5.1/docs/_sources/TableGen/LangRef.txt?rev=225843&view=auto
==============================================================================
--- www-releases/trunk/3.5.1/docs/_sources/TableGen/LangRef.txt (added)
+++ www-releases/trunk/3.5.1/docs/_sources/TableGen/LangRef.txt Tue Jan 13 16:55:20 2015
@@ -0,0 +1,384 @@
+===========================
+TableGen Language Reference
+===========================
+
+.. contents::
+   :local:
+
+.. warning::
+   This document is extremely rough. If you find something lacking, please
+   fix it, file a documentation bug, or ask about it on llvmdev.
+
+Introduction
+============
+
+This document is meant to be a normative spec about the TableGen language
+in and of itself (i.e. how to understand a given construct in terms of how
+it affects the final set of records represented by the TableGen file). If
+you are unsure if this document is really what you are looking for, please
+read the :doc:`introduction to TableGen <index>` first.
+
+Notation
+========
+
+The lexical and syntax notation used here is intended to imitate
+`Python's`_. In particular, for lexical definitions, the productions
+operate at the character level and there is no implied whitespace between
+elements. The syntax definitions operate at the token level, so there is
+implied whitespace between tokens.
+
+.. _`Python's`: http://docs.python.org/py3k/reference/introduction.html#notation
+
+Lexical Analysis
+================
+
+TableGen supports BCPL (``// ...``) and nestable C-style (``/* ... */``)
+comments.
+
+The following is a listing of the basic punctuation tokens::
+
+   - + [ ] { } ( ) < > : ; .  = ? #
+
+Numeric literals take one of the following forms:
+
+.. TableGen actually will lex some pretty strange sequences an interpret
+   them as numbers. What is shown here is an attempt to approximate what it
+   "should" accept.
+
+.. productionlist::
+   TokInteger: `DecimalInteger` | `HexInteger` | `BinInteger`
+   DecimalInteger: ["+" | "-"] ("0"..."9")+
+   HexInteger: "0x" ("0"..."9" | "a"..."f" | "A"..."F")+
+   BinInteger: "0b" ("0" | "1")+
+
+One aspect to note is that the :token:`DecimalInteger` token *includes* the
+``+`` or ``-``, as opposed to having ``+`` and ``-`` be unary operators as
+most languages do.
+
+TableGen has identifier-like tokens:
+
+.. productionlist::
+   ualpha: "a"..."z" | "A"..."Z" | "_"
+   TokIdentifier: ("0"..."9")* `ualpha` (`ualpha` | "0"..."9")*
+   TokVarName: "$" `ualpha` (`ualpha` |  "0"..."9")*
+
+Note that unlike most languages, TableGen allows :token:`TokIdentifier` to
+begin with a number. In case of ambiguity, a token will be interpreted as a
+numeric literal rather than an identifier.
+
+TableGen also has two string-like literals:
+
+.. productionlist::
+   TokString: '"' <non-'"' characters and C-like escapes> '"'
+   TokCodeFragment: "[{" <shortest text not containing "}]"> "}]"
+
+:token:`TokCodeFragment` is essentially a multiline string literal
+delimited by ``[{`` and ``}]``.
+
+.. note::
+   The current implementation accepts the following C-like escapes::
+
+      \\ \' \" \t \n
+
+TableGen also has the following keywords::
+
+   bit   bits      class   code         dag
+   def   foreach   defm    field        in
+   int   let       list    multiclass   string
+
+TableGen also has "bang operators" which have a
+wide variety of meanings:
+
+.. productionlist::
+   BangOperator: one of
+               :!eq     !if      !head    !tail      !con
+               :!add    !shl     !sra     !srl
+               :!cast   !empty   !subst   !foreach   !listconcat   !strconcat
+
+Syntax
+======
+
+TableGen has an ``include`` mechanism. It does not play a role in the
+syntax per se, since it is lexically replaced with the contents of the
+included file.
+
+.. productionlist::
+   IncludeDirective: "include" `TokString`
+
+TableGen's top-level production consists of "objects".
+
+.. productionlist::
+   TableGenFile: `Object`*
+   Object: `Class` | `Def` | `Defm` | `Let` | `MultiClass` | `Foreach`
+
+``class``\es
+------------
+
+.. productionlist::
+   Class: "class" `TokIdentifier` [`TemplateArgList`] `ObjectBody`
+
+A ``class`` declaration creates a record which other records can inherit
+from. A class can be parametrized by a list of "template arguments", whose
+values can be used in the class body.
+
+A given class can only be defined once. A ``class`` declaration is
+considered to define the class if any of the following is true:
+
+.. break ObjectBody into its consituents so that they are present here?
+
+#. The :token:`TemplateArgList` is present.
+#. The :token:`Body` in the :token:`ObjectBody` is present and is not empty.
+#. The :token:`BaseClassList` in the :token:`ObjectBody` is present.
+
+You can declare an empty class by giving and empty :token:`TemplateArgList`
+and an empty :token:`ObjectBody`. This can serve as a restricted form of
+forward declaration: note that records deriving from the forward-declared
+class will inherit no fields from it since the record expansion is done
+when the record is parsed.
+
+.. productionlist::
+   TemplateArgList: "<" `Declaration` ("," `Declaration`)* ">"
+
+Declarations
+------------
+
+.. Omitting mention of arcane "field" prefix to discourage its use.
+
+The declaration syntax is pretty much what you would expect as a C++
+programmer.
+
+.. productionlist::
+   Declaration: `Type` `TokIdentifier` ["=" `Value`]
+
+It assigns the value to the identifer.
+
+Types
+-----
+
+.. productionlist::
+   Type: "string" | "code" | "bit" | "int" | "dag"
+       :| "bits" "<" `TokInteger` ">"
+       :| "list" "<" `Type` ">"
+       :| `ClassID`
+   ClassID: `TokIdentifier`
+
+Both ``string`` and ``code`` correspond to the string type; the difference
+is purely to indicate programmer intention.
+
+The :token:`ClassID` must identify a class that has been previously
+declared or defined.
+
+Values
+------
+
+.. productionlist::
+   Value: `SimpleValue` `ValueSuffix`*
+   ValueSuffix: "{" `RangeList` "}"
+              :| "[" `RangeList` "]"
+              :| "." `TokIdentifier`
+   RangeList: `RangePiece` ("," `RangePiece`)*
+   RangePiece: `TokInteger`
+             :| `TokInteger` "-" `TokInteger`
+             :| `TokInteger` `TokInteger`
+
+The peculiar last form of :token:`RangePiece` is due to the fact that the
+"``-``" is included in the :token:`TokInteger`, hence ``1-5`` gets lexed as
+two consecutive :token:`TokInteger`'s, with values ``1`` and ``-5``,
+instead of "1", "-", and "5".
+The :token:`RangeList` can be thought of as specifying "list slice" in some
+contexts.
+
+
+:token:`SimpleValue` has a number of forms:
+
+
+.. productionlist::
+   SimpleValue: `TokIdentifier`
+
+The value will be the variable referenced by the identifier. It can be one
+of:
+
+.. The code for this is exceptionally abstruse. These examples are a
+   best-effort attempt.
+
+* name of a ``def``, such as the use of ``Bar`` in::
+
+     def Bar : SomeClass {
+       int X = 5;
+     }
+
+     def Foo {
+       SomeClass Baz = Bar;
+     }
+
+* value local to a ``def``, such as the use of ``Bar`` in::
+
+     def Foo {
+       int Bar = 5;
+       int Baz = Bar;
+     }
+
+* a template arg of a ``class``, such as the use of ``Bar`` in::
+
+     class Foo<int Bar> {
+       int Baz = Bar;
+     }
+
+* value local to a ``multiclass``, such as the use of ``Bar`` in::
+
+     multiclass Foo {
+       int Bar = 5;
+       int Baz = Bar;
+     }
+
+* a template arg to a ``multiclass``, such as the use of ``Bar`` in::
+
+     multiclass Foo<int Bar> {
+       int Baz = Bar;
+     }
+
+.. productionlist::
+   SimpleValue: `TokInteger`
+
+This represents the numeric value of the integer.
+
+.. productionlist::
+   SimpleValue: `TokString`+
+
+Multiple adjacent string literals are concatenated like in C/C++. The value
+is the concatenation of the strings.
+
+.. productionlist::
+   SimpleValue: `TokCodeFragment`
+
+The value is the string value of the code fragment.
+
+.. productionlist::
+   SimpleValue: "?"
+
+``?`` represents an "unset" initializer.
+
+.. productionlist::
+   SimpleValue: "{" `ValueList` "}"
+   ValueList: [`ValueListNE`]
+   ValueListNE: `Value` ("," `Value`)*
+
+This represents a sequence of bits, as would be used to initialize a
+``bits<n>`` field (where ``n`` is the number of bits).
+
+.. productionlist::
+   SimpleValue: `ClassID` "<" `ValueListNE` ">"
+
+This generates a new anonymous record definition (as would be created by an
+unnamed ``def`` inheriting from the given class with the given template
+arguments) and the value is the value of that record definition.
+
+.. productionlist::
+   SimpleValue: "[" `ValueList` "]" ["<" `Type` ">"]
+
+A list initializer. The optional :token:`Type` can be used to indicate a
+specific element type, otherwise the element type will be deduced from the
+given values.
+
+.. The initial `DagArg` of the dag must start with an identifier or
+   !cast, but this is more of an implementation detail and so for now just
+   leave it out.
+
+.. productionlist::
+   SimpleValue: "(" `DagArg` `DagArgList` ")"
+   DagArgList: `DagArg` ("," `DagArg`)*
+   DagArg: `Value` [":" `TokVarName`] | `TokVarName`
+
+The initial :token:`DagArg` is called the "operator" of the dag.
+
+.. productionlist::
+   SimpleValue: `BangOperator` ["<" `Type` ">"] "(" `ValueListNE` ")"
+
+Bodies
+------
+
+.. productionlist::
+   ObjectBody: `BaseClassList` `Body`
+   BaseClassList: [":" `BaseClassListNE`]
+   BaseClassListNE: `SubClassRef` ("," `SubClassRef`)*
+   SubClassRef: (`ClassID` | `MultiClassID`) ["<" `ValueList` ">"]
+   DefmID: `TokIdentifier`
+
+The version with the :token:`MultiClassID` is only valid in the
+:token:`BaseClassList` of a ``defm``.
+The :token:`MultiClassID` should be the name of a ``multiclass``.
+
+.. put this somewhere else
+
+It is after parsing the base class list that the "let stack" is applied.
+
+.. productionlist::
+   Body: ";" | "{" BodyList "}"
+   BodyList: BodyItem*
+   BodyItem: `Declaration` ";"
+           :| "let" `TokIdentifier` [`RangeList`] "=" `Value` ";"
+
+The ``let`` form allows overriding the value of an inherited field.
+
+``def``
+-------
+
+.. TODO::
+   There can be pastes in the names here, like ``#NAME#``. Look into that
+   and document it (it boils down to ParseIDValue with IDParseMode ==
+   ParseNameMode). ParseObjectName calls into the general ParseValue, with
+   the only different from "arbitrary expression parsing" being IDParseMode
+   == Mode.
+
+.. productionlist::
+   Def: "def" `TokIdentifier` `ObjectBody`
+
+Defines a record whose name is given by the :token:`TokIdentifier`. The
+fields of the record are inherited from the base classes and defined in the
+body.
+
+Special handling occurs if this ``def`` appears inside a ``multiclass`` or
+a ``foreach``.
+
+``defm``
+--------
+
+.. productionlist::
+   Defm: "defm" `TokIdentifier` ":" `BaseClassListNE` ";"
+
+Note that in the :token:`BaseClassList`, all of the ``multiclass``'s must
+precede any ``class``'s that appear.
+
+``foreach``
+-----------
+
+.. productionlist::
+   Foreach: "foreach" `Declaration` "in" "{" `Object`* "}"
+          :| "foreach" `Declaration` "in" `Object`
+
+The value assigned to the variable in the declaration is iterated over and
+the object or object list is reevaluated with the variable set at each
+iterated value.
+
+Top-Level ``let``
+-----------------
+
+.. productionlist::
+   Let:  "let" `LetList` "in" "{" `Object`* "}"
+      :| "let" `LetList` "in" `Object`
+   LetList: `LetItem` ("," `LetItem`)*
+   LetItem: `TokIdentifier` [`RangeList`] "=" `Value`
+
+This is effectively equivalent to ``let`` inside the body of a record
+except that it applies to multiple records at a time. The bindings are
+applied at the end of parsing the base classes of a record.
+
+``multiclass``
+--------------
+
+.. productionlist::
+   MultiClass: "multiclass" `TokIdentifier` [`TemplateArgList`]
+             : [":" `BaseMultiClassList`] "{" `MultiClassObject`+ "}"
+   BaseMultiClassList: `MultiClassID` ("," `MultiClassID`)*
+   MultiClassID: `TokIdentifier`
+   MultiClassObject: `Def` | `Defm` | `Let` | `Foreach`

Added: www-releases/trunk/3.5.1/docs/_sources/TableGen/index.txt
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==============================================================================
--- www-releases/trunk/3.5.1/docs/_sources/TableGen/index.txt (added)
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@@ -0,0 +1,309 @@
+========
+TableGen
+========
+
+.. contents::
+   :local:
+
+.. toctree::
+   :hidden:
+
+   BackEnds
+   LangRef
+   LangIntro
+   Deficiencies
+
+Introduction
+============
+
+TableGen's purpose is to help a human develop and maintain records of
+domain-specific information.  Because there may be a large number of these
+records, it is specifically designed to allow writing flexible descriptions and
+for common features of these records to be factored out.  This reduces the
+amount of duplication in the description, reduces the chance of error, and makes
+it easier to structure domain specific information.
+
+The core part of TableGen parses a file, instantiates the declarations, and
+hands the result off to a domain-specific `backend`_ for processing.
+
+The current major users of TableGen are :doc:`../CodeGenerator`
+and the
+`Clang diagnostics and attributes <http://clang.llvm.org/docs/UsersManual.html#controlling-errors-and-warnings>`_.
+
+Note that if you work on TableGen much, and use emacs or vim, that you can find
+an emacs "TableGen mode" and a vim language file in the ``llvm/utils/emacs`` and
+``llvm/utils/vim`` directories of your LLVM distribution, respectively.
+
+.. _intro:
+
+
+The TableGen program
+====================
+
+TableGen files are interpreted by the TableGen program: `llvm-tblgen` available
+on your build directory under `bin`. It is not installed in the system (or where
+your sysroot is set to), since it has no use beyond LLVM's build process.
+
+Running TableGen
+----------------
+
+TableGen runs just like any other LLVM tool.  The first (optional) argument
+specifies the file to read.  If a filename is not specified, ``llvm-tblgen``
+reads from standard input.
+
+To be useful, one of the `backends`_ must be used.  These backends are
+selectable on the command line (type '``llvm-tblgen -help``' for a list).  For
+example, to get a list of all of the definitions that subclass a particular type
+(which can be useful for building up an enum list of these records), use the
+``-print-enums`` option:
+
+.. code-block:: bash
+
+  $ llvm-tblgen X86.td -print-enums -class=Register
+  AH, AL, AX, BH, BL, BP, BPL, BX, CH, CL, CX, DH, DI, DIL, DL, DX, EAX, EBP, EBX,
+  ECX, EDI, EDX, EFLAGS, EIP, ESI, ESP, FP0, FP1, FP2, FP3, FP4, FP5, FP6, IP,
+  MM0, MM1, MM2, MM3, MM4, MM5, MM6, MM7, R10, R10B, R10D, R10W, R11, R11B, R11D,
+  R11W, R12, R12B, R12D, R12W, R13, R13B, R13D, R13W, R14, R14B, R14D, R14W, R15,
+  R15B, R15D, R15W, R8, R8B, R8D, R8W, R9, R9B, R9D, R9W, RAX, RBP, RBX, RCX, RDI,
+  RDX, RIP, RSI, RSP, SI, SIL, SP, SPL, ST0, ST1, ST2, ST3, ST4, ST5, ST6, ST7,
+  XMM0, XMM1, XMM10, XMM11, XMM12, XMM13, XMM14, XMM15, XMM2, XMM3, XMM4, XMM5,
+  XMM6, XMM7, XMM8, XMM9,
+
+  $ llvm-tblgen X86.td -print-enums -class=Instruction 
+  ABS_F, ABS_Fp32, ABS_Fp64, ABS_Fp80, ADC32mi, ADC32mi8, ADC32mr, ADC32ri,
+  ADC32ri8, ADC32rm, ADC32rr, ADC64mi32, ADC64mi8, ADC64mr, ADC64ri32, ADC64ri8,
+  ADC64rm, ADC64rr, ADD16mi, ADD16mi8, ADD16mr, ADD16ri, ADD16ri8, ADD16rm,
+  ADD16rr, ADD32mi, ADD32mi8, ADD32mr, ADD32ri, ADD32ri8, ADD32rm, ADD32rr,
+  ADD64mi32, ADD64mi8, ADD64mr, ADD64ri32, ...
+
+The default backend prints out all of the records.
+
+If you plan to use TableGen, you will most likely have to write a `backend`_
+that extracts the information specific to what you need and formats it in the
+appropriate way.
+
+Example
+-------
+
+With no other arguments, `llvm-tblgen` parses the specified file and prints out all
+of the classes, then all of the definitions.  This is a good way to see what the
+various definitions expand to fully.  Running this on the ``X86.td`` file prints
+this (at the time of this writing):
+
+.. code-block:: llvm
+
+  ...
+  def ADD32rr {   // Instruction X86Inst I
+    string Namespace = "X86";
+    dag OutOperandList = (outs GR32:$dst);
+    dag InOperandList = (ins GR32:$src1, GR32:$src2);
+    string AsmString = "add{l}\t{$src2, $dst|$dst, $src2}";
+    list<dag> Pattern = [(set GR32:$dst, (add GR32:$src1, GR32:$src2))];
+    list<Register> Uses = [];
+    list<Register> Defs = [EFLAGS];
+    list<Predicate> Predicates = [];
+    int CodeSize = 3;
+    int AddedComplexity = 0;
+    bit isReturn = 0;
+    bit isBranch = 0;
+    bit isIndirectBranch = 0;
+    bit isBarrier = 0;
+    bit isCall = 0;
+    bit canFoldAsLoad = 0;
+    bit mayLoad = 0;
+    bit mayStore = 0;
+    bit isImplicitDef = 0;
+    bit isConvertibleToThreeAddress = 1;
+    bit isCommutable = 1;
+    bit isTerminator = 0;
+    bit isReMaterializable = 0;
+    bit isPredicable = 0;
+    bit hasDelaySlot = 0;
+    bit usesCustomInserter = 0;
+    bit hasCtrlDep = 0;
+    bit isNotDuplicable = 0;
+    bit hasSideEffects = 0;
+    bit neverHasSideEffects = 0;
+    InstrItinClass Itinerary = NoItinerary;
+    string Constraints = "";
+    string DisableEncoding = "";
+    bits<8> Opcode = { 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 1 };
+    Format Form = MRMDestReg;
+    bits<6> FormBits = { 0, 0, 0, 0, 1, 1 };
+    ImmType ImmT = NoImm;
+    bits<3> ImmTypeBits = { 0, 0, 0 };
+    bit hasOpSizePrefix = 0;
+    bit hasAdSizePrefix = 0;
+    bits<4> Prefix = { 0, 0, 0, 0 };
+    bit hasREX_WPrefix = 0;
+    FPFormat FPForm = ?;
+    bits<3> FPFormBits = { 0, 0, 0 };
+  }
+  ...
+
+This definition corresponds to the 32-bit register-register ``add`` instruction
+of the x86 architecture.  ``def ADD32rr`` defines a record named
+``ADD32rr``, and the comment at the end of the line indicates the superclasses
+of the definition.  The body of the record contains all of the data that
+TableGen assembled for the record, indicating that the instruction is part of
+the "X86" namespace, the pattern indicating how the instruction is selected by
+the code generator, that it is a two-address instruction, has a particular
+encoding, etc.  The contents and semantics of the information in the record are
+specific to the needs of the X86 backend, and are only shown as an example.
+
+As you can see, a lot of information is needed for every instruction supported
+by the code generator, and specifying it all manually would be unmaintainable,
+prone to bugs, and tiring to do in the first place.  Because we are using
+TableGen, all of the information was derived from the following definition:
+
+.. code-block:: llvm
+
+  let Defs = [EFLAGS],
+      isCommutable = 1,                  // X = ADD Y,Z --> X = ADD Z,Y
+      isConvertibleToThreeAddress = 1 in // Can transform into LEA.
+  def ADD32rr  : I<0x01, MRMDestReg, (outs GR32:$dst),
+                                     (ins GR32:$src1, GR32:$src2),
+                   "add{l}\t{$src2, $dst|$dst, $src2}",
+                   [(set GR32:$dst, (add GR32:$src1, GR32:$src2))]>;
+
+This definition makes use of the custom class ``I`` (extended from the custom
+class ``X86Inst``), which is defined in the X86-specific TableGen file, to
+factor out the common features that instructions of its class share.  A key
+feature of TableGen is that it allows the end-user to define the abstractions
+they prefer to use when describing their information.
+
+Each ``def`` record has a special entry called "NAME".  This is the name of the
+record ("``ADD32rr``" above).  In the general case ``def`` names can be formed
+from various kinds of string processing expressions and ``NAME`` resolves to the
+final value obtained after resolving all of those expressions.  The user may
+refer to ``NAME`` anywhere she desires to use the ultimate name of the ``def``.
+``NAME`` should not be defined anywhere else in user code to avoid conflicts.
+
+Syntax
+======
+
+TableGen has a syntax that is loosely based on C++ templates, with built-in
+types and specification. In addition, TableGen's syntax introduces some
+automation concepts like multiclass, foreach, let, etc.
+
+Basic concepts
+--------------
+
+TableGen files consist of two key parts: 'classes' and 'definitions', both of
+which are considered 'records'.
+
+**TableGen records** have a unique name, a list of values, and a list of
+superclasses.  The list of values is the main data that TableGen builds for each
+record; it is this that holds the domain specific information for the
+application.  The interpretation of this data is left to a specific `backend`_,
+but the structure and format rules are taken care of and are fixed by
+TableGen.
+
+**TableGen definitions** are the concrete form of 'records'.  These generally do
+not have any undefined values, and are marked with the '``def``' keyword.
+
+.. code-block:: llvm
+
+  def FeatureFPARMv8 : SubtargetFeature<"fp-armv8", "HasFPARMv8", "true",
+                                        "Enable ARMv8 FP">;
+
+In this example, FeatureFPARMv8 is ``SubtargetFeature`` record initialised
+with some values. The names of the classes are defined via the
+keyword `class` either on the same file or some other included. Most target
+TableGen files include the generic ones in ``include/llvm/Target``.
+
+**TableGen classes** are abstract records that are used to build and describe
+other records.  These classes allow the end-user to build abstractions for
+either the domain they are targeting (such as "Register", "RegisterClass", and
+"Instruction" in the LLVM code generator) or for the implementor to help factor
+out common properties of records (such as "FPInst", which is used to represent
+floating point instructions in the X86 backend).  TableGen keeps track of all of
+the classes that are used to build up a definition, so the backend can find all
+definitions of a particular class, such as "Instruction".
+
+.. code-block:: llvm
+
+ class ProcNoItin<string Name, list<SubtargetFeature> Features>
+       : Processor<Name, NoItineraries, Features>;
+  
+Here, the class ProcNoItin, receiving parameters `Name` of type `string` and
+a list of target features is specializing the class Processor by passing the
+arguments down as well as hard-coding NoItineraries.
+
+**TableGen multiclasses** are groups of abstract records that are instantiated
+all at once.  Each instantiation can result in multiple TableGen definitions.
+If a multiclass inherits from another multiclass, the definitions in the
+sub-multiclass become part of the current multiclass, as if they were declared
+in the current multiclass.
+
+.. code-block:: llvm
+
+  multiclass ro_signed_pats<string T, string Rm, dag Base, dag Offset, dag Extend,
+                          dag address, ValueType sty> {
+  def : Pat<(i32 (!cast<SDNode>("sextload" # sty) address)),
+            (!cast<Instruction>("LDRS" # T # "w_" # Rm # "_RegOffset")
+              Base, Offset, Extend)>;
+
+  def : Pat<(i64 (!cast<SDNode>("sextload" # sty) address)),
+            (!cast<Instruction>("LDRS" # T # "x_" # Rm # "_RegOffset")
+              Base, Offset, Extend)>;
+  }
+
+  defm : ro_signed_pats<"B", Rm, Base, Offset, Extend,
+                        !foreach(decls.pattern, address,
+                                 !subst(SHIFT, imm_eq0, decls.pattern)),
+                        i8>;
+
+
+
+See the :doc:`TableGen Language Introduction <LangIntro>` for more generic
+information on the usage of the language, and the
+:doc:`TableGen Language Reference <LangRef>` for more in-depth description
+of the formal language specification.
+
+.. _backend:
+.. _backends:
+
+TableGen backends
+=================
+
+TableGen files have no real meaning without a back-end. The default operation
+of running ``llvm-tblgen`` is to print the information in a textual format, but
+that's only useful for debugging of the TableGen files themselves. The power
+in TableGen is, however, to interpret the source files into an internal 
+representation that can be generated into anything you want.
+
+Current usage of TableGen is to create include huge files with tables that you
+can either include directly (if the output is in the language you're coding),
+or be used in pre-processing via macros surrounding the include of the file.
+
+Direct output can be used if the back-end already prints a table in C format
+or if the output is just a list of strings (for error and warning messages).
+Pre-processed output should be used if the same information needs to be used
+in different contexts (like Instruction names), so your back-end should print
+a meta-information list that can be shaped into different compile-time formats.
+
+See the `TableGen BackEnds <BackEnds.html>`_ for more information.
+
+TableGen Deficiencies
+=====================
+
+Despite being very generic, TableGen has some deficiencies that have been
+pointed out numerous times. The common theme is that, while TableGen allows
+you to build Domain-Specific-Languages, the final languages that you create
+lack the power of other DSLs, which in turn increase considerably the size
+and complecity of TableGen files.
+
+At the same time, TableGen allows you to create virtually any meaning of
+the basic concepts via custom-made back-ends, which can pervert the original
+design and make it very hard for newcomers to understand the evil TableGen
+file.
+
+There are some in favour of extending the semantics even more, but making sure
+back-ends adhere to strict rules. Others are suggesting we should move to less,
+more powerful DSLs designed with specific purposes, or even re-using existing
+DSLs.
+
+Either way, this is a discussion that will likely span across several years,
+if not decades. You can read more in the `TableGen Deficiencies <Deficiencies.html>`_
+document.

Added: www-releases/trunk/3.5.1/docs/_sources/TableGenFundamentals.txt
URL: http://llvm.org/viewvc/llvm-project/www-releases/trunk/3.5.1/docs/_sources/TableGenFundamentals.txt?rev=225843&view=auto
==============================================================================
--- www-releases/trunk/3.5.1/docs/_sources/TableGenFundamentals.txt (added)
+++ www-releases/trunk/3.5.1/docs/_sources/TableGenFundamentals.txt Tue Jan 13 16:55:20 2015
@@ -0,0 +1,10 @@
+=====================
+TableGen Fundamentals
+=====================
+
+Moved
+=====
+
+The TableGen fundamentals documentation has moved to a directory on its own
+and is now available at :doc:`TableGen/index`. Please, change your links to
+that page.

Added: www-releases/trunk/3.5.1/docs/_sources/TestSuiteMakefileGuide.txt
URL: http://llvm.org/viewvc/llvm-project/www-releases/trunk/3.5.1/docs/_sources/TestSuiteMakefileGuide.txt?rev=225843&view=auto
==============================================================================
--- www-releases/trunk/3.5.1/docs/_sources/TestSuiteMakefileGuide.txt (added)
+++ www-releases/trunk/3.5.1/docs/_sources/TestSuiteMakefileGuide.txt Tue Jan 13 16:55:20 2015
@@ -0,0 +1,276 @@
+==============================
+LLVM test-suite Makefile Guide
+==============================
+
+.. contents::
+   :local:
+
+Overview
+========
+
+This document describes the features of the Makefile-based LLVM
+test-suite. This way of interacting with the test-suite is deprecated in
+favor of running the test-suite using LNT, but may continue to prove
+useful for some users. See the Testing Guide's :ref:`test-suite Quickstart
+<test-suite-quickstart>` section for more information.
+
+Test suite Structure
+====================
+
+The ``test-suite`` module contains a number of programs that can be
+compiled with LLVM and executed. These programs are compiled using the
+native compiler and various LLVM backends. The output from the program
+compiled with the native compiler is assumed correct; the results from
+the other programs are compared to the native program output and pass if
+they match.
+
+When executing tests, it is usually a good idea to start out with a
+subset of the available tests or programs. This makes test run times
+smaller at first and later on this is useful to investigate individual
+test failures. To run some test only on a subset of programs, simply
+change directory to the programs you want tested and run ``gmake``
+there. Alternatively, you can run a different test using the ``TEST``
+variable to change what tests or run on the selected programs (see below
+for more info).
+
+In addition for testing correctness, the ``test-suite`` directory also
+performs timing tests of various LLVM optimizations. It also records
+compilation times for the compilers and the JIT. This information can be
+used to compare the effectiveness of LLVM's optimizations and code
+generation.
+
+``test-suite`` tests are divided into three types of tests: MultiSource,
+SingleSource, and External.
+
+-  ``test-suite/SingleSource``
+
+   The SingleSource directory contains test programs that are only a
+   single source file in size. These are usually small benchmark
+   programs or small programs that calculate a particular value. Several
+   such programs are grouped together in each directory.
+
+-  ``test-suite/MultiSource``
+
+   The MultiSource directory contains subdirectories which contain
+   entire programs with multiple source files. Large benchmarks and
+   whole applications go here.
+
+-  ``test-suite/External``
+
+   The External directory contains Makefiles for building code that is
+   external to (i.e., not distributed with) LLVM. The most prominent
+   members of this directory are the SPEC 95 and SPEC 2000 benchmark
+   suites. The ``External`` directory does not contain these actual
+   tests, but only the Makefiles that know how to properly compile these
+   programs from somewhere else. The presence and location of these
+   external programs is configured by the test-suite ``configure``
+   script.
+
+Each tree is then subdivided into several categories, including
+applications, benchmarks, regression tests, code that is strange
+grammatically, etc. These organizations should be relatively self
+explanatory.
+
+Some tests are known to fail. Some are bugs that we have not fixed yet;
+others are features that we haven't added yet (or may never add). In the
+regression tests, the result for such tests will be XFAIL (eXpected
+FAILure). In this way, you can tell the difference between an expected
+and unexpected failure.
+
+The tests in the test suite have no such feature at this time. If the
+test passes, only warnings and other miscellaneous output will be
+generated. If a test fails, a large <program> FAILED message will be
+displayed. This will help you separate benign warnings from actual test
+failures.
+
+Running the test suite
+======================
+
+First, all tests are executed within the LLVM object directory tree.
+They *are not* executed inside of the LLVM source tree. This is because
+the test suite creates temporary files during execution.
+
+To run the test suite, you need to use the following steps:
+
+#. ``cd`` into the ``llvm/projects`` directory in your source tree.
+#. Check out the ``test-suite`` module with:
+
+   .. code-block:: bash
+
+       % svn co http://llvm.org/svn/llvm-project/test-suite/trunk test-suite
+
+   This will get the test suite into ``llvm/projects/test-suite``.
+
+#. Configure and build ``llvm``.
+
+#. Configure and build ``llvm-gcc``.
+
+#. Install ``llvm-gcc`` somewhere.
+
+#. *Re-configure* ``llvm`` from the top level of each build tree (LLVM
+   object directory tree) in which you want to run the test suite, just
+   as you do before building LLVM.
+
+   During the *re-configuration*, you must either: (1) have ``llvm-gcc``
+   you just built in your path, or (2) specify the directory where your
+   just-built ``llvm-gcc`` is installed using
+   ``--with-llvmgccdir=$LLVM_GCC_DIR``.
+
+   You must also tell the configure machinery that the test suite is
+   available so it can be configured for your build tree:
+
+   .. code-block:: bash
+
+       % cd $LLVM_OBJ_ROOT ; $LLVM_SRC_ROOT/configure [--with-llvmgccdir=$LLVM_GCC_DIR]
+
+   [Remember that ``$LLVM_GCC_DIR`` is the directory where you
+   *installed* llvm-gcc, not its src or obj directory.]
+
+#. You can now run the test suite from your build tree as follows:
+
+   .. code-block:: bash
+
+       % cd $LLVM_OBJ_ROOT/projects/test-suite
+       % make
+
+Note that the second and third steps only need to be done once. After
+you have the suite checked out and configured, you don't need to do it
+again (unless the test code or configure script changes).
+
+Configuring External Tests
+--------------------------
+
+In order to run the External tests in the ``test-suite`` module, you
+must specify *--with-externals*. This must be done during the
+*re-configuration* step (see above), and the ``llvm`` re-configuration
+must recognize the previously-built ``llvm-gcc``. If any of these is
+missing or neglected, the External tests won't work.
+
+* *--with-externals*
+
+* *--with-externals=<directory>*
+
+This tells LLVM where to find any external tests. They are expected to
+be in specifically named subdirectories of <``directory``>. If
+``directory`` is left unspecified, ``configure`` uses the default value
+``/home/vadve/shared/benchmarks/speccpu2000/benchspec``. Subdirectory
+names known to LLVM include:
+
+* spec95
+
+* speccpu2000
+
+* speccpu2006
+
+* povray31
+
+Others are added from time to time, and can be determined from
+``configure``.
+
+Running different tests
+-----------------------
+
+In addition to the regular "whole program" tests, the ``test-suite``
+module also provides a mechanism for compiling the programs in different
+ways. If the variable TEST is defined on the ``gmake`` command line, the
+test system will include a Makefile named
+``TEST.<value of TEST variable>.Makefile``. This Makefile can modify
+build rules to yield different results.
+
+For example, the LLVM nightly tester uses ``TEST.nightly.Makefile`` to
+create the nightly test reports. To run the nightly tests, run
+``gmake TEST=nightly``.
+
+There are several TEST Makefiles available in the tree. Some of them are
+designed for internal LLVM research and will not work outside of the
+LLVM research group. They may still be valuable, however, as a guide to
+writing your own TEST Makefile for any optimization or analysis passes
+that you develop with LLVM.
+
+Generating test output
+----------------------
+
+There are a number of ways to run the tests and generate output. The
+most simple one is simply running ``gmake`` with no arguments. This will
+compile and run all programs in the tree using a number of different
+methods and compare results. Any failures are reported in the output,
+but are likely drowned in the other output. Passes are not reported
+explicitly.
+
+Somewhat better is running ``gmake TEST=sometest test``, which runs the
+specified test and usually adds per-program summaries to the output
+(depending on which sometest you use). For example, the ``nightly`` test
+explicitly outputs TEST-PASS or TEST-FAIL for every test after each
+program. Though these lines are still drowned in the output, it's easy
+to grep the output logs in the Output directories.
+
+Even better are the ``report`` and ``report.format`` targets (where
+``format`` is one of ``html``, ``csv``, ``text`` or ``graphs``). The
+exact contents of the report are dependent on which ``TEST`` you are
+running, but the text results are always shown at the end of the run and
+the results are always stored in the ``report.<type>.format`` file (when
+running with ``TEST=<type>``). The ``report`` also generate a file
+called ``report.<type>.raw.out`` containing the output of the entire
+test run.
+
+Writing custom tests for the test suite
+---------------------------------------
+
+Assuming you can run the test suite, (e.g.
+"``gmake TEST=nightly report``" should work), it is really easy to run
+optimizations or code generator components against every program in the
+tree, collecting statistics or running custom checks for correctness. At
+base, this is how the nightly tester works, it's just one example of a
+general framework.
+
+Lets say that you have an LLVM optimization pass, and you want to see
+how many times it triggers. First thing you should do is add an LLVM
+`statistic <ProgrammersManual.html#Statistic>`_ to your pass, which will
+tally counts of things you care about.
+
+Following this, you can set up a test and a report that collects these
+and formats them for easy viewing. This consists of two files, a
+"``test-suite/TEST.XXX.Makefile``" fragment (where XXX is the name of
+your test) and a "``test-suite/TEST.XXX.report``" file that indicates
+how to format the output into a table. There are many example reports of
+various levels of sophistication included with the test suite, and the
+framework is very general.
+
+If you are interested in testing an optimization pass, check out the
+"libcalls" test as an example. It can be run like this:
+
+.. code-block:: bash
+
+    % cd llvm/projects/test-suite/MultiSource/Benchmarks  # or some other level
+    % make TEST=libcalls report
+
+This will do a bunch of stuff, then eventually print a table like this:
+
+::
+
+    Name                                  | total | #exit |
+    ...
+    FreeBench/analyzer/analyzer           | 51    | 6     |
+    FreeBench/fourinarow/fourinarow       | 1     | 1     |
+    FreeBench/neural/neural               | 19    | 9     |
+    FreeBench/pifft/pifft                 | 5     | 3     |
+    MallocBench/cfrac/cfrac               | 1     | *     |
+    MallocBench/espresso/espresso         | 52    | 12    |
+    MallocBench/gs/gs                     | 4     | *     |
+    Prolangs-C/TimberWolfMC/timberwolfmc  | 302   | *     |
+    Prolangs-C/agrep/agrep                | 33    | 12    |
+    Prolangs-C/allroots/allroots          | *     | *     |
+    Prolangs-C/assembler/assembler        | 47    | *     |
+    Prolangs-C/bison/mybison              | 74    | *     |
+    ...
+
+This basically is grepping the -stats output and displaying it in a
+table. You can also use the "TEST=libcalls report.html" target to get
+the table in HTML form, similarly for report.csv and report.tex.
+
+The source for this is in ``test-suite/TEST.libcalls.*``. The format is
+pretty simple: the Makefile indicates how to run the test (in this case,
+"``opt -simplify-libcalls -stats``"), and the report contains one line
+for each column of the output. The first value is the header for the
+column and the second is the regex to grep the output of the command
+for. There are lots of example reports that can do fancy stuff.

Added: www-releases/trunk/3.5.1/docs/_sources/TestingGuide.txt
URL: http://llvm.org/viewvc/llvm-project/www-releases/trunk/3.5.1/docs/_sources/TestingGuide.txt?rev=225843&view=auto
==============================================================================
--- www-releases/trunk/3.5.1/docs/_sources/TestingGuide.txt (added)
+++ www-releases/trunk/3.5.1/docs/_sources/TestingGuide.txt Tue Jan 13 16:55:20 2015
@@ -0,0 +1,529 @@
+=================================
+LLVM Testing Infrastructure Guide
+=================================
+
+.. contents::
+   :local:
+
+.. toctree::
+   :hidden:
+
+   TestSuiteMakefileGuide
+
+Overview
+========
+
+This document is the reference manual for the LLVM testing
+infrastructure. It documents the structure of the LLVM testing
+infrastructure, the tools needed to use it, and how to add and run
+tests.
+
+Requirements
+============
+
+In order to use the LLVM testing infrastructure, you will need all of the
+software required to build LLVM, as well as `Python <http://python.org>`_ 2.5 or
+later.
+
+LLVM testing infrastructure organization
+========================================
+
+The LLVM testing infrastructure contains two major categories of tests:
+regression tests and whole programs. The regression tests are contained
+inside the LLVM repository itself under ``llvm/test`` and are expected
+to always pass -- they should be run before every commit.
+
+The whole programs tests are referred to as the "LLVM test suite" (or
+"test-suite") and are in the ``test-suite`` module in subversion. For
+historical reasons, these tests are also referred to as the "nightly
+tests" in places, which is less ambiguous than "test-suite" and remains
+in use although we run them much more often than nightly.
+
+Regression tests
+----------------
+
+The regression tests are small pieces of code that test a specific
+feature of LLVM or trigger a specific bug in LLVM. The language they are
+written in depends on the part of LLVM being tested. These tests are driven by
+the :doc:`Lit <CommandGuide/lit>` testing tool (which is part of LLVM), and
+are located in the ``llvm/test`` directory.
+
+Typically when a bug is found in LLVM, a regression test containing just
+enough code to reproduce the problem should be written and placed
+somewhere underneath this directory. For example, it can be a small
+piece of LLVM IR distilled from an actual application or benchmark.
+
+``test-suite``
+--------------
+
+The test suite contains whole programs, which are pieces of code which
+can be compiled and linked into a stand-alone program that can be
+executed. These programs are generally written in high level languages
+such as C or C++.
+
+These programs are compiled using a user specified compiler and set of
+flags, and then executed to capture the program output and timing
+information. The output of these programs is compared to a reference
+output to ensure that the program is being compiled correctly.
+
+In addition to compiling and executing programs, whole program tests
+serve as a way of benchmarking LLVM performance, both in terms of the
+efficiency of the programs generated as well as the speed with which
+LLVM compiles, optimizes, and generates code.
+
+The test-suite is located in the ``test-suite`` Subversion module.
+
+Debugging Information tests
+---------------------------
+
+The test suite contains tests to check quality of debugging information.
+The test are written in C based languages or in LLVM assembly language.
+
+These tests are compiled and run under a debugger. The debugger output
+is checked to validate of debugging information. See README.txt in the
+test suite for more information . This test suite is located in the
+``debuginfo-tests`` Subversion module.
+
+Quick start
+===========
+
+The tests are located in two separate Subversion modules. The
+regressions tests are in the main "llvm" module under the directory
+``llvm/test`` (so you get these tests for free with the main LLVM tree).
+Use ``make check-all`` to run the regression tests after building LLVM.
+
+The more comprehensive test suite that includes whole programs in C and C++
+is in the ``test-suite`` module. See :ref:`test-suite Quickstart
+<test-suite-quickstart>` for more information on running these tests.
+
+Regression tests
+----------------
+
+To run all of the LLVM regression tests, use the master Makefile in the
+``llvm/test`` directory. LLVM Makefiles require GNU Make (read the :doc:`LLVM
+Makefile Guide <MakefileGuide>` for more details):
+
+.. code-block:: bash
+
+    % make -C llvm/test
+
+or:
+
+.. code-block:: bash
+
+    % make check
+
+If you have `Clang <http://clang.llvm.org/>`_ checked out and built, you
+can run the LLVM and Clang tests simultaneously using:
+
+.. code-block:: bash
+
+    % make check-all
+
+To run the tests with Valgrind (Memcheck by default), use the ``LIT_ARGS`` make
+variable to pass the required options to lit. For example, you can use:
+
+.. code-block:: bash
+
+    % make check LIT_ARGS="-v --vg --vg-leak"
+
+to enable testing with valgrind and with leak checking enabled.
+
+To run individual tests or subsets of tests, you can use the ``llvm-lit``
+script which is built as part of LLVM. For example, to run the
+``Integer/BitPacked.ll`` test by itself you can run:
+
+.. code-block:: bash
+
+    % llvm-lit ~/llvm/test/Integer/BitPacked.ll 
+
+or to run all of the ARM CodeGen tests:
+
+.. code-block:: bash
+
+    % llvm-lit ~/llvm/test/CodeGen/ARM
+
+For more information on using the :program:`lit` tool, see ``llvm-lit --help``
+or the :doc:`lit man page <CommandGuide/lit>`.
+
+Debugging Information tests
+---------------------------
+
+To run debugging information tests simply checkout the tests inside
+clang/test directory.
+
+.. code-block:: bash
+
+    % cd clang/test
+    % svn co http://llvm.org/svn/llvm-project/debuginfo-tests/trunk debuginfo-tests
+
+These tests are already set up to run as part of clang regression tests.
+
+Regression test structure
+=========================
+
+The LLVM regression tests are driven by :program:`lit` and are located in the
+``llvm/test`` directory.
+
+This directory contains a large array of small tests that exercise
+various features of LLVM and to ensure that regressions do not occur.
+The directory is broken into several sub-directories, each focused on a
+particular area of LLVM.
+
+Writing new regression tests
+----------------------------
+
+The regression test structure is very simple, but does require some
+information to be set. This information is gathered via ``configure``
+and is written to a file, ``test/lit.site.cfg`` in the build directory.
+The ``llvm/test`` Makefile does this work for you.
+
+In order for the regression tests to work, each directory of tests must
+have a ``lit.local.cfg`` file. :program:`lit` looks for this file to determine
+how to run the tests. This file is just Python code and thus is very
+flexible, but we've standardized it for the LLVM regression tests. If
+you're adding a directory of tests, just copy ``lit.local.cfg`` from
+another directory to get running. The standard ``lit.local.cfg`` simply
+specifies which files to look in for tests. Any directory that contains
+only directories does not need the ``lit.local.cfg`` file. Read the :doc:`Lit
+documentation <CommandGuide/lit>` for more information.
+
+Each test file must contain lines starting with "RUN:" that tell :program:`lit`
+how to run it. If there are no RUN lines, :program:`lit` will issue an error
+while running a test.
+
+RUN lines are specified in the comments of the test program using the
+keyword ``RUN`` followed by a colon, and lastly the command (pipeline)
+to execute. Together, these lines form the "script" that :program:`lit`
+executes to run the test case. The syntax of the RUN lines is similar to a
+shell's syntax for pipelines including I/O redirection and variable
+substitution. However, even though these lines may *look* like a shell
+script, they are not. RUN lines are interpreted by :program:`lit`.
+Consequently, the syntax differs from shell in a few ways. You can specify
+as many RUN lines as needed.
+
+:program:`lit` performs substitution on each RUN line to replace LLVM tool names
+with the full paths to the executable built for each tool (in
+``$(LLVM_OBJ_ROOT)/$(BuildMode)/bin)``. This ensures that :program:`lit` does
+not invoke any stray LLVM tools in the user's path during testing.
+
+Each RUN line is executed on its own, distinct from other lines unless
+its last character is ``\``. This continuation character causes the RUN
+line to be concatenated with the next one. In this way you can build up
+long pipelines of commands without making huge line lengths. The lines
+ending in ``\`` are concatenated until a RUN line that doesn't end in
+``\`` is found. This concatenated set of RUN lines then constitutes one
+execution. :program:`lit` will substitute variables and arrange for the pipeline
+to be executed. If any process in the pipeline fails, the entire line (and
+test case) fails too.
+
+Below is an example of legal RUN lines in a ``.ll`` file:
+
+.. code-block:: llvm
+
+    ; RUN: llvm-as < %s | llvm-dis > %t1
+    ; RUN: llvm-dis < %s.bc-13 > %t2
+    ; RUN: diff %t1 %t2
+
+As with a Unix shell, the RUN lines permit pipelines and I/O
+redirection to be used.
+
+There are some quoting rules that you must pay attention to when writing
+your RUN lines. In general nothing needs to be quoted. :program:`lit` won't
+strip off any quote characters so they will get passed to the invoked program.
+To avoid this use curly braces to tell :program:`lit` that it should treat
+everything enclosed as one value.
+
+In general, you should strive to keep your RUN lines as simple as possible,
+using them only to run tools that generate textual output you can then examine.
+The recommended way to examine output to figure out if the test passes is using
+the :doc:`FileCheck tool <CommandGuide/FileCheck>`. *[The usage of grep in RUN
+lines is deprecated - please do not send or commit patches that use it.]*
+
+Fragile tests
+-------------
+
+It is easy to write a fragile test that would fail spuriously if the tool being
+tested outputs a full path to the input file.  For example, :program:`opt` by
+default outputs a ``ModuleID``:
+
+.. code-block:: console
+
+  $ cat example.ll
+  define i32 @main() nounwind {
+      ret i32 0
+  }
+
+  $ opt -S /path/to/example.ll
+  ; ModuleID = '/path/to/example.ll'
+
+  define i32 @main() nounwind {
+      ret i32 0
+  }
+
+``ModuleID`` can unexpetedly match against ``CHECK`` lines.  For example:
+
+.. code-block:: llvm
+
+  ; RUN: opt -S %s | FileCheck
+
+  define i32 @main() nounwind {
+      ; CHECK-NOT: load
+      ret i32 0
+  }
+
+This test will fail if placed into a ``download`` directory.
+
+To make your tests robust, always use ``opt ... < %s`` in the RUN line.
+:program:`opt` does not output a ``ModuleID`` when input comes from stdin.
+
+Platform-Specific Tests
+-----------------------
+
+Whenever adding tests that require the knowledge of a specific platform,
+either related to code generated, specific output or back-end features,
+you must make sure to isolate the features, so that buildbots that
+run on different architectures (and don't even compile all back-ends),
+don't fail.
+
+The first problem is to check for target-specific output, for example sizes
+of structures, paths and architecture names, for example:
+
+* Tests containing Windows paths will fail on Linux and vice-versa.
+* Tests that check for ``x86_64`` somewhere in the text will fail anywhere else.
+* Tests where the debug information calculates the size of types and structures.
+
+Also, if the test rely on any behaviour that is coded in any back-end, it must
+go in its own directory. So, for instance, code generator tests for ARM go
+into ``test/CodeGen/ARM`` and so on. Those directories contain a special
+``lit`` configuration file that ensure all tests in that directory will
+only run if a specific back-end is compiled and available.
+
+For instance, on ``test/CodeGen/ARM``, the ``lit.local.cfg`` is:
+
+.. code-block:: python
+
+  config.suffixes = ['.ll', '.c', '.cpp', '.test']
+  if not 'ARM' in config.root.targets:
+    config.unsupported = True
+
+Other platform-specific tests are those that depend on a specific feature
+of a specific sub-architecture, for example only to Intel chips that support ``AVX2``.
+
+For instance, ``test/CodeGen/X86/psubus.ll`` tests three sub-architecture
+variants:
+
+.. code-block:: llvm
+
+  ; RUN: llc -mcpu=core2 < %s | FileCheck %s -check-prefix=SSE2
+  ; RUN: llc -mcpu=corei7-avx < %s | FileCheck %s -check-prefix=AVX1
+  ; RUN: llc -mcpu=core-avx2 < %s | FileCheck %s -check-prefix=AVX2
+
+And the checks are different:
+
+.. code-block:: llvm
+
+  ; SSE2: @test1
+  ; SSE2: psubusw LCPI0_0(%rip), %xmm0
+  ; AVX1: @test1
+  ; AVX1: vpsubusw LCPI0_0(%rip), %xmm0, %xmm0
+  ; AVX2: @test1
+  ; AVX2: vpsubusw LCPI0_0(%rip), %xmm0, %xmm0
+
+So, if you're testing for a behaviour that you know is platform-specific or
+depends on special features of sub-architectures, you must add the specific
+triple, test with the specific FileCheck and put it into the specific
+directory that will filter out all other architectures.
+
+
+Substitutions
+-------------
+
+Besides replacing LLVM tool names the following substitutions are performed in
+RUN lines:
+
+``%%``
+   Replaced by a single ``%``. This allows escaping other substitutions.
+
+``%s``
+   File path to the test case's source. This is suitable for passing on the
+   command line as the input to an LLVM tool.
+
+   Example: ``/home/user/llvm/test/MC/ELF/foo_test.s``
+
+``%S``
+   Directory path to the test case's source.
+
+   Example: ``/home/user/llvm/test/MC/ELF``
+
+``%t``
+   File path to a temporary file name that could be used for this test case.
+   The file name won't conflict with other test cases. You can append to it
+   if you need multiple temporaries. This is useful as the destination of
+   some redirected output.
+
+   Example: ``/home/user/llvm.build/test/MC/ELF/Output/foo_test.s.tmp``
+
+``%T``
+   Directory of ``%t``.
+
+   Example: ``/home/user/llvm.build/test/MC/ELF/Output``
+
+``%{pathsep}``
+
+   Expands to the path separator, i.e. ``:`` (or ``;`` on Windows).
+
+
+**LLVM-specific substitutions:**
+
+``%shlibext``
+   The suffix for the host platforms shared library files. This includes the
+   period as the first character.
+
+   Example: ``.so`` (Linux), ``.dylib`` (OS X), ``.dll`` (Windows)
+
+``%exeext``
+   The suffix for the host platforms executable files. This includes the
+   period as the first character.
+
+   Example: ``.exe`` (Windows), empty on Linux.
+
+``%(line)``, ``%(line+<number>)``, ``%(line-<number>)``
+   The number of the line where this substitution is used, with an optional
+   integer offset. This can be used in tests with multiple RUN lines, which
+   reference test file's line numbers.
+
+
+**Clang-specific substitutions:**
+
+``%clang``
+   Invokes the Clang driver.
+
+``%clang_cpp``
+   Invokes the Clang driver for C++.
+
+``%clang_cl``
+   Invokes the CL-compatible Clang driver.
+
+``%clangxx``
+   Invokes the G++-compatible Clang driver.
+
+``%clang_cc1``
+   Invokes the Clang frontend.
+
+``%itanium_abi_triple``, ``%ms_abi_triple``
+   These substitutions can be used to get the current target triple adjusted to
+   the desired ABI. For example, if the test suite is running with the
+   ``i686-pc-win32`` target, ``%itanium_abi_triple`` will expand to
+   ``i686-pc-mingw32``. This allows a test to run with a specific ABI without
+   constraining it to a specific triple.
+
+To add more substituations, look at ``test/lit.cfg`` or ``lit.local.cfg``.
+
+
+Other Features
+--------------
+
+To make RUN line writing easier, there are several helper programs. These
+helpers are in the PATH when running tests, so you can just call them using
+their name. For example:
+
+``not``
+   This program runs its arguments and then inverts the result code from it.
+   Zero result codes become 1. Non-zero result codes become 0.
+
+Sometimes it is necessary to mark a test case as "expected fail" or
+XFAIL. You can easily mark a test as XFAIL just by including ``XFAIL:``
+on a line near the top of the file. This signals that the test case
+should succeed if the test fails. Such test cases are counted separately
+by the testing tool. To specify an expected fail, use the XFAIL keyword
+in the comments of the test program followed by a colon and one or more
+failure patterns. Each failure pattern can be either ``*`` (to specify
+fail everywhere), or a part of a target triple (indicating the test
+should fail on that platform), or the name of a configurable feature
+(for example, ``loadable_module``). If there is a match, the test is
+expected to fail. If not, the test is expected to succeed. To XFAIL
+everywhere just specify ``XFAIL: *``. Here is an example of an ``XFAIL``
+line:
+
+.. code-block:: llvm
+
+    ; XFAIL: darwin,sun
+
+To make the output more useful, :program:`lit` will scan
+the lines of the test case for ones that contain a pattern that matches
+``PR[0-9]+``. This is the syntax for specifying a PR (Problem Report) number
+that is related to the test case. The number after "PR" specifies the
+LLVM bugzilla number. When a PR number is specified, it will be used in
+the pass/fail reporting. This is useful to quickly get some context when
+a test fails.
+
+Finally, any line that contains "END." will cause the special
+interpretation of lines to terminate. This is generally done right after
+the last RUN: line. This has two side effects:
+
+(a) it prevents special interpretation of lines that are part of the test
+    program, not the instructions to the test case, and
+
+(b) it speeds things up for really big test cases by avoiding
+    interpretation of the remainder of the file.
+
+``test-suite`` Overview
+=======================
+
+The ``test-suite`` module contains a number of programs that can be
+compiled and executed. The ``test-suite`` includes reference outputs for
+all of the programs, so that the output of the executed program can be
+checked for correctness.
+
+``test-suite`` tests are divided into three types of tests: MultiSource,
+SingleSource, and External.
+
+-  ``test-suite/SingleSource``
+
+   The SingleSource directory contains test programs that are only a
+   single source file in size. These are usually small benchmark
+   programs or small programs that calculate a particular value. Several
+   such programs are grouped together in each directory.
+
+-  ``test-suite/MultiSource``
+
+   The MultiSource directory contains subdirectories which contain
+   entire programs with multiple source files. Large benchmarks and
+   whole applications go here.
+
+-  ``test-suite/External``
+
+   The External directory contains Makefiles for building code that is
+   external to (i.e., not distributed with) LLVM. The most prominent
+   members of this directory are the SPEC 95 and SPEC 2000 benchmark
+   suites. The ``External`` directory does not contain these actual
+   tests, but only the Makefiles that know how to properly compile these
+   programs from somewhere else. When using ``LNT``, use the
+   ``--test-externals`` option to include these tests in the results.
+
+.. _test-suite-quickstart:
+
+``test-suite`` Quickstart
+-------------------------
+
+The modern way of running the ``test-suite`` is focused on testing and
+benchmarking complete compilers using the
+`LNT <http://llvm.org/docs/lnt>`_ testing infrastructure.
+
+For more information on using LNT to execute the ``test-suite``, please
+see the `LNT Quickstart <http://llvm.org/docs/lnt/quickstart.html>`_
+documentation.
+
+``test-suite`` Makefiles
+------------------------
+
+Historically, the ``test-suite`` was executed using a complicated setup
+of Makefiles. The LNT based approach above is recommended for most
+users, but there are some testing scenarios which are not supported by
+the LNT approach. In addition, LNT currently uses the Makefile setup
+under the covers and so developers who are interested in how LNT works
+under the hood may want to understand the Makefile based setup.
+
+For more information on the ``test-suite`` Makefile setup, please see
+the :doc:`Test Suite Makefile Guide <TestSuiteMakefileGuide>`.

Added: www-releases/trunk/3.5.1/docs/_sources/Vectorizers.txt
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==============================================================================
--- www-releases/trunk/3.5.1/docs/_sources/Vectorizers.txt (added)
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@@ -0,0 +1,426 @@
+==========================
+Auto-Vectorization in LLVM
+==========================
+
+.. contents::
+   :local:
+
+LLVM has two vectorizers: The :ref:`Loop Vectorizer <loop-vectorizer>`,
+which operates on Loops, and the :ref:`SLP Vectorizer
+<slp-vectorizer>`. These vectorizers
+focus on different optimization opportunities and use different techniques.
+The SLP vectorizer merges multiple scalars that are found in the code into
+vectors while the Loop Vectorizer widens instructions in loops
+to operate on multiple consecutive iterations.
+
+Both the Loop Vectorizer and the SLP Vectorizer are enabled by default.
+
+.. _loop-vectorizer:
+
+The Loop Vectorizer
+===================
+
+Usage
+-----
+
+The Loop Vectorizer is enabled by default, but it can be disabled
+through clang using the command line flag:
+
+.. code-block:: console
+
+   $ clang ... -fno-vectorize  file.c
+
+Command line flags
+^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
+
+The loop vectorizer uses a cost model to decide on the optimal vectorization factor
+and unroll factor. However, users of the vectorizer can force the vectorizer to use
+specific values. Both 'clang' and 'opt' support the flags below.
+
+Users can control the vectorization SIMD width using the command line flag "-force-vector-width".
+
+.. code-block:: console
+
+  $ clang  -mllvm -force-vector-width=8 ...
+  $ opt -loop-vectorize -force-vector-width=8 ...
+
+Users can control the unroll factor using the command line flag "-force-vector-unroll"
+
+.. code-block:: console
+
+  $ clang  -mllvm -force-vector-unroll=2 ...
+  $ opt -loop-vectorize -force-vector-unroll=2 ...
+
+Pragma loop hint directives
+^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
+
+The ``#pragma clang loop`` directive allows loop vectorization hints to be
+specified for the subsequent for, while, do-while, or c++11 range-based for
+loop. The directive allows vectorization and interleaving to be enabled or
+disabled. Vector width as well as interleave count can also be manually
+specified. The following example explicitly enables vectorization and
+interleaving:
+
+.. code-block:: c++
+
+  #pragma clang loop vectorize(enable) interleave(enable)
+  while(...) {
+    ...
+  }
+
+The following example implicitly enables vectorization and interleaving by
+specifying a vector width and interleaving count:
+
+.. code-block:: c++
+
+  #pragma clang loop vectorize_width(2) interleave_count(2)
+  for(...) {
+    ...
+  }
+
+See the Clang
+`language extensions
+<http://clang.llvm.org/docs/LanguageExtensions.html#extensions-for-loop-hint-optimizations>`_
+for details.
+
+Diagnostics
+-----------
+
+Many loops cannot be vectorized including loops with complicated control flow,
+unvectorizable types, and unvectorizable calls. The loop vectorizer generates
+optimization remarks which can be queried using command line options to identify
+and diagnose loops that are skipped by the loop-vectorizer.
+
+Optimization remarks are enabled using:
+
+``-Rpass=loop-vectorize`` identifies loops that were successfully vectorized.
+
+``-Rpass-missed=loop-vectorize`` identifies loops that failed vectorization and
+indicates if vectorization was specified.
+
+``-Rpass-analysis=loop-vectorize`` identifies the statements that caused
+vectorization to fail.
+
+Consider the following loop:
+
+.. code-block:: c++
+
+  #pragma clang loop vectorize(enable)
+  for (int i = 0; i < Length; i++) {
+    switch(A[i]) {
+    case 0: A[i] = i*2; break;
+    case 1: A[i] = i;   break;
+    default: A[i] = 0;
+    }
+  }
+
+The command line ``-Rpass-missed=loop-vectorized`` prints the remark:
+
+.. code-block:: console
+
+  no_switch.cpp:4:5: remark: loop not vectorized: vectorization is explicitly enabled [-Rpass-missed=loop-vectorize]
+
+And the command line ``-Rpass-analysis=loop-vectorize`` indicates that the
+switch statement cannot be vectorized.
+
+.. code-block:: console
+
+  no_switch.cpp:4:5: remark: loop not vectorized: loop contains a switch statement [-Rpass-analysis=loop-vectorize]
+    switch(A[i]) {
+    ^
+
+To ensure line and column numbers are produced include the command line options
+``-gline-tables-only`` and ``-gcolumn-info``. See the Clang `user manual
+<http://clang.llvm.org/docs/UsersManual.html#options-to-emit-optimization-reports>`_
+for details
+
+Features
+--------
+
+The LLVM Loop Vectorizer has a number of features that allow it to vectorize
+complex loops.
+
+Loops with unknown trip count
+^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
+
+The Loop Vectorizer supports loops with an unknown trip count.
+In the loop below, the iteration ``start`` and ``finish`` points are unknown,
+and the Loop Vectorizer has a mechanism to vectorize loops that do not start
+at zero. In this example, 'n' may not be a multiple of the vector width, and
+the vectorizer has to execute the last few iterations as scalar code. Keeping
+a scalar copy of the loop increases the code size.
+
+.. code-block:: c++
+
+  void bar(float *A, float* B, float K, int start, int end) {
+    for (int i = start; i < end; ++i)
+      A[i] *= B[i] + K;
+  }
+
+Runtime Checks of Pointers
+^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
+
+In the example below, if the pointers A and B point to consecutive addresses,
+then it is illegal to vectorize the code because some elements of A will be
+written before they are read from array B.
+
+Some programmers use the 'restrict' keyword to notify the compiler that the
+pointers are disjointed, but in our example, the Loop Vectorizer has no way of
+knowing that the pointers A and B are unique. The Loop Vectorizer handles this
+loop by placing code that checks, at runtime, if the arrays A and B point to
+disjointed memory locations. If arrays A and B overlap, then the scalar version
+of the loop is executed.
+
+.. code-block:: c++
+
+  void bar(float *A, float* B, float K, int n) {
+    for (int i = 0; i < n; ++i)
+      A[i] *= B[i] + K;
+  }
+
+
+Reductions
+^^^^^^^^^^
+
+In this example the ``sum`` variable is used by consecutive iterations of
+the loop. Normally, this would prevent vectorization, but the vectorizer can
+detect that 'sum' is a reduction variable. The variable 'sum' becomes a vector
+of integers, and at the end of the loop the elements of the array are added
+together to create the correct result. We support a number of different
+reduction operations, such as addition, multiplication, XOR, AND and OR.
+
+.. code-block:: c++
+
+  int foo(int *A, int *B, int n) {
+    unsigned sum = 0;
+    for (int i = 0; i < n; ++i)
+      sum += A[i] + 5;
+    return sum;
+  }
+
+We support floating point reduction operations when `-ffast-math` is used.
+
+Inductions
+^^^^^^^^^^
+
+In this example the value of the induction variable ``i`` is saved into an
+array. The Loop Vectorizer knows to vectorize induction variables.
+
+.. code-block:: c++
+
+  void bar(float *A, float* B, float K, int n) {
+    for (int i = 0; i < n; ++i)
+      A[i] = i;
+  }
+
+If Conversion
+^^^^^^^^^^^^^
+
+The Loop Vectorizer is able to "flatten" the IF statement in the code and
+generate a single stream of instructions. The Loop Vectorizer supports any
+control flow in the innermost loop. The innermost loop may contain complex
+nesting of IFs, ELSEs and even GOTOs.
+
+.. code-block:: c++
+
+  int foo(int *A, int *B, int n) {
+    unsigned sum = 0;
+    for (int i = 0; i < n; ++i)
+      if (A[i] > B[i])
+        sum += A[i] + 5;
+    return sum;
+  }
+
+Pointer Induction Variables
+^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
+
+This example uses the "accumulate" function of the standard c++ library. This
+loop uses C++ iterators, which are pointers, and not integer indices.
+The Loop Vectorizer detects pointer induction variables and can vectorize
+this loop. This feature is important because many C++ programs use iterators.
+
+.. code-block:: c++
+
+  int baz(int *A, int n) {
+    return std::accumulate(A, A + n, 0);
+  }
+
+Reverse Iterators
+^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
+
+The Loop Vectorizer can vectorize loops that count backwards.
+
+.. code-block:: c++
+
+  int foo(int *A, int *B, int n) {
+    for (int i = n; i > 0; --i)
+      A[i] +=1;
+  }
+
+Scatter / Gather
+^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
+
+The Loop Vectorizer can vectorize code that becomes a sequence of scalar instructions 
+that scatter/gathers memory.
+
+.. code-block:: c++
+
+  int foo(int * A, int * B, int n) {
+    for (intptr_t i = 0; i < n; ++i)
+        A[i] += B[i * 4];
+  }
+
+In many situations the cost model will inform LLVM that this is not beneficial
+and LLVM will only vectorize such code if forced with "-mllvm -force-vector-width=#".
+
+Vectorization of Mixed Types
+^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
+
+The Loop Vectorizer can vectorize programs with mixed types. The Vectorizer
+cost model can estimate the cost of the type conversion and decide if
+vectorization is profitable.
+
+.. code-block:: c++
+
+  int foo(int *A, char *B, int n, int k) {
+    for (int i = 0; i < n; ++i)
+      A[i] += 4 * B[i];
+  }
+
+Global Structures Alias Analysis
+^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
+
+Access to global structures can also be vectorized, with alias analysis being
+used to make sure accesses don't alias. Run-time checks can also be added on
+pointer access to structure members.
+
+Many variations are supported, but some that rely on undefined behaviour being
+ignored (as other compilers do) are still being left un-vectorized.
+
+.. code-block:: c++
+
+  struct { int A[100], K, B[100]; } Foo;
+
+  int foo() {
+    for (int i = 0; i < 100; ++i)
+      Foo.A[i] = Foo.B[i] + 100;
+  }
+
+Vectorization of function calls
+^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
+
+The Loop Vectorize can vectorize intrinsic math functions.
+See the table below for a list of these functions.
+
++-----+-----+---------+
+| pow | exp |  exp2   |
++-----+-----+---------+
+| sin | cos |  sqrt   |
++-----+-----+---------+
+| log |log2 |  log10  |
++-----+-----+---------+
+|fabs |floor|  ceil   |
++-----+-----+---------+
+|fma  |trunc|nearbyint|
++-----+-----+---------+
+|     |     | fmuladd |
++-----+-----+---------+
+
+The loop vectorizer knows about special instructions on the target and will
+vectorize a loop containing a function call that maps to the instructions. For
+example, the loop below will be vectorized on Intel x86 if the SSE4.1 roundps
+instruction is available.
+
+.. code-block:: c++
+
+  void foo(float *f) {
+    for (int i = 0; i != 1024; ++i)
+      f[i] = floorf(f[i]);
+  }
+
+Partial unrolling during vectorization
+^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
+
+Modern processors feature multiple execution units, and only programs that contain a
+high degree of parallelism can fully utilize the entire width of the machine. 
+The Loop Vectorizer increases the instruction level parallelism (ILP) by 
+performing partial-unrolling of loops.
+
+In the example below the entire array is accumulated into the variable 'sum'.
+This is inefficient because only a single execution port can be used by the processor.
+By unrolling the code the Loop Vectorizer allows two or more execution ports
+to be used simultaneously.
+
+.. code-block:: c++
+
+  int foo(int *A, int *B, int n) {
+    unsigned sum = 0;
+    for (int i = 0; i < n; ++i)
+        sum += A[i];
+    return sum;
+  }
+
+The Loop Vectorizer uses a cost model to decide when it is profitable to unroll loops.
+The decision to unroll the loop depends on the register pressure and the generated code size. 
+
+Performance
+-----------
+
+This section shows the the execution time of Clang on a simple benchmark:
+`gcc-loops <http://llvm.org/viewvc/llvm-project/test-suite/trunk/SingleSource/UnitTests/Vectorizer/>`_.
+This benchmarks is a collection of loops from the GCC autovectorization
+`page <http://gcc.gnu.org/projects/tree-ssa/vectorization.html>`_ by Dorit Nuzman.
+
+The chart below compares GCC-4.7, ICC-13, and Clang-SVN with and without loop vectorization at -O3, tuned for "corei7-avx", running on a Sandybridge iMac.
+The Y-axis shows the time in msec. Lower is better. The last column shows the geomean of all the kernels.
+
+.. image:: gcc-loops.png
+
+And Linpack-pc with the same configuration. Result is Mflops, higher is better.
+
+.. image:: linpack-pc.png
+
+.. _slp-vectorizer:
+
+The SLP Vectorizer
+==================
+
+Details
+-------
+
+The goal of SLP vectorization (a.k.a. superword-level parallelism) is
+to combine similar independent instructions
+into vector instructions. Memory accesses, arithmetic operations, comparison
+operations, PHI-nodes, can all be vectorized using this technique.
+
+For example, the following function performs very similar operations on its
+inputs (a1, b1) and (a2, b2). The basic-block vectorizer may combine these
+into vector operations.
+
+.. code-block:: c++
+
+  void foo(int a1, int a2, int b1, int b2, int *A) {
+    A[0] = a1*(a1 + b1)/b1 + 50*b1/a1;
+    A[1] = a2*(a2 + b2)/b2 + 50*b2/a2;
+  }
+
+The SLP-vectorizer processes the code bottom-up, across basic blocks, in search of scalars to combine.
+
+Usage
+------
+
+The SLP Vectorizer is enabled by default, but it can be disabled
+through clang using the command line flag:
+
+.. code-block:: console
+
+   $ clang -fno-slp-vectorize file.c
+
+LLVM has a second basic block vectorization phase
+which is more compile-time intensive (The BB vectorizer). This optimization
+can be enabled through clang using the command line flag:
+
+.. code-block:: console
+
+   $ clang -fslp-vectorize-aggressive file.c
+

Added: www-releases/trunk/3.5.1/docs/_sources/WritingAnLLVMBackend.txt
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==============================================================================
--- www-releases/trunk/3.5.1/docs/_sources/WritingAnLLVMBackend.txt (added)
+++ www-releases/trunk/3.5.1/docs/_sources/WritingAnLLVMBackend.txt Tue Jan 13 16:55:20 2015
@@ -0,0 +1,1941 @@
+=======================
+Writing an LLVM Backend
+=======================
+
+.. toctree::
+   :hidden:
+
+   HowToUseInstrMappings
+
+.. contents::
+   :local:
+
+Introduction
+============
+
+This document describes techniques for writing compiler backends that convert
+the LLVM Intermediate Representation (IR) to code for a specified machine or
+other languages.  Code intended for a specific machine can take the form of
+either assembly code or binary code (usable for a JIT compiler).
+
+The backend of LLVM features a target-independent code generator that may
+create output for several types of target CPUs --- including X86, PowerPC,
+ARM, and SPARC.  The backend may also be used to generate code targeted at SPUs
+of the Cell processor or GPUs to support the execution of compute kernels.
+
+The document focuses on existing examples found in subdirectories of
+``llvm/lib/Target`` in a downloaded LLVM release.  In particular, this document
+focuses on the example of creating a static compiler (one that emits text
+assembly) for a SPARC target, because SPARC has fairly standard
+characteristics, such as a RISC instruction set and straightforward calling
+conventions.
+
+Audience
+--------
+
+The audience for this document is anyone who needs to write an LLVM backend to
+generate code for a specific hardware or software target.
+
+Prerequisite Reading
+--------------------
+
+These essential documents must be read before reading this document:
+
+* `LLVM Language Reference Manual <LangRef.html>`_ --- a reference manual for
+  the LLVM assembly language.
+
+* :doc:`CodeGenerator` --- a guide to the components (classes and code
+  generation algorithms) for translating the LLVM internal representation into
+  machine code for a specified target.  Pay particular attention to the
+  descriptions of code generation stages: Instruction Selection, Scheduling and
+  Formation, SSA-based Optimization, Register Allocation, Prolog/Epilog Code
+  Insertion, Late Machine Code Optimizations, and Code Emission.
+
+* :doc:`TableGen/index` --- a document that describes the TableGen
+  (``tblgen``) application that manages domain-specific information to support
+  LLVM code generation.  TableGen processes input from a target description
+  file (``.td`` suffix) and generates C++ code that can be used for code
+  generation.
+
+* :doc:`WritingAnLLVMPass` --- The assembly printer is a ``FunctionPass``, as
+  are several ``SelectionDAG`` processing steps.
+
+To follow the SPARC examples in this document, have a copy of `The SPARC
+Architecture Manual, Version 8 <http://www.sparc.org/standards/V8.pdf>`_ for
+reference.  For details about the ARM instruction set, refer to the `ARM
+Architecture Reference Manual <http://infocenter.arm.com/>`_.  For more about
+the GNU Assembler format (``GAS``), see `Using As
+<http://sourceware.org/binutils/docs/as/index.html>`_, especially for the
+assembly printer.  "Using As" contains a list of target machine dependent
+features.
+
+Basic Steps
+-----------
+
+To write a compiler backend for LLVM that converts the LLVM IR to code for a
+specified target (machine or other language), follow these steps:
+
+* Create a subclass of the ``TargetMachine`` class that describes
+  characteristics of your target machine.  Copy existing examples of specific
+  ``TargetMachine`` class and header files; for example, start with
+  ``SparcTargetMachine.cpp`` and ``SparcTargetMachine.h``, but change the file
+  names for your target.  Similarly, change code that references "``Sparc``" to
+  reference your target.
+
+* Describe the register set of the target.  Use TableGen to generate code for
+  register definition, register aliases, and register classes from a
+  target-specific ``RegisterInfo.td`` input file.  You should also write
+  additional code for a subclass of the ``TargetRegisterInfo`` class that
+  represents the class register file data used for register allocation and also
+  describes the interactions between registers.
+
+* Describe the instruction set of the target.  Use TableGen to generate code
+  for target-specific instructions from target-specific versions of
+  ``TargetInstrFormats.td`` and ``TargetInstrInfo.td``.  You should write
+  additional code for a subclass of the ``TargetInstrInfo`` class to represent
+  machine instructions supported by the target machine.
+
+* Describe the selection and conversion of the LLVM IR from a Directed Acyclic
+  Graph (DAG) representation of instructions to native target-specific
+  instructions.  Use TableGen to generate code that matches patterns and
+  selects instructions based on additional information in a target-specific
+  version of ``TargetInstrInfo.td``.  Write code for ``XXXISelDAGToDAG.cpp``,
+  where ``XXX`` identifies the specific target, to perform pattern matching and
+  DAG-to-DAG instruction selection.  Also write code in ``XXXISelLowering.cpp``
+  to replace or remove operations and data types that are not supported
+  natively in a SelectionDAG.
+
+* Write code for an assembly printer that converts LLVM IR to a GAS format for
+  your target machine.  You should add assembly strings to the instructions
+  defined in your target-specific version of ``TargetInstrInfo.td``.  You
+  should also write code for a subclass of ``AsmPrinter`` that performs the
+  LLVM-to-assembly conversion and a trivial subclass of ``TargetAsmInfo``.
+
+* Optionally, add support for subtargets (i.e., variants with different
+  capabilities).  You should also write code for a subclass of the
+  ``TargetSubtarget`` class, which allows you to use the ``-mcpu=`` and
+  ``-mattr=`` command-line options.
+
+* Optionally, add JIT support and create a machine code emitter (subclass of
+  ``TargetJITInfo``) that is used to emit binary code directly into memory.
+
+In the ``.cpp`` and ``.h``. files, initially stub up these methods and then
+implement them later.  Initially, you may not know which private members that
+the class will need and which components will need to be subclassed.
+
+Preliminaries
+-------------
+
+To actually create your compiler backend, you need to create and modify a few
+files.  The absolute minimum is discussed here.  But to actually use the LLVM
+target-independent code generator, you must perform the steps described in the
+:doc:`LLVM Target-Independent Code Generator <CodeGenerator>` document.
+
+First, you should create a subdirectory under ``lib/Target`` to hold all the
+files related to your target.  If your target is called "Dummy", create the
+directory ``lib/Target/Dummy``.
+
+In this new directory, create a ``Makefile``.  It is easiest to copy a
+``Makefile`` of another target and modify it.  It should at least contain the
+``LEVEL``, ``LIBRARYNAME`` and ``TARGET`` variables, and then include
+``$(LEVEL)/Makefile.common``.  The library can be named ``LLVMDummy`` (for
+example, see the MIPS target).  Alternatively, you can split the library into
+``LLVMDummyCodeGen`` and ``LLVMDummyAsmPrinter``, the latter of which should be
+implemented in a subdirectory below ``lib/Target/Dummy`` (for example, see the
+PowerPC target).
+
+Note that these two naming schemes are hardcoded into ``llvm-config``.  Using
+any other naming scheme will confuse ``llvm-config`` and produce a lot of
+(seemingly unrelated) linker errors when linking ``llc``.
+
+To make your target actually do something, you need to implement a subclass of
+``TargetMachine``.  This implementation should typically be in the file
+``lib/Target/DummyTargetMachine.cpp``, but any file in the ``lib/Target``
+directory will be built and should work.  To use LLVM's target independent code
+generator, you should do what all current machine backends do: create a
+subclass of ``LLVMTargetMachine``.  (To create a target from scratch, create a
+subclass of ``TargetMachine``.)
+
+To get LLVM to actually build and link your target, you need to add it to the
+``TARGETS_TO_BUILD`` variable.  To do this, you modify the configure script to
+know about your target when parsing the ``--enable-targets`` option.  Search
+the configure script for ``TARGETS_TO_BUILD``, add your target to the lists
+there (some creativity required), and then reconfigure.  Alternatively, you can
+change ``autotools/configure.ac`` and regenerate configure by running
+``./autoconf/AutoRegen.sh``.
+
+Target Machine
+==============
+
+``LLVMTargetMachine`` is designed as a base class for targets implemented with
+the LLVM target-independent code generator.  The ``LLVMTargetMachine`` class
+should be specialized by a concrete target class that implements the various
+virtual methods.  ``LLVMTargetMachine`` is defined as a subclass of
+``TargetMachine`` in ``include/llvm/Target/TargetMachine.h``.  The
+``TargetMachine`` class implementation (``TargetMachine.cpp``) also processes
+numerous command-line options.
+
+To create a concrete target-specific subclass of ``LLVMTargetMachine``, start
+by copying an existing ``TargetMachine`` class and header.  You should name the
+files that you create to reflect your specific target.  For instance, for the
+SPARC target, name the files ``SparcTargetMachine.h`` and
+``SparcTargetMachine.cpp``.
+
+For a target machine ``XXX``, the implementation of ``XXXTargetMachine`` must
+have access methods to obtain objects that represent target components.  These
+methods are named ``get*Info``, and are intended to obtain the instruction set
+(``getInstrInfo``), register set (``getRegisterInfo``), stack frame layout
+(``getFrameInfo``), and similar information.  ``XXXTargetMachine`` must also
+implement the ``getDataLayout`` method to access an object with target-specific
+data characteristics, such as data type size and alignment requirements.
+
+For instance, for the SPARC target, the header file ``SparcTargetMachine.h``
+declares prototypes for several ``get*Info`` and ``getDataLayout`` methods that
+simply return a class member.
+
+.. code-block:: c++
+
+  namespace llvm {
+
+  class Module;
+
+  class SparcTargetMachine : public LLVMTargetMachine {
+    const DataLayout DataLayout;       // Calculates type size & alignment
+    SparcSubtarget Subtarget;
+    SparcInstrInfo InstrInfo;
+    TargetFrameInfo FrameInfo;
+
+  protected:
+    virtual const TargetAsmInfo *createTargetAsmInfo() const;
+
+  public:
+    SparcTargetMachine(const Module &M, const std::string &FS);
+
+    virtual const SparcInstrInfo *getInstrInfo() const {return &InstrInfo; }
+    virtual const TargetFrameInfo *getFrameInfo() const {return &FrameInfo; }
+    virtual const TargetSubtarget *getSubtargetImpl() const{return &Subtarget; }
+    virtual const TargetRegisterInfo *getRegisterInfo() const {
+      return &InstrInfo.getRegisterInfo();
+    }
+    virtual const DataLayout *getDataLayout() const { return &DataLayout; }
+    static unsigned getModuleMatchQuality(const Module &M);
+
+    // Pass Pipeline Configuration
+    virtual bool addInstSelector(PassManagerBase &PM, bool Fast);
+    virtual bool addPreEmitPass(PassManagerBase &PM, bool Fast);
+  };
+
+  } // end namespace llvm
+
+* ``getInstrInfo()``
+* ``getRegisterInfo()``
+* ``getFrameInfo()``
+* ``getDataLayout()``
+* ``getSubtargetImpl()``
+
+For some targets, you also need to support the following methods:
+
+* ``getTargetLowering()``
+* ``getJITInfo()``
+
+Some architectures, such as GPUs, do not support jumping to an arbitrary
+program location and implement branching using masked execution and loop using
+special instructions around the loop body. In order to avoid CFG modifications
+that introduce irreducible control flow not handled by such hardware, a target
+must call `setRequiresStructuredCFG(true)` when being initialized.
+
+In addition, the ``XXXTargetMachine`` constructor should specify a
+``TargetDescription`` string that determines the data layout for the target
+machine, including characteristics such as pointer size, alignment, and
+endianness.  For example, the constructor for ``SparcTargetMachine`` contains
+the following:
+
+.. code-block:: c++
+
+  SparcTargetMachine::SparcTargetMachine(const Module &M, const std::string &FS)
+    : DataLayout("E-p:32:32-f128:128:128"),
+      Subtarget(M, FS), InstrInfo(Subtarget),
+      FrameInfo(TargetFrameInfo::StackGrowsDown, 8, 0) {
+  }
+
+Hyphens separate portions of the ``TargetDescription`` string.
+
+* An upper-case "``E``" in the string indicates a big-endian target data model.
+  A lower-case "``e``" indicates little-endian.
+
+* "``p:``" is followed by pointer information: size, ABI alignment, and
+  preferred alignment.  If only two figures follow "``p:``", then the first
+  value is pointer size, and the second value is both ABI and preferred
+  alignment.
+
+* Then a letter for numeric type alignment: "``i``", "``f``", "``v``", or
+  "``a``" (corresponding to integer, floating point, vector, or aggregate).
+  "``i``", "``v``", or "``a``" are followed by ABI alignment and preferred
+  alignment. "``f``" is followed by three values: the first indicates the size
+  of a long double, then ABI alignment, and then ABI preferred alignment.
+
+Target Registration
+===================
+
+You must also register your target with the ``TargetRegistry``, which is what
+other LLVM tools use to be able to lookup and use your target at runtime.  The
+``TargetRegistry`` can be used directly, but for most targets there are helper
+templates which should take care of the work for you.
+
+All targets should declare a global ``Target`` object which is used to
+represent the target during registration.  Then, in the target's ``TargetInfo``
+library, the target should define that object and use the ``RegisterTarget``
+template to register the target.  For example, the Sparc registration code
+looks like this:
+
+.. code-block:: c++
+
+  Target llvm::TheSparcTarget;
+
+  extern "C" void LLVMInitializeSparcTargetInfo() {
+    RegisterTarget<Triple::sparc, /*HasJIT=*/false>
+      X(TheSparcTarget, "sparc", "Sparc");
+  }
+
+This allows the ``TargetRegistry`` to look up the target by name or by target
+triple.  In addition, most targets will also register additional features which
+are available in separate libraries.  These registration steps are separate,
+because some clients may wish to only link in some parts of the target --- the
+JIT code generator does not require the use of the assembler printer, for
+example.  Here is an example of registering the Sparc assembly printer:
+
+.. code-block:: c++
+
+  extern "C" void LLVMInitializeSparcAsmPrinter() {
+    RegisterAsmPrinter<SparcAsmPrinter> X(TheSparcTarget);
+  }
+
+For more information, see "`llvm/Target/TargetRegistry.h
+</doxygen/TargetRegistry_8h-source.html>`_".
+
+Register Set and Register Classes
+=================================
+
+You should describe a concrete target-specific class that represents the
+register file of a target machine.  This class is called ``XXXRegisterInfo``
+(where ``XXX`` identifies the target) and represents the class register file
+data that is used for register allocation.  It also describes the interactions
+between registers.
+
+You also need to define register classes to categorize related registers.  A
+register class should be added for groups of registers that are all treated the
+same way for some instruction.  Typical examples are register classes for
+integer, floating-point, or vector registers.  A register allocator allows an
+instruction to use any register in a specified register class to perform the
+instruction in a similar manner.  Register classes allocate virtual registers
+to instructions from these sets, and register classes let the
+target-independent register allocator automatically choose the actual
+registers.
+
+Much of the code for registers, including register definition, register
+aliases, and register classes, is generated by TableGen from
+``XXXRegisterInfo.td`` input files and placed in ``XXXGenRegisterInfo.h.inc``
+and ``XXXGenRegisterInfo.inc`` output files.  Some of the code in the
+implementation of ``XXXRegisterInfo`` requires hand-coding.
+
+Defining a Register
+-------------------
+
+The ``XXXRegisterInfo.td`` file typically starts with register definitions for
+a target machine.  The ``Register`` class (specified in ``Target.td``) is used
+to define an object for each register.  The specified string ``n`` becomes the
+``Name`` of the register.  The basic ``Register`` object does not have any
+subregisters and does not specify any aliases.
+
+.. code-block:: llvm
+
+  class Register<string n> {
+    string Namespace = "";
+    string AsmName = n;
+    string Name = n;
+    int SpillSize = 0;
+    int SpillAlignment = 0;
+    list<Register> Aliases = [];
+    list<Register> SubRegs = [];
+    list<int> DwarfNumbers = [];
+  }
+
+For example, in the ``X86RegisterInfo.td`` file, there are register definitions
+that utilize the ``Register`` class, such as:
+
+.. code-block:: llvm
+
+  def AL : Register<"AL">, DwarfRegNum<[0, 0, 0]>;
+
+This defines the register ``AL`` and assigns it values (with ``DwarfRegNum``)
+that are used by ``gcc``, ``gdb``, or a debug information writer to identify a
+register.  For register ``AL``, ``DwarfRegNum`` takes an array of 3 values
+representing 3 different modes: the first element is for X86-64, the second for
+exception handling (EH) on X86-32, and the third is generic. -1 is a special
+Dwarf number that indicates the gcc number is undefined, and -2 indicates the
+register number is invalid for this mode.
+
+From the previously described line in the ``X86RegisterInfo.td`` file, TableGen
+generates this code in the ``X86GenRegisterInfo.inc`` file:
+
+.. code-block:: c++
+
+  static const unsigned GR8[] = { X86::AL, ... };
+
+  const unsigned AL_AliasSet[] = { X86::AX, X86::EAX, X86::RAX, 0 };
+
+  const TargetRegisterDesc RegisterDescriptors[] = {
+    ...
+  { "AL", "AL", AL_AliasSet, Empty_SubRegsSet, Empty_SubRegsSet, AL_SuperRegsSet }, ...
+
+From the register info file, TableGen generates a ``TargetRegisterDesc`` object
+for each register.  ``TargetRegisterDesc`` is defined in
+``include/llvm/Target/TargetRegisterInfo.h`` with the following fields:
+
+.. code-block:: c++
+
+  struct TargetRegisterDesc {
+    const char     *AsmName;      // Assembly language name for the register
+    const char     *Name;         // Printable name for the reg (for debugging)
+    const unsigned *AliasSet;     // Register Alias Set
+    const unsigned *SubRegs;      // Sub-register set
+    const unsigned *ImmSubRegs;   // Immediate sub-register set
+    const unsigned *SuperRegs;    // Super-register set
+  };
+
+TableGen uses the entire target description file (``.td``) to determine text
+names for the register (in the ``AsmName`` and ``Name`` fields of
+``TargetRegisterDesc``) and the relationships of other registers to the defined
+register (in the other ``TargetRegisterDesc`` fields).  In this example, other
+definitions establish the registers "``AX``", "``EAX``", and "``RAX``" as
+aliases for one another, so TableGen generates a null-terminated array
+(``AL_AliasSet``) for this register alias set.
+
+The ``Register`` class is commonly used as a base class for more complex
+classes.  In ``Target.td``, the ``Register`` class is the base for the
+``RegisterWithSubRegs`` class that is used to define registers that need to
+specify subregisters in the ``SubRegs`` list, as shown here:
+
+.. code-block:: llvm
+
+  class RegisterWithSubRegs<string n, list<Register> subregs> : Register<n> {
+    let SubRegs = subregs;
+  }
+
+In ``SparcRegisterInfo.td``, additional register classes are defined for SPARC:
+a ``Register`` subclass, ``SparcReg``, and further subclasses: ``Ri``, ``Rf``,
+and ``Rd``.  SPARC registers are identified by 5-bit ID numbers, which is a
+feature common to these subclasses.  Note the use of "``let``" expressions to
+override values that are initially defined in a superclass (such as ``SubRegs``
+field in the ``Rd`` class).
+
+.. code-block:: llvm
+
+  class SparcReg<string n> : Register<n> {
+    field bits<5> Num;
+    let Namespace = "SP";
+  }
+  // Ri - 32-bit integer registers
+  class Ri<bits<5> num, string n> :
+  SparcReg<n> {
+    let Num = num;
+  }
+  // Rf - 32-bit floating-point registers
+  class Rf<bits<5> num, string n> :
+  SparcReg<n> {
+    let Num = num;
+  }
+  // Rd - Slots in the FP register file for 64-bit floating-point values.
+  class Rd<bits<5> num, string n, list<Register> subregs> : SparcReg<n> {
+    let Num = num;
+    let SubRegs = subregs;
+  }
+
+In the ``SparcRegisterInfo.td`` file, there are register definitions that
+utilize these subclasses of ``Register``, such as:
+
+.. code-block:: llvm
+
+  def G0 : Ri< 0, "G0">, DwarfRegNum<[0]>;
+  def G1 : Ri< 1, "G1">, DwarfRegNum<[1]>;
+  ...
+  def F0 : Rf< 0, "F0">, DwarfRegNum<[32]>;
+  def F1 : Rf< 1, "F1">, DwarfRegNum<[33]>;
+  ...
+  def D0 : Rd< 0, "F0", [F0, F1]>, DwarfRegNum<[32]>;
+  def D1 : Rd< 2, "F2", [F2, F3]>, DwarfRegNum<[34]>;
+
+The last two registers shown above (``D0`` and ``D1``) are double-precision
+floating-point registers that are aliases for pairs of single-precision
+floating-point sub-registers.  In addition to aliases, the sub-register and
+super-register relationships of the defined register are in fields of a
+register's ``TargetRegisterDesc``.
+
+Defining a Register Class
+-------------------------
+
+The ``RegisterClass`` class (specified in ``Target.td``) is used to define an
+object that represents a group of related registers and also defines the
+default allocation order of the registers.  A target description file
+``XXXRegisterInfo.td`` that uses ``Target.td`` can construct register classes
+using the following class:
+
+.. code-block:: llvm
+
+  class RegisterClass<string namespace,
+  list<ValueType> regTypes, int alignment, dag regList> {
+    string Namespace = namespace;
+    list<ValueType> RegTypes = regTypes;
+    int Size = 0;  // spill size, in bits; zero lets tblgen pick the size
+    int Alignment = alignment;
+
+    // CopyCost is the cost of copying a value between two registers
+    // default value 1 means a single instruction
+    // A negative value means copying is extremely expensive or impossible
+    int CopyCost = 1;
+    dag MemberList = regList;
+
+    // for register classes that are subregisters of this class
+    list<RegisterClass> SubRegClassList = [];
+
+    code MethodProtos = [{}];  // to insert arbitrary code
+    code MethodBodies = [{}];
+  }
+
+To define a ``RegisterClass``, use the following 4 arguments:
+
+* The first argument of the definition is the name of the namespace.
+
+* The second argument is a list of ``ValueType`` register type values that are
+  defined in ``include/llvm/CodeGen/ValueTypes.td``.  Defined values include
+  integer types (such as ``i16``, ``i32``, and ``i1`` for Boolean),
+  floating-point types (``f32``, ``f64``), and vector types (for example,
+  ``v8i16`` for an ``8 x i16`` vector).  All registers in a ``RegisterClass``
+  must have the same ``ValueType``, but some registers may store vector data in
+  different configurations.  For example a register that can process a 128-bit
+  vector may be able to handle 16 8-bit integer elements, 8 16-bit integers, 4
+  32-bit integers, and so on.
+
+* The third argument of the ``RegisterClass`` definition specifies the
+  alignment required of the registers when they are stored or loaded to
+  memory.
+
+* The final argument, ``regList``, specifies which registers are in this class.
+  If an alternative allocation order method is not specified, then ``regList``
+  also defines the order of allocation used by the register allocator.  Besides
+  simply listing registers with ``(add R0, R1, ...)``, more advanced set
+  operators are available.  See ``include/llvm/Target/Target.td`` for more
+  information.
+
+In ``SparcRegisterInfo.td``, three ``RegisterClass`` objects are defined:
+``FPRegs``, ``DFPRegs``, and ``IntRegs``.  For all three register classes, the
+first argument defines the namespace with the string "``SP``".  ``FPRegs``
+defines a group of 32 single-precision floating-point registers (``F0`` to
+``F31``); ``DFPRegs`` defines a group of 16 double-precision registers
+(``D0-D15``).
+
+.. code-block:: llvm
+
+  // F0, F1, F2, ..., F31
+  def FPRegs : RegisterClass<"SP", [f32], 32, (sequence "F%u", 0, 31)>;
+
+  def DFPRegs : RegisterClass<"SP", [f64], 64,
+                              (add D0, D1, D2, D3, D4, D5, D6, D7, D8,
+                                   D9, D10, D11, D12, D13, D14, D15)>;
+
+  def IntRegs : RegisterClass<"SP", [i32], 32,
+      (add L0, L1, L2, L3, L4, L5, L6, L7,
+           I0, I1, I2, I3, I4, I5,
+           O0, O1, O2, O3, O4, O5, O7,
+           G1,
+           // Non-allocatable regs:
+           G2, G3, G4,
+           O6,        // stack ptr
+           I6,        // frame ptr
+           I7,        // return address
+           G0,        // constant zero
+           G5, G6, G7 // reserved for kernel
+      )>;
+
+Using ``SparcRegisterInfo.td`` with TableGen generates several output files
+that are intended for inclusion in other source code that you write.
+``SparcRegisterInfo.td`` generates ``SparcGenRegisterInfo.h.inc``, which should
+be included in the header file for the implementation of the SPARC register
+implementation that you write (``SparcRegisterInfo.h``).  In
+``SparcGenRegisterInfo.h.inc`` a new structure is defined called
+``SparcGenRegisterInfo`` that uses ``TargetRegisterInfo`` as its base.  It also
+specifies types, based upon the defined register classes: ``DFPRegsClass``,
+``FPRegsClass``, and ``IntRegsClass``.
+
+``SparcRegisterInfo.td`` also generates ``SparcGenRegisterInfo.inc``, which is
+included at the bottom of ``SparcRegisterInfo.cpp``, the SPARC register
+implementation.  The code below shows only the generated integer registers and
+associated register classes.  The order of registers in ``IntRegs`` reflects
+the order in the definition of ``IntRegs`` in the target description file.
+
+.. code-block:: c++
+
+  // IntRegs Register Class...
+  static const unsigned IntRegs[] = {
+    SP::L0, SP::L1, SP::L2, SP::L3, SP::L4, SP::L5,
+    SP::L6, SP::L7, SP::I0, SP::I1, SP::I2, SP::I3,
+    SP::I4, SP::I5, SP::O0, SP::O1, SP::O2, SP::O3,
+    SP::O4, SP::O5, SP::O7, SP::G1, SP::G2, SP::G3,
+    SP::G4, SP::O6, SP::I6, SP::I7, SP::G0, SP::G5,
+    SP::G6, SP::G7,
+  };
+
+  // IntRegsVTs Register Class Value Types...
+  static const MVT::ValueType IntRegsVTs[] = {
+    MVT::i32, MVT::Other
+  };
+
+  namespace SP {   // Register class instances
+    DFPRegsClass    DFPRegsRegClass;
+    FPRegsClass     FPRegsRegClass;
+    IntRegsClass    IntRegsRegClass;
+  ...
+    // IntRegs Sub-register Classess...
+    static const TargetRegisterClass* const IntRegsSubRegClasses [] = {
+      NULL
+    };
+  ...
+    // IntRegs Super-register Classess...
+    static const TargetRegisterClass* const IntRegsSuperRegClasses [] = {
+      NULL
+    };
+  ...
+    // IntRegs Register Class sub-classes...
+    static const TargetRegisterClass* const IntRegsSubclasses [] = {
+      NULL
+    };
+  ...
+    // IntRegs Register Class super-classes...
+    static const TargetRegisterClass* const IntRegsSuperclasses [] = {
+      NULL
+    };
+
+    IntRegsClass::IntRegsClass() : TargetRegisterClass(IntRegsRegClassID,
+      IntRegsVTs, IntRegsSubclasses, IntRegsSuperclasses, IntRegsSubRegClasses,
+      IntRegsSuperRegClasses, 4, 4, 1, IntRegs, IntRegs + 32) {}
+  }
+
+The register allocators will avoid using reserved registers, and callee saved
+registers are not used until all the volatile registers have been used.  That
+is usually good enough, but in some cases it may be necessary to provide custom
+allocation orders.
+
+Implement a subclass of ``TargetRegisterInfo``
+----------------------------------------------
+
+The final step is to hand code portions of ``XXXRegisterInfo``, which
+implements the interface described in ``TargetRegisterInfo.h`` (see
+:ref:`TargetRegisterInfo`).  These functions return ``0``, ``NULL``, or
+``false``, unless overridden.  Here is a list of functions that are overridden
+for the SPARC implementation in ``SparcRegisterInfo.cpp``:
+
+* ``getCalleeSavedRegs`` --- Returns a list of callee-saved registers in the
+  order of the desired callee-save stack frame offset.
+
+* ``getReservedRegs`` --- Returns a bitset indexed by physical register
+  numbers, indicating if a particular register is unavailable.
+
+* ``hasFP`` --- Return a Boolean indicating if a function should have a
+  dedicated frame pointer register.
+
+* ``eliminateCallFramePseudoInstr`` --- If call frame setup or destroy pseudo
+  instructions are used, this can be called to eliminate them.
+
+* ``eliminateFrameIndex`` --- Eliminate abstract frame indices from
+  instructions that may use them.
+
+* ``emitPrologue`` --- Insert prologue code into the function.
+
+* ``emitEpilogue`` --- Insert epilogue code into the function.
+
+.. _instruction-set:
+
+Instruction Set
+===============
+
+During the early stages of code generation, the LLVM IR code is converted to a
+``SelectionDAG`` with nodes that are instances of the ``SDNode`` class
+containing target instructions.  An ``SDNode`` has an opcode, operands, type
+requirements, and operation properties.  For example, is an operation
+commutative, does an operation load from memory.  The various operation node
+types are described in the ``include/llvm/CodeGen/SelectionDAGNodes.h`` file
+(values of the ``NodeType`` enum in the ``ISD`` namespace).
+
+TableGen uses the following target description (``.td``) input files to
+generate much of the code for instruction definition:
+
+* ``Target.td`` --- Where the ``Instruction``, ``Operand``, ``InstrInfo``, and
+  other fundamental classes are defined.
+
+* ``TargetSelectionDAG.td`` --- Used by ``SelectionDAG`` instruction selection
+  generators, contains ``SDTC*`` classes (selection DAG type constraint),
+  definitions of ``SelectionDAG`` nodes (such as ``imm``, ``cond``, ``bb``,
+  ``add``, ``fadd``, ``sub``), and pattern support (``Pattern``, ``Pat``,
+  ``PatFrag``, ``PatLeaf``, ``ComplexPattern``.
+
+* ``XXXInstrFormats.td`` --- Patterns for definitions of target-specific
+  instructions.
+
+* ``XXXInstrInfo.td`` --- Target-specific definitions of instruction templates,
+  condition codes, and instructions of an instruction set.  For architecture
+  modifications, a different file name may be used.  For example, for Pentium
+  with SSE instruction, this file is ``X86InstrSSE.td``, and for Pentium with
+  MMX, this file is ``X86InstrMMX.td``.
+
+There is also a target-specific ``XXX.td`` file, where ``XXX`` is the name of
+the target.  The ``XXX.td`` file includes the other ``.td`` input files, but
+its contents are only directly important for subtargets.
+
+You should describe a concrete target-specific class ``XXXInstrInfo`` that
+represents machine instructions supported by a target machine.
+``XXXInstrInfo`` contains an array of ``XXXInstrDescriptor`` objects, each of
+which describes one instruction.  An instruction descriptor defines:
+
+* Opcode mnemonic
+* Number of operands
+* List of implicit register definitions and uses
+* Target-independent properties (such as memory access, is commutable)
+* Target-specific flags
+
+The Instruction class (defined in ``Target.td``) is mostly used as a base for
+more complex instruction classes.
+
+.. code-block:: llvm
+
+  class Instruction {
+    string Namespace = "";
+    dag OutOperandList;    // A dag containing the MI def operand list.
+    dag InOperandList;     // A dag containing the MI use operand list.
+    string AsmString = ""; // The .s format to print the instruction with.
+    list<dag> Pattern;     // Set to the DAG pattern for this instruction.
+    list<Register> Uses = [];
+    list<Register> Defs = [];
+    list<Predicate> Predicates = [];  // predicates turned into isel match code
+    ... remainder not shown for space ...
+  }
+
+A ``SelectionDAG`` node (``SDNode``) should contain an object representing a
+target-specific instruction that is defined in ``XXXInstrInfo.td``.  The
+instruction objects should represent instructions from the architecture manual
+of the target machine (such as the SPARC Architecture Manual for the SPARC
+target).
+
+A single instruction from the architecture manual is often modeled as multiple
+target instructions, depending upon its operands.  For example, a manual might
+describe an add instruction that takes a register or an immediate operand.  An
+LLVM target could model this with two instructions named ``ADDri`` and
+``ADDrr``.
+
+You should define a class for each instruction category and define each opcode
+as a subclass of the category with appropriate parameters such as the fixed
+binary encoding of opcodes and extended opcodes.  You should map the register
+bits to the bits of the instruction in which they are encoded (for the JIT).
+Also you should specify how the instruction should be printed when the
+automatic assembly printer is used.
+
+As is described in the SPARC Architecture Manual, Version 8, there are three
+major 32-bit formats for instructions.  Format 1 is only for the ``CALL``
+instruction.  Format 2 is for branch on condition codes and ``SETHI`` (set high
+bits of a register) instructions.  Format 3 is for other instructions.
+
+Each of these formats has corresponding classes in ``SparcInstrFormat.td``.
+``InstSP`` is a base class for other instruction classes.  Additional base
+classes are specified for more precise formats: for example in
+``SparcInstrFormat.td``, ``F2_1`` is for ``SETHI``, and ``F2_2`` is for
+branches.  There are three other base classes: ``F3_1`` for register/register
+operations, ``F3_2`` for register/immediate operations, and ``F3_3`` for
+floating-point operations.  ``SparcInstrInfo.td`` also adds the base class
+``Pseudo`` for synthetic SPARC instructions.
+
+``SparcInstrInfo.td`` largely consists of operand and instruction definitions
+for the SPARC target.  In ``SparcInstrInfo.td``, the following target
+description file entry, ``LDrr``, defines the Load Integer instruction for a
+Word (the ``LD`` SPARC opcode) from a memory address to a register.  The first
+parameter, the value 3 (``11``\ :sub:`2`), is the operation value for this
+category of operation.  The second parameter (``000000``\ :sub:`2`) is the
+specific operation value for ``LD``/Load Word.  The third parameter is the
+output destination, which is a register operand and defined in the ``Register``
+target description file (``IntRegs``).
+
+.. code-block:: llvm
+
+  def LDrr : F3_1 <3, 0b000000, (outs IntRegs:$dst), (ins MEMrr:$addr),
+                   "ld [$addr], $dst",
+                   [(set i32:$dst, (load ADDRrr:$addr))]>;
+
+The fourth parameter is the input source, which uses the address operand
+``MEMrr`` that is defined earlier in ``SparcInstrInfo.td``:
+
+.. code-block:: llvm
+
+  def MEMrr : Operand<i32> {
+    let PrintMethod = "printMemOperand";
+    let MIOperandInfo = (ops IntRegs, IntRegs);
+  }
+
+The fifth parameter is a string that is used by the assembly printer and can be
+left as an empty string until the assembly printer interface is implemented.
+The sixth and final parameter is the pattern used to match the instruction
+during the SelectionDAG Select Phase described in :doc:`CodeGenerator`.
+This parameter is detailed in the next section, :ref:`instruction-selector`.
+
+Instruction class definitions are not overloaded for different operand types,
+so separate versions of instructions are needed for register, memory, or
+immediate value operands.  For example, to perform a Load Integer instruction
+for a Word from an immediate operand to a register, the following instruction
+class is defined:
+
+.. code-block:: llvm
+
+  def LDri : F3_2 <3, 0b000000, (outs IntRegs:$dst), (ins MEMri:$addr),
+                   "ld [$addr], $dst",
+                   [(set i32:$dst, (load ADDRri:$addr))]>;
+
+Writing these definitions for so many similar instructions can involve a lot of
+cut and paste.  In ``.td`` files, the ``multiclass`` directive enables the
+creation of templates to define several instruction classes at once (using the
+``defm`` directive).  For example in ``SparcInstrInfo.td``, the ``multiclass``
+pattern ``F3_12`` is defined to create 2 instruction classes each time
+``F3_12`` is invoked:
+
+.. code-block:: llvm
+
+  multiclass F3_12 <string OpcStr, bits<6> Op3Val, SDNode OpNode> {
+    def rr  : F3_1 <2, Op3Val,
+                   (outs IntRegs:$dst), (ins IntRegs:$b, IntRegs:$c),
+                   !strconcat(OpcStr, " $b, $c, $dst"),
+                   [(set i32:$dst, (OpNode i32:$b, i32:$c))]>;
+    def ri  : F3_2 <2, Op3Val,
+                   (outs IntRegs:$dst), (ins IntRegs:$b, i32imm:$c),
+                   !strconcat(OpcStr, " $b, $c, $dst"),
+                   [(set i32:$dst, (OpNode i32:$b, simm13:$c))]>;
+  }
+
+So when the ``defm`` directive is used for the ``XOR`` and ``ADD``
+instructions, as seen below, it creates four instruction objects: ``XORrr``,
+``XORri``, ``ADDrr``, and ``ADDri``.
+
+.. code-block:: llvm
+
+  defm XOR   : F3_12<"xor", 0b000011, xor>;
+  defm ADD   : F3_12<"add", 0b000000, add>;
+
+``SparcInstrInfo.td`` also includes definitions for condition codes that are
+referenced by branch instructions.  The following definitions in
+``SparcInstrInfo.td`` indicate the bit location of the SPARC condition code.
+For example, the 10\ :sup:`th` bit represents the "greater than" condition for
+integers, and the 22\ :sup:`nd` bit represents the "greater than" condition for
+floats.
+
+.. code-block:: llvm
+
+  def ICC_NE  : ICC_VAL< 9>;  // Not Equal
+  def ICC_E   : ICC_VAL< 1>;  // Equal
+  def ICC_G   : ICC_VAL<10>;  // Greater
+  ...
+  def FCC_U   : FCC_VAL<23>;  // Unordered
+  def FCC_G   : FCC_VAL<22>;  // Greater
+  def FCC_UG  : FCC_VAL<21>;  // Unordered or Greater
+  ...
+
+(Note that ``Sparc.h`` also defines enums that correspond to the same SPARC
+condition codes.  Care must be taken to ensure the values in ``Sparc.h``
+correspond to the values in ``SparcInstrInfo.td``.  I.e., ``SPCC::ICC_NE = 9``,
+``SPCC::FCC_U = 23`` and so on.)
+
+Instruction Operand Mapping
+---------------------------
+
+The code generator backend maps instruction operands to fields in the
+instruction.  Operands are assigned to unbound fields in the instruction in the
+order they are defined.  Fields are bound when they are assigned a value.  For
+example, the Sparc target defines the ``XNORrr`` instruction as a ``F3_1``
+format instruction having three operands.
+
+.. code-block:: llvm
+
+  def XNORrr  : F3_1<2, 0b000111,
+                     (outs IntRegs:$dst), (ins IntRegs:$b, IntRegs:$c),
+                     "xnor $b, $c, $dst",
+                     [(set i32:$dst, (not (xor i32:$b, i32:$c)))]>;
+
+The instruction templates in ``SparcInstrFormats.td`` show the base class for
+``F3_1`` is ``InstSP``.
+
+.. code-block:: llvm
+
+  class InstSP<dag outs, dag ins, string asmstr, list<dag> pattern> : Instruction {
+    field bits<32> Inst;
+    let Namespace = "SP";
+    bits<2> op;
+    let Inst{31-30} = op;
+    dag OutOperandList = outs;
+    dag InOperandList = ins;
+    let AsmString   = asmstr;
+    let Pattern = pattern;
+  }
+
+``InstSP`` leaves the ``op`` field unbound.
+
+.. code-block:: llvm
+
+  class F3<dag outs, dag ins, string asmstr, list<dag> pattern>
+      : InstSP<outs, ins, asmstr, pattern> {
+    bits<5> rd;
+    bits<6> op3;
+    bits<5> rs1;
+    let op{1} = 1;   // Op = 2 or 3
+    let Inst{29-25} = rd;
+    let Inst{24-19} = op3;
+    let Inst{18-14} = rs1;
+  }
+
+``F3`` binds the ``op`` field and defines the ``rd``, ``op3``, and ``rs1``
+fields.  ``F3`` format instructions will bind the operands ``rd``, ``op3``, and
+``rs1`` fields.
+
+.. code-block:: llvm
+
+  class F3_1<bits<2> opVal, bits<6> op3val, dag outs, dag ins,
+             string asmstr, list<dag> pattern> : F3<outs, ins, asmstr, pattern> {
+    bits<8> asi = 0; // asi not currently used
+    bits<5> rs2;
+    let op         = opVal;
+    let op3        = op3val;
+    let Inst{13}   = 0;     // i field = 0
+    let Inst{12-5} = asi;   // address space identifier
+    let Inst{4-0}  = rs2;
+  }
+
+``F3_1`` binds the ``op3`` field and defines the ``rs2`` fields.  ``F3_1``
+format instructions will bind the operands to the ``rd``, ``rs1``, and ``rs2``
+fields.  This results in the ``XNORrr`` instruction binding ``$dst``, ``$b``,
+and ``$c`` operands to the ``rd``, ``rs1``, and ``rs2`` fields respectively.
+
+Instruction Operand Name Mapping
+^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
+
+TableGen will also generate a function called getNamedOperandIdx() which
+can be used to look up an operand's index in a MachineInstr based on its
+TableGen name.  Setting the UseNamedOperandTable bit in an instruction's
+TableGen definition will add all of its operands to an enumeration in the
+llvm::XXX:OpName namespace and also add an entry for it into the OperandMap
+table, which can be queried using getNamedOperandIdx()
+
+.. code-block:: llvm
+
+  int DstIndex = SP::getNamedOperandIdx(SP::XNORrr, SP::OpName::dst); // => 0
+  int BIndex = SP::getNamedOperandIdx(SP::XNORrr, SP::OpName::b);     // => 1
+  int CIndex = SP::getNamedOperandIdx(SP::XNORrr, SP::OpName::c);     // => 2
+  int DIndex = SP::getNamedOperandIdx(SP::XNORrr, SP::OpName::d);     // => -1
+
+  ...
+
+The entries in the OpName enum are taken verbatim from the TableGen definitions,
+so operands with lowercase names will have lower case entries in the enum.
+
+To include the getNamedOperandIdx() function in your backend, you will need
+to define a few preprocessor macros in XXXInstrInfo.cpp and XXXInstrInfo.h.
+For example:
+
+XXXInstrInfo.cpp:
+
+.. code-block:: c++ 
+
+  #define GET_INSTRINFO_NAMED_OPS // For getNamedOperandIdx() function
+  #include "XXXGenInstrInfo.inc"
+
+XXXInstrInfo.h:
+
+.. code-block:: c++
+
+  #define GET_INSTRINFO_OPERAND_ENUM // For OpName enum
+  #include "XXXGenInstrInfo.inc"
+
+  namespace XXX {
+    int16_t getNamedOperandIdx(uint16_t Opcode, uint16_t NamedIndex);
+  } // End namespace XXX
+
+Instruction Operand Types
+^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
+
+TableGen will also generate an enumeration consisting of all named Operand
+types defined in the backend, in the llvm::XXX::OpTypes namespace.
+Some common immediate Operand types (for instance i8, i32, i64, f32, f64)
+are defined for all targets in ``include/llvm/Target/Target.td``, and are
+available in each Target's OpTypes enum.  Also, only named Operand types appear
+in the enumeration: anonymous types are ignored.
+For example, the X86 backend defines ``brtarget`` and ``brtarget8``, both
+instances of the TableGen ``Operand`` class, which represent branch target
+operands:
+
+.. code-block:: llvm
+
+  def brtarget : Operand<OtherVT>;
+  def brtarget8 : Operand<OtherVT>;
+
+This results in:
+
+.. code-block:: c++
+
+  namespace X86 {
+  namespace OpTypes {
+  enum OperandType {
+    ...
+    brtarget,
+    brtarget8,
+    ...
+    i32imm,
+    i64imm,
+    ...
+    OPERAND_TYPE_LIST_END
+  } // End namespace OpTypes
+  } // End namespace X86
+
+In typical TableGen fashion, to use the enum, you will need to define a
+preprocessor macro:
+
+.. code-block:: c++
+
+  #define GET_INSTRINFO_OPERAND_TYPES_ENUM // For OpTypes enum
+  #include "XXXGenInstrInfo.inc"
+
+
+Instruction Scheduling
+----------------------
+
+Instruction itineraries can be queried using MCDesc::getSchedClass(). The
+value can be named by an enumemation in llvm::XXX::Sched namespace generated
+by TableGen in XXXGenInstrInfo.inc. The name of the schedule classes are
+the same as provided in XXXSchedule.td plus a default NoItinerary class.
+
+Instruction Relation Mapping
+----------------------------
+
+This TableGen feature is used to relate instructions with each other.  It is
+particularly useful when you have multiple instruction formats and need to
+switch between them after instruction selection.  This entire feature is driven
+by relation models which can be defined in ``XXXInstrInfo.td`` files
+according to the target-specific instruction set.  Relation models are defined
+using ``InstrMapping`` class as a base.  TableGen parses all the models
+and generates instruction relation maps using the specified information.
+Relation maps are emitted as tables in the ``XXXGenInstrInfo.inc`` file
+along with the functions to query them.  For the detailed information on how to
+use this feature, please refer to :doc:`HowToUseInstrMappings`.
+
+Implement a subclass of ``TargetInstrInfo``
+-------------------------------------------
+
+The final step is to hand code portions of ``XXXInstrInfo``, which implements
+the interface described in ``TargetInstrInfo.h`` (see :ref:`TargetInstrInfo`).
+These functions return ``0`` or a Boolean or they assert, unless overridden.
+Here's a list of functions that are overridden for the SPARC implementation in
+``SparcInstrInfo.cpp``:
+
+* ``isLoadFromStackSlot`` --- If the specified machine instruction is a direct
+  load from a stack slot, return the register number of the destination and the
+  ``FrameIndex`` of the stack slot.
+
+* ``isStoreToStackSlot`` --- If the specified machine instruction is a direct
+  store to a stack slot, return the register number of the destination and the
+  ``FrameIndex`` of the stack slot.
+
+* ``copyPhysReg`` --- Copy values between a pair of physical registers.
+
+* ``storeRegToStackSlot`` --- Store a register value to a stack slot.
+
+* ``loadRegFromStackSlot`` --- Load a register value from a stack slot.
+
+* ``storeRegToAddr`` --- Store a register value to memory.
+
+* ``loadRegFromAddr`` --- Load a register value from memory.
+
+* ``foldMemoryOperand`` --- Attempt to combine instructions of any load or
+  store instruction for the specified operand(s).
+
+Branch Folding and If Conversion
+--------------------------------
+
+Performance can be improved by combining instructions or by eliminating
+instructions that are never reached.  The ``AnalyzeBranch`` method in
+``XXXInstrInfo`` may be implemented to examine conditional instructions and
+remove unnecessary instructions.  ``AnalyzeBranch`` looks at the end of a
+machine basic block (MBB) for opportunities for improvement, such as branch
+folding and if conversion.  The ``BranchFolder`` and ``IfConverter`` machine
+function passes (see the source files ``BranchFolding.cpp`` and
+``IfConversion.cpp`` in the ``lib/CodeGen`` directory) call ``AnalyzeBranch``
+to improve the control flow graph that represents the instructions.
+
+Several implementations of ``AnalyzeBranch`` (for ARM, Alpha, and X86) can be
+examined as models for your own ``AnalyzeBranch`` implementation.  Since SPARC
+does not implement a useful ``AnalyzeBranch``, the ARM target implementation is
+shown below.
+
+``AnalyzeBranch`` returns a Boolean value and takes four parameters:
+
+* ``MachineBasicBlock &MBB`` --- The incoming block to be examined.
+
+* ``MachineBasicBlock *&TBB`` --- A destination block that is returned.  For a
+  conditional branch that evaluates to true, ``TBB`` is the destination.
+
+* ``MachineBasicBlock *&FBB`` --- For a conditional branch that evaluates to
+  false, ``FBB`` is returned as the destination.
+
+* ``std::vector<MachineOperand> &Cond`` --- List of operands to evaluate a
+  condition for a conditional branch.
+
+In the simplest case, if a block ends without a branch, then it falls through
+to the successor block.  No destination blocks are specified for either ``TBB``
+or ``FBB``, so both parameters return ``NULL``.  The start of the
+``AnalyzeBranch`` (see code below for the ARM target) shows the function
+parameters and the code for the simplest case.
+
+.. code-block:: c++
+
+  bool ARMInstrInfo::AnalyzeBranch(MachineBasicBlock &MBB,
+                                   MachineBasicBlock *&TBB,
+                                   MachineBasicBlock *&FBB,
+                                   std::vector<MachineOperand> &Cond) const
+  {
+    MachineBasicBlock::iterator I = MBB.end();
+    if (I == MBB.begin() || !isUnpredicatedTerminator(--I))
+      return false;
+
+If a block ends with a single unconditional branch instruction, then
+``AnalyzeBranch`` (shown below) should return the destination of that branch in
+the ``TBB`` parameter.
+
+.. code-block:: c++
+
+    if (LastOpc == ARM::B || LastOpc == ARM::tB) {
+      TBB = LastInst->getOperand(0).getMBB();
+      return false;
+    }
+
+If a block ends with two unconditional branches, then the second branch is
+never reached.  In that situation, as shown below, remove the last branch
+instruction and return the penultimate branch in the ``TBB`` parameter.
+
+.. code-block:: c++
+
+    if ((SecondLastOpc == ARM::B || SecondLastOpc == ARM::tB) &&
+        (LastOpc == ARM::B || LastOpc == ARM::tB)) {
+      TBB = SecondLastInst->getOperand(0).getMBB();
+      I = LastInst;
+      I->eraseFromParent();
+      return false;
+    }
+
+A block may end with a single conditional branch instruction that falls through
+to successor block if the condition evaluates to false.  In that case,
+``AnalyzeBranch`` (shown below) should return the destination of that
+conditional branch in the ``TBB`` parameter and a list of operands in the
+``Cond`` parameter to evaluate the condition.
+
+.. code-block:: c++
+
+    if (LastOpc == ARM::Bcc || LastOpc == ARM::tBcc) {
+      // Block ends with fall-through condbranch.
+      TBB = LastInst->getOperand(0).getMBB();
+      Cond.push_back(LastInst->getOperand(1));
+      Cond.push_back(LastInst->getOperand(2));
+      return false;
+    }
+
+If a block ends with both a conditional branch and an ensuing unconditional
+branch, then ``AnalyzeBranch`` (shown below) should return the conditional
+branch destination (assuming it corresponds to a conditional evaluation of
+"``true``") in the ``TBB`` parameter and the unconditional branch destination
+in the ``FBB`` (corresponding to a conditional evaluation of "``false``").  A
+list of operands to evaluate the condition should be returned in the ``Cond``
+parameter.
+
+.. code-block:: c++
+
+    unsigned SecondLastOpc = SecondLastInst->getOpcode();
+
+    if ((SecondLastOpc == ARM::Bcc && LastOpc == ARM::B) ||
+        (SecondLastOpc == ARM::tBcc && LastOpc == ARM::tB)) {
+      TBB =  SecondLastInst->getOperand(0).getMBB();
+      Cond.push_back(SecondLastInst->getOperand(1));
+      Cond.push_back(SecondLastInst->getOperand(2));
+      FBB = LastInst->getOperand(0).getMBB();
+      return false;
+    }
+
+For the last two cases (ending with a single conditional branch or ending with
+one conditional and one unconditional branch), the operands returned in the
+``Cond`` parameter can be passed to methods of other instructions to create new
+branches or perform other operations.  An implementation of ``AnalyzeBranch``
+requires the helper methods ``RemoveBranch`` and ``InsertBranch`` to manage
+subsequent operations.
+
+``AnalyzeBranch`` should return false indicating success in most circumstances.
+``AnalyzeBranch`` should only return true when the method is stumped about what
+to do, for example, if a block has three terminating branches.
+``AnalyzeBranch`` may return true if it encounters a terminator it cannot
+handle, such as an indirect branch.
+
+.. _instruction-selector:
+
+Instruction Selector
+====================
+
+LLVM uses a ``SelectionDAG`` to represent LLVM IR instructions, and nodes of
+the ``SelectionDAG`` ideally represent native target instructions.  During code
+generation, instruction selection passes are performed to convert non-native
+DAG instructions into native target-specific instructions.  The pass described
+in ``XXXISelDAGToDAG.cpp`` is used to match patterns and perform DAG-to-DAG
+instruction selection.  Optionally, a pass may be defined (in
+``XXXBranchSelector.cpp``) to perform similar DAG-to-DAG operations for branch
+instructions.  Later, the code in ``XXXISelLowering.cpp`` replaces or removes
+operations and data types not supported natively (legalizes) in a
+``SelectionDAG``.
+
+TableGen generates code for instruction selection using the following target
+description input files:
+
+* ``XXXInstrInfo.td`` --- Contains definitions of instructions in a
+  target-specific instruction set, generates ``XXXGenDAGISel.inc``, which is
+  included in ``XXXISelDAGToDAG.cpp``.
+
+* ``XXXCallingConv.td`` --- Contains the calling and return value conventions
+  for the target architecture, and it generates ``XXXGenCallingConv.inc``,
+  which is included in ``XXXISelLowering.cpp``.
+
+The implementation of an instruction selection pass must include a header that
+declares the ``FunctionPass`` class or a subclass of ``FunctionPass``.  In
+``XXXTargetMachine.cpp``, a Pass Manager (PM) should add each instruction
+selection pass into the queue of passes to run.
+
+The LLVM static compiler (``llc``) is an excellent tool for visualizing the
+contents of DAGs.  To display the ``SelectionDAG`` before or after specific
+processing phases, use the command line options for ``llc``, described at
+:ref:`SelectionDAG-Process`.
+
+To describe instruction selector behavior, you should add patterns for lowering
+LLVM code into a ``SelectionDAG`` as the last parameter of the instruction
+definitions in ``XXXInstrInfo.td``.  For example, in ``SparcInstrInfo.td``,
+this entry defines a register store operation, and the last parameter describes
+a pattern with the store DAG operator.
+
+.. code-block:: llvm
+
+  def STrr  : F3_1< 3, 0b000100, (outs), (ins MEMrr:$addr, IntRegs:$src),
+                   "st $src, [$addr]", [(store i32:$src, ADDRrr:$addr)]>;
+
+``ADDRrr`` is a memory mode that is also defined in ``SparcInstrInfo.td``:
+
+.. code-block:: llvm
+
+  def ADDRrr : ComplexPattern<i32, 2, "SelectADDRrr", [], []>;
+
+The definition of ``ADDRrr`` refers to ``SelectADDRrr``, which is a function
+defined in an implementation of the Instructor Selector (such as
+``SparcISelDAGToDAG.cpp``).
+
+In ``lib/Target/TargetSelectionDAG.td``, the DAG operator for store is defined
+below:
+
+.. code-block:: llvm
+
+  def store : PatFrag<(ops node:$val, node:$ptr),
+                      (st node:$val, node:$ptr), [{
+    if (StoreSDNode *ST = dyn_cast<StoreSDNode>(N))
+      return !ST->isTruncatingStore() &&
+             ST->getAddressingMode() == ISD::UNINDEXED;
+    return false;
+  }]>;
+
+``XXXInstrInfo.td`` also generates (in ``XXXGenDAGISel.inc``) the
+``SelectCode`` method that is used to call the appropriate processing method
+for an instruction.  In this example, ``SelectCode`` calls ``Select_ISD_STORE``
+for the ``ISD::STORE`` opcode.
+
+.. code-block:: c++
+
+  SDNode *SelectCode(SDValue N) {
+    ...
+    MVT::ValueType NVT = N.getNode()->getValueType(0);
+    switch (N.getOpcode()) {
+    case ISD::STORE: {
+      switch (NVT) {
+      default:
+        return Select_ISD_STORE(N);
+        break;
+      }
+      break;
+    }
+    ...
+
+The pattern for ``STrr`` is matched, so elsewhere in ``XXXGenDAGISel.inc``,
+code for ``STrr`` is created for ``Select_ISD_STORE``.  The ``Emit_22`` method
+is also generated in ``XXXGenDAGISel.inc`` to complete the processing of this
+instruction.
+
+.. code-block:: c++
+
+  SDNode *Select_ISD_STORE(const SDValue &N) {
+    SDValue Chain = N.getOperand(0);
+    if (Predicate_store(N.getNode())) {
+      SDValue N1 = N.getOperand(1);
+      SDValue N2 = N.getOperand(2);
+      SDValue CPTmp0;
+      SDValue CPTmp1;
+
+      // Pattern: (st:void i32:i32:$src,
+      //           ADDRrr:i32:$addr)<<P:Predicate_store>>
+      // Emits: (STrr:void ADDRrr:i32:$addr, IntRegs:i32:$src)
+      // Pattern complexity = 13  cost = 1  size = 0
+      if (SelectADDRrr(N, N2, CPTmp0, CPTmp1) &&
+          N1.getNode()->getValueType(0) == MVT::i32 &&
+          N2.getNode()->getValueType(0) == MVT::i32) {
+        return Emit_22(N, SP::STrr, CPTmp0, CPTmp1);
+      }
+  ...
+
+The SelectionDAG Legalize Phase
+-------------------------------
+
+The Legalize phase converts a DAG to use types and operations that are natively
+supported by the target.  For natively unsupported types and operations, you
+need to add code to the target-specific ``XXXTargetLowering`` implementation to
+convert unsupported types and operations to supported ones.
+
+In the constructor for the ``XXXTargetLowering`` class, first use the
+``addRegisterClass`` method to specify which types are supported and which
+register classes are associated with them.  The code for the register classes
+are generated by TableGen from ``XXXRegisterInfo.td`` and placed in
+``XXXGenRegisterInfo.h.inc``.  For example, the implementation of the
+constructor for the SparcTargetLowering class (in ``SparcISelLowering.cpp``)
+starts with the following code:
+
+.. code-block:: c++
+
+  addRegisterClass(MVT::i32, SP::IntRegsRegisterClass);
+  addRegisterClass(MVT::f32, SP::FPRegsRegisterClass);
+  addRegisterClass(MVT::f64, SP::DFPRegsRegisterClass);
+
+You should examine the node types in the ``ISD`` namespace
+(``include/llvm/CodeGen/SelectionDAGNodes.h``) and determine which operations
+the target natively supports.  For operations that do **not** have native
+support, add a callback to the constructor for the ``XXXTargetLowering`` class,
+so the instruction selection process knows what to do.  The ``TargetLowering``
+class callback methods (declared in ``llvm/Target/TargetLowering.h``) are:
+
+* ``setOperationAction`` --- General operation.
+* ``setLoadExtAction`` --- Load with extension.
+* ``setTruncStoreAction`` --- Truncating store.
+* ``setIndexedLoadAction`` --- Indexed load.
+* ``setIndexedStoreAction`` --- Indexed store.
+* ``setConvertAction`` --- Type conversion.
+* ``setCondCodeAction`` --- Support for a given condition code.
+
+Note: on older releases, ``setLoadXAction`` is used instead of
+``setLoadExtAction``.  Also, on older releases, ``setCondCodeAction`` may not
+be supported.  Examine your release to see what methods are specifically
+supported.
+
+These callbacks are used to determine that an operation does or does not work
+with a specified type (or types).  And in all cases, the third parameter is a
+``LegalAction`` type enum value: ``Promote``, ``Expand``, ``Custom``, or
+``Legal``.  ``SparcISelLowering.cpp`` contains examples of all four
+``LegalAction`` values.
+
+Promote
+^^^^^^^
+
+For an operation without native support for a given type, the specified type
+may be promoted to a larger type that is supported.  For example, SPARC does
+not support a sign-extending load for Boolean values (``i1`` type), so in
+``SparcISelLowering.cpp`` the third parameter below, ``Promote``, changes
+``i1`` type values to a large type before loading.
+
+.. code-block:: c++
+
+  setLoadExtAction(ISD::SEXTLOAD, MVT::i1, Promote);
+
+Expand
+^^^^^^
+
+For a type without native support, a value may need to be broken down further,
+rather than promoted.  For an operation without native support, a combination
+of other operations may be used to similar effect.  In SPARC, the
+floating-point sine and cosine trig operations are supported by expansion to
+other operations, as indicated by the third parameter, ``Expand``, to
+``setOperationAction``:
+
+.. code-block:: c++
+
+  setOperationAction(ISD::FSIN, MVT::f32, Expand);
+  setOperationAction(ISD::FCOS, MVT::f32, Expand);
+
+Custom
+^^^^^^
+
+For some operations, simple type promotion or operation expansion may be
+insufficient.  In some cases, a special intrinsic function must be implemented.
+
+For example, a constant value may require special treatment, or an operation
+may require spilling and restoring registers in the stack and working with
+register allocators.
+
+As seen in ``SparcISelLowering.cpp`` code below, to perform a type conversion
+from a floating point value to a signed integer, first the
+``setOperationAction`` should be called with ``Custom`` as the third parameter:
+
+.. code-block:: c++
+
+  setOperationAction(ISD::FP_TO_SINT, MVT::i32, Custom);
+
+In the ``LowerOperation`` method, for each ``Custom`` operation, a case
+statement should be added to indicate what function to call.  In the following
+code, an ``FP_TO_SINT`` opcode will call the ``LowerFP_TO_SINT`` method:
+
+.. code-block:: c++
+
+  SDValue SparcTargetLowering::LowerOperation(SDValue Op, SelectionDAG &DAG) {
+    switch (Op.getOpcode()) {
+    case ISD::FP_TO_SINT: return LowerFP_TO_SINT(Op, DAG);
+    ...
+    }
+  }
+
+Finally, the ``LowerFP_TO_SINT`` method is implemented, using an FP register to
+convert the floating-point value to an integer.
+
+.. code-block:: c++
+
+  static SDValue LowerFP_TO_SINT(SDValue Op, SelectionDAG &DAG) {
+    assert(Op.getValueType() == MVT::i32);
+    Op = DAG.getNode(SPISD::FTOI, MVT::f32, Op.getOperand(0));
+    return DAG.getNode(ISD::BITCAST, MVT::i32, Op);
+  }
+
+Legal
+^^^^^
+
+The ``Legal`` ``LegalizeAction`` enum value simply indicates that an operation
+**is** natively supported.  ``Legal`` represents the default condition, so it
+is rarely used.  In ``SparcISelLowering.cpp``, the action for ``CTPOP`` (an
+operation to count the bits set in an integer) is natively supported only for
+SPARC v9.  The following code enables the ``Expand`` conversion technique for
+non-v9 SPARC implementations.
+
+.. code-block:: c++
+
+  setOperationAction(ISD::CTPOP, MVT::i32, Expand);
+  ...
+  if (TM.getSubtarget<SparcSubtarget>().isV9())
+    setOperationAction(ISD::CTPOP, MVT::i32, Legal);
+
+Calling Conventions
+-------------------
+
+To support target-specific calling conventions, ``XXXGenCallingConv.td`` uses
+interfaces (such as ``CCIfType`` and ``CCAssignToReg``) that are defined in
+``lib/Target/TargetCallingConv.td``.  TableGen can take the target descriptor
+file ``XXXGenCallingConv.td`` and generate the header file
+``XXXGenCallingConv.inc``, which is typically included in
+``XXXISelLowering.cpp``.  You can use the interfaces in
+``TargetCallingConv.td`` to specify:
+
+* The order of parameter allocation.
+
+* Where parameters and return values are placed (that is, on the stack or in
+  registers).
+
+* Which registers may be used.
+
+* Whether the caller or callee unwinds the stack.
+
+The following example demonstrates the use of the ``CCIfType`` and
+``CCAssignToReg`` interfaces.  If the ``CCIfType`` predicate is true (that is,
+if the current argument is of type ``f32`` or ``f64``), then the action is
+performed.  In this case, the ``CCAssignToReg`` action assigns the argument
+value to the first available register: either ``R0`` or ``R1``.
+
+.. code-block:: llvm
+
+  CCIfType<[f32,f64], CCAssignToReg<[R0, R1]>>
+
+``SparcCallingConv.td`` contains definitions for a target-specific return-value
+calling convention (``RetCC_Sparc32``) and a basic 32-bit C calling convention
+(``CC_Sparc32``).  The definition of ``RetCC_Sparc32`` (shown below) indicates
+which registers are used for specified scalar return types.  A single-precision
+float is returned to register ``F0``, and a double-precision float goes to
+register ``D0``.  A 32-bit integer is returned in register ``I0`` or ``I1``.
+
+.. code-block:: llvm
+
+  def RetCC_Sparc32 : CallingConv<[
+    CCIfType<[i32], CCAssignToReg<[I0, I1]>>,
+    CCIfType<[f32], CCAssignToReg<[F0]>>,
+    CCIfType<[f64], CCAssignToReg<[D0]>>
+  ]>;
+
+The definition of ``CC_Sparc32`` in ``SparcCallingConv.td`` introduces
+``CCAssignToStack``, which assigns the value to a stack slot with the specified
+size and alignment.  In the example below, the first parameter, 4, indicates
+the size of the slot, and the second parameter, also 4, indicates the stack
+alignment along 4-byte units.  (Special cases: if size is zero, then the ABI
+size is used; if alignment is zero, then the ABI alignment is used.)
+
+.. code-block:: llvm
+
+  def CC_Sparc32 : CallingConv<[
+    // All arguments get passed in integer registers if there is space.
+    CCIfType<[i32, f32, f64], CCAssignToReg<[I0, I1, I2, I3, I4, I5]>>,
+    CCAssignToStack<4, 4>
+  ]>;
+
+``CCDelegateTo`` is another commonly used interface, which tries to find a
+specified sub-calling convention, and, if a match is found, it is invoked.  In
+the following example (in ``X86CallingConv.td``), the definition of
+``RetCC_X86_32_C`` ends with ``CCDelegateTo``.  After the current value is
+assigned to the register ``ST0`` or ``ST1``, the ``RetCC_X86Common`` is
+invoked.
+
+.. code-block:: llvm
+
+  def RetCC_X86_32_C : CallingConv<[
+    CCIfType<[f32], CCAssignToReg<[ST0, ST1]>>,
+    CCIfType<[f64], CCAssignToReg<[ST0, ST1]>>,
+    CCDelegateTo<RetCC_X86Common>
+  ]>;
+
+``CCIfCC`` is an interface that attempts to match the given name to the current
+calling convention.  If the name identifies the current calling convention,
+then a specified action is invoked.  In the following example (in
+``X86CallingConv.td``), if the ``Fast`` calling convention is in use, then
+``RetCC_X86_32_Fast`` is invoked.  If the ``SSECall`` calling convention is in
+use, then ``RetCC_X86_32_SSE`` is invoked.
+
+.. code-block:: llvm
+
+  def RetCC_X86_32 : CallingConv<[
+    CCIfCC<"CallingConv::Fast", CCDelegateTo<RetCC_X86_32_Fast>>,
+    CCIfCC<"CallingConv::X86_SSECall", CCDelegateTo<RetCC_X86_32_SSE>>,
+    CCDelegateTo<RetCC_X86_32_C>
+  ]>;
+
+Other calling convention interfaces include:
+
+* ``CCIf <predicate, action>`` --- If the predicate matches, apply the action.
+
+* ``CCIfInReg <action>`` --- If the argument is marked with the "``inreg``"
+  attribute, then apply the action.
+
+* ``CCIfNest <action>`` --- If the argument is marked with the "``nest``"
+  attribute, then apply the action.
+
+* ``CCIfNotVarArg <action>`` --- If the current function does not take a
+  variable number of arguments, apply the action.
+
+* ``CCAssignToRegWithShadow <registerList, shadowList>`` --- similar to
+  ``CCAssignToReg``, but with a shadow list of registers.
+
+* ``CCPassByVal <size, align>`` --- Assign value to a stack slot with the
+  minimum specified size and alignment.
+
+* ``CCPromoteToType <type>`` --- Promote the current value to the specified
+  type.
+
+* ``CallingConv <[actions]>`` --- Define each calling convention that is
+  supported.
+
+Assembly Printer
+================
+
+During the code emission stage, the code generator may utilize an LLVM pass to
+produce assembly output.  To do this, you want to implement the code for a
+printer that converts LLVM IR to a GAS-format assembly language for your target
+machine, using the following steps:
+
+* Define all the assembly strings for your target, adding them to the
+  instructions defined in the ``XXXInstrInfo.td`` file.  (See
+  :ref:`instruction-set`.)  TableGen will produce an output file
+  (``XXXGenAsmWriter.inc``) with an implementation of the ``printInstruction``
+  method for the ``XXXAsmPrinter`` class.
+
+* Write ``XXXTargetAsmInfo.h``, which contains the bare-bones declaration of
+  the ``XXXTargetAsmInfo`` class (a subclass of ``TargetAsmInfo``).
+
+* Write ``XXXTargetAsmInfo.cpp``, which contains target-specific values for
+  ``TargetAsmInfo`` properties and sometimes new implementations for methods.
+
+* Write ``XXXAsmPrinter.cpp``, which implements the ``AsmPrinter`` class that
+  performs the LLVM-to-assembly conversion.
+
+The code in ``XXXTargetAsmInfo.h`` is usually a trivial declaration of the
+``XXXTargetAsmInfo`` class for use in ``XXXTargetAsmInfo.cpp``.  Similarly,
+``XXXTargetAsmInfo.cpp`` usually has a few declarations of ``XXXTargetAsmInfo``
+replacement values that override the default values in ``TargetAsmInfo.cpp``.
+For example in ``SparcTargetAsmInfo.cpp``:
+
+.. code-block:: c++
+
+  SparcTargetAsmInfo::SparcTargetAsmInfo(const SparcTargetMachine &TM) {
+    Data16bitsDirective = "\t.half\t";
+    Data32bitsDirective = "\t.word\t";
+    Data64bitsDirective = 0;  // .xword is only supported by V9.
+    ZeroDirective = "\t.skip\t";
+    CommentString = "!";
+    ConstantPoolSection = "\t.section \".rodata\",#alloc\n";
+  }
+
+The X86 assembly printer implementation (``X86TargetAsmInfo``) is an example
+where the target specific ``TargetAsmInfo`` class uses an overridden methods:
+``ExpandInlineAsm``.
+
+A target-specific implementation of ``AsmPrinter`` is written in
+``XXXAsmPrinter.cpp``, which implements the ``AsmPrinter`` class that converts
+the LLVM to printable assembly.  The implementation must include the following
+headers that have declarations for the ``AsmPrinter`` and
+``MachineFunctionPass`` classes.  The ``MachineFunctionPass`` is a subclass of
+``FunctionPass``.
+
+.. code-block:: c++
+
+  #include "llvm/CodeGen/AsmPrinter.h"
+  #include "llvm/CodeGen/MachineFunctionPass.h"
+
+As a ``FunctionPass``, ``AsmPrinter`` first calls ``doInitialization`` to set
+up the ``AsmPrinter``.  In ``SparcAsmPrinter``, a ``Mangler`` object is
+instantiated to process variable names.
+
+In ``XXXAsmPrinter.cpp``, the ``runOnMachineFunction`` method (declared in
+``MachineFunctionPass``) must be implemented for ``XXXAsmPrinter``.  In
+``MachineFunctionPass``, the ``runOnFunction`` method invokes
+``runOnMachineFunction``.  Target-specific implementations of
+``runOnMachineFunction`` differ, but generally do the following to process each
+machine function:
+
+* Call ``SetupMachineFunction`` to perform initialization.
+
+* Call ``EmitConstantPool`` to print out (to the output stream) constants which
+  have been spilled to memory.
+
+* Call ``EmitJumpTableInfo`` to print out jump tables used by the current
+  function.
+
+* Print out the label for the current function.
+
+* Print out the code for the function, including basic block labels and the
+  assembly for the instruction (using ``printInstruction``)
+
+The ``XXXAsmPrinter`` implementation must also include the code generated by
+TableGen that is output in the ``XXXGenAsmWriter.inc`` file.  The code in
+``XXXGenAsmWriter.inc`` contains an implementation of the ``printInstruction``
+method that may call these methods:
+
+* ``printOperand``
+* ``printMemOperand``
+* ``printCCOperand`` (for conditional statements)
+* ``printDataDirective``
+* ``printDeclare``
+* ``printImplicitDef``
+* ``printInlineAsm``
+
+The implementations of ``printDeclare``, ``printImplicitDef``,
+``printInlineAsm``, and ``printLabel`` in ``AsmPrinter.cpp`` are generally
+adequate for printing assembly and do not need to be overridden.
+
+The ``printOperand`` method is implemented with a long ``switch``/``case``
+statement for the type of operand: register, immediate, basic block, external
+symbol, global address, constant pool index, or jump table index.  For an
+instruction with a memory address operand, the ``printMemOperand`` method
+should be implemented to generate the proper output.  Similarly,
+``printCCOperand`` should be used to print a conditional operand.
+
+``doFinalization`` should be overridden in ``XXXAsmPrinter``, and it should be
+called to shut down the assembly printer.  During ``doFinalization``, global
+variables and constants are printed to output.
+
+Subtarget Support
+=================
+
+Subtarget support is used to inform the code generation process of instruction
+set variations for a given chip set.  For example, the LLVM SPARC
+implementation provided covers three major versions of the SPARC microprocessor
+architecture: Version 8 (V8, which is a 32-bit architecture), Version 9 (V9, a
+64-bit architecture), and the UltraSPARC architecture.  V8 has 16
+double-precision floating-point registers that are also usable as either 32
+single-precision or 8 quad-precision registers.  V8 is also purely big-endian.
+V9 has 32 double-precision floating-point registers that are also usable as 16
+quad-precision registers, but cannot be used as single-precision registers.
+The UltraSPARC architecture combines V9 with UltraSPARC Visual Instruction Set
+extensions.
+
+If subtarget support is needed, you should implement a target-specific
+``XXXSubtarget`` class for your architecture.  This class should process the
+command-line options ``-mcpu=`` and ``-mattr=``.
+
+TableGen uses definitions in the ``Target.td`` and ``Sparc.td`` files to
+generate code in ``SparcGenSubtarget.inc``.  In ``Target.td``, shown below, the
+``SubtargetFeature`` interface is defined.  The first 4 string parameters of
+the ``SubtargetFeature`` interface are a feature name, an attribute set by the
+feature, the value of the attribute, and a description of the feature.  (The
+fifth parameter is a list of features whose presence is implied, and its
+default value is an empty array.)
+
+.. code-block:: llvm
+
+  class SubtargetFeature<string n, string a, string v, string d,
+                         list<SubtargetFeature> i = []> {
+    string Name = n;
+    string Attribute = a;
+    string Value = v;
+    string Desc = d;
+    list<SubtargetFeature> Implies = i;
+  }
+
+In the ``Sparc.td`` file, the ``SubtargetFeature`` is used to define the
+following features.
+
+.. code-block:: llvm
+
+  def FeatureV9 : SubtargetFeature<"v9", "IsV9", "true",
+                       "Enable SPARC-V9 instructions">;
+  def FeatureV8Deprecated : SubtargetFeature<"deprecated-v8",
+                       "V8DeprecatedInsts", "true",
+                       "Enable deprecated V8 instructions in V9 mode">;
+  def FeatureVIS : SubtargetFeature<"vis", "IsVIS", "true",
+                       "Enable UltraSPARC Visual Instruction Set extensions">;
+
+Elsewhere in ``Sparc.td``, the ``Proc`` class is defined and then is used to
+define particular SPARC processor subtypes that may have the previously
+described features.
+
+.. code-block:: llvm
+
+  class Proc<string Name, list<SubtargetFeature> Features>
+    : Processor<Name, NoItineraries, Features>;
+
+  def : Proc<"generic",         []>;
+  def : Proc<"v8",              []>;
+  def : Proc<"supersparc",      []>;
+  def : Proc<"sparclite",       []>;
+  def : Proc<"f934",            []>;
+  def : Proc<"hypersparc",      []>;
+  def : Proc<"sparclite86x",    []>;
+  def : Proc<"sparclet",        []>;
+  def : Proc<"tsc701",          []>;
+  def : Proc<"v9",              [FeatureV9]>;
+  def : Proc<"ultrasparc",      [FeatureV9, FeatureV8Deprecated]>;
+  def : Proc<"ultrasparc3",     [FeatureV9, FeatureV8Deprecated]>;
+  def : Proc<"ultrasparc3-vis", [FeatureV9, FeatureV8Deprecated, FeatureVIS]>;
+
+From ``Target.td`` and ``Sparc.td`` files, the resulting
+``SparcGenSubtarget.inc`` specifies enum values to identify the features,
+arrays of constants to represent the CPU features and CPU subtypes, and the
+``ParseSubtargetFeatures`` method that parses the features string that sets
+specified subtarget options.  The generated ``SparcGenSubtarget.inc`` file
+should be included in the ``SparcSubtarget.cpp``.  The target-specific
+implementation of the ``XXXSubtarget`` method should follow this pseudocode:
+
+.. code-block:: c++
+
+  XXXSubtarget::XXXSubtarget(const Module &M, const std::string &FS) {
+    // Set the default features
+    // Determine default and user specified characteristics of the CPU
+    // Call ParseSubtargetFeatures(FS, CPU) to parse the features string
+    // Perform any additional operations
+  }
+
+JIT Support
+===========
+
+The implementation of a target machine optionally includes a Just-In-Time (JIT)
+code generator that emits machine code and auxiliary structures as binary
+output that can be written directly to memory.  To do this, implement JIT code
+generation by performing the following steps:
+
+* Write an ``XXXCodeEmitter.cpp`` file that contains a machine function pass
+  that transforms target-machine instructions into relocatable machine
+  code.
+
+* Write an ``XXXJITInfo.cpp`` file that implements the JIT interfaces for
+  target-specific code-generation activities, such as emitting machine code and
+  stubs.
+
+* Modify ``XXXTargetMachine`` so that it provides a ``TargetJITInfo`` object
+  through its ``getJITInfo`` method.
+
+There are several different approaches to writing the JIT support code.  For
+instance, TableGen and target descriptor files may be used for creating a JIT
+code generator, but are not mandatory.  For the Alpha and PowerPC target
+machines, TableGen is used to generate ``XXXGenCodeEmitter.inc``, which
+contains the binary coding of machine instructions and the
+``getBinaryCodeForInstr`` method to access those codes.  Other JIT
+implementations do not.
+
+Both ``XXXJITInfo.cpp`` and ``XXXCodeEmitter.cpp`` must include the
+``llvm/CodeGen/MachineCodeEmitter.h`` header file that defines the
+``MachineCodeEmitter`` class containing code for several callback functions
+that write data (in bytes, words, strings, etc.) to the output stream.
+
+Machine Code Emitter
+--------------------
+
+In ``XXXCodeEmitter.cpp``, a target-specific of the ``Emitter`` class is
+implemented as a function pass (subclass of ``MachineFunctionPass``).  The
+target-specific implementation of ``runOnMachineFunction`` (invoked by
+``runOnFunction`` in ``MachineFunctionPass``) iterates through the
+``MachineBasicBlock`` calls ``emitInstruction`` to process each instruction and
+emit binary code.  ``emitInstruction`` is largely implemented with case
+statements on the instruction types defined in ``XXXInstrInfo.h``.  For
+example, in ``X86CodeEmitter.cpp``, the ``emitInstruction`` method is built
+around the following ``switch``/``case`` statements:
+
+.. code-block:: c++
+
+  switch (Desc->TSFlags & X86::FormMask) {
+  case X86II::Pseudo:  // for not yet implemented instructions
+     ...               // or pseudo-instructions
+     break;
+  case X86II::RawFrm:  // for instructions with a fixed opcode value
+     ...
+     break;
+  case X86II::AddRegFrm: // for instructions that have one register operand
+     ...                 // added to their opcode
+     break;
+  case X86II::MRMDestReg:// for instructions that use the Mod/RM byte
+     ...                 // to specify a destination (register)
+     break;
+  case X86II::MRMDestMem:// for instructions that use the Mod/RM byte
+     ...                 // to specify a destination (memory)
+     break;
+  case X86II::MRMSrcReg: // for instructions that use the Mod/RM byte
+     ...                 // to specify a source (register)
+     break;
+  case X86II::MRMSrcMem: // for instructions that use the Mod/RM byte
+     ...                 // to specify a source (memory)
+     break;
+  case X86II::MRM0r: case X86II::MRM1r:  // for instructions that operate on
+  case X86II::MRM2r: case X86II::MRM3r:  // a REGISTER r/m operand and
+  case X86II::MRM4r: case X86II::MRM5r:  // use the Mod/RM byte and a field
+  case X86II::MRM6r: case X86II::MRM7r:  // to hold extended opcode data
+     ...
+     break;
+  case X86II::MRM0m: case X86II::MRM1m:  // for instructions that operate on
+  case X86II::MRM2m: case X86II::MRM3m:  // a MEMORY r/m operand and
+  case X86II::MRM4m: case X86II::MRM5m:  // use the Mod/RM byte and a field
+  case X86II::MRM6m: case X86II::MRM7m:  // to hold extended opcode data
+     ...
+     break;
+  case X86II::MRMInitReg: // for instructions whose source and
+     ...                  // destination are the same register
+     break;
+  }
+
+The implementations of these case statements often first emit the opcode and
+then get the operand(s).  Then depending upon the operand, helper methods may
+be called to process the operand(s).  For example, in ``X86CodeEmitter.cpp``,
+for the ``X86II::AddRegFrm`` case, the first data emitted (by ``emitByte``) is
+the opcode added to the register operand.  Then an object representing the
+machine operand, ``MO1``, is extracted.  The helper methods such as
+``isImmediate``, ``isGlobalAddress``, ``isExternalSymbol``,
+``isConstantPoolIndex``, and ``isJumpTableIndex`` determine the operand type.
+(``X86CodeEmitter.cpp`` also has private methods such as ``emitConstant``,
+``emitGlobalAddress``, ``emitExternalSymbolAddress``, ``emitConstPoolAddress``,
+and ``emitJumpTableAddress`` that emit the data into the output stream.)
+
+.. code-block:: c++
+
+  case X86II::AddRegFrm:
+    MCE.emitByte(BaseOpcode + getX86RegNum(MI.getOperand(CurOp++).getReg()));
+
+    if (CurOp != NumOps) {
+      const MachineOperand &MO1 = MI.getOperand(CurOp++);
+      unsigned Size = X86InstrInfo::sizeOfImm(Desc);
+      if (MO1.isImmediate())
+        emitConstant(MO1.getImm(), Size);
+      else {
+        unsigned rt = Is64BitMode ? X86::reloc_pcrel_word
+          : (IsPIC ? X86::reloc_picrel_word : X86::reloc_absolute_word);
+        if (Opcode == X86::MOV64ri)
+          rt = X86::reloc_absolute_dword;  // FIXME: add X86II flag?
+        if (MO1.isGlobalAddress()) {
+          bool NeedStub = isa<Function>(MO1.getGlobal());
+          bool isLazy = gvNeedsLazyPtr(MO1.getGlobal());
+          emitGlobalAddress(MO1.getGlobal(), rt, MO1.getOffset(), 0,
+                            NeedStub, isLazy);
+        } else if (MO1.isExternalSymbol())
+          emitExternalSymbolAddress(MO1.getSymbolName(), rt);
+        else if (MO1.isConstantPoolIndex())
+          emitConstPoolAddress(MO1.getIndex(), rt);
+        else if (MO1.isJumpTableIndex())
+          emitJumpTableAddress(MO1.getIndex(), rt);
+      }
+    }
+    break;
+
+In the previous example, ``XXXCodeEmitter.cpp`` uses the variable ``rt``, which
+is a ``RelocationType`` enum that may be used to relocate addresses (for
+example, a global address with a PIC base offset).  The ``RelocationType`` enum
+for that target is defined in the short target-specific ``XXXRelocations.h``
+file.  The ``RelocationType`` is used by the ``relocate`` method defined in
+``XXXJITInfo.cpp`` to rewrite addresses for referenced global symbols.
+
+For example, ``X86Relocations.h`` specifies the following relocation types for
+the X86 addresses.  In all four cases, the relocated value is added to the
+value already in memory.  For ``reloc_pcrel_word`` and ``reloc_picrel_word``,
+there is an additional initial adjustment.
+
+.. code-block:: c++
+
+  enum RelocationType {
+    reloc_pcrel_word = 0,    // add reloc value after adjusting for the PC loc
+    reloc_picrel_word = 1,   // add reloc value after adjusting for the PIC base
+    reloc_absolute_word = 2, // absolute relocation; no additional adjustment
+    reloc_absolute_dword = 3 // absolute relocation; no additional adjustment
+  };
+
+Target JIT Info
+---------------
+
+``XXXJITInfo.cpp`` implements the JIT interfaces for target-specific
+code-generation activities, such as emitting machine code and stubs.  At
+minimum, a target-specific version of ``XXXJITInfo`` implements the following:
+
+* ``getLazyResolverFunction`` --- Initializes the JIT, gives the target a
+  function that is used for compilation.
+
+* ``emitFunctionStub`` --- Returns a native function with a specified address
+  for a callback function.
+
+* ``relocate`` --- Changes the addresses of referenced globals, based on
+  relocation types.
+
+* Callback function that are wrappers to a function stub that is used when the
+  real target is not initially known.
+
+``getLazyResolverFunction`` is generally trivial to implement.  It makes the
+incoming parameter as the global ``JITCompilerFunction`` and returns the
+callback function that will be used a function wrapper.  For the Alpha target
+(in ``AlphaJITInfo.cpp``), the ``getLazyResolverFunction`` implementation is
+simply:
+
+.. code-block:: c++
+
+  TargetJITInfo::LazyResolverFn AlphaJITInfo::getLazyResolverFunction(
+                                              JITCompilerFn F) {
+    JITCompilerFunction = F;
+    return AlphaCompilationCallback;
+  }
+
+For the X86 target, the ``getLazyResolverFunction`` implementation is a little
+more complicated, because it returns a different callback function for
+processors with SSE instructions and XMM registers.
+
+The callback function initially saves and later restores the callee register
+values, incoming arguments, and frame and return address.  The callback
+function needs low-level access to the registers or stack, so it is typically
+implemented with assembler.
+

Added: www-releases/trunk/3.5.1/docs/_sources/WritingAnLLVMPass.txt
URL: http://llvm.org/viewvc/llvm-project/www-releases/trunk/3.5.1/docs/_sources/WritingAnLLVMPass.txt?rev=225843&view=auto
==============================================================================
--- www-releases/trunk/3.5.1/docs/_sources/WritingAnLLVMPass.txt (added)
+++ www-releases/trunk/3.5.1/docs/_sources/WritingAnLLVMPass.txt Tue Jan 13 16:55:20 2015
@@ -0,0 +1,1435 @@
+====================
+Writing an LLVM Pass
+====================
+
+.. contents::
+    :local:
+
+Introduction --- What is a pass?
+================================
+
+The LLVM Pass Framework is an important part of the LLVM system, because LLVM
+passes are where most of the interesting parts of the compiler exist.  Passes
+perform the transformations and optimizations that make up the compiler, they
+build the analysis results that are used by these transformations, and they
+are, above all, a structuring technique for compiler code.
+
+All LLVM passes are subclasses of the `Pass
+<http://llvm.org/doxygen/classllvm_1_1Pass.html>`_ class, which implement
+functionality by overriding virtual methods inherited from ``Pass``.  Depending
+on how your pass works, you should inherit from the :ref:`ModulePass
+<writing-an-llvm-pass-ModulePass>` , :ref:`CallGraphSCCPass
+<writing-an-llvm-pass-CallGraphSCCPass>`, :ref:`FunctionPass
+<writing-an-llvm-pass-FunctionPass>` , or :ref:`LoopPass
+<writing-an-llvm-pass-LoopPass>`, or :ref:`RegionPass
+<writing-an-llvm-pass-RegionPass>`, or :ref:`BasicBlockPass
+<writing-an-llvm-pass-BasicBlockPass>` classes, which gives the system more
+information about what your pass does, and how it can be combined with other
+passes.  One of the main features of the LLVM Pass Framework is that it
+schedules passes to run in an efficient way based on the constraints that your
+pass meets (which are indicated by which class they derive from).
+
+We start by showing you how to construct a pass, everything from setting up the
+code, to compiling, loading, and executing it.  After the basics are down, more
+advanced features are discussed.
+
+Quick Start --- Writing hello world
+===================================
+
+Here we describe how to write the "hello world" of passes.  The "Hello" pass is
+designed to simply print out the name of non-external functions that exist in
+the program being compiled.  It does not modify the program at all, it just
+inspects it.  The source code and files for this pass are available in the LLVM
+source tree in the ``lib/Transforms/Hello`` directory.
+
+.. _writing-an-llvm-pass-makefile:
+
+Setting up the build environment
+--------------------------------
+
+.. FIXME: Why does this recommend to build in-tree?
+
+First, configure and build LLVM.  This needs to be done directly inside the
+LLVM source tree rather than in a separate objects directory.  Next, you need
+to create a new directory somewhere in the LLVM source base.  For this example,
+we'll assume that you made ``lib/Transforms/Hello``.  Finally, you must set up
+a build script (``Makefile``) that will compile the source code for the new
+pass.  To do this, copy the following into ``Makefile``:
+
+.. code-block:: make
+
+    # Makefile for hello pass
+
+    # Path to top level of LLVM hierarchy
+    LEVEL = ../../..
+
+    # Name of the library to build
+    LIBRARYNAME = Hello
+
+    # Make the shared library become a loadable module so the tools can
+    # dlopen/dlsym on the resulting library.
+    LOADABLE_MODULE = 1
+
+    # Include the makefile implementation stuff
+    include $(LEVEL)/Makefile.common
+
+This makefile specifies that all of the ``.cpp`` files in the current directory
+are to be compiled and linked together into a shared object
+``$(LEVEL)/Debug+Asserts/lib/Hello.so`` that can be dynamically loaded by the
+:program:`opt` or :program:`bugpoint` tools via their :option:`-load` options.
+If your operating system uses a suffix other than ``.so`` (such as Windows or Mac
+OS X), the appropriate extension will be used.
+
+If you are used CMake to build LLVM, see :ref:`cmake-out-of-source-pass`.
+
+Now that we have the build scripts set up, we just need to write the code for
+the pass itself.
+
+.. _writing-an-llvm-pass-basiccode:
+
+Basic code required
+-------------------
+
+Now that we have a way to compile our new pass, we just have to write it.
+Start out with:
+
+.. code-block:: c++
+
+  #include "llvm/Pass.h"
+  #include "llvm/IR/Function.h"
+  #include "llvm/Support/raw_ostream.h"
+
+Which are needed because we are writing a `Pass
+<http://llvm.org/doxygen/classllvm_1_1Pass.html>`_, we are operating on
+`Function <http://llvm.org/doxygen/classllvm_1_1Function.html>`_\ s, and we will
+be doing some printing.
+
+Next we have:
+
+.. code-block:: c++
+
+  using namespace llvm;
+
+... which is required because the functions from the include files live in the
+llvm namespace.
+
+Next we have:
+
+.. code-block:: c++
+
+  namespace {
+
+... which starts out an anonymous namespace.  Anonymous namespaces are to C++
+what the "``static``" keyword is to C (at global scope).  It makes the things
+declared inside of the anonymous namespace visible only to the current file.
+If you're not familiar with them, consult a decent C++ book for more
+information.
+
+Next, we declare our pass itself:
+
+.. code-block:: c++
+
+  struct Hello : public FunctionPass {
+
+This declares a "``Hello``" class that is a subclass of :ref:`FunctionPass
+<writing-an-llvm-pass-FunctionPass>`.  The different builtin pass subclasses
+are described in detail :ref:`later <writing-an-llvm-pass-pass-classes>`, but
+for now, know that ``FunctionPass`` operates on a function at a time.
+
+.. code-block:: c++
+
+    static char ID;
+    Hello() : FunctionPass(ID) {}
+
+This declares pass identifier used by LLVM to identify pass.  This allows LLVM
+to avoid using expensive C++ runtime information.
+
+.. code-block:: c++
+
+      virtual bool runOnFunction(Function &F) {
+        errs() << "Hello: ";
+        errs().write_escaped(F.getName()) << "\n";
+        return false;
+      }
+    }; // end of struct Hello
+  }  // end of anonymous namespace
+
+We declare a :ref:`runOnFunction <writing-an-llvm-pass-runOnFunction>` method,
+which overrides an abstract virtual method inherited from :ref:`FunctionPass
+<writing-an-llvm-pass-FunctionPass>`.  This is where we are supposed to do our
+thing, so we just print out our message with the name of each function.
+
+.. code-block:: c++
+
+  char Hello::ID = 0;
+
+We initialize pass ID here.  LLVM uses ID's address to identify a pass, so
+initialization value is not important.
+
+.. code-block:: c++
+
+  static RegisterPass<Hello> X("hello", "Hello World Pass",
+                               false /* Only looks at CFG */,
+                               false /* Analysis Pass */);
+
+Lastly, we :ref:`register our class <writing-an-llvm-pass-registration>`
+``Hello``, giving it a command line argument "``hello``", and a name "Hello
+World Pass".  The last two arguments describe its behavior: if a pass walks CFG
+without modifying it then the third argument is set to ``true``; if a pass is
+an analysis pass, for example dominator tree pass, then ``true`` is supplied as
+the fourth argument.
+
+As a whole, the ``.cpp`` file looks like:
+
+.. code-block:: c++
+
+    #include "llvm/Pass.h"
+    #include "llvm/IR/Function.h"
+    #include "llvm/Support/raw_ostream.h"
+
+    using namespace llvm;
+
+    namespace {
+      struct Hello : public FunctionPass {
+        static char ID;
+        Hello() : FunctionPass(ID) {}
+
+        virtual bool runOnFunction(Function &F) {
+          errs() << "Hello: ";
+          errs().write_escaped(F.getName()) << '\n';
+          return false;
+        }
+      };
+    }
+
+    char Hello::ID = 0;
+    static RegisterPass<Hello> X("hello", "Hello World Pass", false, false);
+
+Now that it's all together, compile the file with a simple "``gmake``" command
+in the local directory and you should get a new file
+"``Debug+Asserts/lib/Hello.so``" under the top level directory of the LLVM
+source tree (not in the local directory).  Note that everything in this file is
+contained in an anonymous namespace --- this reflects the fact that passes
+are self contained units that do not need external interfaces (although they
+can have them) to be useful.
+
+Running a pass with ``opt``
+---------------------------
+
+Now that you have a brand new shiny shared object file, we can use the
+:program:`opt` command to run an LLVM program through your pass.  Because you
+registered your pass with ``RegisterPass``, you will be able to use the
+:program:`opt` tool to access it, once loaded.
+
+To test it, follow the example at the end of the :doc:`GettingStarted` to
+compile "Hello World" to LLVM.  We can now run the bitcode file (hello.bc) for
+the program through our transformation like this (or course, any bitcode file
+will work):
+
+.. code-block:: console
+
+  $ opt -load ../../../Debug+Asserts/lib/Hello.so -hello < hello.bc > /dev/null
+  Hello: __main
+  Hello: puts
+  Hello: main
+
+The :option:`-load` option specifies that :program:`opt` should load your pass
+as a shared object, which makes "``-hello``" a valid command line argument
+(which is one reason you need to :ref:`register your pass
+<writing-an-llvm-pass-registration>`).  Because the Hello pass does not modify
+the program in any interesting way, we just throw away the result of
+:program:`opt` (sending it to ``/dev/null``).
+
+To see what happened to the other string you registered, try running
+:program:`opt` with the :option:`-help` option:
+
+.. code-block:: console
+
+  $ opt -load ../../../Debug+Asserts/lib/Hello.so -help
+  OVERVIEW: llvm .bc -> .bc modular optimizer
+
+  USAGE: opt [options] <input bitcode>
+
+  OPTIONS:
+    Optimizations available:
+  ...
+      -globalopt                - Global Variable Optimizer
+      -globalsmodref-aa         - Simple mod/ref analysis for globals
+      -gvn                      - Global Value Numbering
+      -hello                    - Hello World Pass
+      -indvars                  - Induction Variable Simplification
+      -inline                   - Function Integration/Inlining
+  ...
+
+The pass name gets added as the information string for your pass, giving some
+documentation to users of :program:`opt`.  Now that you have a working pass,
+you would go ahead and make it do the cool transformations you want.  Once you
+get it all working and tested, it may become useful to find out how fast your
+pass is.  The :ref:`PassManager <writing-an-llvm-pass-passmanager>` provides a
+nice command line option (:option:`--time-passes`) that allows you to get
+information about the execution time of your pass along with the other passes
+you queue up.  For example:
+
+.. code-block:: console
+
+  $ opt -load ../../../Debug+Asserts/lib/Hello.so -hello -time-passes < hello.bc > /dev/null
+  Hello: __main
+  Hello: puts
+  Hello: main
+  ===============================================================================
+                        ... Pass execution timing report ...
+  ===============================================================================
+    Total Execution Time: 0.02 seconds (0.0479059 wall clock)
+
+     ---User Time---   --System Time--   --User+System--   ---Wall Time---  --- Pass Name ---
+     0.0100 (100.0%)   0.0000 (  0.0%)   0.0100 ( 50.0%)   0.0402 ( 84.0%)  Bitcode Writer
+     0.0000 (  0.0%)   0.0100 (100.0%)   0.0100 ( 50.0%)   0.0031 (  6.4%)  Dominator Set Construction
+     0.0000 (  0.0%)   0.0000 (  0.0%)   0.0000 (  0.0%)   0.0013 (  2.7%)  Module Verifier
+     0.0000 (  0.0%)   0.0000 (  0.0%)   0.0000 (  0.0%)   0.0033 (  6.9%)  Hello World Pass
+     0.0100 (100.0%)   0.0100 (100.0%)   0.0200 (100.0%)   0.0479 (100.0%)  TOTAL
+
+As you can see, our implementation above is pretty fast.  The additional
+passes listed are automatically inserted by the :program:`opt` tool to verify
+that the LLVM emitted by your pass is still valid and well formed LLVM, which
+hasn't been broken somehow.
+
+Now that you have seen the basics of the mechanics behind passes, we can talk
+about some more details of how they work and how to use them.
+
+.. _writing-an-llvm-pass-pass-classes:
+
+Pass classes and requirements
+=============================
+
+One of the first things that you should do when designing a new pass is to
+decide what class you should subclass for your pass.  The :ref:`Hello World
+<writing-an-llvm-pass-basiccode>` example uses the :ref:`FunctionPass
+<writing-an-llvm-pass-FunctionPass>` class for its implementation, but we did
+not discuss why or when this should occur.  Here we talk about the classes
+available, from the most general to the most specific.
+
+When choosing a superclass for your ``Pass``, you should choose the **most
+specific** class possible, while still being able to meet the requirements
+listed.  This gives the LLVM Pass Infrastructure information necessary to
+optimize how passes are run, so that the resultant compiler isn't unnecessarily
+slow.
+
+The ``ImmutablePass`` class
+---------------------------
+
+The most plain and boring type of pass is the "`ImmutablePass
+<http://llvm.org/doxygen/classllvm_1_1ImmutablePass.html>`_" class.  This pass
+type is used for passes that do not have to be run, do not change state, and
+never need to be updated.  This is not a normal type of transformation or
+analysis, but can provide information about the current compiler configuration.
+
+Although this pass class is very infrequently used, it is important for
+providing information about the current target machine being compiled for, and
+other static information that can affect the various transformations.
+
+``ImmutablePass``\ es never invalidate other transformations, are never
+invalidated, and are never "run".
+
+.. _writing-an-llvm-pass-ModulePass:
+
+The ``ModulePass`` class
+------------------------
+
+The `ModulePass <http://llvm.org/doxygen/classllvm_1_1ModulePass.html>`_ class
+is the most general of all superclasses that you can use.  Deriving from
+``ModulePass`` indicates that your pass uses the entire program as a unit,
+referring to function bodies in no predictable order, or adding and removing
+functions.  Because nothing is known about the behavior of ``ModulePass``
+subclasses, no optimization can be done for their execution.
+
+A module pass can use function level passes (e.g. dominators) using the
+``getAnalysis`` interface ``getAnalysis<DominatorTree>(llvm::Function *)`` to
+provide the function to retrieve analysis result for, if the function pass does
+not require any module or immutable passes.  Note that this can only be done
+for functions for which the analysis ran, e.g. in the case of dominators you
+should only ask for the ``DominatorTree`` for function definitions, not
+declarations.
+
+To write a correct ``ModulePass`` subclass, derive from ``ModulePass`` and
+overload the ``runOnModule`` method with the following signature:
+
+The ``runOnModule`` method
+^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
+
+.. code-block:: c++
+
+  virtual bool runOnModule(Module &M) = 0;
+
+The ``runOnModule`` method performs the interesting work of the pass.  It
+should return ``true`` if the module was modified by the transformation and
+``false`` otherwise.
+
+.. _writing-an-llvm-pass-CallGraphSCCPass:
+
+The ``CallGraphSCCPass`` class
+------------------------------
+
+The `CallGraphSCCPass
+<http://llvm.org/doxygen/classllvm_1_1CallGraphSCCPass.html>`_ is used by
+passes that need to traverse the program bottom-up on the call graph (callees
+before callers).  Deriving from ``CallGraphSCCPass`` provides some mechanics
+for building and traversing the ``CallGraph``, but also allows the system to
+optimize execution of ``CallGraphSCCPass``\ es.  If your pass meets the
+requirements outlined below, and doesn't meet the requirements of a
+:ref:`FunctionPass <writing-an-llvm-pass-FunctionPass>` or :ref:`BasicBlockPass
+<writing-an-llvm-pass-BasicBlockPass>`, you should derive from
+``CallGraphSCCPass``.
+
+``TODO``: explain briefly what SCC, Tarjan's algo, and B-U mean.
+
+To be explicit, CallGraphSCCPass subclasses are:
+
+#. ... *not allowed* to inspect or modify any ``Function``\ s other than those
+   in the current SCC and the direct callers and direct callees of the SCC.
+#. ... *required* to preserve the current ``CallGraph`` object, updating it to
+   reflect any changes made to the program.
+#. ... *not allowed* to add or remove SCC's from the current Module, though
+   they may change the contents of an SCC.
+#. ... *allowed* to add or remove global variables from the current Module.
+#. ... *allowed* to maintain state across invocations of :ref:`runOnSCC
+   <writing-an-llvm-pass-runOnSCC>` (including global data).
+
+Implementing a ``CallGraphSCCPass`` is slightly tricky in some cases because it
+has to handle SCCs with more than one node in it.  All of the virtual methods
+described below should return ``true`` if they modified the program, or
+``false`` if they didn't.
+
+The ``doInitialization(CallGraph &)`` method
+^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
+
+.. code-block:: c++
+
+  virtual bool doInitialization(CallGraph &CG);
+
+The ``doInitialization`` method is allowed to do most of the things that
+``CallGraphSCCPass``\ es are not allowed to do.  They can add and remove
+functions, get pointers to functions, etc.  The ``doInitialization`` method is
+designed to do simple initialization type of stuff that does not depend on the
+SCCs being processed.  The ``doInitialization`` method call is not scheduled to
+overlap with any other pass executions (thus it should be very fast).
+
+.. _writing-an-llvm-pass-runOnSCC:
+
+The ``runOnSCC`` method
+^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
+
+.. code-block:: c++
+
+  virtual bool runOnSCC(CallGraphSCC &SCC) = 0;
+
+The ``runOnSCC`` method performs the interesting work of the pass, and should
+return ``true`` if the module was modified by the transformation, ``false``
+otherwise.
+
+The ``doFinalization(CallGraph &)`` method
+^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
+
+.. code-block:: c++
+
+  virtual bool doFinalization(CallGraph &CG);
+
+The ``doFinalization`` method is an infrequently used method that is called
+when the pass framework has finished calling :ref:`runOnFunction
+<writing-an-llvm-pass-runOnFunction>` for every function in the program being
+compiled.
+
+.. _writing-an-llvm-pass-FunctionPass:
+
+The ``FunctionPass`` class
+--------------------------
+
+In contrast to ``ModulePass`` subclasses, `FunctionPass
+<http://llvm.org/doxygen/classllvm_1_1Pass.html>`_ subclasses do have a
+predictable, local behavior that can be expected by the system.  All
+``FunctionPass`` execute on each function in the program independent of all of
+the other functions in the program.  ``FunctionPass``\ es do not require that
+they are executed in a particular order, and ``FunctionPass``\ es do not modify
+external functions.
+
+To be explicit, ``FunctionPass`` subclasses are not allowed to:
+
+#. Inspect or modify a ``Function`` other than the one currently being processed.
+#. Add or remove ``Function``\ s from the current ``Module``.
+#. Add or remove global variables from the current ``Module``.
+#. Maintain state across invocations of:ref:`runOnFunction
+   <writing-an-llvm-pass-runOnFunction>` (including global data).
+
+Implementing a ``FunctionPass`` is usually straightforward (See the :ref:`Hello
+World <writing-an-llvm-pass-basiccode>` pass for example).
+``FunctionPass``\ es may overload three virtual methods to do their work.  All
+of these methods should return ``true`` if they modified the program, or
+``false`` if they didn't.
+
+.. _writing-an-llvm-pass-doInitialization-mod:
+
+The ``doInitialization(Module &)`` method
+^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
+
+.. code-block:: c++
+
+  virtual bool doInitialization(Module &M);
+
+The ``doInitialization`` method is allowed to do most of the things that
+``FunctionPass``\ es are not allowed to do.  They can add and remove functions,
+get pointers to functions, etc.  The ``doInitialization`` method is designed to
+do simple initialization type of stuff that does not depend on the functions
+being processed.  The ``doInitialization`` method call is not scheduled to
+overlap with any other pass executions (thus it should be very fast).
+
+A good example of how this method should be used is the `LowerAllocations
+<http://llvm.org/doxygen/LowerAllocations_8cpp-source.html>`_ pass.  This pass
+converts ``malloc`` and ``free`` instructions into platform dependent
+``malloc()`` and ``free()`` function calls.  It uses the ``doInitialization``
+method to get a reference to the ``malloc`` and ``free`` functions that it
+needs, adding prototypes to the module if necessary.
+
+.. _writing-an-llvm-pass-runOnFunction:
+
+The ``runOnFunction`` method
+^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
+
+.. code-block:: c++
+
+  virtual bool runOnFunction(Function &F) = 0;
+
+The ``runOnFunction`` method must be implemented by your subclass to do the
+transformation or analysis work of your pass.  As usual, a ``true`` value
+should be returned if the function is modified.
+
+.. _writing-an-llvm-pass-doFinalization-mod:
+
+The ``doFinalization(Module &)`` method
+^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
+
+.. code-block:: c++
+
+  virtual bool doFinalization(Module &M);
+
+The ``doFinalization`` method is an infrequently used method that is called
+when the pass framework has finished calling :ref:`runOnFunction
+<writing-an-llvm-pass-runOnFunction>` for every function in the program being
+compiled.
+
+.. _writing-an-llvm-pass-LoopPass:
+
+The ``LoopPass`` class
+----------------------
+
+All ``LoopPass`` execute on each loop in the function independent of all of the
+other loops in the function.  ``LoopPass`` processes loops in loop nest order
+such that outer most loop is processed last.
+
+``LoopPass`` subclasses are allowed to update loop nest using ``LPPassManager``
+interface.  Implementing a loop pass is usually straightforward.
+``LoopPass``\ es may overload three virtual methods to do their work.  All
+these methods should return ``true`` if they modified the program, or ``false``
+if they didn't.
+
+The ``doInitialization(Loop *, LPPassManager &)`` method
+^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
+
+.. code-block:: c++
+
+  virtual bool doInitialization(Loop *, LPPassManager &LPM);
+
+The ``doInitialization`` method is designed to do simple initialization type of
+stuff that does not depend on the functions being processed.  The
+``doInitialization`` method call is not scheduled to overlap with any other
+pass executions (thus it should be very fast).  ``LPPassManager`` interface
+should be used to access ``Function`` or ``Module`` level analysis information.
+
+.. _writing-an-llvm-pass-runOnLoop:
+
+The ``runOnLoop`` method
+^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
+
+.. code-block:: c++
+
+  virtual bool runOnLoop(Loop *, LPPassManager &LPM) = 0;
+
+The ``runOnLoop`` method must be implemented by your subclass to do the
+transformation or analysis work of your pass.  As usual, a ``true`` value
+should be returned if the function is modified.  ``LPPassManager`` interface
+should be used to update loop nest.
+
+The ``doFinalization()`` method
+^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
+
+.. code-block:: c++
+
+  virtual bool doFinalization();
+
+The ``doFinalization`` method is an infrequently used method that is called
+when the pass framework has finished calling :ref:`runOnLoop
+<writing-an-llvm-pass-runOnLoop>` for every loop in the program being compiled.
+
+.. _writing-an-llvm-pass-RegionPass:
+
+The ``RegionPass`` class
+------------------------
+
+``RegionPass`` is similar to :ref:`LoopPass <writing-an-llvm-pass-LoopPass>`,
+but executes on each single entry single exit region in the function.
+``RegionPass`` processes regions in nested order such that the outer most
+region is processed last.
+
+``RegionPass`` subclasses are allowed to update the region tree by using the
+``RGPassManager`` interface.  You may overload three virtual methods of
+``RegionPass`` to implement your own region pass.  All these methods should
+return ``true`` if they modified the program, or ``false`` if they did not.
+
+The ``doInitialization(Region *, RGPassManager &)`` method
+^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
+
+.. code-block:: c++
+
+  virtual bool doInitialization(Region *, RGPassManager &RGM);
+
+The ``doInitialization`` method is designed to do simple initialization type of
+stuff that does not depend on the functions being processed.  The
+``doInitialization`` method call is not scheduled to overlap with any other
+pass executions (thus it should be very fast).  ``RPPassManager`` interface
+should be used to access ``Function`` or ``Module`` level analysis information.
+
+.. _writing-an-llvm-pass-runOnRegion:
+
+The ``runOnRegion`` method
+^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
+
+.. code-block:: c++
+
+  virtual bool runOnRegion(Region *, RGPassManager &RGM) = 0;
+
+The ``runOnRegion`` method must be implemented by your subclass to do the
+transformation or analysis work of your pass.  As usual, a true value should be
+returned if the region is modified.  ``RGPassManager`` interface should be used to
+update region tree.
+
+The ``doFinalization()`` method
+^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
+
+.. code-block:: c++
+
+  virtual bool doFinalization();
+
+The ``doFinalization`` method is an infrequently used method that is called
+when the pass framework has finished calling :ref:`runOnRegion
+<writing-an-llvm-pass-runOnRegion>` for every region in the program being
+compiled.
+
+.. _writing-an-llvm-pass-BasicBlockPass:
+
+The ``BasicBlockPass`` class
+----------------------------
+
+``BasicBlockPass``\ es are just like :ref:`FunctionPass's
+<writing-an-llvm-pass-FunctionPass>` , except that they must limit their scope
+of inspection and modification to a single basic block at a time.  As such,
+they are **not** allowed to do any of the following:
+
+#. Modify or inspect any basic blocks outside of the current one.
+#. Maintain state across invocations of :ref:`runOnBasicBlock
+   <writing-an-llvm-pass-runOnBasicBlock>`.
+#. Modify the control flow graph (by altering terminator instructions)
+#. Any of the things forbidden for :ref:`FunctionPasses
+   <writing-an-llvm-pass-FunctionPass>`.
+
+``BasicBlockPass``\ es are useful for traditional local and "peephole"
+optimizations.  They may override the same :ref:`doInitialization(Module &)
+<writing-an-llvm-pass-doInitialization-mod>` and :ref:`doFinalization(Module &)
+<writing-an-llvm-pass-doFinalization-mod>` methods that :ref:`FunctionPass's
+<writing-an-llvm-pass-FunctionPass>` have, but also have the following virtual
+methods that may also be implemented:
+
+The ``doInitialization(Function &)`` method
+^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
+
+.. code-block:: c++
+
+  virtual bool doInitialization(Function &F);
+
+The ``doInitialization`` method is allowed to do most of the things that
+``BasicBlockPass``\ es are not allowed to do, but that ``FunctionPass``\ es
+can.  The ``doInitialization`` method is designed to do simple initialization
+that does not depend on the ``BasicBlock``\ s being processed.  The
+``doInitialization`` method call is not scheduled to overlap with any other
+pass executions (thus it should be very fast).
+
+.. _writing-an-llvm-pass-runOnBasicBlock:
+
+The ``runOnBasicBlock`` method
+^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
+
+.. code-block:: c++
+
+  virtual bool runOnBasicBlock(BasicBlock &BB) = 0;
+
+Override this function to do the work of the ``BasicBlockPass``.  This function
+is not allowed to inspect or modify basic blocks other than the parameter, and
+are not allowed to modify the CFG.  A ``true`` value must be returned if the
+basic block is modified.
+
+The ``doFinalization(Function &)`` method
+^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
+
+.. code-block:: c++
+
+    virtual bool doFinalization(Function &F);
+
+The ``doFinalization`` method is an infrequently used method that is called
+when the pass framework has finished calling :ref:`runOnBasicBlock
+<writing-an-llvm-pass-runOnBasicBlock>` for every ``BasicBlock`` in the program
+being compiled.  This can be used to perform per-function finalization.
+
+The ``MachineFunctionPass`` class
+---------------------------------
+
+A ``MachineFunctionPass`` is a part of the LLVM code generator that executes on
+the machine-dependent representation of each LLVM function in the program.
+
+Code generator passes are registered and initialized specially by
+``TargetMachine::addPassesToEmitFile`` and similar routines, so they cannot
+generally be run from the :program:`opt` or :program:`bugpoint` commands.
+
+A ``MachineFunctionPass`` is also a ``FunctionPass``, so all the restrictions
+that apply to a ``FunctionPass`` also apply to it.  ``MachineFunctionPass``\ es
+also have additional restrictions.  In particular, ``MachineFunctionPass``\ es
+are not allowed to do any of the following:
+
+#. Modify or create any LLVM IR ``Instruction``\ s, ``BasicBlock``\ s,
+   ``Argument``\ s, ``Function``\ s, ``GlobalVariable``\ s,
+   ``GlobalAlias``\ es, or ``Module``\ s.
+#. Modify a ``MachineFunction`` other than the one currently being processed.
+#. Maintain state across invocations of :ref:`runOnMachineFunction
+   <writing-an-llvm-pass-runOnMachineFunction>` (including global data).
+
+.. _writing-an-llvm-pass-runOnMachineFunction:
+
+The ``runOnMachineFunction(MachineFunction &MF)`` method
+^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
+
+.. code-block:: c++
+
+  virtual bool runOnMachineFunction(MachineFunction &MF) = 0;
+
+``runOnMachineFunction`` can be considered the main entry point of a
+``MachineFunctionPass``; that is, you should override this method to do the
+work of your ``MachineFunctionPass``.
+
+The ``runOnMachineFunction`` method is called on every ``MachineFunction`` in a
+``Module``, so that the ``MachineFunctionPass`` may perform optimizations on
+the machine-dependent representation of the function.  If you want to get at
+the LLVM ``Function`` for the ``MachineFunction`` you're working on, use
+``MachineFunction``'s ``getFunction()`` accessor method --- but remember, you
+may not modify the LLVM ``Function`` or its contents from a
+``MachineFunctionPass``.
+
+.. _writing-an-llvm-pass-registration:
+
+Pass registration
+-----------------
+
+In the :ref:`Hello World <writing-an-llvm-pass-basiccode>` example pass we
+illustrated how pass registration works, and discussed some of the reasons that
+it is used and what it does.  Here we discuss how and why passes are
+registered.
+
+As we saw above, passes are registered with the ``RegisterPass`` template.  The
+template parameter is the name of the pass that is to be used on the command
+line to specify that the pass should be added to a program (for example, with
+:program:`opt` or :program:`bugpoint`).  The first argument is the name of the
+pass, which is to be used for the :option:`-help` output of programs, as well
+as for debug output generated by the :option:`--debug-pass` option.
+
+If you want your pass to be easily dumpable, you should implement the virtual
+print method:
+
+The ``print`` method
+^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
+
+.. code-block:: c++
+
+  virtual void print(llvm::raw_ostream &O, const Module *M) const;
+
+The ``print`` method must be implemented by "analyses" in order to print a
+human readable version of the analysis results.  This is useful for debugging
+an analysis itself, as well as for other people to figure out how an analysis
+works.  Use the opt ``-analyze`` argument to invoke this method.
+
+The ``llvm::raw_ostream`` parameter specifies the stream to write the results
+on, and the ``Module`` parameter gives a pointer to the top level module of the
+program that has been analyzed.  Note however that this pointer may be ``NULL``
+in certain circumstances (such as calling the ``Pass::dump()`` from a
+debugger), so it should only be used to enhance debug output, it should not be
+depended on.
+
+.. _writing-an-llvm-pass-interaction:
+
+Specifying interactions between passes
+--------------------------------------
+
+One of the main responsibilities of the ``PassManager`` is to make sure that
+passes interact with each other correctly.  Because ``PassManager`` tries to
+:ref:`optimize the execution of passes <writing-an-llvm-pass-passmanager>` it
+must know how the passes interact with each other and what dependencies exist
+between the various passes.  To track this, each pass can declare the set of
+passes that are required to be executed before the current pass, and the passes
+which are invalidated by the current pass.
+
+Typically this functionality is used to require that analysis results are
+computed before your pass is run.  Running arbitrary transformation passes can
+invalidate the computed analysis results, which is what the invalidation set
+specifies.  If a pass does not implement the :ref:`getAnalysisUsage
+<writing-an-llvm-pass-getAnalysisUsage>` method, it defaults to not having any
+prerequisite passes, and invalidating **all** other passes.
+
+.. _writing-an-llvm-pass-getAnalysisUsage:
+
+The ``getAnalysisUsage`` method
+^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
+
+.. code-block:: c++
+
+  virtual void getAnalysisUsage(AnalysisUsage &Info) const;
+
+By implementing the ``getAnalysisUsage`` method, the required and invalidated
+sets may be specified for your transformation.  The implementation should fill
+in the `AnalysisUsage
+<http://llvm.org/doxygen/classllvm_1_1AnalysisUsage.html>`_ object with
+information about which passes are required and not invalidated.  To do this, a
+pass may call any of the following methods on the ``AnalysisUsage`` object:
+
+The ``AnalysisUsage::addRequired<>`` and ``AnalysisUsage::addRequiredTransitive<>`` methods
+^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
+
+If your pass requires a previous pass to be executed (an analysis for example),
+it can use one of these methods to arrange for it to be run before your pass.
+LLVM has many different types of analyses and passes that can be required,
+spanning the range from ``DominatorSet`` to ``BreakCriticalEdges``.  Requiring
+``BreakCriticalEdges``, for example, guarantees that there will be no critical
+edges in the CFG when your pass has been run.
+
+Some analyses chain to other analyses to do their job.  For example, an
+`AliasAnalysis <AliasAnalysis>` implementation is required to :ref:`chain
+<aliasanalysis-chaining>` to other alias analysis passes.  In cases where
+analyses chain, the ``addRequiredTransitive`` method should be used instead of
+the ``addRequired`` method.  This informs the ``PassManager`` that the
+transitively required pass should be alive as long as the requiring pass is.
+
+The ``AnalysisUsage::addPreserved<>`` method
+^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
+
+One of the jobs of the ``PassManager`` is to optimize how and when analyses are
+run.  In particular, it attempts to avoid recomputing data unless it needs to.
+For this reason, passes are allowed to declare that they preserve (i.e., they
+don't invalidate) an existing analysis if it's available.  For example, a
+simple constant folding pass would not modify the CFG, so it can't possibly
+affect the results of dominator analysis.  By default, all passes are assumed
+to invalidate all others.
+
+The ``AnalysisUsage`` class provides several methods which are useful in
+certain circumstances that are related to ``addPreserved``.  In particular, the
+``setPreservesAll`` method can be called to indicate that the pass does not
+modify the LLVM program at all (which is true for analyses), and the
+``setPreservesCFG`` method can be used by transformations that change
+instructions in the program but do not modify the CFG or terminator
+instructions (note that this property is implicitly set for
+:ref:`BasicBlockPass <writing-an-llvm-pass-BasicBlockPass>`\ es).
+
+``addPreserved`` is particularly useful for transformations like
+``BreakCriticalEdges``.  This pass knows how to update a small set of loop and
+dominator related analyses if they exist, so it can preserve them, despite the
+fact that it hacks on the CFG.
+
+Example implementations of ``getAnalysisUsage``
+^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
+
+.. code-block:: c++
+
+  // This example modifies the program, but does not modify the CFG
+  void LICM::getAnalysisUsage(AnalysisUsage &AU) const {
+    AU.setPreservesCFG();
+    AU.addRequired<LoopInfo>();
+  }
+
+.. _writing-an-llvm-pass-getAnalysis:
+
+The ``getAnalysis<>`` and ``getAnalysisIfAvailable<>`` methods
+^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
+
+The ``Pass::getAnalysis<>`` method is automatically inherited by your class,
+providing you with access to the passes that you declared that you required
+with the :ref:`getAnalysisUsage <writing-an-llvm-pass-getAnalysisUsage>`
+method.  It takes a single template argument that specifies which pass class
+you want, and returns a reference to that pass.  For example:
+
+.. code-block:: c++
+
+  bool LICM::runOnFunction(Function &F) {
+    LoopInfo &LI = getAnalysis<LoopInfo>();
+    //...
+  }
+
+This method call returns a reference to the pass desired.  You may get a
+runtime assertion failure if you attempt to get an analysis that you did not
+declare as required in your :ref:`getAnalysisUsage
+<writing-an-llvm-pass-getAnalysisUsage>` implementation.  This method can be
+called by your ``run*`` method implementation, or by any other local method
+invoked by your ``run*`` method.
+
+A module level pass can use function level analysis info using this interface.
+For example:
+
+.. code-block:: c++
+
+  bool ModuleLevelPass::runOnModule(Module &M) {
+    //...
+    DominatorTree &DT = getAnalysis<DominatorTree>(Func);
+    //...
+  }
+
+In above example, ``runOnFunction`` for ``DominatorTree`` is called by pass
+manager before returning a reference to the desired pass.
+
+If your pass is capable of updating analyses if they exist (e.g.,
+``BreakCriticalEdges``, as described above), you can use the
+``getAnalysisIfAvailable`` method, which returns a pointer to the analysis if
+it is active.  For example:
+
+.. code-block:: c++
+
+  if (DominatorSet *DS = getAnalysisIfAvailable<DominatorSet>()) {
+    // A DominatorSet is active.  This code will update it.
+  }
+
+Implementing Analysis Groups
+----------------------------
+
+Now that we understand the basics of how passes are defined, how they are used,
+and how they are required from other passes, it's time to get a little bit
+fancier.  All of the pass relationships that we have seen so far are very
+simple: one pass depends on one other specific pass to be run before it can
+run.  For many applications, this is great, for others, more flexibility is
+required.
+
+In particular, some analyses are defined such that there is a single simple
+interface to the analysis results, but multiple ways of calculating them.
+Consider alias analysis for example.  The most trivial alias analysis returns
+"may alias" for any alias query.  The most sophisticated analysis a
+flow-sensitive, context-sensitive interprocedural analysis that can take a
+significant amount of time to execute (and obviously, there is a lot of room
+between these two extremes for other implementations).  To cleanly support
+situations like this, the LLVM Pass Infrastructure supports the notion of
+Analysis Groups.
+
+Analysis Group Concepts
+^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
+
+An Analysis Group is a single simple interface that may be implemented by
+multiple different passes.  Analysis Groups can be given human readable names
+just like passes, but unlike passes, they need not derive from the ``Pass``
+class.  An analysis group may have one or more implementations, one of which is
+the "default" implementation.
+
+Analysis groups are used by client passes just like other passes are: the
+``AnalysisUsage::addRequired()`` and ``Pass::getAnalysis()`` methods.  In order
+to resolve this requirement, the :ref:`PassManager
+<writing-an-llvm-pass-passmanager>` scans the available passes to see if any
+implementations of the analysis group are available.  If none is available, the
+default implementation is created for the pass to use.  All standard rules for
+:ref:`interaction between passes <writing-an-llvm-pass-interaction>` still
+apply.
+
+Although :ref:`Pass Registration <writing-an-llvm-pass-registration>` is
+optional for normal passes, all analysis group implementations must be
+registered, and must use the :ref:`INITIALIZE_AG_PASS
+<writing-an-llvm-pass-RegisterAnalysisGroup>` template to join the
+implementation pool.  Also, a default implementation of the interface **must**
+be registered with :ref:`RegisterAnalysisGroup
+<writing-an-llvm-pass-RegisterAnalysisGroup>`.
+
+As a concrete example of an Analysis Group in action, consider the
+`AliasAnalysis <http://llvm.org/doxygen/classllvm_1_1AliasAnalysis.html>`_
+analysis group.  The default implementation of the alias analysis interface
+(the `basicaa <http://llvm.org/doxygen/structBasicAliasAnalysis.html>`_ pass)
+just does a few simple checks that don't require significant analysis to
+compute (such as: two different globals can never alias each other, etc).
+Passes that use the `AliasAnalysis
+<http://llvm.org/doxygen/classllvm_1_1AliasAnalysis.html>`_ interface (for
+example the `gcse <http://llvm.org/doxygen/structGCSE.html>`_ pass), do not
+care which implementation of alias analysis is actually provided, they just use
+the designated interface.
+
+From the user's perspective, commands work just like normal.  Issuing the
+command ``opt -gcse ...`` will cause the ``basicaa`` class to be instantiated
+and added to the pass sequence.  Issuing the command ``opt -somefancyaa -gcse
+...`` will cause the ``gcse`` pass to use the ``somefancyaa`` alias analysis
+(which doesn't actually exist, it's just a hypothetical example) instead.
+
+.. _writing-an-llvm-pass-RegisterAnalysisGroup:
+
+Using ``RegisterAnalysisGroup``
+^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
+
+The ``RegisterAnalysisGroup`` template is used to register the analysis group
+itself, while the ``INITIALIZE_AG_PASS`` is used to add pass implementations to
+the analysis group.  First, an analysis group should be registered, with a
+human readable name provided for it.  Unlike registration of passes, there is
+no command line argument to be specified for the Analysis Group Interface
+itself, because it is "abstract":
+
+.. code-block:: c++
+
+  static RegisterAnalysisGroup<AliasAnalysis> A("Alias Analysis");
+
+Once the analysis is registered, passes can declare that they are valid
+implementations of the interface by using the following code:
+
+.. code-block:: c++
+
+  namespace {
+    // Declare that we implement the AliasAnalysis interface
+    INITIALIZE_AG_PASS(FancyAA, AliasAnalysis , "somefancyaa",
+        "A more complex alias analysis implementation",
+        false,  // Is CFG Only?
+        true,   // Is Analysis?
+        false); // Is default Analysis Group implementation?
+  }
+
+This just shows a class ``FancyAA`` that uses the ``INITIALIZE_AG_PASS`` macro
+both to register and to "join" the `AliasAnalysis
+<http://llvm.org/doxygen/classllvm_1_1AliasAnalysis.html>`_ analysis group.
+Every implementation of an analysis group should join using this macro.
+
+.. code-block:: c++
+
+  namespace {
+    // Declare that we implement the AliasAnalysis interface
+    INITIALIZE_AG_PASS(BasicAA, AliasAnalysis, "basicaa",
+        "Basic Alias Analysis (default AA impl)",
+        false, // Is CFG Only?
+        true,  // Is Analysis?
+        true); // Is default Analysis Group implementation?
+  }
+
+Here we show how the default implementation is specified (using the final
+argument to the ``INITIALIZE_AG_PASS`` template).  There must be exactly one
+default implementation available at all times for an Analysis Group to be used.
+Only default implementation can derive from ``ImmutablePass``.  Here we declare
+that the `BasicAliasAnalysis
+<http://llvm.org/doxygen/structBasicAliasAnalysis.html>`_ pass is the default
+implementation for the interface.
+
+Pass Statistics
+===============
+
+The `Statistic <http://llvm.org/doxygen/Statistic_8h-source.html>`_ class is
+designed to be an easy way to expose various success metrics from passes.
+These statistics are printed at the end of a run, when the :option:`-stats`
+command line option is enabled on the command line.  See the :ref:`Statistics
+section <Statistic>` in the Programmer's Manual for details.
+
+.. _writing-an-llvm-pass-passmanager:
+
+What PassManager does
+---------------------
+
+The `PassManager <http://llvm.org/doxygen/PassManager_8h-source.html>`_ `class
+<http://llvm.org/doxygen/classllvm_1_1PassManager.html>`_ takes a list of
+passes, ensures their :ref:`prerequisites <writing-an-llvm-pass-interaction>`
+are set up correctly, and then schedules passes to run efficiently.  All of the
+LLVM tools that run passes use the PassManager for execution of these passes.
+
+The PassManager does two main things to try to reduce the execution time of a
+series of passes:
+
+#. **Share analysis results.**  The ``PassManager`` attempts to avoid
+   recomputing analysis results as much as possible.  This means keeping track
+   of which analyses are available already, which analyses get invalidated, and
+   which analyses are needed to be run for a pass.  An important part of work
+   is that the ``PassManager`` tracks the exact lifetime of all analysis
+   results, allowing it to :ref:`free memory
+   <writing-an-llvm-pass-releaseMemory>` allocated to holding analysis results
+   as soon as they are no longer needed.
+
+#. **Pipeline the execution of passes on the program.**  The ``PassManager``
+   attempts to get better cache and memory usage behavior out of a series of
+   passes by pipelining the passes together.  This means that, given a series
+   of consecutive :ref:`FunctionPass <writing-an-llvm-pass-FunctionPass>`, it
+   will execute all of the :ref:`FunctionPass
+   <writing-an-llvm-pass-FunctionPass>` on the first function, then all of the
+   :ref:`FunctionPasses <writing-an-llvm-pass-FunctionPass>` on the second
+   function, etc... until the entire program has been run through the passes.
+
+   This improves the cache behavior of the compiler, because it is only
+   touching the LLVM program representation for a single function at a time,
+   instead of traversing the entire program.  It reduces the memory consumption
+   of compiler, because, for example, only one `DominatorSet
+   <http://llvm.org/doxygen/classllvm_1_1DominatorSet.html>`_ needs to be
+   calculated at a time.  This also makes it possible to implement some
+   :ref:`interesting enhancements <writing-an-llvm-pass-SMP>` in the future.
+
+The effectiveness of the ``PassManager`` is influenced directly by how much
+information it has about the behaviors of the passes it is scheduling.  For
+example, the "preserved" set is intentionally conservative in the face of an
+unimplemented :ref:`getAnalysisUsage <writing-an-llvm-pass-getAnalysisUsage>`
+method.  Not implementing when it should be implemented will have the effect of
+not allowing any analysis results to live across the execution of your pass.
+
+The ``PassManager`` class exposes a ``--debug-pass`` command line options that
+is useful for debugging pass execution, seeing how things work, and diagnosing
+when you should be preserving more analyses than you currently are.  (To get
+information about all of the variants of the ``--debug-pass`` option, just type
+"``opt -help-hidden``").
+
+By using the --debug-pass=Structure option, for example, we can see how our
+:ref:`Hello World <writing-an-llvm-pass-basiccode>` pass interacts with other
+passes.  Lets try it out with the gcse and licm passes:
+
+.. code-block:: console
+
+  $ opt -load ../../../Debug+Asserts/lib/Hello.so -gcse -licm --debug-pass=Structure < hello.bc > /dev/null
+  Module Pass Manager
+    Function Pass Manager
+      Dominator Set Construction
+      Immediate Dominators Construction
+      Global Common Subexpression Elimination
+  --  Immediate Dominators Construction
+  --  Global Common Subexpression Elimination
+      Natural Loop Construction
+      Loop Invariant Code Motion
+  --  Natural Loop Construction
+  --  Loop Invariant Code Motion
+      Module Verifier
+  --  Dominator Set Construction
+  --  Module Verifier
+    Bitcode Writer
+  --Bitcode Writer
+
+This output shows us when passes are constructed and when the analysis results
+are known to be dead (prefixed with "``--``").  Here we see that GCSE uses
+dominator and immediate dominator information to do its job.  The LICM pass
+uses natural loop information, which uses dominator sets, but not immediate
+dominators.  Because immediate dominators are no longer useful after the GCSE
+pass, it is immediately destroyed.  The dominator sets are then reused to
+compute natural loop information, which is then used by the LICM pass.
+
+After the LICM pass, the module verifier runs (which is automatically added by
+the :program:`opt` tool), which uses the dominator set to check that the
+resultant LLVM code is well formed.  After it finishes, the dominator set
+information is destroyed, after being computed once, and shared by three
+passes.
+
+Lets see how this changes when we run the :ref:`Hello World
+<writing-an-llvm-pass-basiccode>` pass in between the two passes:
+
+.. code-block:: console
+
+  $ opt -load ../../../Debug+Asserts/lib/Hello.so -gcse -hello -licm --debug-pass=Structure < hello.bc > /dev/null
+  Module Pass Manager
+    Function Pass Manager
+      Dominator Set Construction
+      Immediate Dominators Construction
+      Global Common Subexpression Elimination
+  --  Dominator Set Construction
+  --  Immediate Dominators Construction
+  --  Global Common Subexpression Elimination
+      Hello World Pass
+  --  Hello World Pass
+      Dominator Set Construction
+      Natural Loop Construction
+      Loop Invariant Code Motion
+  --  Natural Loop Construction
+  --  Loop Invariant Code Motion
+      Module Verifier
+  --  Dominator Set Construction
+  --  Module Verifier
+    Bitcode Writer
+  --Bitcode Writer
+  Hello: __main
+  Hello: puts
+  Hello: main
+
+Here we see that the :ref:`Hello World <writing-an-llvm-pass-basiccode>` pass
+has killed the Dominator Set pass, even though it doesn't modify the code at
+all!  To fix this, we need to add the following :ref:`getAnalysisUsage
+<writing-an-llvm-pass-getAnalysisUsage>` method to our pass:
+
+.. code-block:: c++
+
+  // We don't modify the program, so we preserve all analyses
+  virtual void getAnalysisUsage(AnalysisUsage &AU) const {
+    AU.setPreservesAll();
+  }
+
+Now when we run our pass, we get this output:
+
+.. code-block:: console
+
+  $ opt -load ../../../Debug+Asserts/lib/Hello.so -gcse -hello -licm --debug-pass=Structure < hello.bc > /dev/null
+  Pass Arguments:  -gcse -hello -licm
+  Module Pass Manager
+    Function Pass Manager
+      Dominator Set Construction
+      Immediate Dominators Construction
+      Global Common Subexpression Elimination
+  --  Immediate Dominators Construction
+  --  Global Common Subexpression Elimination
+      Hello World Pass
+  --  Hello World Pass
+      Natural Loop Construction
+      Loop Invariant Code Motion
+  --  Loop Invariant Code Motion
+  --  Natural Loop Construction
+      Module Verifier
+  --  Dominator Set Construction
+  --  Module Verifier
+    Bitcode Writer
+  --Bitcode Writer
+  Hello: __main
+  Hello: puts
+  Hello: main
+
+Which shows that we don't accidentally invalidate dominator information
+anymore, and therefore do not have to compute it twice.
+
+.. _writing-an-llvm-pass-releaseMemory:
+
+The ``releaseMemory`` method
+^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
+
+.. code-block:: c++
+
+  virtual void releaseMemory();
+
+The ``PassManager`` automatically determines when to compute analysis results,
+and how long to keep them around for.  Because the lifetime of the pass object
+itself is effectively the entire duration of the compilation process, we need
+some way to free analysis results when they are no longer useful.  The
+``releaseMemory`` virtual method is the way to do this.
+
+If you are writing an analysis or any other pass that retains a significant
+amount of state (for use by another pass which "requires" your pass and uses
+the :ref:`getAnalysis <writing-an-llvm-pass-getAnalysis>` method) you should
+implement ``releaseMemory`` to, well, release the memory allocated to maintain
+this internal state.  This method is called after the ``run*`` method for the
+class, before the next call of ``run*`` in your pass.
+
+Registering dynamically loaded passes
+=====================================
+
+*Size matters* when constructing production quality tools using LLVM, both for
+the purposes of distribution, and for regulating the resident code size when
+running on the target system.  Therefore, it becomes desirable to selectively
+use some passes, while omitting others and maintain the flexibility to change
+configurations later on.  You want to be able to do all this, and, provide
+feedback to the user.  This is where pass registration comes into play.
+
+The fundamental mechanisms for pass registration are the
+``MachinePassRegistry`` class and subclasses of ``MachinePassRegistryNode``.
+
+An instance of ``MachinePassRegistry`` is used to maintain a list of
+``MachinePassRegistryNode`` objects.  This instance maintains the list and
+communicates additions and deletions to the command line interface.
+
+An instance of ``MachinePassRegistryNode`` subclass is used to maintain
+information provided about a particular pass.  This information includes the
+command line name, the command help string and the address of the function used
+to create an instance of the pass.  A global static constructor of one of these
+instances *registers* with a corresponding ``MachinePassRegistry``, the static
+destructor *unregisters*.  Thus a pass that is statically linked in the tool
+will be registered at start up.  A dynamically loaded pass will register on
+load and unregister at unload.
+
+Using existing registries
+-------------------------
+
+There are predefined registries to track instruction scheduling
+(``RegisterScheduler``) and register allocation (``RegisterRegAlloc``) machine
+passes.  Here we will describe how to *register* a register allocator machine
+pass.
+
+Implement your register allocator machine pass.  In your register allocator
+``.cpp`` file add the following include:
+
+.. code-block:: c++
+
+  #include "llvm/CodeGen/RegAllocRegistry.h"
+
+Also in your register allocator ``.cpp`` file, define a creator function in the
+form:
+
+.. code-block:: c++
+
+  FunctionPass *createMyRegisterAllocator() {
+    return new MyRegisterAllocator();
+  }
+
+Note that the signature of this function should match the type of
+``RegisterRegAlloc::FunctionPassCtor``.  In the same file add the "installing"
+declaration, in the form:
+
+.. code-block:: c++
+
+  static RegisterRegAlloc myRegAlloc("myregalloc",
+                                     "my register allocator help string",
+                                     createMyRegisterAllocator);
+
+Note the two spaces prior to the help string produces a tidy result on the
+:option:`-help` query.
+
+.. code-block:: console
+
+  $ llc -help
+    ...
+    -regalloc                    - Register allocator to use (default=linearscan)
+      =linearscan                -   linear scan register allocator
+      =local                     -   local register allocator
+      =simple                    -   simple register allocator
+      =myregalloc                -   my register allocator help string
+    ...
+
+And that's it.  The user is now free to use ``-regalloc=myregalloc`` as an
+option.  Registering instruction schedulers is similar except use the
+``RegisterScheduler`` class.  Note that the
+``RegisterScheduler::FunctionPassCtor`` is significantly different from
+``RegisterRegAlloc::FunctionPassCtor``.
+
+To force the load/linking of your register allocator into the
+:program:`llc`/:program:`lli` tools, add your creator function's global
+declaration to ``Passes.h`` and add a "pseudo" call line to
+``llvm/Codegen/LinkAllCodegenComponents.h``.
+
+Creating new registries
+-----------------------
+
+The easiest way to get started is to clone one of the existing registries; we
+recommend ``llvm/CodeGen/RegAllocRegistry.h``.  The key things to modify are
+the class name and the ``FunctionPassCtor`` type.
+
+Then you need to declare the registry.  Example: if your pass registry is
+``RegisterMyPasses`` then define:
+
+.. code-block:: c++
+
+  MachinePassRegistry RegisterMyPasses::Registry;
+
+And finally, declare the command line option for your passes.  Example:
+
+.. code-block:: c++
+
+  cl::opt<RegisterMyPasses::FunctionPassCtor, false,
+          RegisterPassParser<RegisterMyPasses> >
+  MyPassOpt("mypass",
+            cl::init(&createDefaultMyPass),
+            cl::desc("my pass option help"));
+
+Here the command option is "``mypass``", with ``createDefaultMyPass`` as the
+default creator.
+
+Using GDB with dynamically loaded passes
+----------------------------------------
+
+Unfortunately, using GDB with dynamically loaded passes is not as easy as it
+should be.  First of all, you can't set a breakpoint in a shared object that
+has not been loaded yet, and second of all there are problems with inlined
+functions in shared objects.  Here are some suggestions to debugging your pass
+with GDB.
+
+For sake of discussion, I'm going to assume that you are debugging a
+transformation invoked by :program:`opt`, although nothing described here
+depends on that.
+
+Setting a breakpoint in your pass
+^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
+
+First thing you do is start gdb on the opt process:
+
+.. code-block:: console
+
+  $ gdb opt
+  GNU gdb 5.0
+  Copyright 2000 Free Software Foundation, Inc.
+  GDB is free software, covered by the GNU General Public License, and you are
+  welcome to change it and/or distribute copies of it under certain conditions.
+  Type "show copying" to see the conditions.
+  There is absolutely no warranty for GDB.  Type "show warranty" for details.
+  This GDB was configured as "sparc-sun-solaris2.6"...
+  (gdb)
+
+Note that :program:`opt` has a lot of debugging information in it, so it takes
+time to load.  Be patient.  Since we cannot set a breakpoint in our pass yet
+(the shared object isn't loaded until runtime), we must execute the process,
+and have it stop before it invokes our pass, but after it has loaded the shared
+object.  The most foolproof way of doing this is to set a breakpoint in
+``PassManager::run`` and then run the process with the arguments you want:
+
+.. code-block:: console
+
+  $ (gdb) break llvm::PassManager::run
+  Breakpoint 1 at 0x2413bc: file Pass.cpp, line 70.
+  (gdb) run test.bc -load $(LLVMTOP)/llvm/Debug+Asserts/lib/[libname].so -[passoption]
+  Starting program: opt test.bc -load $(LLVMTOP)/llvm/Debug+Asserts/lib/[libname].so -[passoption]
+  Breakpoint 1, PassManager::run (this=0xffbef174, M=@0x70b298) at Pass.cpp:70
+  70      bool PassManager::run(Module &M) { return PM->run(M); }
+  (gdb)
+
+Once the :program:`opt` stops in the ``PassManager::run`` method you are now
+free to set breakpoints in your pass so that you can trace through execution or
+do other standard debugging stuff.
+
+Miscellaneous Problems
+^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
+
+Once you have the basics down, there are a couple of problems that GDB has,
+some with solutions, some without.
+
+* Inline functions have bogus stack information.  In general, GDB does a pretty
+  good job getting stack traces and stepping through inline functions.  When a
+  pass is dynamically loaded however, it somehow completely loses this
+  capability.  The only solution I know of is to de-inline a function (move it
+  from the body of a class to a ``.cpp`` file).
+
+* Restarting the program breaks breakpoints.  After following the information
+  above, you have succeeded in getting some breakpoints planted in your pass.
+  Nex thing you know, you restart the program (i.e., you type "``run``" again),
+  and you start getting errors about breakpoints being unsettable.  The only
+  way I have found to "fix" this problem is to delete the breakpoints that are
+  already set in your pass, run the program, and re-set the breakpoints once
+  execution stops in ``PassManager::run``.
+
+Hopefully these tips will help with common case debugging situations.  If you'd
+like to contribute some tips of your own, just contact `Chris
+<mailto:sabre at nondot.org>`_.
+
+Future extensions planned
+-------------------------
+
+Although the LLVM Pass Infrastructure is very capable as it stands, and does
+some nifty stuff, there are things we'd like to add in the future.  Here is
+where we are going:
+
+.. _writing-an-llvm-pass-SMP:
+
+Multithreaded LLVM
+^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
+
+Multiple CPU machines are becoming more common and compilation can never be
+fast enough: obviously we should allow for a multithreaded compiler.  Because
+of the semantics defined for passes above (specifically they cannot maintain
+state across invocations of their ``run*`` methods), a nice clean way to
+implement a multithreaded compiler would be for the ``PassManager`` class to
+create multiple instances of each pass object, and allow the separate instances
+to be hacking on different parts of the program at the same time.
+
+This implementation would prevent each of the passes from having to implement
+multithreaded constructs, requiring only the LLVM core to have locking in a few
+places (for global resources).  Although this is a simple extension, we simply
+haven't had time (or multiprocessor machines, thus a reason) to implement this.
+Despite that, we have kept the LLVM passes SMP ready, and you should too.
+

Added: www-releases/trunk/3.5.1/docs/_sources/YamlIO.txt
URL: http://llvm.org/viewvc/llvm-project/www-releases/trunk/3.5.1/docs/_sources/YamlIO.txt?rev=225843&view=auto
==============================================================================
--- www-releases/trunk/3.5.1/docs/_sources/YamlIO.txt (added)
+++ www-releases/trunk/3.5.1/docs/_sources/YamlIO.txt Tue Jan 13 16:55:20 2015
@@ -0,0 +1,951 @@
+=====================
+YAML I/O
+=====================
+
+.. contents::
+   :local:
+
+Introduction to YAML
+====================
+
+YAML is a human readable data serialization language.  The full YAML language 
+spec can be read at `yaml.org 
+<http://www.yaml.org/spec/1.2/spec.html#Introduction>`_.  The simplest form of
+yaml is just "scalars", "mappings", and "sequences".  A scalar is any number
+or string.  The pound/hash symbol (#) begins a comment line.   A mapping is 
+a set of key-value pairs where the key ends with a colon.  For example:
+
+.. code-block:: yaml
+
+     # a mapping
+     name:      Tom
+     hat-size:  7
+     
+A sequence is a list of items where each item starts with a leading dash ('-'). 
+For example:
+
+.. code-block:: yaml
+
+     # a sequence
+     - x86
+     - x86_64
+     - PowerPC
+
+You can combine mappings and sequences by indenting.  For example a sequence
+of mappings in which one of the mapping values is itself a sequence:
+
+.. code-block:: yaml
+
+     # a sequence of mappings with one key's value being a sequence
+     - name:      Tom
+       cpus:
+        - x86
+        - x86_64
+     - name:      Bob
+       cpus:
+        - x86
+     - name:      Dan
+       cpus:
+        - PowerPC
+        - x86
+
+Sometime sequences are known to be short and the one entry per line is too
+verbose, so YAML offers an alternate syntax for sequences called a "Flow
+Sequence" in which you put comma separated sequence elements into square 
+brackets.  The above example could then be simplified to :
+
+
+.. code-block:: yaml
+
+     # a sequence of mappings with one key's value being a flow sequence
+     - name:      Tom
+       cpus:      [ x86, x86_64 ]
+     - name:      Bob
+       cpus:      [ x86 ]
+     - name:      Dan
+       cpus:      [ PowerPC, x86 ]
+
+
+Introduction to YAML I/O
+========================
+
+The use of indenting makes the YAML easy for a human to read and understand,
+but having a program read and write YAML involves a lot of tedious details.
+The YAML I/O library structures and simplifies reading and writing YAML 
+documents.
+
+YAML I/O assumes you have some "native" data structures which you want to be
+able to dump as YAML and recreate from YAML.  The first step is to try 
+writing example YAML for your data structures. You may find after looking at 
+possible YAML representations that a direct mapping of your data structures
+to YAML is not very readable.  Often the fields are not in the order that
+a human would find readable.  Or the same information is replicated in multiple
+locations, making it hard for a human to write such YAML correctly.  
+
+In relational database theory there is a design step called normalization in 
+which you reorganize fields and tables.  The same considerations need to 
+go into the design of your YAML encoding.  But, you may not want to change
+your existing native data structures.  Therefore, when writing out YAML
+there may be a normalization step, and when reading YAML there would be a
+corresponding denormalization step.  
+
+YAML I/O uses a non-invasive, traits based design.  YAML I/O defines some 
+abstract base templates.  You specialize those templates on your data types.
+For instance, if you have an enumerated type FooBar you could specialize 
+ScalarEnumerationTraits on that type and define the enumeration() method:
+
+.. code-block:: c++
+
+    using llvm::yaml::ScalarEnumerationTraits;
+    using llvm::yaml::IO;
+
+    template <>
+    struct ScalarEnumerationTraits<FooBar> {
+      static void enumeration(IO &io, FooBar &value) {
+      ...
+      }
+    };
+
+
+As with all YAML I/O template specializations, the ScalarEnumerationTraits is used for 
+both reading and writing YAML. That is, the mapping between in-memory enum
+values and the YAML string representation is only in one place.
+This assures that the code for writing and parsing of YAML stays in sync.
+
+To specify a YAML mappings, you define a specialization on 
+llvm::yaml::MappingTraits.
+If your native data structure happens to be a struct that is already normalized,
+then the specialization is simple.  For example:
+
+.. code-block:: c++
+   
+    using llvm::yaml::MappingTraits;
+    using llvm::yaml::IO;
+    
+    template <>
+    struct MappingTraits<Person> {
+      static void mapping(IO &io, Person &info) {
+        io.mapRequired("name",         info.name);
+        io.mapOptional("hat-size",     info.hatSize);
+      }
+    };
+
+
+A YAML sequence is automatically inferred if you data type has begin()/end()
+iterators and a push_back() method.  Therefore any of the STL containers
+(such as std::vector<>) will automatically translate to YAML sequences.
+
+Once you have defined specializations for your data types, you can 
+programmatically use YAML I/O to write a YAML document:
+
+.. code-block:: c++
+   
+    using llvm::yaml::Output;
+
+    Person tom;
+    tom.name = "Tom";
+    tom.hatSize = 8;
+    Person dan;
+    dan.name = "Dan";
+    dan.hatSize = 7;
+    std::vector<Person> persons;
+    persons.push_back(tom);
+    persons.push_back(dan);
+    
+    Output yout(llvm::outs());
+    yout << persons;
+   
+This would write the following:
+
+.. code-block:: yaml
+
+     - name:      Tom
+       hat-size:  8
+     - name:      Dan
+       hat-size:  7
+
+And you can also read such YAML documents with the following code:
+
+.. code-block:: c++
+
+    using llvm::yaml::Input;
+
+    typedef std::vector<Person> PersonList;
+    std::vector<PersonList> docs;
+    
+    Input yin(document.getBuffer());
+    yin >> docs;
+    
+    if ( yin.error() )
+      return;
+    
+    // Process read document
+    for ( PersonList &pl : docs ) {
+      for ( Person &person : pl ) {
+        cout << "name=" << person.name;
+      }
+    }
+  
+One other feature of YAML is the ability to define multiple documents in a 
+single file.  That is why reading YAML produces a vector of your document type.
+
+
+
+Error Handling
+==============
+
+When parsing a YAML document, if the input does not match your schema (as 
+expressed in your XxxTraits<> specializations).  YAML I/O 
+will print out an error message and your Input object's error() method will 
+return true. For instance the following document:
+
+.. code-block:: yaml
+
+     - name:      Tom
+       shoe-size: 12
+     - name:      Dan
+       hat-size:  7
+
+Has a key (shoe-size) that is not defined in the schema.  YAML I/O will 
+automatically generate this error:
+
+.. code-block:: yaml
+
+    YAML:2:2: error: unknown key 'shoe-size'
+      shoe-size:       12
+      ^~~~~~~~~
+
+Similar errors are produced for other input not conforming to the schema.
+
+
+Scalars
+=======
+
+YAML scalars are just strings (i.e. not a sequence or mapping).  The YAML I/O
+library provides support for translating between YAML scalars and specific
+C++ types.
+
+
+Built-in types
+--------------
+The following types have built-in support in YAML I/O:
+
+* bool
+* float
+* double
+* StringRef
+* std::string
+* int64_t
+* int32_t
+* int16_t
+* int8_t
+* uint64_t
+* uint32_t
+* uint16_t
+* uint8_t
+
+That is, you can use those types in fields of MappingTraits or as element type
+in sequence.  When reading, YAML I/O will validate that the string found
+is convertible to that type and error out if not.
+
+
+Unique types
+------------
+Given that YAML I/O is trait based, the selection of how to convert your data
+to YAML is based on the type of your data.  But in C++ type matching, typedefs
+do not generate unique type names.  That means if you have two typedefs of
+unsigned int, to YAML I/O both types look exactly like unsigned int.  To
+facilitate make unique type names, YAML I/O provides a macro which is used
+like a typedef on built-in types, but expands to create a class with conversion
+operators to and from the base type.  For example:
+
+.. code-block:: c++
+
+    LLVM_YAML_STRONG_TYPEDEF(uint32_t, MyFooFlags)
+    LLVM_YAML_STRONG_TYPEDEF(uint32_t, MyBarFlags)
+
+This generates two classes MyFooFlags and MyBarFlags which you can use in your
+native data structures instead of uint32_t. They are implicitly 
+converted to and from uint32_t.  The point of creating these unique types
+is that you can now specify traits on them to get different YAML conversions.
+
+Hex types
+---------
+An example use of a unique type is that YAML I/O provides fixed sized unsigned
+integers that are written with YAML I/O as hexadecimal instead of the decimal
+format used by the built-in integer types:
+
+* Hex64
+* Hex32
+* Hex16
+* Hex8
+
+You can use llvm::yaml::Hex32 instead of uint32_t and the only different will
+be that when YAML I/O writes out that type it will be formatted in hexadecimal.
+
+
+ScalarEnumerationTraits
+-----------------------
+YAML I/O supports translating between in-memory enumerations and a set of string
+values in YAML documents. This is done by specializing ScalarEnumerationTraits<>
+on your enumeration type and define a enumeration() method. 
+For instance, suppose you had an enumeration of CPUs and a struct with it as 
+a field:
+
+.. code-block:: c++
+
+    enum CPUs {
+      cpu_x86_64  = 5,
+      cpu_x86     = 7,
+      cpu_PowerPC = 8
+    };
+    
+    struct Info {
+      CPUs      cpu;
+      uint32_t  flags;
+    };
+    
+To support reading and writing of this enumeration, you can define a 
+ScalarEnumerationTraits specialization on CPUs, which can then be used 
+as a field type: 
+
+.. code-block:: c++
+
+    using llvm::yaml::ScalarEnumerationTraits;
+    using llvm::yaml::MappingTraits;
+    using llvm::yaml::IO;
+
+    template <>
+    struct ScalarEnumerationTraits<CPUs> {
+      static void enumeration(IO &io, CPUs &value) {
+        io.enumCase(value, "x86_64",  cpu_x86_64);
+        io.enumCase(value, "x86",     cpu_x86);
+        io.enumCase(value, "PowerPC", cpu_PowerPC);
+      }
+    };
+ 
+    template <>
+    struct MappingTraits<Info> {
+      static void mapping(IO &io, Info &info) {
+        io.mapRequired("cpu",       info.cpu);
+        io.mapOptional("flags",     info.flags, 0);
+      }
+    };
+
+When reading YAML, if the string found does not match any of the the strings
+specified by enumCase() methods, an error is automatically generated.
+When writing YAML, if the value being written does not match any of the values
+specified by the enumCase() methods, a runtime assertion is triggered.
+  
+
+BitValue
+--------
+Another common data structure in C++ is a field where each bit has a unique
+meaning.  This is often used in a "flags" field.  YAML I/O has support for
+converting such fields to a flow sequence.   For instance suppose you 
+had the following bit flags defined:
+
+.. code-block:: c++
+
+    enum {
+      flagsPointy = 1
+      flagsHollow = 2
+      flagsFlat   = 4
+      flagsRound  = 8
+    };
+
+    LLVM_YAML_STRONG_TYPEDEF(uint32_t, MyFlags)
+    
+To support reading and writing of MyFlags, you specialize ScalarBitSetTraits<>
+on MyFlags and provide the bit values and their names.   
+
+.. code-block:: c++
+
+    using llvm::yaml::ScalarBitSetTraits;
+    using llvm::yaml::MappingTraits;
+    using llvm::yaml::IO;
+
+    template <>
+    struct ScalarBitSetTraits<MyFlags> {
+      static void bitset(IO &io, MyFlags &value) {
+        io.bitSetCase(value, "hollow",  flagHollow);
+        io.bitSetCase(value, "flat",    flagFlat);
+        io.bitSetCase(value, "round",   flagRound);
+        io.bitSetCase(value, "pointy",  flagPointy);
+      }
+    };
+    
+    struct Info {
+      StringRef   name;
+      MyFlags     flags;
+    };
+    
+    template <>
+    struct MappingTraits<Info> {
+      static void mapping(IO &io, Info& info) {
+        io.mapRequired("name",  info.name);
+        io.mapRequired("flags", info.flags);
+       }
+    };
+
+With the above, YAML I/O (when writing) will test mask each value in the 
+bitset trait against the flags field, and each that matches will
+cause the corresponding string to be added to the flow sequence.  The opposite
+is done when reading and any unknown string values will result in a error. With 
+the above schema, a same valid YAML document is:
+
+.. code-block:: yaml
+
+    name:    Tom
+    flags:   [ pointy, flat ]
+
+Sometimes a "flags" field might contains an enumeration part
+defined by a bit-mask.
+
+.. code-block:: c++
+
+    enum {
+      flagsFeatureA = 1,
+      flagsFeatureB = 2,
+      flagsFeatureC = 4,
+
+      flagsCPUMask = 24,
+
+      flagsCPU1 = 8,
+      flagsCPU2 = 16
+    };
+
+To support reading and writing such fields, you need to use the maskedBitSet()
+method and provide the bit values, their names and the enumeration mask.
+
+.. code-block:: c++
+
+    template <>
+    struct ScalarBitSetTraits<MyFlags> {
+      static void bitset(IO &io, MyFlags &value) {
+        io.bitSetCase(value, "featureA",  flagsFeatureA);
+        io.bitSetCase(value, "featureB",  flagsFeatureB);
+        io.bitSetCase(value, "featureC",  flagsFeatureC);
+        io.maskedBitSetCase(value, "CPU1",  flagsCPU1, flagsCPUMask);
+        io.maskedBitSetCase(value, "CPU2",  flagsCPU2, flagsCPUMask);
+      }
+    };
+
+YAML I/O (when writing) will apply the enumeration mask to the flags field,
+and compare the result and values from the bitset. As in case of a regular
+bitset, each that matches will cause the corresponding string to be added
+to the flow sequence.
+
+Custom Scalar
+-------------
+Sometimes for readability a scalar needs to be formatted in a custom way. For
+instance your internal data structure may use a integer for time (seconds since
+some epoch), but in YAML it would be much nicer to express that integer in 
+some time format (e.g. 4-May-2012 10:30pm).  YAML I/O has a way to support  
+custom formatting and parsing of scalar types by specializing ScalarTraits<> on
+your data type.  When writing, YAML I/O will provide the native type and
+your specialization must create a temporary llvm::StringRef.  When reading,
+YAML I/O will provide an llvm::StringRef of scalar and your specialization
+must convert that to your native data type.  An outline of a custom scalar type
+looks like:
+
+.. code-block:: c++
+
+    using llvm::yaml::ScalarTraits;
+    using llvm::yaml::IO;
+
+    template <>
+    struct ScalarTraits<MyCustomType> {
+      static void output(const T &value, llvm::raw_ostream &out) {
+        out << value;  // do custom formatting here
+      }
+      static StringRef input(StringRef scalar, T &value) {
+        // do custom parsing here.  Return the empty string on success,
+        // or an error message on failure.
+        return StringRef();
+      }
+      // Determine if this scalar needs quotes.
+      static bool mustQuote(StringRef) { return true; }
+    };
+    
+
+Mappings
+========
+
+To be translated to or from a YAML mapping for your type T you must specialize  
+llvm::yaml::MappingTraits on T and implement the "void mapping(IO &io, T&)" 
+method. If your native data structures use pointers to a class everywhere,
+you can specialize on the class pointer.  Examples:
+
+.. code-block:: c++
+   
+    using llvm::yaml::MappingTraits;
+    using llvm::yaml::IO;
+    
+    // Example of struct Foo which is used by value
+    template <>
+    struct MappingTraits<Foo> {
+      static void mapping(IO &io, Foo &foo) {
+        io.mapOptional("size",      foo.size);
+      ...
+      }
+    };
+
+    // Example of struct Bar which is natively always a pointer
+    template <>
+    struct MappingTraits<Bar*> {
+      static void mapping(IO &io, Bar *&bar) {
+        io.mapOptional("size",    bar->size);
+      ...
+      }
+    };
+
+
+No Normalization
+----------------
+
+The mapping() method is responsible, if needed, for normalizing and 
+denormalizing. In a simple case where the native data structure requires no 
+normalization, the mapping method just uses mapOptional() or mapRequired() to 
+bind the struct's fields to YAML key names.  For example:
+
+.. code-block:: c++
+   
+    using llvm::yaml::MappingTraits;
+    using llvm::yaml::IO;
+    
+    template <>
+    struct MappingTraits<Person> {
+      static void mapping(IO &io, Person &info) {
+        io.mapRequired("name",         info.name);
+        io.mapOptional("hat-size",     info.hatSize);
+      }
+    };
+
+
+Normalization
+----------------
+
+When [de]normalization is required, the mapping() method needs a way to access
+normalized values as fields. To help with this, there is
+a template MappingNormalization<> which you can then use to automatically
+do the normalization and denormalization.  The template is used to create
+a local variable in your mapping() method which contains the normalized keys.
+
+Suppose you have native data type 
+Polar which specifies a position in polar coordinates (distance, angle):
+
+.. code-block:: c++
+   
+    struct Polar {
+      float distance;
+      float angle;
+    };
+
+but you've decided the normalized YAML for should be in x,y coordinates. That 
+is, you want the yaml to look like:
+
+.. code-block:: yaml
+
+    x:   10.3
+    y:   -4.7
+
+You can support this by defining a MappingTraits that normalizes the polar
+coordinates to x,y coordinates when writing YAML and denormalizes x,y 
+coordinates into polar when reading YAML.  
+
+.. code-block:: c++
+   
+    using llvm::yaml::MappingTraits;
+    using llvm::yaml::IO;
+        
+    template <>
+    struct MappingTraits<Polar> {
+      
+      class NormalizedPolar {
+      public:
+        NormalizedPolar(IO &io)
+          : x(0.0), y(0.0) {
+        }
+        NormalizedPolar(IO &, Polar &polar)
+          : x(polar.distance * cos(polar.angle)), 
+            y(polar.distance * sin(polar.angle)) {
+        }
+        Polar denormalize(IO &) {
+          return Polar(sqrt(x*x+y*y), arctan(x,y));
+        }
+         
+        float        x;
+        float        y;
+      };
+
+      static void mapping(IO &io, Polar &polar) {
+        MappingNormalization<NormalizedPolar, Polar> keys(io, polar);
+        
+        io.mapRequired("x",    keys->x);
+        io.mapRequired("y",    keys->y);
+      }
+    };
+
+When writing YAML, the local variable "keys" will be a stack allocated 
+instance of NormalizedPolar, constructed from the supplied polar object which
+initializes it x and y fields.  The mapRequired() methods then write out the x
+and y values as key/value pairs.  
+
+When reading YAML, the local variable "keys" will be a stack allocated instance
+of NormalizedPolar, constructed by the empty constructor.  The mapRequired 
+methods will find the matching key in the YAML document and fill in the x and y 
+fields of the NormalizedPolar object keys. At the end of the mapping() method
+when the local keys variable goes out of scope, the denormalize() method will
+automatically be called to convert the read values back to polar coordinates,
+and then assigned back to the second parameter to mapping().
+
+In some cases, the normalized class may be a subclass of the native type and
+could be returned by the denormalize() method, except that the temporary
+normalized instance is stack allocated.  In these cases, the utility template
+MappingNormalizationHeap<> can be used instead.  It just like 
+MappingNormalization<> except that it heap allocates the normalized object
+when reading YAML.  It never destroys the normalized object.  The denormalize()
+method can this return "this".
+
+
+Default values
+--------------
+Within a mapping() method, calls to io.mapRequired() mean that that key is 
+required to exist when parsing YAML documents, otherwise YAML I/O will issue an 
+error.
+
+On the other hand, keys registered with io.mapOptional() are allowed to not 
+exist in the YAML document being read.  So what value is put in the field 
+for those optional keys? 
+There are two steps to how those optional fields are filled in. First, the  
+second parameter to the mapping() method is a reference to a native class.  That
+native class must have a default constructor.  Whatever value the default
+constructor initially sets for an optional field will be that field's value.
+Second, the mapOptional() method has an optional third parameter.  If provided
+it is the value that mapOptional() should set that field to if the YAML document  
+does not have that key.  
+
+There is one important difference between those two ways (default constructor
+and third parameter to mapOptional). When YAML I/O generates a YAML document, 
+if the mapOptional() third parameter is used, if the actual value being written
+is the same as (using ==) the default value, then that key/value is not written.
+
+
+Order of Keys
+--------------
+
+When writing out a YAML document, the keys are written in the order that the
+calls to mapRequired()/mapOptional() are made in the mapping() method. This
+gives you a chance to write the fields in an order that a human reader of
+the YAML document would find natural.  This may be different that the order
+of the fields in the native class.
+
+When reading in a YAML document, the keys in the document can be in any order, 
+but they are processed in the order that the calls to mapRequired()/mapOptional() 
+are made in the mapping() method.  That enables some interesting 
+functionality.  For instance, if the first field bound is the cpu and the second
+field bound is flags, and the flags are cpu specific, you can programmatically
+switch how the flags are converted to and from YAML based on the cpu.  
+This works for both reading and writing. For example:
+
+.. code-block:: c++
+
+    using llvm::yaml::MappingTraits;
+    using llvm::yaml::IO;
+    
+    struct Info {
+      CPUs        cpu;
+      uint32_t    flags;
+    };
+
+    template <>
+    struct MappingTraits<Info> {
+      static void mapping(IO &io, Info &info) {
+        io.mapRequired("cpu",       info.cpu);
+        // flags must come after cpu for this to work when reading yaml
+        if ( info.cpu == cpu_x86_64 )
+          io.mapRequired("flags",  *(My86_64Flags*)info.flags);
+        else
+          io.mapRequired("flags",  *(My86Flags*)info.flags);
+     }
+    };
+
+
+Tags
+----
+
+The YAML syntax supports tags as a way to specify the type of a node before
+it is parsed. This allows dynamic types of nodes.  But the YAML I/O model uses
+static typing, so there are limits to how you can use tags with the YAML I/O
+model. Recently, we added support to YAML I/O for checking/setting the optional 
+tag on a map. Using this functionality it is even possbile to support different 
+mappings, as long as they are convertable.  
+
+To check a tag, inside your mapping() method you can use io.mapTag() to specify
+what the tag should be.  This will also add that tag when writing yaml.
+
+Validation
+----------
+
+Sometimes in a yaml map, each key/value pair is valid, but the combination is
+not.  This is similar to something having no syntax errors, but still having
+semantic errors.  To support semantic level checking, YAML I/O allows
+an optional ``validate()`` method in a MappingTraits template specialization.  
+
+When parsing yaml, the ``validate()`` method is call *after* all key/values in 
+the map have been processed. Any error message returned by the ``validate()`` 
+method during input will be printed just a like a syntax error would be printed.
+When writing yaml, the ``validate()`` method is called *before* the yaml 
+key/values  are written.  Any error during output will trigger an ``assert()`` 
+because it is a programming error to have invalid struct values.
+
+
+.. code-block:: c++
+
+    using llvm::yaml::MappingTraits;
+    using llvm::yaml::IO;
+    
+    struct Stuff {
+      ...
+    };
+
+    template <>
+    struct MappingTraits<Stuff> {
+      static void mapping(IO &io, Stuff &stuff) {
+      ...
+      }
+      static StringRef validate(IO &io, Stuff &stuff) {
+        // Look at all fields in 'stuff' and if there
+        // are any bad values return a string describing
+        // the error.  Otherwise return an empty string.
+        return StringRef();
+      }
+    };
+
+
+Sequence
+========
+
+To be translated to or from a YAML sequence for your type T you must specialize
+llvm::yaml::SequenceTraits on T and implement two methods:
+``size_t size(IO &io, T&)`` and
+``T::value_type& element(IO &io, T&, size_t indx)``.  For example:
+
+.. code-block:: c++
+
+  template <>
+  struct SequenceTraits<MySeq> {
+    static size_t size(IO &io, MySeq &list) { ... }
+    static MySeqEl &element(IO &io, MySeq &list, size_t index) { ... }
+  };
+
+The size() method returns how many elements are currently in your sequence.
+The element() method returns a reference to the i'th element in the sequence. 
+When parsing YAML, the element() method may be called with an index one bigger
+than the current size.  Your element() method should allocate space for one
+more element (using default constructor if element is a C++ object) and returns
+a reference to that new allocated space.  
+
+
+Flow Sequence
+-------------
+A YAML "flow sequence" is a sequence that when written to YAML it uses the 
+inline notation (e.g [ foo, bar ] ).  To specify that a sequence type should
+be written in YAML as a flow sequence, your SequenceTraits specialization should
+add "static const bool flow = true;".  For instance:
+
+.. code-block:: c++
+
+  template <>
+  struct SequenceTraits<MyList> {
+    static size_t size(IO &io, MyList &list) { ... }
+    static MyListEl &element(IO &io, MyList &list, size_t index) { ... }
+    
+    // The existence of this member causes YAML I/O to use a flow sequence
+    static const bool flow = true;
+  };
+
+With the above, if you used MyList as the data type in your native data 
+structures, then then when converted to YAML, a flow sequence of integers 
+will be used (e.g. [ 10, -3, 4 ]).
+
+
+Utility Macros
+--------------
+Since a common source of sequences is std::vector<>, YAML I/O provides macros:
+LLVM_YAML_IS_SEQUENCE_VECTOR() and LLVM_YAML_IS_FLOW_SEQUENCE_VECTOR() which
+can be used to easily specify SequenceTraits<> on a std::vector type.  YAML 
+I/O does not partial specialize SequenceTraits on std::vector<> because that
+would force all vectors to be sequences.  An example use of the macros:
+
+.. code-block:: c++
+
+  std::vector<MyType1>;
+  std::vector<MyType2>;
+  LLVM_YAML_IS_SEQUENCE_VECTOR(MyType1)
+  LLVM_YAML_IS_FLOW_SEQUENCE_VECTOR(MyType2)
+
+
+
+Document List
+=============
+
+YAML allows you to define multiple "documents" in a single YAML file.  Each 
+new document starts with a left aligned "---" token.  The end of all documents
+is denoted with a left aligned "..." token.  Many users of YAML will never
+have need for multiple documents.  The top level node in their YAML schema
+will be a mapping or sequence. For those cases, the following is not needed.
+But for cases where you do want multiple documents, you can specify a
+trait for you document list type.  The trait has the same methods as 
+SequenceTraits but is named DocumentListTraits.  For example:
+
+.. code-block:: c++
+
+  template <>
+  struct DocumentListTraits<MyDocList> {
+    static size_t size(IO &io, MyDocList &list) { ... }
+    static MyDocType element(IO &io, MyDocList &list, size_t index) { ... }
+  };
+
+
+User Context Data
+=================
+When an llvm::yaml::Input or llvm::yaml::Output object is created their 
+constructors take an optional "context" parameter.  This is a pointer to 
+whatever state information you might need.  
+
+For instance, in a previous example we showed how the conversion type for a 
+flags field could be determined at runtime based on the value of another field 
+in the mapping. But what if an inner mapping needs to know some field value
+of an outer mapping?  That is where the "context" parameter comes in. You
+can set values in the context in the outer map's mapping() method and
+retrieve those values in the inner map's mapping() method.
+
+The context value is just a void*.  All your traits which use the context 
+and operate on your native data types, need to agree what the context value
+actually is.  It could be a pointer to an object or struct which your various
+traits use to shared context sensitive information.
+
+
+Output
+======
+
+The llvm::yaml::Output class is used to generate a YAML document from your 
+in-memory data structures, using traits defined on your data types.  
+To instantiate an Output object you need an llvm::raw_ostream, and optionally 
+a context pointer:
+
+.. code-block:: c++
+
+      class Output : public IO {
+      public:
+        Output(llvm::raw_ostream &, void *context=NULL);
+    
+Once you have an Output object, you can use the C++ stream operator on it
+to write your native data as YAML. One thing to recall is that a YAML file
+can contain multiple "documents".  If the top level data structure you are
+streaming as YAML is a mapping, scalar, or sequence, then Output assumes you
+are generating one document and wraps the mapping output 
+with  "``---``" and trailing "``...``".  
+
+.. code-block:: c++
+   
+    using llvm::yaml::Output;
+
+    void dumpMyMapDoc(const MyMapType &info) {
+      Output yout(llvm::outs());
+      yout << info;
+    }
+
+The above could produce output like:
+
+.. code-block:: yaml
+
+     ---
+     name:      Tom
+     hat-size:  7
+     ...
+
+On the other hand, if the top level data structure you are streaming as YAML
+has a DocumentListTraits specialization, then Output walks through each element
+of your DocumentList and generates a "---" before the start of each element
+and ends with a "...".
+
+.. code-block:: c++
+   
+    using llvm::yaml::Output;
+
+    void dumpMyMapDoc(const MyDocListType &docList) {
+      Output yout(llvm::outs());
+      yout << docList;
+    }
+
+The above could produce output like:
+
+.. code-block:: yaml
+
+     ---
+     name:      Tom
+     hat-size:  7
+     ---
+     name:      Tom
+     shoe-size:  11
+     ...
+
+Input
+=====
+
+The llvm::yaml::Input class is used to parse YAML document(s) into your native
+data structures. To instantiate an Input
+object you need a StringRef to the entire YAML file, and optionally a context 
+pointer:
+
+.. code-block:: c++
+
+      class Input : public IO {
+      public:
+        Input(StringRef inputContent, void *context=NULL);
+    
+Once you have an Input object, you can use the C++ stream operator to read
+the document(s).  If you expect there might be multiple YAML documents in
+one file, you'll need to specialize DocumentListTraits on a list of your
+document type and stream in that document list type.  Otherwise you can
+just stream in the document type.  Also, you can check if there was 
+any syntax errors in the YAML be calling the error() method on the Input
+object.  For example:
+
+.. code-block:: c++
+   
+     // Reading a single document
+     using llvm::yaml::Input;
+
+     Input yin(mb.getBuffer());
+     
+     // Parse the YAML file
+     MyDocType theDoc;
+     yin >> theDoc;
+
+     // Check for error
+     if ( yin.error() )
+       return;
+  
+      
+.. code-block:: c++
+   
+     // Reading multiple documents in one file
+     using llvm::yaml::Input;
+
+     LLVM_YAML_IS_DOCUMENT_LIST_VECTOR(std::vector<MyDocType>)
+     
+     Input yin(mb.getBuffer());
+     
+     // Parse the YAML file
+     std::vector<MyDocType> theDocList;
+     yin >> theDocList;
+
+     // Check for error
+     if ( yin.error() )
+       return;
+
+

Added: www-releases/trunk/3.5.1/docs/_sources/index.txt
URL: http://llvm.org/viewvc/llvm-project/www-releases/trunk/3.5.1/docs/_sources/index.txt?rev=225843&view=auto
==============================================================================
--- www-releases/trunk/3.5.1/docs/_sources/index.txt (added)
+++ www-releases/trunk/3.5.1/docs/_sources/index.txt Tue Jan 13 16:55:20 2015
@@ -0,0 +1,442 @@
+Overview
+========
+
+.. warning::
+
+   If you are using a released version of LLVM, see `the download page
+   <http://llvm.org/releases/>`_ to find your documentation.
+
+The LLVM compiler infrastructure supports a wide range of projects, from
+industrial strength compilers to specialized JIT applications to small
+research projects.
+
+Similarly, documentation is broken down into several high-level groupings
+targeted at different audiences:
+
+LLVM Design & Overview
+======================
+
+Several introductory papers and presentations.
+
+.. toctree::
+   :hidden:
+
+   LangRef
+
+:doc:`LangRef`
+  Defines the LLVM intermediate representation.
+
+`Introduction to the LLVM Compiler`__
+  Presentation providing a users introduction to LLVM.
+
+  .. __: http://llvm.org/pubs/2008-10-04-ACAT-LLVM-Intro.html
+
+`Intro to LLVM`__
+  Book chapter providing a compiler hacker's introduction to LLVM.
+
+  .. __: http://www.aosabook.org/en/llvm.html
+
+
+`LLVM: A Compilation Framework for Lifelong Program Analysis & Transformation`__
+  Design overview.
+
+  .. __: http://llvm.org/pubs/2004-01-30-CGO-LLVM.html
+
+`LLVM: An Infrastructure for Multi-Stage Optimization`__
+  More details (quite old now).
+
+  .. __: http://llvm.org/pubs/2002-12-LattnerMSThesis.html
+
+`Publications mentioning LLVM <http://llvm.org/pubs>`_
+   ..
+
+User Guides
+===========
+
+For those new to the LLVM system.
+
+NOTE: If you are a user who is only interested in using LLVM-based
+compilers, you should look into `Clang <http://clang.llvm.org>`_ or
+`DragonEgg <http://dragonegg.llvm.org>`_ instead. The documentation here is
+intended for users who have a need to work with the intermediate LLVM
+representation.
+
+.. toctree::
+   :hidden:
+
+   CMake
+   HowToBuildOnARM
+   HowToCrossCompileLLVM
+   CommandGuide/index
+   GettingStarted
+   GettingStartedVS
+   FAQ
+   Lexicon
+   HowToAddABuilder
+   yaml2obj
+   HowToSubmitABug
+   SphinxQuickstartTemplate
+   Phabricator
+   TestingGuide
+   tutorial/index
+   ReleaseNotes
+   Passes
+   YamlIO
+   GetElementPtr
+   MCJITDesignAndImplementation
+
+:doc:`GettingStarted`
+   Discusses how to get up and running quickly with the LLVM infrastructure.
+   Everything from unpacking and compilation of the distribution to execution
+   of some tools.
+
+:doc:`CMake`
+   An addendum to the main Getting Started guide for those using the `CMake
+   build system <http://www.cmake.org>`_.
+
+:doc:`HowToBuildOnARM`
+   Notes on building and testing LLVM/Clang on ARM.
+
+:doc:`HowToCrossCompileLLVM`
+   Notes on cross-building and testing LLVM/Clang.
+
+:doc:`GettingStartedVS`
+   An addendum to the main Getting Started guide for those using Visual Studio
+   on Windows.
+
+:doc:`tutorial/index`
+   Tutorials about using LLVM. Includes a tutorial about making a custom
+   language with LLVM.
+
+:doc:`LLVM Command Guide <CommandGuide/index>`
+   A reference manual for the LLVM command line utilities ("man" pages for LLVM
+   tools).
+
+:doc:`Passes`
+   A list of optimizations and analyses implemented in LLVM.
+
+:doc:`FAQ`
+   A list of common questions and problems and their solutions.
+
+:doc:`Release notes for the current release <ReleaseNotes>`
+   This describes new features, known bugs, and other limitations.
+
+:doc:`HowToSubmitABug`
+   Instructions for properly submitting information about any bugs you run into
+   in the LLVM system.
+
+:doc:`SphinxQuickstartTemplate`
+  A template + tutorial for writing new Sphinx documentation. It is meant
+  to be read in source form.
+
+:doc:`LLVM Testing Infrastructure Guide <TestingGuide>`
+   A reference manual for using the LLVM testing infrastructure.
+
+`How to build the C, C++, ObjC, and ObjC++ front end`__
+   Instructions for building the clang front-end from source.
+
+   .. __: http://clang.llvm.org/get_started.html
+
+:doc:`Lexicon`
+   Definition of acronyms, terms and concepts used in LLVM.
+
+:doc:`HowToAddABuilder`
+   Instructions for adding new builder to LLVM buildbot master.
+
+:doc:`YamlIO`
+   A reference guide for using LLVM's YAML I/O library.
+
+:doc:`GetElementPtr`
+  Answers to some very frequent questions about LLVM's most frequently
+  misunderstood instruction.
+
+Programming Documentation
+=========================
+
+For developers of applications which use LLVM as a library.
+
+.. toctree::
+   :hidden:
+
+   Atomics
+   CodingStandards
+   CommandLine
+   CompilerWriterInfo
+   ExtendingLLVM
+   HowToSetUpLLVMStyleRTTI
+   ProgrammersManual
+   Extensions
+
+:doc:`LLVM Language Reference Manual <LangRef>`
+  Defines the LLVM intermediate representation and the assembly form of the
+  different nodes.
+
+:doc:`Atomics`
+  Information about LLVM's concurrency model.
+
+:doc:`ProgrammersManual`
+  Introduction to the general layout of the LLVM sourcebase, important classes
+  and APIs, and some tips & tricks.
+
+:doc:`Extensions`
+  LLVM-specific extensions to tools and formats LLVM seeks compatibility with.
+
+:doc:`CommandLine`
+  Provides information on using the command line parsing library.
+
+:doc:`CodingStandards`
+  Details the LLVM coding standards and provides useful information on writing
+  efficient C++ code.
+
+:doc:`HowToSetUpLLVMStyleRTTI`
+  How to make ``isa<>``, ``dyn_cast<>``, etc. available for clients of your
+  class hierarchy.
+
+:doc:`ExtendingLLVM`
+  Look here to see how to add instructions and intrinsics to LLVM.
+
+`Doxygen generated documentation <http://llvm.org/doxygen/>`_
+  (`classes <http://llvm.org/doxygen/inherits.html>`_)
+  (`tarball <http://llvm.org/doxygen/doxygen.tar.gz>`_)
+
+`ViewVC Repository Browser <http://llvm.org/viewvc/>`_
+   ..
+
+:doc:`CompilerWriterInfo`
+  A list of helpful links for compiler writers.
+
+Subsystem Documentation
+=======================
+
+For API clients and LLVM developers.
+
+.. toctree::
+   :hidden:
+
+   AliasAnalysis
+   BitCodeFormat
+   BlockFrequencyTerminology
+   BranchWeightMetadata
+   Bugpoint
+   CodeGenerator
+   ExceptionHandling
+   LinkTimeOptimization
+   SegmentedStacks
+   TableGenFundamentals
+   TableGen/index
+   DebuggingJITedCode
+   GoldPlugin
+   MarkedUpDisassembly
+   SystemLibrary
+   SourceLevelDebugging
+   Vectorizers
+   WritingAnLLVMBackend
+   GarbageCollection
+   WritingAnLLVMPass
+   HowToUseAttributes
+   NVPTXUsage
+   StackMaps
+   InAlloca
+   BigEndianNEON
+
+:doc:`WritingAnLLVMPass`
+   Information on how to write LLVM transformations and analyses.
+
+:doc:`WritingAnLLVMBackend`
+   Information on how to write LLVM backends for machine targets.
+
+:doc:`CodeGenerator`
+   The design and implementation of the LLVM code generator.  Useful if you are
+   working on retargetting LLVM to a new architecture, designing a new codegen
+   pass, or enhancing existing components.
+
+:doc:`TableGen <TableGen/index>`
+   Describes the TableGen tool, which is used heavily by the LLVM code
+   generator.
+
+:doc:`AliasAnalysis`
+   Information on how to write a new alias analysis implementation or how to
+   use existing analyses.
+
+:doc:`GarbageCollection`
+   The interfaces source-language compilers should use for compiling GC'd
+   programs.
+
+:doc:`Source Level Debugging with LLVM <SourceLevelDebugging>`
+   This document describes the design and philosophy behind the LLVM
+   source-level debugger.
+
+:doc:`Vectorizers`
+   This document describes the current status of vectorization in LLVM.
+
+:doc:`ExceptionHandling`
+   This document describes the design and implementation of exception handling
+   in LLVM.
+
+:doc:`Bugpoint`
+   Automatic bug finder and test-case reducer description and usage
+   information.
+
+:doc:`BitCodeFormat`
+   This describes the file format and encoding used for LLVM "bc" files.
+
+:doc:`System Library <SystemLibrary>`
+   This document describes the LLVM System Library (``lib/System``) and
+   how to keep LLVM source code portable
+
+:doc:`LinkTimeOptimization`
+   This document describes the interface between LLVM intermodular optimizer
+   and the linker and its design
+
+:doc:`GoldPlugin`
+   How to build your programs with link-time optimization on Linux.
+
+:doc:`DebuggingJITedCode`
+   How to debug JITed code with GDB.
+
+:doc:`MCJITDesignAndImplementation`
+   Describes the inner workings of MCJIT execution engine.
+
+:doc:`BranchWeightMetadata`
+   Provides information about Branch Prediction Information.
+
+:doc:`BlockFrequencyTerminology`
+   Provides information about terminology used in the ``BlockFrequencyInfo``
+   analysis pass.
+
+:doc:`SegmentedStacks`
+   This document describes segmented stacks and how they are used in LLVM.
+
+:doc:`MarkedUpDisassembly`
+   This document describes the optional rich disassembly output syntax.
+
+:doc:`HowToUseAttributes`
+  Answers some questions about the new Attributes infrastructure.
+
+:doc:`NVPTXUsage`
+   This document describes using the NVPTX back-end to compile GPU kernels.
+
+:doc:`StackMaps`
+  LLVM support for mapping instruction addresses to the location of
+  values and allowing code to be patched.
+
+:doc:`BigEndianNEON`
+  LLVM's support for generating NEON instructions on big endian ARM targets is
+  somewhat nonintuitive. This document explains the implementation and rationale.
+
+
+Development Process Documentation
+=================================
+
+Information about LLVM's development process.
+
+.. toctree::
+   :hidden:
+
+   DeveloperPolicy
+   MakefileGuide
+   Projects
+   LLVMBuild
+   HowToReleaseLLVM
+   Packaging
+   ReleaseProcess
+
+:doc:`DeveloperPolicy`
+   The LLVM project's policy towards developers and their contributions.
+
+:doc:`Projects`
+  How-to guide and templates for new projects that *use* the LLVM
+  infrastructure.  The templates (directory organization, Makefiles, and test
+  tree) allow the project code to be located outside (or inside) the ``llvm/``
+  tree, while using LLVM header files and libraries.
+
+:doc:`LLVMBuild`
+  Describes the LLVMBuild organization and files used by LLVM to specify
+  component descriptions.
+
+:doc:`MakefileGuide`
+  Describes how the LLVM makefiles work and how to use them.
+
+:doc:`HowToReleaseLLVM`
+  This is a guide to preparing LLVM releases. Most developers can ignore it.
+
+:doc:`ReleaseProcess`
+  This is a validate a new release, during the release process. Most developers can ignore it.
+
+:doc:`Packaging`
+   Advice on packaging LLVM into a distribution.
+
+Community
+=========
+
+LLVM has a thriving community of friendly and helpful developers.
+The two primary communication mechanisms in the LLVM community are mailing
+lists and IRC.
+
+Mailing Lists
+-------------
+
+If you can't find what you need in these docs, try consulting the mailing
+lists.
+
+`Developer's List (llvmdev)`__
+  This list is for people who want to be included in technical discussions of
+  LLVM. People post to this list when they have questions about writing code
+  for or using the LLVM tools. It is relatively low volume.
+
+  .. __: http://lists.cs.uiuc.edu/mailman/listinfo/llvmdev
+
+`Commits Archive (llvm-commits)`__
+  This list contains all commit messages that are made when LLVM developers
+  commit code changes to the repository. It also serves as a forum for
+  patch review (i.e. send patches here). It is useful for those who want to
+  stay on the bleeding edge of LLVM development. This list is very high
+  volume.
+
+  .. __: http://lists.cs.uiuc.edu/pipermail/llvm-commits/
+
+`Bugs & Patches Archive (llvmbugs)`__
+  This list gets emailed every time a bug is opened and closed. It is
+  higher volume than the LLVMdev list.
+
+  .. __: http://lists.cs.uiuc.edu/pipermail/llvmbugs/
+
+`Test Results Archive (llvm-testresults)`__
+  A message is automatically sent to this list by every active nightly tester
+  when it completes.  As such, this list gets email several times each day,
+  making it a high volume list.
+
+  .. __: http://lists.cs.uiuc.edu/pipermail/llvm-testresults/
+
+`LLVM Announcements List (llvm-announce)`__
+  This is a low volume list that provides important announcements regarding
+  LLVM.  It gets email about once a month.
+
+  .. __: http://lists.cs.uiuc.edu/mailman/listinfo/llvm-announce
+
+IRC
+---
+
+Users and developers of the LLVM project (including subprojects such as Clang)
+can be found in #llvm on `irc.oftc.net <irc://irc.oftc.net/llvm>`_.
+
+This channel has several bots.
+
+* Buildbot reporters
+
+  * llvmbb - Bot for the main LLVM buildbot master.
+    http://lab.llvm.org:8011/console
+  * bb-chapuni - An individually run buildbot master. http://bb.pgr.jp/console
+  * smooshlab - Apple's internal buildbot master.
+
+* robot - Bugzilla linker. %bug <number>
+
+* clang-bot - A `geordi <http://www.eelis.net/geordi/>`_ instance running
+  near-trunk clang instead of gcc.
+
+
+Indices and tables
+==================
+
+* :ref:`genindex`
+* :ref:`search`

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==============================================================================
--- www-releases/trunk/3.5.1/docs/_sources/tutorial/LangImpl1.txt (added)
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@@ -0,0 +1,278 @@
+=================================================
+Kaleidoscope: Tutorial Introduction and the Lexer
+=================================================
+
+.. contents::
+   :local:
+
+Tutorial Introduction
+=====================
+
+Welcome to the "Implementing a language with LLVM" tutorial. This
+tutorial runs through the implementation of a simple language, showing
+how fun and easy it can be. This tutorial will get you up and started as
+well as help to build a framework you can extend to other languages. The
+code in this tutorial can also be used as a playground to hack on other
+LLVM specific things.
+
+The goal of this tutorial is to progressively unveil our language,
+describing how it is built up over time. This will let us cover a fairly
+broad range of language design and LLVM-specific usage issues, showing
+and explaining the code for it all along the way, without overwhelming
+you with tons of details up front.
+
+It is useful to point out ahead of time that this tutorial is really
+about teaching compiler techniques and LLVM specifically, *not* about
+teaching modern and sane software engineering principles. In practice,
+this means that we'll take a number of shortcuts to simplify the
+exposition. For example, the code leaks memory, uses global variables
+all over the place, doesn't use nice design patterns like
+`visitors <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Visitor_pattern>`_, etc... but
+it is very simple. If you dig in and use the code as a basis for future
+projects, fixing these deficiencies shouldn't be hard.
+
+I've tried to put this tutorial together in a way that makes chapters
+easy to skip over if you are already familiar with or are uninterested
+in the various pieces. The structure of the tutorial is:
+
+-  `Chapter #1 <#language>`_: Introduction to the Kaleidoscope
+   language, and the definition of its Lexer - This shows where we are
+   going and the basic functionality that we want it to do. In order to
+   make this tutorial maximally understandable and hackable, we choose
+   to implement everything in C++ instead of using lexer and parser
+   generators. LLVM obviously works just fine with such tools, feel free
+   to use one if you prefer.
+-  `Chapter #2 <LangImpl2.html>`_: Implementing a Parser and AST -
+   With the lexer in place, we can talk about parsing techniques and
+   basic AST construction. This tutorial describes recursive descent
+   parsing and operator precedence parsing. Nothing in Chapters 1 or 2
+   is LLVM-specific, the code doesn't even link in LLVM at this point.
+   :)
+-  `Chapter #3 <LangImpl3.html>`_: Code generation to LLVM IR - With
+   the AST ready, we can show off how easy generation of LLVM IR really
+   is.
+-  `Chapter #4 <LangImpl4.html>`_: Adding JIT and Optimizer Support
+   - Because a lot of people are interested in using LLVM as a JIT,
+   we'll dive right into it and show you the 3 lines it takes to add JIT
+   support. LLVM is also useful in many other ways, but this is one
+   simple and "sexy" way to show off its power. :)
+-  `Chapter #5 <LangImpl5.html>`_: Extending the Language: Control
+   Flow - With the language up and running, we show how to extend it
+   with control flow operations (if/then/else and a 'for' loop). This
+   gives us a chance to talk about simple SSA construction and control
+   flow.
+-  `Chapter #6 <LangImpl6.html>`_: Extending the Language:
+   User-defined Operators - This is a silly but fun chapter that talks
+   about extending the language to let the user program define their own
+   arbitrary unary and binary operators (with assignable precedence!).
+   This lets us build a significant piece of the "language" as library
+   routines.
+-  `Chapter #7 <LangImpl7.html>`_: Extending the Language: Mutable
+   Variables - This chapter talks about adding user-defined local
+   variables along with an assignment operator. The interesting part
+   about this is how easy and trivial it is to construct SSA form in
+   LLVM: no, LLVM does *not* require your front-end to construct SSA
+   form!
+-  `Chapter #8 <LangImpl8.html>`_: Conclusion and other useful LLVM
+   tidbits - This chapter wraps up the series by talking about
+   potential ways to extend the language, but also includes a bunch of
+   pointers to info about "special topics" like adding garbage
+   collection support, exceptions, debugging, support for "spaghetti
+   stacks", and a bunch of other tips and tricks.
+
+By the end of the tutorial, we'll have written a bit less than 700 lines
+of non-comment, non-blank, lines of code. With this small amount of
+code, we'll have built up a very reasonable compiler for a non-trivial
+language including a hand-written lexer, parser, AST, as well as code
+generation support with a JIT compiler. While other systems may have
+interesting "hello world" tutorials, I think the breadth of this
+tutorial is a great testament to the strengths of LLVM and why you
+should consider it if you're interested in language or compiler design.
+
+A note about this tutorial: we expect you to extend the language and
+play with it on your own. Take the code and go crazy hacking away at it,
+compilers don't need to be scary creatures - it can be a lot of fun to
+play with languages!
+
+The Basic Language
+==================
+
+This tutorial will be illustrated with a toy language that we'll call
+"`Kaleidoscope <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kaleidoscope>`_" (derived
+from "meaning beautiful, form, and view"). Kaleidoscope is a procedural
+language that allows you to define functions, use conditionals, math,
+etc. Over the course of the tutorial, we'll extend Kaleidoscope to
+support the if/then/else construct, a for loop, user defined operators,
+JIT compilation with a simple command line interface, etc.
+
+Because we want to keep things simple, the only datatype in Kaleidoscope
+is a 64-bit floating point type (aka 'double' in C parlance). As such,
+all values are implicitly double precision and the language doesn't
+require type declarations. This gives the language a very nice and
+simple syntax. For example, the following simple example computes
+`Fibonacci numbers: <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fibonacci_number>`_
+
+::
+
+    # Compute the x'th fibonacci number.
+    def fib(x)
+      if x < 3 then
+        1
+      else
+        fib(x-1)+fib(x-2)
+
+    # This expression will compute the 40th number.
+    fib(40)
+
+We also allow Kaleidoscope to call into standard library functions (the
+LLVM JIT makes this completely trivial). This means that you can use the
+'extern' keyword to define a function before you use it (this is also
+useful for mutually recursive functions). For example:
+
+::
+
+    extern sin(arg);
+    extern cos(arg);
+    extern atan2(arg1 arg2);
+
+    atan2(sin(.4), cos(42))
+
+A more interesting example is included in Chapter 6 where we write a
+little Kaleidoscope application that `displays a Mandelbrot
+Set <LangImpl6.html#example>`_ at various levels of magnification.
+
+Lets dive into the implementation of this language!
+
+The Lexer
+=========
+
+When it comes to implementing a language, the first thing needed is the
+ability to process a text file and recognize what it says. The
+traditional way to do this is to use a
+"`lexer <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lexical_analysis>`_" (aka
+'scanner') to break the input up into "tokens". Each token returned by
+the lexer includes a token code and potentially some metadata (e.g. the
+numeric value of a number). First, we define the possibilities:
+
+.. code-block:: c++
+
+    // The lexer returns tokens [0-255] if it is an unknown character, otherwise one
+    // of these for known things.
+    enum Token {
+      tok_eof = -1,
+
+      // commands
+      tok_def = -2, tok_extern = -3,
+
+      // primary
+      tok_identifier = -4, tok_number = -5,
+    };
+
+    static std::string IdentifierStr;  // Filled in if tok_identifier
+    static double NumVal;              // Filled in if tok_number
+
+Each token returned by our lexer will either be one of the Token enum
+values or it will be an 'unknown' character like '+', which is returned
+as its ASCII value. If the current token is an identifier, the
+``IdentifierStr`` global variable holds the name of the identifier. If
+the current token is a numeric literal (like 1.0), ``NumVal`` holds its
+value. Note that we use global variables for simplicity, this is not the
+best choice for a real language implementation :).
+
+The actual implementation of the lexer is a single function named
+``gettok``. The ``gettok`` function is called to return the next token
+from standard input. Its definition starts as:
+
+.. code-block:: c++
+
+    /// gettok - Return the next token from standard input.
+    static int gettok() {
+      static int LastChar = ' ';
+
+      // Skip any whitespace.
+      while (isspace(LastChar))
+        LastChar = getchar();
+
+``gettok`` works by calling the C ``getchar()`` function to read
+characters one at a time from standard input. It eats them as it
+recognizes them and stores the last character read, but not processed,
+in LastChar. The first thing that it has to do is ignore whitespace
+between tokens. This is accomplished with the loop above.
+
+The next thing ``gettok`` needs to do is recognize identifiers and
+specific keywords like "def". Kaleidoscope does this with this simple
+loop:
+
+.. code-block:: c++
+
+      if (isalpha(LastChar)) { // identifier: [a-zA-Z][a-zA-Z0-9]*
+        IdentifierStr = LastChar;
+        while (isalnum((LastChar = getchar())))
+          IdentifierStr += LastChar;
+
+        if (IdentifierStr == "def") return tok_def;
+        if (IdentifierStr == "extern") return tok_extern;
+        return tok_identifier;
+      }
+
+Note that this code sets the '``IdentifierStr``' global whenever it
+lexes an identifier. Also, since language keywords are matched by the
+same loop, we handle them here inline. Numeric values are similar:
+
+.. code-block:: c++
+
+      if (isdigit(LastChar) || LastChar == '.') {   // Number: [0-9.]+
+        std::string NumStr;
+        do {
+          NumStr += LastChar;
+          LastChar = getchar();
+        } while (isdigit(LastChar) || LastChar == '.');
+
+        NumVal = strtod(NumStr.c_str(), 0);
+        return tok_number;
+      }
+
+This is all pretty straight-forward code for processing input. When
+reading a numeric value from input, we use the C ``strtod`` function to
+convert it to a numeric value that we store in ``NumVal``. Note that
+this isn't doing sufficient error checking: it will incorrectly read
+"1.23.45.67" and handle it as if you typed in "1.23". Feel free to
+extend it :). Next we handle comments:
+
+.. code-block:: c++
+
+      if (LastChar == '#') {
+        // Comment until end of line.
+        do LastChar = getchar();
+        while (LastChar != EOF && LastChar != '\n' && LastChar != '\r');
+
+        if (LastChar != EOF)
+          return gettok();
+      }
+
+We handle comments by skipping to the end of the line and then return
+the next token. Finally, if the input doesn't match one of the above
+cases, it is either an operator character like '+' or the end of the
+file. These are handled with this code:
+
+.. code-block:: c++
+
+      // Check for end of file.  Don't eat the EOF.
+      if (LastChar == EOF)
+        return tok_eof;
+
+      // Otherwise, just return the character as its ascii value.
+      int ThisChar = LastChar;
+      LastChar = getchar();
+      return ThisChar;
+    }
+
+With this, we have the complete lexer for the basic Kaleidoscope
+language (the `full code listing <LangImpl2.html#code>`_ for the Lexer
+is available in the `next chapter <LangImpl2.html>`_ of the tutorial).
+Next we'll `build a simple parser that uses this to build an Abstract
+Syntax Tree <LangImpl2.html>`_. When we have that, we'll include a
+driver so that you can use the lexer and parser together.
+
+`Next: Implementing a Parser and AST <LangImpl2.html>`_
+

Added: www-releases/trunk/3.5.1/docs/_sources/tutorial/LangImpl2.txt
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==============================================================================
--- www-releases/trunk/3.5.1/docs/_sources/tutorial/LangImpl2.txt (added)
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@@ -0,0 +1,698 @@
+===========================================
+Kaleidoscope: Implementing a Parser and AST
+===========================================
+
+.. contents::
+   :local:
+
+Chapter 2 Introduction
+======================
+
+Welcome to Chapter 2 of the "`Implementing a language with
+LLVM <index.html>`_" tutorial. This chapter shows you how to use the
+lexer, built in `Chapter 1 <LangImpl1.html>`_, to build a full
+`parser <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Parsing>`_ for our Kaleidoscope
+language. Once we have a parser, we'll define and build an `Abstract
+Syntax Tree <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Abstract_syntax_tree>`_ (AST).
+
+The parser we will build uses a combination of `Recursive Descent
+Parsing <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Recursive_descent_parser>`_ and
+`Operator-Precedence
+Parsing <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Operator-precedence_parser>`_ to
+parse the Kaleidoscope language (the latter for binary expressions and
+the former for everything else). Before we get to parsing though, lets
+talk about the output of the parser: the Abstract Syntax Tree.
+
+The Abstract Syntax Tree (AST)
+==============================
+
+The AST for a program captures its behavior in such a way that it is
+easy for later stages of the compiler (e.g. code generation) to
+interpret. We basically want one object for each construct in the
+language, and the AST should closely model the language. In
+Kaleidoscope, we have expressions, a prototype, and a function object.
+We'll start with expressions first:
+
+.. code-block:: c++
+
+    /// ExprAST - Base class for all expression nodes.
+    class ExprAST {
+    public:
+      virtual ~ExprAST() {}
+    };
+
+    /// NumberExprAST - Expression class for numeric literals like "1.0".
+    class NumberExprAST : public ExprAST {
+      double Val;
+    public:
+      NumberExprAST(double val) : Val(val) {}
+    };
+
+The code above shows the definition of the base ExprAST class and one
+subclass which we use for numeric literals. The important thing to note
+about this code is that the NumberExprAST class captures the numeric
+value of the literal as an instance variable. This allows later phases
+of the compiler to know what the stored numeric value is.
+
+Right now we only create the AST, so there are no useful accessor
+methods on them. It would be very easy to add a virtual method to pretty
+print the code, for example. Here are the other expression AST node
+definitions that we'll use in the basic form of the Kaleidoscope
+language:
+
+.. code-block:: c++
+
+    /// VariableExprAST - Expression class for referencing a variable, like "a".
+    class VariableExprAST : public ExprAST {
+      std::string Name;
+    public:
+      VariableExprAST(const std::string &name) : Name(name) {}
+    };
+
+    /// BinaryExprAST - Expression class for a binary operator.
+    class BinaryExprAST : public ExprAST {
+      char Op;
+      ExprAST *LHS, *RHS;
+    public:
+      BinaryExprAST(char op, ExprAST *lhs, ExprAST *rhs)
+        : Op(op), LHS(lhs), RHS(rhs) {}
+    };
+
+    /// CallExprAST - Expression class for function calls.
+    class CallExprAST : public ExprAST {
+      std::string Callee;
+      std::vector<ExprAST*> Args;
+    public:
+      CallExprAST(const std::string &callee, std::vector<ExprAST*> &args)
+        : Callee(callee), Args(args) {}
+    };
+
+This is all (intentionally) rather straight-forward: variables capture
+the variable name, binary operators capture their opcode (e.g. '+'), and
+calls capture a function name as well as a list of any argument
+expressions. One thing that is nice about our AST is that it captures
+the language features without talking about the syntax of the language.
+Note that there is no discussion about precedence of binary operators,
+lexical structure, etc.
+
+For our basic language, these are all of the expression nodes we'll
+define. Because it doesn't have conditional control flow, it isn't
+Turing-complete; we'll fix that in a later installment. The two things
+we need next are a way to talk about the interface to a function, and a
+way to talk about functions themselves:
+
+.. code-block:: c++
+
+    /// PrototypeAST - This class represents the "prototype" for a function,
+    /// which captures its name, and its argument names (thus implicitly the number
+    /// of arguments the function takes).
+    class PrototypeAST {
+      std::string Name;
+      std::vector<std::string> Args;
+    public:
+      PrototypeAST(const std::string &name, const std::vector<std::string> &args)
+        : Name(name), Args(args) {}
+    };
+
+    /// FunctionAST - This class represents a function definition itself.
+    class FunctionAST {
+      PrototypeAST *Proto;
+      ExprAST *Body;
+    public:
+      FunctionAST(PrototypeAST *proto, ExprAST *body)
+        : Proto(proto), Body(body) {}
+    };
+
+In Kaleidoscope, functions are typed with just a count of their
+arguments. Since all values are double precision floating point, the
+type of each argument doesn't need to be stored anywhere. In a more
+aggressive and realistic language, the "ExprAST" class would probably
+have a type field.
+
+With this scaffolding, we can now talk about parsing expressions and
+function bodies in Kaleidoscope.
+
+Parser Basics
+=============
+
+Now that we have an AST to build, we need to define the parser code to
+build it. The idea here is that we want to parse something like "x+y"
+(which is returned as three tokens by the lexer) into an AST that could
+be generated with calls like this:
+
+.. code-block:: c++
+
+      ExprAST *X = new VariableExprAST("x");
+      ExprAST *Y = new VariableExprAST("y");
+      ExprAST *Result = new BinaryExprAST('+', X, Y);
+
+In order to do this, we'll start by defining some basic helper routines:
+
+.. code-block:: c++
+
+    /// CurTok/getNextToken - Provide a simple token buffer.  CurTok is the current
+    /// token the parser is looking at.  getNextToken reads another token from the
+    /// lexer and updates CurTok with its results.
+    static int CurTok;
+    static int getNextToken() {
+      return CurTok = gettok();
+    }
+
+This implements a simple token buffer around the lexer. This allows us
+to look one token ahead at what the lexer is returning. Every function
+in our parser will assume that CurTok is the current token that needs to
+be parsed.
+
+.. code-block:: c++
+
+
+    /// Error* - These are little helper functions for error handling.
+    ExprAST *Error(const char *Str) { fprintf(stderr, "Error: %s\n", Str);return 0;}
+    PrototypeAST *ErrorP(const char *Str) { Error(Str); return 0; }
+    FunctionAST *ErrorF(const char *Str) { Error(Str); return 0; }
+
+The ``Error`` routines are simple helper routines that our parser will
+use to handle errors. The error recovery in our parser will not be the
+best and is not particular user-friendly, but it will be enough for our
+tutorial. These routines make it easier to handle errors in routines
+that have various return types: they always return null.
+
+With these basic helper functions, we can implement the first piece of
+our grammar: numeric literals.
+
+Basic Expression Parsing
+========================
+
+We start with numeric literals, because they are the simplest to
+process. For each production in our grammar, we'll define a function
+which parses that production. For numeric literals, we have:
+
+.. code-block:: c++
+
+    /// numberexpr ::= number
+    static ExprAST *ParseNumberExpr() {
+      ExprAST *Result = new NumberExprAST(NumVal);
+      getNextToken(); // consume the number
+      return Result;
+    }
+
+This routine is very simple: it expects to be called when the current
+token is a ``tok_number`` token. It takes the current number value,
+creates a ``NumberExprAST`` node, advances the lexer to the next token,
+and finally returns.
+
+There are some interesting aspects to this. The most important one is
+that this routine eats all of the tokens that correspond to the
+production and returns the lexer buffer with the next token (which is
+not part of the grammar production) ready to go. This is a fairly
+standard way to go for recursive descent parsers. For a better example,
+the parenthesis operator is defined like this:
+
+.. code-block:: c++
+
+    /// parenexpr ::= '(' expression ')'
+    static ExprAST *ParseParenExpr() {
+      getNextToken();  // eat (.
+      ExprAST *V = ParseExpression();
+      if (!V) return 0;
+
+      if (CurTok != ')')
+        return Error("expected ')'");
+      getNextToken();  // eat ).
+      return V;
+    }
+
+This function illustrates a number of interesting things about the
+parser:
+
+1) It shows how we use the Error routines. When called, this function
+expects that the current token is a '(' token, but after parsing the
+subexpression, it is possible that there is no ')' waiting. For example,
+if the user types in "(4 x" instead of "(4)", the parser should emit an
+error. Because errors can occur, the parser needs a way to indicate that
+they happened: in our parser, we return null on an error.
+
+2) Another interesting aspect of this function is that it uses recursion
+by calling ``ParseExpression`` (we will soon see that
+``ParseExpression`` can call ``ParseParenExpr``). This is powerful
+because it allows us to handle recursive grammars, and keeps each
+production very simple. Note that parentheses do not cause construction
+of AST nodes themselves. While we could do it this way, the most
+important role of parentheses are to guide the parser and provide
+grouping. Once the parser constructs the AST, parentheses are not
+needed.
+
+The next simple production is for handling variable references and
+function calls:
+
+.. code-block:: c++
+
+    /// identifierexpr
+    ///   ::= identifier
+    ///   ::= identifier '(' expression* ')'
+    static ExprAST *ParseIdentifierExpr() {
+      std::string IdName = IdentifierStr;
+
+      getNextToken();  // eat identifier.
+
+      if (CurTok != '(') // Simple variable ref.
+        return new VariableExprAST(IdName);
+
+      // Call.
+      getNextToken();  // eat (
+      std::vector<ExprAST*> Args;
+      if (CurTok != ')') {
+        while (1) {
+          ExprAST *Arg = ParseExpression();
+          if (!Arg) return 0;
+          Args.push_back(Arg);
+
+          if (CurTok == ')') break;
+
+          if (CurTok != ',')
+            return Error("Expected ')' or ',' in argument list");
+          getNextToken();
+        }
+      }
+
+      // Eat the ')'.
+      getNextToken();
+
+      return new CallExprAST(IdName, Args);
+    }
+
+This routine follows the same style as the other routines. (It expects
+to be called if the current token is a ``tok_identifier`` token). It
+also has recursion and error handling. One interesting aspect of this is
+that it uses *look-ahead* to determine if the current identifier is a
+stand alone variable reference or if it is a function call expression.
+It handles this by checking to see if the token after the identifier is
+a '(' token, constructing either a ``VariableExprAST`` or
+``CallExprAST`` node as appropriate.
+
+Now that we have all of our simple expression-parsing logic in place, we
+can define a helper function to wrap it together into one entry point.
+We call this class of expressions "primary" expressions, for reasons
+that will become more clear `later in the
+tutorial <LangImpl6.html#unary>`_. In order to parse an arbitrary
+primary expression, we need to determine what sort of expression it is:
+
+.. code-block:: c++
+
+    /// primary
+    ///   ::= identifierexpr
+    ///   ::= numberexpr
+    ///   ::= parenexpr
+    static ExprAST *ParsePrimary() {
+      switch (CurTok) {
+      default: return Error("unknown token when expecting an expression");
+      case tok_identifier: return ParseIdentifierExpr();
+      case tok_number:     return ParseNumberExpr();
+      case '(':            return ParseParenExpr();
+      }
+    }
+
+Now that you see the definition of this function, it is more obvious why
+we can assume the state of CurTok in the various functions. This uses
+look-ahead to determine which sort of expression is being inspected, and
+then parses it with a function call.
+
+Now that basic expressions are handled, we need to handle binary
+expressions. They are a bit more complex.
+
+Binary Expression Parsing
+=========================
+
+Binary expressions are significantly harder to parse because they are
+often ambiguous. For example, when given the string "x+y\*z", the parser
+can choose to parse it as either "(x+y)\*z" or "x+(y\*z)". With common
+definitions from mathematics, we expect the later parse, because "\*"
+(multiplication) has higher *precedence* than "+" (addition).
+
+There are many ways to handle this, but an elegant and efficient way is
+to use `Operator-Precedence
+Parsing <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Operator-precedence_parser>`_.
+This parsing technique uses the precedence of binary operators to guide
+recursion. To start with, we need a table of precedences:
+
+.. code-block:: c++
+
+    /// BinopPrecedence - This holds the precedence for each binary operator that is
+    /// defined.
+    static std::map<char, int> BinopPrecedence;
+
+    /// GetTokPrecedence - Get the precedence of the pending binary operator token.
+    static int GetTokPrecedence() {
+      if (!isascii(CurTok))
+        return -1;
+
+      // Make sure it's a declared binop.
+      int TokPrec = BinopPrecedence[CurTok];
+      if (TokPrec <= 0) return -1;
+      return TokPrec;
+    }
+
+    int main() {
+      // Install standard binary operators.
+      // 1 is lowest precedence.
+      BinopPrecedence['<'] = 10;
+      BinopPrecedence['+'] = 20;
+      BinopPrecedence['-'] = 20;
+      BinopPrecedence['*'] = 40;  // highest.
+      ...
+    }
+
+For the basic form of Kaleidoscope, we will only support 4 binary
+operators (this can obviously be extended by you, our brave and intrepid
+reader). The ``GetTokPrecedence`` function returns the precedence for
+the current token, or -1 if the token is not a binary operator. Having a
+map makes it easy to add new operators and makes it clear that the
+algorithm doesn't depend on the specific operators involved, but it
+would be easy enough to eliminate the map and do the comparisons in the
+``GetTokPrecedence`` function. (Or just use a fixed-size array).
+
+With the helper above defined, we can now start parsing binary
+expressions. The basic idea of operator precedence parsing is to break
+down an expression with potentially ambiguous binary operators into
+pieces. Consider ,for example, the expression "a+b+(c+d)\*e\*f+g".
+Operator precedence parsing considers this as a stream of primary
+expressions separated by binary operators. As such, it will first parse
+the leading primary expression "a", then it will see the pairs [+, b]
+[+, (c+d)] [\*, e] [\*, f] and [+, g]. Note that because parentheses are
+primary expressions, the binary expression parser doesn't need to worry
+about nested subexpressions like (c+d) at all.
+
+To start, an expression is a primary expression potentially followed by
+a sequence of [binop,primaryexpr] pairs:
+
+.. code-block:: c++
+
+    /// expression
+    ///   ::= primary binoprhs
+    ///
+    static ExprAST *ParseExpression() {
+      ExprAST *LHS = ParsePrimary();
+      if (!LHS) return 0;
+
+      return ParseBinOpRHS(0, LHS);
+    }
+
+``ParseBinOpRHS`` is the function that parses the sequence of pairs for
+us. It takes a precedence and a pointer to an expression for the part
+that has been parsed so far. Note that "x" is a perfectly valid
+expression: As such, "binoprhs" is allowed to be empty, in which case it
+returns the expression that is passed into it. In our example above, the
+code passes the expression for "a" into ``ParseBinOpRHS`` and the
+current token is "+".
+
+The precedence value passed into ``ParseBinOpRHS`` indicates the
+*minimal operator precedence* that the function is allowed to eat. For
+example, if the current pair stream is [+, x] and ``ParseBinOpRHS`` is
+passed in a precedence of 40, it will not consume any tokens (because
+the precedence of '+' is only 20). With this in mind, ``ParseBinOpRHS``
+starts with:
+
+.. code-block:: c++
+
+    /// binoprhs
+    ///   ::= ('+' primary)*
+    static ExprAST *ParseBinOpRHS(int ExprPrec, ExprAST *LHS) {
+      // If this is a binop, find its precedence.
+      while (1) {
+        int TokPrec = GetTokPrecedence();
+
+        // If this is a binop that binds at least as tightly as the current binop,
+        // consume it, otherwise we are done.
+        if (TokPrec < ExprPrec)
+          return LHS;
+
+This code gets the precedence of the current token and checks to see if
+if is too low. Because we defined invalid tokens to have a precedence of
+-1, this check implicitly knows that the pair-stream ends when the token
+stream runs out of binary operators. If this check succeeds, we know
+that the token is a binary operator and that it will be included in this
+expression:
+
+.. code-block:: c++
+
+        // Okay, we know this is a binop.
+        int BinOp = CurTok;
+        getNextToken();  // eat binop
+
+        // Parse the primary expression after the binary operator.
+        ExprAST *RHS = ParsePrimary();
+        if (!RHS) return 0;
+
+As such, this code eats (and remembers) the binary operator and then
+parses the primary expression that follows. This builds up the whole
+pair, the first of which is [+, b] for the running example.
+
+Now that we parsed the left-hand side of an expression and one pair of
+the RHS sequence, we have to decide which way the expression associates.
+In particular, we could have "(a+b) binop unparsed" or "a + (b binop
+unparsed)". To determine this, we look ahead at "binop" to determine its
+precedence and compare it to BinOp's precedence (which is '+' in this
+case):
+
+.. code-block:: c++
+
+        // If BinOp binds less tightly with RHS than the operator after RHS, let
+        // the pending operator take RHS as its LHS.
+        int NextPrec = GetTokPrecedence();
+        if (TokPrec < NextPrec) {
+
+If the precedence of the binop to the right of "RHS" is lower or equal
+to the precedence of our current operator, then we know that the
+parentheses associate as "(a+b) binop ...". In our example, the current
+operator is "+" and the next operator is "+", we know that they have the
+same precedence. In this case we'll create the AST node for "a+b", and
+then continue parsing:
+
+.. code-block:: c++
+
+          ... if body omitted ...
+        }
+
+        // Merge LHS/RHS.
+        LHS = new BinaryExprAST(BinOp, LHS, RHS);
+      }  // loop around to the top of the while loop.
+    }
+
+In our example above, this will turn "a+b+" into "(a+b)" and execute the
+next iteration of the loop, with "+" as the current token. The code
+above will eat, remember, and parse "(c+d)" as the primary expression,
+which makes the current pair equal to [+, (c+d)]. It will then evaluate
+the 'if' conditional above with "\*" as the binop to the right of the
+primary. In this case, the precedence of "\*" is higher than the
+precedence of "+" so the if condition will be entered.
+
+The critical question left here is "how can the if condition parse the
+right hand side in full"? In particular, to build the AST correctly for
+our example, it needs to get all of "(c+d)\*e\*f" as the RHS expression
+variable. The code to do this is surprisingly simple (code from the
+above two blocks duplicated for context):
+
+.. code-block:: c++
+
+        // If BinOp binds less tightly with RHS than the operator after RHS, let
+        // the pending operator take RHS as its LHS.
+        int NextPrec = GetTokPrecedence();
+        if (TokPrec < NextPrec) {
+          RHS = ParseBinOpRHS(TokPrec+1, RHS);
+          if (RHS == 0) return 0;
+        }
+        // Merge LHS/RHS.
+        LHS = new BinaryExprAST(BinOp, LHS, RHS);
+      }  // loop around to the top of the while loop.
+    }
+
+At this point, we know that the binary operator to the RHS of our
+primary has higher precedence than the binop we are currently parsing.
+As such, we know that any sequence of pairs whose operators are all
+higher precedence than "+" should be parsed together and returned as
+"RHS". To do this, we recursively invoke the ``ParseBinOpRHS`` function
+specifying "TokPrec+1" as the minimum precedence required for it to
+continue. In our example above, this will cause it to return the AST
+node for "(c+d)\*e\*f" as RHS, which is then set as the RHS of the '+'
+expression.
+
+Finally, on the next iteration of the while loop, the "+g" piece is
+parsed and added to the AST. With this little bit of code (14
+non-trivial lines), we correctly handle fully general binary expression
+parsing in a very elegant way. This was a whirlwind tour of this code,
+and it is somewhat subtle. I recommend running through it with a few
+tough examples to see how it works.
+
+This wraps up handling of expressions. At this point, we can point the
+parser at an arbitrary token stream and build an expression from it,
+stopping at the first token that is not part of the expression. Next up
+we need to handle function definitions, etc.
+
+Parsing the Rest
+================
+
+The next thing missing is handling of function prototypes. In
+Kaleidoscope, these are used both for 'extern' function declarations as
+well as function body definitions. The code to do this is
+straight-forward and not very interesting (once you've survived
+expressions):
+
+.. code-block:: c++
+
+    /// prototype
+    ///   ::= id '(' id* ')'
+    static PrototypeAST *ParsePrototype() {
+      if (CurTok != tok_identifier)
+        return ErrorP("Expected function name in prototype");
+
+      std::string FnName = IdentifierStr;
+      getNextToken();
+
+      if (CurTok != '(')
+        return ErrorP("Expected '(' in prototype");
+
+      // Read the list of argument names.
+      std::vector<std::string> ArgNames;
+      while (getNextToken() == tok_identifier)
+        ArgNames.push_back(IdentifierStr);
+      if (CurTok != ')')
+        return ErrorP("Expected ')' in prototype");
+
+      // success.
+      getNextToken();  // eat ')'.
+
+      return new PrototypeAST(FnName, ArgNames);
+    }
+
+Given this, a function definition is very simple, just a prototype plus
+an expression to implement the body:
+
+.. code-block:: c++
+
+    /// definition ::= 'def' prototype expression
+    static FunctionAST *ParseDefinition() {
+      getNextToken();  // eat def.
+      PrototypeAST *Proto = ParsePrototype();
+      if (Proto == 0) return 0;
+
+      if (ExprAST *E = ParseExpression())
+        return new FunctionAST(Proto, E);
+      return 0;
+    }
+
+In addition, we support 'extern' to declare functions like 'sin' and
+'cos' as well as to support forward declaration of user functions. These
+'extern's are just prototypes with no body:
+
+.. code-block:: c++
+
+    /// external ::= 'extern' prototype
+    static PrototypeAST *ParseExtern() {
+      getNextToken();  // eat extern.
+      return ParsePrototype();
+    }
+
+Finally, we'll also let the user type in arbitrary top-level expressions
+and evaluate them on the fly. We will handle this by defining anonymous
+nullary (zero argument) functions for them:
+
+.. code-block:: c++
+
+    /// toplevelexpr ::= expression
+    static FunctionAST *ParseTopLevelExpr() {
+      if (ExprAST *E = ParseExpression()) {
+        // Make an anonymous proto.
+        PrototypeAST *Proto = new PrototypeAST("", std::vector<std::string>());
+        return new FunctionAST(Proto, E);
+      }
+      return 0;
+    }
+
+Now that we have all the pieces, let's build a little driver that will
+let us actually *execute* this code we've built!
+
+The Driver
+==========
+
+The driver for this simply invokes all of the parsing pieces with a
+top-level dispatch loop. There isn't much interesting here, so I'll just
+include the top-level loop. See `below <#code>`_ for full code in the
+"Top-Level Parsing" section.
+
+.. code-block:: c++
+
+    /// top ::= definition | external | expression | ';'
+    static void MainLoop() {
+      while (1) {
+        fprintf(stderr, "ready> ");
+        switch (CurTok) {
+        case tok_eof:    return;
+        case ';':        getNextToken(); break;  // ignore top-level semicolons.
+        case tok_def:    HandleDefinition(); break;
+        case tok_extern: HandleExtern(); break;
+        default:         HandleTopLevelExpression(); break;
+        }
+      }
+    }
+
+The most interesting part of this is that we ignore top-level
+semicolons. Why is this, you ask? The basic reason is that if you type
+"4 + 5" at the command line, the parser doesn't know whether that is the
+end of what you will type or not. For example, on the next line you
+could type "def foo..." in which case 4+5 is the end of a top-level
+expression. Alternatively you could type "\* 6", which would continue
+the expression. Having top-level semicolons allows you to type "4+5;",
+and the parser will know you are done.
+
+Conclusions
+===========
+
+With just under 400 lines of commented code (240 lines of non-comment,
+non-blank code), we fully defined our minimal language, including a
+lexer, parser, and AST builder. With this done, the executable will
+validate Kaleidoscope code and tell us if it is grammatically invalid.
+For example, here is a sample interaction:
+
+.. code-block:: bash
+
+    $ ./a.out
+    ready> def foo(x y) x+foo(y, 4.0);
+    Parsed a function definition.
+    ready> def foo(x y) x+y y;
+    Parsed a function definition.
+    Parsed a top-level expr
+    ready> def foo(x y) x+y );
+    Parsed a function definition.
+    Error: unknown token when expecting an expression
+    ready> extern sin(a);
+    ready> Parsed an extern
+    ready> ^D
+    $
+
+There is a lot of room for extension here. You can define new AST nodes,
+extend the language in many ways, etc. In the `next
+installment <LangImpl3.html>`_, we will describe how to generate LLVM
+Intermediate Representation (IR) from the AST.
+
+Full Code Listing
+=================
+
+Here is the complete code listing for this and the previous chapter.
+Note that it is fully self-contained: you don't need LLVM or any
+external libraries at all for this. (Besides the C and C++ standard
+libraries, of course.) To build this, just compile with:
+
+.. code-block:: bash
+
+    # Compile
+    clang++ -g -O3 toy.cpp
+    # Run
+    ./a.out
+
+Here is the code:
+
+.. literalinclude:: ../../examples/Kaleidoscope/Chapter2/toy.cpp
+   :language: c++
+
+`Next: Implementing Code Generation to LLVM IR <LangImpl3.html>`_
+

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+========================================
+Kaleidoscope: Code generation to LLVM IR
+========================================
+
+.. contents::
+   :local:
+
+Chapter 3 Introduction
+======================
+
+Welcome to Chapter 3 of the "`Implementing a language with
+LLVM <index.html>`_" tutorial. This chapter shows you how to transform
+the `Abstract Syntax Tree <LangImpl2.html>`_, built in Chapter 2, into
+LLVM IR. This will teach you a little bit about how LLVM does things, as
+well as demonstrate how easy it is to use. It's much more work to build
+a lexer and parser than it is to generate LLVM IR code. :)
+
+**Please note**: the code in this chapter and later require LLVM 2.2 or
+later. LLVM 2.1 and before will not work with it. Also note that you
+need to use a version of this tutorial that matches your LLVM release:
+If you are using an official LLVM release, use the version of the
+documentation included with your release or on the `llvm.org releases
+page <http://llvm.org/releases/>`_.
+
+Code Generation Setup
+=====================
+
+In order to generate LLVM IR, we want some simple setup to get started.
+First we define virtual code generation (codegen) methods in each AST
+class:
+
+.. code-block:: c++
+
+    /// ExprAST - Base class for all expression nodes.
+    class ExprAST {
+    public:
+      virtual ~ExprAST() {}
+      virtual Value *Codegen() = 0;
+    };
+
+    /// NumberExprAST - Expression class for numeric literals like "1.0".
+    class NumberExprAST : public ExprAST {
+      double Val;
+    public:
+      NumberExprAST(double val) : Val(val) {}
+      virtual Value *Codegen();
+    };
+    ...
+
+The Codegen() method says to emit IR for that AST node along with all
+the things it depends on, and they all return an LLVM Value object.
+"Value" is the class used to represent a "`Static Single Assignment
+(SSA) <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Static_single_assignment_form>`_
+register" or "SSA value" in LLVM. The most distinct aspect of SSA values
+is that their value is computed as the related instruction executes, and
+it does not get a new value until (and if) the instruction re-executes.
+In other words, there is no way to "change" an SSA value. For more
+information, please read up on `Static Single
+Assignment <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Static_single_assignment_form>`_
+- the concepts are really quite natural once you grok them.
+
+Note that instead of adding virtual methods to the ExprAST class
+hierarchy, it could also make sense to use a `visitor
+pattern <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Visitor_pattern>`_ or some other
+way to model this. Again, this tutorial won't dwell on good software
+engineering practices: for our purposes, adding a virtual method is
+simplest.
+
+The second thing we want is an "Error" method like we used for the
+parser, which will be used to report errors found during code generation
+(for example, use of an undeclared parameter):
+
+.. code-block:: c++
+
+    Value *ErrorV(const char *Str) { Error(Str); return 0; }
+
+    static Module *TheModule;
+    static IRBuilder<> Builder(getGlobalContext());
+    static std::map<std::string, Value*> NamedValues;
+
+The static variables will be used during code generation. ``TheModule``
+is the LLVM construct that contains all of the functions and global
+variables in a chunk of code. In many ways, it is the top-level
+structure that the LLVM IR uses to contain code.
+
+The ``Builder`` object is a helper object that makes it easy to generate
+LLVM instructions. Instances of the
+```IRBuilder`` <http://llvm.org/doxygen/IRBuilder_8h-source.html>`_
+class template keep track of the current place to insert instructions
+and has methods to create new instructions.
+
+The ``NamedValues`` map keeps track of which values are defined in the
+current scope and what their LLVM representation is. (In other words, it
+is a symbol table for the code). In this form of Kaleidoscope, the only
+things that can be referenced are function parameters. As such, function
+parameters will be in this map when generating code for their function
+body.
+
+With these basics in place, we can start talking about how to generate
+code for each expression. Note that this assumes that the ``Builder``
+has been set up to generate code *into* something. For now, we'll assume
+that this has already been done, and we'll just use it to emit code.
+
+Expression Code Generation
+==========================
+
+Generating LLVM code for expression nodes is very straightforward: less
+than 45 lines of commented code for all four of our expression nodes.
+First we'll do numeric literals:
+
+.. code-block:: c++
+
+    Value *NumberExprAST::Codegen() {
+      return ConstantFP::get(getGlobalContext(), APFloat(Val));
+    }
+
+In the LLVM IR, numeric constants are represented with the
+``ConstantFP`` class, which holds the numeric value in an ``APFloat``
+internally (``APFloat`` has the capability of holding floating point
+constants of Arbitrary Precision). This code basically just creates
+and returns a ``ConstantFP``. Note that in the LLVM IR that constants
+are all uniqued together and shared. For this reason, the API uses the
+"foo::get(...)" idiom instead of "new foo(..)" or "foo::Create(..)".
+
+.. code-block:: c++
+
+    Value *VariableExprAST::Codegen() {
+      // Look this variable up in the function.
+      Value *V = NamedValues[Name];
+      return V ? V : ErrorV("Unknown variable name");
+    }
+
+References to variables are also quite simple using LLVM. In the simple
+version of Kaleidoscope, we assume that the variable has already been
+emitted somewhere and its value is available. In practice, the only
+values that can be in the ``NamedValues`` map are function arguments.
+This code simply checks to see that the specified name is in the map (if
+not, an unknown variable is being referenced) and returns the value for
+it. In future chapters, we'll add support for `loop induction
+variables <LangImpl5.html#for>`_ in the symbol table, and for `local
+variables <LangImpl7.html#localvars>`_.
+
+.. code-block:: c++
+
+    Value *BinaryExprAST::Codegen() {
+      Value *L = LHS->Codegen();
+      Value *R = RHS->Codegen();
+      if (L == 0 || R == 0) return 0;
+
+      switch (Op) {
+      case '+': return Builder.CreateFAdd(L, R, "addtmp");
+      case '-': return Builder.CreateFSub(L, R, "subtmp");
+      case '*': return Builder.CreateFMul(L, R, "multmp");
+      case '<':
+        L = Builder.CreateFCmpULT(L, R, "cmptmp");
+        // Convert bool 0/1 to double 0.0 or 1.0
+        return Builder.CreateUIToFP(L, Type::getDoubleTy(getGlobalContext()),
+                                    "booltmp");
+      default: return ErrorV("invalid binary operator");
+      }
+    }
+
+Binary operators start to get more interesting. The basic idea here is
+that we recursively emit code for the left-hand side of the expression,
+then the right-hand side, then we compute the result of the binary
+expression. In this code, we do a simple switch on the opcode to create
+the right LLVM instruction.
+
+In the example above, the LLVM builder class is starting to show its
+value. IRBuilder knows where to insert the newly created instruction,
+all you have to do is specify what instruction to create (e.g. with
+``CreateFAdd``), which operands to use (``L`` and ``R`` here) and
+optionally provide a name for the generated instruction.
+
+One nice thing about LLVM is that the name is just a hint. For instance,
+if the code above emits multiple "addtmp" variables, LLVM will
+automatically provide each one with an increasing, unique numeric
+suffix. Local value names for instructions are purely optional, but it
+makes it much easier to read the IR dumps.
+
+`LLVM instructions <../LangRef.html#instref>`_ are constrained by strict
+rules: for example, the Left and Right operators of an `add
+instruction <../LangRef.html#i_add>`_ must have the same type, and the
+result type of the add must match the operand types. Because all values
+in Kaleidoscope are doubles, this makes for very simple code for add,
+sub and mul.
+
+On the other hand, LLVM specifies that the `fcmp
+instruction <../LangRef.html#i_fcmp>`_ always returns an 'i1' value (a
+one bit integer). The problem with this is that Kaleidoscope wants the
+value to be a 0.0 or 1.0 value. In order to get these semantics, we
+combine the fcmp instruction with a `uitofp
+instruction <../LangRef.html#i_uitofp>`_. This instruction converts its
+input integer into a floating point value by treating the input as an
+unsigned value. In contrast, if we used the `sitofp
+instruction <../LangRef.html#i_sitofp>`_, the Kaleidoscope '<' operator
+would return 0.0 and -1.0, depending on the input value.
+
+.. code-block:: c++
+
+    Value *CallExprAST::Codegen() {
+      // Look up the name in the global module table.
+      Function *CalleeF = TheModule->getFunction(Callee);
+      if (CalleeF == 0)
+        return ErrorV("Unknown function referenced");
+
+      // If argument mismatch error.
+      if (CalleeF->arg_size() != Args.size())
+        return ErrorV("Incorrect # arguments passed");
+
+      std::vector<Value*> ArgsV;
+      for (unsigned i = 0, e = Args.size(); i != e; ++i) {
+        ArgsV.push_back(Args[i]->Codegen());
+        if (ArgsV.back() == 0) return 0;
+      }
+
+      return Builder.CreateCall(CalleeF, ArgsV, "calltmp");
+    }
+
+Code generation for function calls is quite straightforward with LLVM.
+The code above initially does a function name lookup in the LLVM
+Module's symbol table. Recall that the LLVM Module is the container that
+holds all of the functions we are JIT'ing. By giving each function the
+same name as what the user specifies, we can use the LLVM symbol table
+to resolve function names for us.
+
+Once we have the function to call, we recursively codegen each argument
+that is to be passed in, and create an LLVM `call
+instruction <../LangRef.html#i_call>`_. Note that LLVM uses the native C
+calling conventions by default, allowing these calls to also call into
+standard library functions like "sin" and "cos", with no additional
+effort.
+
+This wraps up our handling of the four basic expressions that we have so
+far in Kaleidoscope. Feel free to go in and add some more. For example,
+by browsing the `LLVM language reference <../LangRef.html>`_ you'll find
+several other interesting instructions that are really easy to plug into
+our basic framework.
+
+Function Code Generation
+========================
+
+Code generation for prototypes and functions must handle a number of
+details, which make their code less beautiful than expression code
+generation, but allows us to illustrate some important points. First,
+lets talk about code generation for prototypes: they are used both for
+function bodies and external function declarations. The code starts
+with:
+
+.. code-block:: c++
+
+    Function *PrototypeAST::Codegen() {
+      // Make the function type:  double(double,double) etc.
+      std::vector<Type*> Doubles(Args.size(),
+                                 Type::getDoubleTy(getGlobalContext()));
+      FunctionType *FT = FunctionType::get(Type::getDoubleTy(getGlobalContext()),
+                                           Doubles, false);
+
+      Function *F = Function::Create(FT, Function::ExternalLinkage, Name, TheModule);
+
+This code packs a lot of power into a few lines. Note first that this
+function returns a "Function\*" instead of a "Value\*". Because a
+"prototype" really talks about the external interface for a function
+(not the value computed by an expression), it makes sense for it to
+return the LLVM Function it corresponds to when codegen'd.
+
+The call to ``FunctionType::get`` creates the ``FunctionType`` that
+should be used for a given Prototype. Since all function arguments in
+Kaleidoscope are of type double, the first line creates a vector of "N"
+LLVM double types. It then uses the ``Functiontype::get`` method to
+create a function type that takes "N" doubles as arguments, returns one
+double as a result, and that is not vararg (the false parameter
+indicates this). Note that Types in LLVM are uniqued just like Constants
+are, so you don't "new" a type, you "get" it.
+
+The final line above actually creates the function that the prototype
+will correspond to. This indicates the type, linkage and name to use, as
+well as which module to insert into. "`external
+linkage <../LangRef.html#linkage>`_" means that the function may be
+defined outside the current module and/or that it is callable by
+functions outside the module. The Name passed in is the name the user
+specified: since "``TheModule``" is specified, this name is registered
+in "``TheModule``"s symbol table, which is used by the function call
+code above.
+
+.. code-block:: c++
+
+      // If F conflicted, there was already something named 'Name'.  If it has a
+      // body, don't allow redefinition or reextern.
+      if (F->getName() != Name) {
+        // Delete the one we just made and get the existing one.
+        F->eraseFromParent();
+        F = TheModule->getFunction(Name);
+
+The Module symbol table works just like the Function symbol table when
+it comes to name conflicts: if a new function is created with a name
+that was previously added to the symbol table, the new function will get
+implicitly renamed when added to the Module. The code above exploits
+this fact to determine if there was a previous definition of this
+function.
+
+In Kaleidoscope, I choose to allow redefinitions of functions in two
+cases: first, we want to allow 'extern'ing a function more than once, as
+long as the prototypes for the externs match (since all arguments have
+the same type, we just have to check that the number of arguments
+match). Second, we want to allow 'extern'ing a function and then
+defining a body for it. This is useful when defining mutually recursive
+functions.
+
+In order to implement this, the code above first checks to see if there
+is a collision on the name of the function. If so, it deletes the
+function we just created (by calling ``eraseFromParent``) and then
+calling ``getFunction`` to get the existing function with the specified
+name. Note that many APIs in LLVM have "erase" forms and "remove" forms.
+The "remove" form unlinks the object from its parent (e.g. a Function
+from a Module) and returns it. The "erase" form unlinks the object and
+then deletes it.
+
+.. code-block:: c++
+
+        // If F already has a body, reject this.
+        if (!F->empty()) {
+          ErrorF("redefinition of function");
+          return 0;
+        }
+
+        // If F took a different number of args, reject.
+        if (F->arg_size() != Args.size()) {
+          ErrorF("redefinition of function with different # args");
+          return 0;
+        }
+      }
+
+In order to verify the logic above, we first check to see if the
+pre-existing function is "empty". In this case, empty means that it has
+no basic blocks in it, which means it has no body. If it has no body, it
+is a forward declaration. Since we don't allow anything after a full
+definition of the function, the code rejects this case. If the previous
+reference to a function was an 'extern', we simply verify that the
+number of arguments for that definition and this one match up. If not,
+we emit an error.
+
+.. code-block:: c++
+
+      // Set names for all arguments.
+      unsigned Idx = 0;
+      for (Function::arg_iterator AI = F->arg_begin(); Idx != Args.size();
+           ++AI, ++Idx) {
+        AI->setName(Args[Idx]);
+
+        // Add arguments to variable symbol table.
+        NamedValues[Args[Idx]] = AI;
+      }
+      return F;
+    }
+
+The last bit of code for prototypes loops over all of the arguments in
+the function, setting the name of the LLVM Argument objects to match,
+and registering the arguments in the ``NamedValues`` map for future use
+by the ``VariableExprAST`` AST node. Once this is set up, it returns the
+Function object to the caller. Note that we don't check for conflicting
+argument names here (e.g. "extern foo(a b a)"). Doing so would be very
+straight-forward with the mechanics we have already used above.
+
+.. code-block:: c++
+
+    Function *FunctionAST::Codegen() {
+      NamedValues.clear();
+
+      Function *TheFunction = Proto->Codegen();
+      if (TheFunction == 0)
+        return 0;
+
+Code generation for function definitions starts out simply enough: we
+just codegen the prototype (Proto) and verify that it is ok. We then
+clear out the ``NamedValues`` map to make sure that there isn't anything
+in it from the last function we compiled. Code generation of the
+prototype ensures that there is an LLVM Function object that is ready to
+go for us.
+
+.. code-block:: c++
+
+      // Create a new basic block to start insertion into.
+      BasicBlock *BB = BasicBlock::Create(getGlobalContext(), "entry", TheFunction);
+      Builder.SetInsertPoint(BB);
+
+      if (Value *RetVal = Body->Codegen()) {
+
+Now we get to the point where the ``Builder`` is set up. The first line
+creates a new `basic block <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Basic_block>`_
+(named "entry"), which is inserted into ``TheFunction``. The second line
+then tells the builder that new instructions should be inserted into the
+end of the new basic block. Basic blocks in LLVM are an important part
+of functions that define the `Control Flow
+Graph <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Control_flow_graph>`_. Since we
+don't have any control flow, our functions will only contain one block
+at this point. We'll fix this in `Chapter 5 <LangImpl5.html>`_ :).
+
+.. code-block:: c++
+
+      if (Value *RetVal = Body->Codegen()) {
+        // Finish off the function.
+        Builder.CreateRet(RetVal);
+
+        // Validate the generated code, checking for consistency.
+        verifyFunction(*TheFunction);
+
+        return TheFunction;
+      }
+
+Once the insertion point is set up, we call the ``CodeGen()`` method for
+the root expression of the function. If no error happens, this emits
+code to compute the expression into the entry block and returns the
+value that was computed. Assuming no error, we then create an LLVM `ret
+instruction <../LangRef.html#i_ret>`_, which completes the function.
+Once the function is built, we call ``verifyFunction``, which is
+provided by LLVM. This function does a variety of consistency checks on
+the generated code, to determine if our compiler is doing everything
+right. Using this is important: it can catch a lot of bugs. Once the
+function is finished and validated, we return it.
+
+.. code-block:: c++
+
+      // Error reading body, remove function.
+      TheFunction->eraseFromParent();
+      return 0;
+    }
+
+The only piece left here is handling of the error case. For simplicity,
+we handle this by merely deleting the function we produced with the
+``eraseFromParent`` method. This allows the user to redefine a function
+that they incorrectly typed in before: if we didn't delete it, it would
+live in the symbol table, with a body, preventing future redefinition.
+
+This code does have a bug, though. Since the ``PrototypeAST::Codegen``
+can return a previously defined forward declaration, our code can
+actually delete a forward declaration. There are a number of ways to fix
+this bug, see what you can come up with! Here is a testcase:
+
+::
+
+    extern foo(a b);     # ok, defines foo.
+    def foo(a b) c;      # error, 'c' is invalid.
+    def bar() foo(1, 2); # error, unknown function "foo"
+
+Driver Changes and Closing Thoughts
+===================================
+
+For now, code generation to LLVM doesn't really get us much, except that
+we can look at the pretty IR calls. The sample code inserts calls to
+Codegen into the "``HandleDefinition``", "``HandleExtern``" etc
+functions, and then dumps out the LLVM IR. This gives a nice way to look
+at the LLVM IR for simple functions. For example:
+
+::
+
+    ready> 4+5;
+    Read top-level expression:
+    define double @0() {
+    entry:
+      ret double 9.000000e+00
+    }
+
+Note how the parser turns the top-level expression into anonymous
+functions for us. This will be handy when we add `JIT
+support <LangImpl4.html#jit>`_ in the next chapter. Also note that the
+code is very literally transcribed, no optimizations are being performed
+except simple constant folding done by IRBuilder. We will `add
+optimizations <LangImpl4.html#trivialconstfold>`_ explicitly in the next
+chapter.
+
+::
+
+    ready> def foo(a b) a*a + 2*a*b + b*b;
+    Read function definition:
+    define double @foo(double %a, double %b) {
+    entry:
+      %multmp = fmul double %a, %a
+      %multmp1 = fmul double 2.000000e+00, %a
+      %multmp2 = fmul double %multmp1, %b
+      %addtmp = fadd double %multmp, %multmp2
+      %multmp3 = fmul double %b, %b
+      %addtmp4 = fadd double %addtmp, %multmp3
+      ret double %addtmp4
+    }
+
+This shows some simple arithmetic. Notice the striking similarity to the
+LLVM builder calls that we use to create the instructions.
+
+::
+
+    ready> def bar(a) foo(a, 4.0) + bar(31337);
+    Read function definition:
+    define double @bar(double %a) {
+    entry:
+      %calltmp = call double @foo(double %a, double 4.000000e+00)
+      %calltmp1 = call double @bar(double 3.133700e+04)
+      %addtmp = fadd double %calltmp, %calltmp1
+      ret double %addtmp
+    }
+
+This shows some function calls. Note that this function will take a long
+time to execute if you call it. In the future we'll add conditional
+control flow to actually make recursion useful :).
+
+::
+
+    ready> extern cos(x);
+    Read extern:
+    declare double @cos(double)
+
+    ready> cos(1.234);
+    Read top-level expression:
+    define double @1() {
+    entry:
+      %calltmp = call double @cos(double 1.234000e+00)
+      ret double %calltmp
+    }
+
+This shows an extern for the libm "cos" function, and a call to it.
+
+.. TODO:: Abandon Pygments' horrible `llvm` lexer. It just totally gives up
+   on highlighting this due to the first line.
+
+::
+
+    ready> ^D
+    ; ModuleID = 'my cool jit'
+
+    define double @0() {
+    entry:
+      %addtmp = fadd double 4.000000e+00, 5.000000e+00
+      ret double %addtmp
+    }
+
+    define double @foo(double %a, double %b) {
+    entry:
+      %multmp = fmul double %a, %a
+      %multmp1 = fmul double 2.000000e+00, %a
+      %multmp2 = fmul double %multmp1, %b
+      %addtmp = fadd double %multmp, %multmp2
+      %multmp3 = fmul double %b, %b
+      %addtmp4 = fadd double %addtmp, %multmp3
+      ret double %addtmp4
+    }
+
+    define double @bar(double %a) {
+    entry:
+      %calltmp = call double @foo(double %a, double 4.000000e+00)
+      %calltmp1 = call double @bar(double 3.133700e+04)
+      %addtmp = fadd double %calltmp, %calltmp1
+      ret double %addtmp
+    }
+
+    declare double @cos(double)
+
+    define double @1() {
+    entry:
+      %calltmp = call double @cos(double 1.234000e+00)
+      ret double %calltmp
+    }
+
+When you quit the current demo, it dumps out the IR for the entire
+module generated. Here you can see the big picture with all the
+functions referencing each other.
+
+This wraps up the third chapter of the Kaleidoscope tutorial. Up next,
+we'll describe how to `add JIT codegen and optimizer
+support <LangImpl4.html>`_ to this so we can actually start running
+code!
+
+Full Code Listing
+=================
+
+Here is the complete code listing for our running example, enhanced with
+the LLVM code generator. Because this uses the LLVM libraries, we need
+to link them in. To do this, we use the
+`llvm-config <http://llvm.org/cmds/llvm-config.html>`_ tool to inform
+our makefile/command line about which options to use:
+
+.. code-block:: bash
+
+    # Compile
+    clang++ -g -O3 toy.cpp `llvm-config --cppflags --ldflags --libs core` -o toy
+    # Run
+    ./toy
+
+Here is the code:
+
+.. literalinclude:: ../../examples/Kaleidoscope/Chapter3/toy.cpp
+   :language: c++
+
+`Next: Adding JIT and Optimizer Support <LangImpl4.html>`_
+

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+==============================================
+Kaleidoscope: Adding JIT and Optimizer Support
+==============================================
+
+.. contents::
+   :local:
+
+Chapter 4 Introduction
+======================
+
+Welcome to Chapter 4 of the "`Implementing a language with
+LLVM <index.html>`_" tutorial. Chapters 1-3 described the implementation
+of a simple language and added support for generating LLVM IR. This
+chapter describes two new techniques: adding optimizer support to your
+language, and adding JIT compiler support. These additions will
+demonstrate how to get nice, efficient code for the Kaleidoscope
+language.
+
+Trivial Constant Folding
+========================
+
+Our demonstration for Chapter 3 is elegant and easy to extend.
+Unfortunately, it does not produce wonderful code. The IRBuilder,
+however, does give us obvious optimizations when compiling simple code:
+
+::
+
+    ready> def test(x) 1+2+x;
+    Read function definition:
+    define double @test(double %x) {
+    entry:
+            %addtmp = fadd double 3.000000e+00, %x
+            ret double %addtmp
+    }
+
+This code is not a literal transcription of the AST built by parsing the
+input. That would be:
+
+::
+
+    ready> def test(x) 1+2+x;
+    Read function definition:
+    define double @test(double %x) {
+    entry:
+            %addtmp = fadd double 2.000000e+00, 1.000000e+00
+            %addtmp1 = fadd double %addtmp, %x
+            ret double %addtmp1
+    }
+
+Constant folding, as seen above, in particular, is a very common and
+very important optimization: so much so that many language implementors
+implement constant folding support in their AST representation.
+
+With LLVM, you don't need this support in the AST. Since all calls to
+build LLVM IR go through the LLVM IR builder, the builder itself checked
+to see if there was a constant folding opportunity when you call it. If
+so, it just does the constant fold and return the constant instead of
+creating an instruction.
+
+Well, that was easy :). In practice, we recommend always using
+``IRBuilder`` when generating code like this. It has no "syntactic
+overhead" for its use (you don't have to uglify your compiler with
+constant checks everywhere) and it can dramatically reduce the amount of
+LLVM IR that is generated in some cases (particular for languages with a
+macro preprocessor or that use a lot of constants).
+
+On the other hand, the ``IRBuilder`` is limited by the fact that it does
+all of its analysis inline with the code as it is built. If you take a
+slightly more complex example:
+
+::
+
+    ready> def test(x) (1+2+x)*(x+(1+2));
+    ready> Read function definition:
+    define double @test(double %x) {
+    entry:
+            %addtmp = fadd double 3.000000e+00, %x
+            %addtmp1 = fadd double %x, 3.000000e+00
+            %multmp = fmul double %addtmp, %addtmp1
+            ret double %multmp
+    }
+
+In this case, the LHS and RHS of the multiplication are the same value.
+We'd really like to see this generate "``tmp = x+3; result = tmp*tmp;``"
+instead of computing "``x+3``" twice.
+
+Unfortunately, no amount of local analysis will be able to detect and
+correct this. This requires two transformations: reassociation of
+expressions (to make the add's lexically identical) and Common
+Subexpression Elimination (CSE) to delete the redundant add instruction.
+Fortunately, LLVM provides a broad range of optimizations that you can
+use, in the form of "passes".
+
+LLVM Optimization Passes
+========================
+
+LLVM provides many optimization passes, which do many different sorts of
+things and have different tradeoffs. Unlike other systems, LLVM doesn't
+hold to the mistaken notion that one set of optimizations is right for
+all languages and for all situations. LLVM allows a compiler implementor
+to make complete decisions about what optimizations to use, in which
+order, and in what situation.
+
+As a concrete example, LLVM supports both "whole module" passes, which
+look across as large of body of code as they can (often a whole file,
+but if run at link time, this can be a substantial portion of the whole
+program). It also supports and includes "per-function" passes which just
+operate on a single function at a time, without looking at other
+functions. For more information on passes and how they are run, see the
+`How to Write a Pass <../WritingAnLLVMPass.html>`_ document and the
+`List of LLVM Passes <../Passes.html>`_.
+
+For Kaleidoscope, we are currently generating functions on the fly, one
+at a time, as the user types them in. We aren't shooting for the
+ultimate optimization experience in this setting, but we also want to
+catch the easy and quick stuff where possible. As such, we will choose
+to run a few per-function optimizations as the user types the function
+in. If we wanted to make a "static Kaleidoscope compiler", we would use
+exactly the code we have now, except that we would defer running the
+optimizer until the entire file has been parsed.
+
+In order to get per-function optimizations going, we need to set up a
+`FunctionPassManager <../WritingAnLLVMPass.html#passmanager>`_ to hold
+and organize the LLVM optimizations that we want to run. Once we have
+that, we can add a set of optimizations to run. The code looks like
+this:
+
+.. code-block:: c++
+
+      FunctionPassManager OurFPM(TheModule);
+
+      // Set up the optimizer pipeline.  Start with registering info about how the
+      // target lays out data structures.
+      OurFPM.add(new DataLayout(*TheExecutionEngine->getDataLayout()));
+      // Provide basic AliasAnalysis support for GVN.
+      OurFPM.add(createBasicAliasAnalysisPass());
+      // Do simple "peephole" optimizations and bit-twiddling optzns.
+      OurFPM.add(createInstructionCombiningPass());
+      // Reassociate expressions.
+      OurFPM.add(createReassociatePass());
+      // Eliminate Common SubExpressions.
+      OurFPM.add(createGVNPass());
+      // Simplify the control flow graph (deleting unreachable blocks, etc).
+      OurFPM.add(createCFGSimplificationPass());
+
+      OurFPM.doInitialization();
+
+      // Set the global so the code gen can use this.
+      TheFPM = &OurFPM;
+
+      // Run the main "interpreter loop" now.
+      MainLoop();
+
+This code defines a ``FunctionPassManager``, "``OurFPM``". It requires a
+pointer to the ``Module`` to construct itself. Once it is set up, we use
+a series of "add" calls to add a bunch of LLVM passes. The first pass is
+basically boilerplate, it adds a pass so that later optimizations know
+how the data structures in the program are laid out. The
+"``TheExecutionEngine``" variable is related to the JIT, which we will
+get to in the next section.
+
+In this case, we choose to add 4 optimization passes. The passes we
+chose here are a pretty standard set of "cleanup" optimizations that are
+useful for a wide variety of code. I won't delve into what they do but,
+believe me, they are a good starting place :).
+
+Once the PassManager is set up, we need to make use of it. We do this by
+running it after our newly created function is constructed (in
+``FunctionAST::Codegen``), but before it is returned to the client:
+
+.. code-block:: c++
+
+      if (Value *RetVal = Body->Codegen()) {
+        // Finish off the function.
+        Builder.CreateRet(RetVal);
+
+        // Validate the generated code, checking for consistency.
+        verifyFunction(*TheFunction);
+
+        // Optimize the function.
+        TheFPM->run(*TheFunction);
+
+        return TheFunction;
+      }
+
+As you can see, this is pretty straightforward. The
+``FunctionPassManager`` optimizes and updates the LLVM Function\* in
+place, improving (hopefully) its body. With this in place, we can try
+our test above again:
+
+::
+
+    ready> def test(x) (1+2+x)*(x+(1+2));
+    ready> Read function definition:
+    define double @test(double %x) {
+    entry:
+            %addtmp = fadd double %x, 3.000000e+00
+            %multmp = fmul double %addtmp, %addtmp
+            ret double %multmp
+    }
+
+As expected, we now get our nicely optimized code, saving a floating
+point add instruction from every execution of this function.
+
+LLVM provides a wide variety of optimizations that can be used in
+certain circumstances. Some `documentation about the various
+passes <../Passes.html>`_ is available, but it isn't very complete.
+Another good source of ideas can come from looking at the passes that
+``Clang`` runs to get started. The "``opt``" tool allows you to
+experiment with passes from the command line, so you can see if they do
+anything.
+
+Now that we have reasonable code coming out of our front-end, lets talk
+about executing it!
+
+Adding a JIT Compiler
+=====================
+
+Code that is available in LLVM IR can have a wide variety of tools
+applied to it. For example, you can run optimizations on it (as we did
+above), you can dump it out in textual or binary forms, you can compile
+the code to an assembly file (.s) for some target, or you can JIT
+compile it. The nice thing about the LLVM IR representation is that it
+is the "common currency" between many different parts of the compiler.
+
+In this section, we'll add JIT compiler support to our interpreter. The
+basic idea that we want for Kaleidoscope is to have the user enter
+function bodies as they do now, but immediately evaluate the top-level
+expressions they type in. For example, if they type in "1 + 2;", we
+should evaluate and print out 3. If they define a function, they should
+be able to call it from the command line.
+
+In order to do this, we first declare and initialize the JIT. This is
+done by adding a global variable and a call in ``main``:
+
+.. code-block:: c++
+
+    static ExecutionEngine *TheExecutionEngine;
+    ...
+    int main() {
+      ..
+      // Create the JIT.  This takes ownership of the module.
+      TheExecutionEngine = EngineBuilder(TheModule).create();
+      ..
+    }
+
+This creates an abstract "Execution Engine" which can be either a JIT
+compiler or the LLVM interpreter. LLVM will automatically pick a JIT
+compiler for you if one is available for your platform, otherwise it
+will fall back to the interpreter.
+
+Once the ``ExecutionEngine`` is created, the JIT is ready to be used.
+There are a variety of APIs that are useful, but the simplest one is the
+"``getPointerToFunction(F)``" method. This method JIT compiles the
+specified LLVM Function and returns a function pointer to the generated
+machine code. In our case, this means that we can change the code that
+parses a top-level expression to look like this:
+
+.. code-block:: c++
+
+    static void HandleTopLevelExpression() {
+      // Evaluate a top-level expression into an anonymous function.
+      if (FunctionAST *F = ParseTopLevelExpr()) {
+        if (Function *LF = F->Codegen()) {
+          LF->dump();  // Dump the function for exposition purposes.
+
+          // JIT the function, returning a function pointer.
+          void *FPtr = TheExecutionEngine->getPointerToFunction(LF);
+
+          // Cast it to the right type (takes no arguments, returns a double) so we
+          // can call it as a native function.
+          double (*FP)() = (double (*)())(intptr_t)FPtr;
+          fprintf(stderr, "Evaluated to %f\n", FP());
+        }
+
+Recall that we compile top-level expressions into a self-contained LLVM
+function that takes no arguments and returns the computed double.
+Because the LLVM JIT compiler matches the native platform ABI, this
+means that you can just cast the result pointer to a function pointer of
+that type and call it directly. This means, there is no difference
+between JIT compiled code and native machine code that is statically
+linked into your application.
+
+With just these two changes, lets see how Kaleidoscope works now!
+
+::
+
+    ready> 4+5;
+    Read top-level expression:
+    define double @0() {
+    entry:
+      ret double 9.000000e+00
+    }
+
+    Evaluated to 9.000000
+
+Well this looks like it is basically working. The dump of the function
+shows the "no argument function that always returns double" that we
+synthesize for each top-level expression that is typed in. This
+demonstrates very basic functionality, but can we do more?
+
+::
+
+    ready> def testfunc(x y) x + y*2;
+    Read function definition:
+    define double @testfunc(double %x, double %y) {
+    entry:
+      %multmp = fmul double %y, 2.000000e+00
+      %addtmp = fadd double %multmp, %x
+      ret double %addtmp
+    }
+
+    ready> testfunc(4, 10);
+    Read top-level expression:
+    define double @1() {
+    entry:
+      %calltmp = call double @testfunc(double 4.000000e+00, double 1.000000e+01)
+      ret double %calltmp
+    }
+
+    Evaluated to 24.000000
+
+This illustrates that we can now call user code, but there is something
+a bit subtle going on here. Note that we only invoke the JIT on the
+anonymous functions that *call testfunc*, but we never invoked it on
+*testfunc* itself. What actually happened here is that the JIT scanned
+for all non-JIT'd functions transitively called from the anonymous
+function and compiled all of them before returning from
+``getPointerToFunction()``.
+
+The JIT provides a number of other more advanced interfaces for things
+like freeing allocated machine code, rejit'ing functions to update them,
+etc. However, even with this simple code, we get some surprisingly
+powerful capabilities - check this out (I removed the dump of the
+anonymous functions, you should get the idea by now :) :
+
+::
+
+    ready> extern sin(x);
+    Read extern:
+    declare double @sin(double)
+
+    ready> extern cos(x);
+    Read extern:
+    declare double @cos(double)
+
+    ready> sin(1.0);
+    Read top-level expression:
+    define double @2() {
+    entry:
+      ret double 0x3FEAED548F090CEE
+    }
+
+    Evaluated to 0.841471
+
+    ready> def foo(x) sin(x)*sin(x) + cos(x)*cos(x);
+    Read function definition:
+    define double @foo(double %x) {
+    entry:
+      %calltmp = call double @sin(double %x)
+      %multmp = fmul double %calltmp, %calltmp
+      %calltmp2 = call double @cos(double %x)
+      %multmp4 = fmul double %calltmp2, %calltmp2
+      %addtmp = fadd double %multmp, %multmp4
+      ret double %addtmp
+    }
+
+    ready> foo(4.0);
+    Read top-level expression:
+    define double @3() {
+    entry:
+      %calltmp = call double @foo(double 4.000000e+00)
+      ret double %calltmp
+    }
+
+    Evaluated to 1.000000
+
+Whoa, how does the JIT know about sin and cos? The answer is
+surprisingly simple: in this example, the JIT started execution of a
+function and got to a function call. It realized that the function was
+not yet JIT compiled and invoked the standard set of routines to resolve
+the function. In this case, there is no body defined for the function,
+so the JIT ended up calling "``dlsym("sin")``" on the Kaleidoscope
+process itself. Since "``sin``" is defined within the JIT's address
+space, it simply patches up calls in the module to call the libm version
+of ``sin`` directly.
+
+The LLVM JIT provides a number of interfaces (look in the
+``ExecutionEngine.h`` file) for controlling how unknown functions get
+resolved. It allows you to establish explicit mappings between IR
+objects and addresses (useful for LLVM global variables that you want to
+map to static tables, for example), allows you to dynamically decide on
+the fly based on the function name, and even allows you to have the JIT
+compile functions lazily the first time they're called.
+
+One interesting application of this is that we can now extend the
+language by writing arbitrary C++ code to implement operations. For
+example, if we add:
+
+.. code-block:: c++
+
+    /// putchard - putchar that takes a double and returns 0.
+    extern "C"
+    double putchard(double X) {
+      putchar((char)X);
+      return 0;
+    }
+
+Now we can produce simple output to the console by using things like:
+"``extern putchard(x); putchard(120);``", which prints a lowercase 'x'
+on the console (120 is the ASCII code for 'x'). Similar code could be
+used to implement file I/O, console input, and many other capabilities
+in Kaleidoscope.
+
+This completes the JIT and optimizer chapter of the Kaleidoscope
+tutorial. At this point, we can compile a non-Turing-complete
+programming language, optimize and JIT compile it in a user-driven way.
+Next up we'll look into `extending the language with control flow
+constructs <LangImpl5.html>`_, tackling some interesting LLVM IR issues
+along the way.
+
+Full Code Listing
+=================
+
+Here is the complete code listing for our running example, enhanced with
+the LLVM JIT and optimizer. To build this example, use:
+
+.. code-block:: bash
+
+    # Compile
+    clang++ -g toy.cpp `llvm-config --cppflags --ldflags --libs core jit native` -O3 -o toy
+    # Run
+    ./toy
+
+If you are compiling this on Linux, make sure to add the "-rdynamic"
+option as well. This makes sure that the external functions are resolved
+properly at runtime.
+
+Here is the code:
+
+.. literalinclude:: ../../examples/Kaleidoscope/Chapter4/toy.cpp
+   :language: c++
+
+`Next: Extending the language: control flow <LangImpl5.html>`_
+

Added: www-releases/trunk/3.5.1/docs/_sources/tutorial/LangImpl5.txt
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==============================================================================
--- www-releases/trunk/3.5.1/docs/_sources/tutorial/LangImpl5.txt (added)
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@@ -0,0 +1,749 @@
+==================================================
+Kaleidoscope: Extending the Language: Control Flow
+==================================================
+
+.. contents::
+   :local:
+
+Chapter 5 Introduction
+======================
+
+Welcome to Chapter 5 of the "`Implementing a language with
+LLVM <index.html>`_" tutorial. Parts 1-4 described the implementation of
+the simple Kaleidoscope language and included support for generating
+LLVM IR, followed by optimizations and a JIT compiler. Unfortunately, as
+presented, Kaleidoscope is mostly useless: it has no control flow other
+than call and return. This means that you can't have conditional
+branches in the code, significantly limiting its power. In this episode
+of "build that compiler", we'll extend Kaleidoscope to have an
+if/then/else expression plus a simple 'for' loop.
+
+If/Then/Else
+============
+
+Extending Kaleidoscope to support if/then/else is quite straightforward.
+It basically requires adding support for this "new" concept to the
+lexer, parser, AST, and LLVM code emitter. This example is nice, because
+it shows how easy it is to "grow" a language over time, incrementally
+extending it as new ideas are discovered.
+
+Before we get going on "how" we add this extension, lets talk about
+"what" we want. The basic idea is that we want to be able to write this
+sort of thing:
+
+::
+
+    def fib(x)
+      if x < 3 then
+        1
+      else
+        fib(x-1)+fib(x-2);
+
+In Kaleidoscope, every construct is an expression: there are no
+statements. As such, the if/then/else expression needs to return a value
+like any other. Since we're using a mostly functional form, we'll have
+it evaluate its conditional, then return the 'then' or 'else' value
+based on how the condition was resolved. This is very similar to the C
+"?:" expression.
+
+The semantics of the if/then/else expression is that it evaluates the
+condition to a boolean equality value: 0.0 is considered to be false and
+everything else is considered to be true. If the condition is true, the
+first subexpression is evaluated and returned, if the condition is
+false, the second subexpression is evaluated and returned. Since
+Kaleidoscope allows side-effects, this behavior is important to nail
+down.
+
+Now that we know what we "want", lets break this down into its
+constituent pieces.
+
+Lexer Extensions for If/Then/Else
+---------------------------------
+
+The lexer extensions are straightforward. First we add new enum values
+for the relevant tokens:
+
+.. code-block:: c++
+
+      // control
+      tok_if = -6, tok_then = -7, tok_else = -8,
+
+Once we have that, we recognize the new keywords in the lexer. This is
+pretty simple stuff:
+
+.. code-block:: c++
+
+        ...
+        if (IdentifierStr == "def") return tok_def;
+        if (IdentifierStr == "extern") return tok_extern;
+        if (IdentifierStr == "if") return tok_if;
+        if (IdentifierStr == "then") return tok_then;
+        if (IdentifierStr == "else") return tok_else;
+        return tok_identifier;
+
+AST Extensions for If/Then/Else
+-------------------------------
+
+To represent the new expression we add a new AST node for it:
+
+.. code-block:: c++
+
+    /// IfExprAST - Expression class for if/then/else.
+    class IfExprAST : public ExprAST {
+      ExprAST *Cond, *Then, *Else;
+    public:
+      IfExprAST(ExprAST *cond, ExprAST *then, ExprAST *_else)
+        : Cond(cond), Then(then), Else(_else) {}
+      virtual Value *Codegen();
+    };
+
+The AST node just has pointers to the various subexpressions.
+
+Parser Extensions for If/Then/Else
+----------------------------------
+
+Now that we have the relevant tokens coming from the lexer and we have
+the AST node to build, our parsing logic is relatively straightforward.
+First we define a new parsing function:
+
+.. code-block:: c++
+
+    /// ifexpr ::= 'if' expression 'then' expression 'else' expression
+    static ExprAST *ParseIfExpr() {
+      getNextToken();  // eat the if.
+
+      // condition.
+      ExprAST *Cond = ParseExpression();
+      if (!Cond) return 0;
+
+      if (CurTok != tok_then)
+        return Error("expected then");
+      getNextToken();  // eat the then
+
+      ExprAST *Then = ParseExpression();
+      if (Then == 0) return 0;
+
+      if (CurTok != tok_else)
+        return Error("expected else");
+
+      getNextToken();
+
+      ExprAST *Else = ParseExpression();
+      if (!Else) return 0;
+
+      return new IfExprAST(Cond, Then, Else);
+    }
+
+Next we hook it up as a primary expression:
+
+.. code-block:: c++
+
+    static ExprAST *ParsePrimary() {
+      switch (CurTok) {
+      default: return Error("unknown token when expecting an expression");
+      case tok_identifier: return ParseIdentifierExpr();
+      case tok_number:     return ParseNumberExpr();
+      case '(':            return ParseParenExpr();
+      case tok_if:         return ParseIfExpr();
+      }
+    }
+
+LLVM IR for If/Then/Else
+------------------------
+
+Now that we have it parsing and building the AST, the final piece is
+adding LLVM code generation support. This is the most interesting part
+of the if/then/else example, because this is where it starts to
+introduce new concepts. All of the code above has been thoroughly
+described in previous chapters.
+
+To motivate the code we want to produce, lets take a look at a simple
+example. Consider:
+
+::
+
+    extern foo();
+    extern bar();
+    def baz(x) if x then foo() else bar();
+
+If you disable optimizations, the code you'll (soon) get from
+Kaleidoscope looks like this:
+
+.. code-block:: llvm
+
+    declare double @foo()
+
+    declare double @bar()
+
+    define double @baz(double %x) {
+    entry:
+      %ifcond = fcmp one double %x, 0.000000e+00
+      br i1 %ifcond, label %then, label %else
+
+    then:       ; preds = %entry
+      %calltmp = call double @foo()
+      br label %ifcont
+
+    else:       ; preds = %entry
+      %calltmp1 = call double @bar()
+      br label %ifcont
+
+    ifcont:     ; preds = %else, %then
+      %iftmp = phi double [ %calltmp, %then ], [ %calltmp1, %else ]
+      ret double %iftmp
+    }
+
+To visualize the control flow graph, you can use a nifty feature of the
+LLVM '`opt <http://llvm.org/cmds/opt.html>`_' tool. If you put this LLVM
+IR into "t.ll" and run "``llvm-as < t.ll | opt -analyze -view-cfg``", `a
+window will pop up <../ProgrammersManual.html#ViewGraph>`_ and you'll
+see this graph:
+
+.. figure:: LangImpl5-cfg.png
+   :align: center
+   :alt: Example CFG
+
+   Example CFG
+
+Another way to get this is to call "``F->viewCFG()``" or
+"``F->viewCFGOnly()``" (where F is a "``Function*``") either by
+inserting actual calls into the code and recompiling or by calling these
+in the debugger. LLVM has many nice features for visualizing various
+graphs.
+
+Getting back to the generated code, it is fairly simple: the entry block
+evaluates the conditional expression ("x" in our case here) and compares
+the result to 0.0 with the "``fcmp one``" instruction ('one' is "Ordered
+and Not Equal"). Based on the result of this expression, the code jumps
+to either the "then" or "else" blocks, which contain the expressions for
+the true/false cases.
+
+Once the then/else blocks are finished executing, they both branch back
+to the 'ifcont' block to execute the code that happens after the
+if/then/else. In this case the only thing left to do is to return to the
+caller of the function. The question then becomes: how does the code
+know which expression to return?
+
+The answer to this question involves an important SSA operation: the
+`Phi
+operation <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Static_single_assignment_form>`_.
+If you're not familiar with SSA, `the wikipedia
+article <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Static_single_assignment_form>`_
+is a good introduction and there are various other introductions to it
+available on your favorite search engine. The short version is that
+"execution" of the Phi operation requires "remembering" which block
+control came from. The Phi operation takes on the value corresponding to
+the input control block. In this case, if control comes in from the
+"then" block, it gets the value of "calltmp". If control comes from the
+"else" block, it gets the value of "calltmp1".
+
+At this point, you are probably starting to think "Oh no! This means my
+simple and elegant front-end will have to start generating SSA form in
+order to use LLVM!". Fortunately, this is not the case, and we strongly
+advise *not* implementing an SSA construction algorithm in your
+front-end unless there is an amazingly good reason to do so. In
+practice, there are two sorts of values that float around in code
+written for your average imperative programming language that might need
+Phi nodes:
+
+#. Code that involves user variables: ``x = 1; x = x + 1;``
+#. Values that are implicit in the structure of your AST, such as the
+   Phi node in this case.
+
+In `Chapter 7 <LangImpl7.html>`_ of this tutorial ("mutable variables"),
+we'll talk about #1 in depth. For now, just believe me that you don't
+need SSA construction to handle this case. For #2, you have the choice
+of using the techniques that we will describe for #1, or you can insert
+Phi nodes directly, if convenient. In this case, it is really really
+easy to generate the Phi node, so we choose to do it directly.
+
+Okay, enough of the motivation and overview, lets generate code!
+
+Code Generation for If/Then/Else
+--------------------------------
+
+In order to generate code for this, we implement the ``Codegen`` method
+for ``IfExprAST``:
+
+.. code-block:: c++
+
+    Value *IfExprAST::Codegen() {
+      Value *CondV = Cond->Codegen();
+      if (CondV == 0) return 0;
+
+      // Convert condition to a bool by comparing equal to 0.0.
+      CondV = Builder.CreateFCmpONE(CondV,
+                                  ConstantFP::get(getGlobalContext(), APFloat(0.0)),
+                                    "ifcond");
+
+This code is straightforward and similar to what we saw before. We emit
+the expression for the condition, then compare that value to zero to get
+a truth value as a 1-bit (bool) value.
+
+.. code-block:: c++
+
+      Function *TheFunction = Builder.GetInsertBlock()->getParent();
+
+      // Create blocks for the then and else cases.  Insert the 'then' block at the
+      // end of the function.
+      BasicBlock *ThenBB = BasicBlock::Create(getGlobalContext(), "then", TheFunction);
+      BasicBlock *ElseBB = BasicBlock::Create(getGlobalContext(), "else");
+      BasicBlock *MergeBB = BasicBlock::Create(getGlobalContext(), "ifcont");
+
+      Builder.CreateCondBr(CondV, ThenBB, ElseBB);
+
+This code creates the basic blocks that are related to the if/then/else
+statement, and correspond directly to the blocks in the example above.
+The first line gets the current Function object that is being built. It
+gets this by asking the builder for the current BasicBlock, and asking
+that block for its "parent" (the function it is currently embedded
+into).
+
+Once it has that, it creates three blocks. Note that it passes
+"TheFunction" into the constructor for the "then" block. This causes the
+constructor to automatically insert the new block into the end of the
+specified function. The other two blocks are created, but aren't yet
+inserted into the function.
+
+Once the blocks are created, we can emit the conditional branch that
+chooses between them. Note that creating new blocks does not implicitly
+affect the IRBuilder, so it is still inserting into the block that the
+condition went into. Also note that it is creating a branch to the
+"then" block and the "else" block, even though the "else" block isn't
+inserted into the function yet. This is all ok: it is the standard way
+that LLVM supports forward references.
+
+.. code-block:: c++
+
+      // Emit then value.
+      Builder.SetInsertPoint(ThenBB);
+
+      Value *ThenV = Then->Codegen();
+      if (ThenV == 0) return 0;
+
+      Builder.CreateBr(MergeBB);
+      // Codegen of 'Then' can change the current block, update ThenBB for the PHI.
+      ThenBB = Builder.GetInsertBlock();
+
+After the conditional branch is inserted, we move the builder to start
+inserting into the "then" block. Strictly speaking, this call moves the
+insertion point to be at the end of the specified block. However, since
+the "then" block is empty, it also starts out by inserting at the
+beginning of the block. :)
+
+Once the insertion point is set, we recursively codegen the "then"
+expression from the AST. To finish off the "then" block, we create an
+unconditional branch to the merge block. One interesting (and very
+important) aspect of the LLVM IR is that it `requires all basic blocks
+to be "terminated" <../LangRef.html#functionstructure>`_ with a `control
+flow instruction <../LangRef.html#terminators>`_ such as return or
+branch. This means that all control flow, *including fall throughs* must
+be made explicit in the LLVM IR. If you violate this rule, the verifier
+will emit an error.
+
+The final line here is quite subtle, but is very important. The basic
+issue is that when we create the Phi node in the merge block, we need to
+set up the block/value pairs that indicate how the Phi will work.
+Importantly, the Phi node expects to have an entry for each predecessor
+of the block in the CFG. Why then, are we getting the current block when
+we just set it to ThenBB 5 lines above? The problem is that the "Then"
+expression may actually itself change the block that the Builder is
+emitting into if, for example, it contains a nested "if/then/else"
+expression. Because calling Codegen recursively could arbitrarily change
+the notion of the current block, we are required to get an up-to-date
+value for code that will set up the Phi node.
+
+.. code-block:: c++
+
+      // Emit else block.
+      TheFunction->getBasicBlockList().push_back(ElseBB);
+      Builder.SetInsertPoint(ElseBB);
+
+      Value *ElseV = Else->Codegen();
+      if (ElseV == 0) return 0;
+
+      Builder.CreateBr(MergeBB);
+      // Codegen of 'Else' can change the current block, update ElseBB for the PHI.
+      ElseBB = Builder.GetInsertBlock();
+
+Code generation for the 'else' block is basically identical to codegen
+for the 'then' block. The only significant difference is the first line,
+which adds the 'else' block to the function. Recall previously that the
+'else' block was created, but not added to the function. Now that the
+'then' and 'else' blocks are emitted, we can finish up with the merge
+code:
+
+.. code-block:: c++
+
+      // Emit merge block.
+      TheFunction->getBasicBlockList().push_back(MergeBB);
+      Builder.SetInsertPoint(MergeBB);
+      PHINode *PN = Builder.CreatePHI(Type::getDoubleTy(getGlobalContext()), 2,
+                                      "iftmp");
+
+      PN->addIncoming(ThenV, ThenBB);
+      PN->addIncoming(ElseV, ElseBB);
+      return PN;
+    }
+
+The first two lines here are now familiar: the first adds the "merge"
+block to the Function object (it was previously floating, like the else
+block above). The second block changes the insertion point so that newly
+created code will go into the "merge" block. Once that is done, we need
+to create the PHI node and set up the block/value pairs for the PHI.
+
+Finally, the CodeGen function returns the phi node as the value computed
+by the if/then/else expression. In our example above, this returned
+value will feed into the code for the top-level function, which will
+create the return instruction.
+
+Overall, we now have the ability to execute conditional code in
+Kaleidoscope. With this extension, Kaleidoscope is a fairly complete
+language that can calculate a wide variety of numeric functions. Next up
+we'll add another useful expression that is familiar from non-functional
+languages...
+
+'for' Loop Expression
+=====================
+
+Now that we know how to add basic control flow constructs to the
+language, we have the tools to add more powerful things. Lets add
+something more aggressive, a 'for' expression:
+
+::
+
+     extern putchard(char)
+     def printstar(n)
+       for i = 1, i < n, 1.0 in
+         putchard(42);  # ascii 42 = '*'
+
+     # print 100 '*' characters
+     printstar(100);
+
+This expression defines a new variable ("i" in this case) which iterates
+from a starting value, while the condition ("i < n" in this case) is
+true, incrementing by an optional step value ("1.0" in this case). If
+the step value is omitted, it defaults to 1.0. While the loop is true,
+it executes its body expression. Because we don't have anything better
+to return, we'll just define the loop as always returning 0.0. In the
+future when we have mutable variables, it will get more useful.
+
+As before, lets talk about the changes that we need to Kaleidoscope to
+support this.
+
+Lexer Extensions for the 'for' Loop
+-----------------------------------
+
+The lexer extensions are the same sort of thing as for if/then/else:
+
+.. code-block:: c++
+
+      ... in enum Token ...
+      // control
+      tok_if = -6, tok_then = -7, tok_else = -8,
+      tok_for = -9, tok_in = -10
+
+      ... in gettok ...
+      if (IdentifierStr == "def") return tok_def;
+      if (IdentifierStr == "extern") return tok_extern;
+      if (IdentifierStr == "if") return tok_if;
+      if (IdentifierStr == "then") return tok_then;
+      if (IdentifierStr == "else") return tok_else;
+      if (IdentifierStr == "for") return tok_for;
+      if (IdentifierStr == "in") return tok_in;
+      return tok_identifier;
+
+AST Extensions for the 'for' Loop
+---------------------------------
+
+The AST node is just as simple. It basically boils down to capturing the
+variable name and the constituent expressions in the node.
+
+.. code-block:: c++
+
+    /// ForExprAST - Expression class for for/in.
+    class ForExprAST : public ExprAST {
+      std::string VarName;
+      ExprAST *Start, *End, *Step, *Body;
+    public:
+      ForExprAST(const std::string &varname, ExprAST *start, ExprAST *end,
+                 ExprAST *step, ExprAST *body)
+        : VarName(varname), Start(start), End(end), Step(step), Body(body) {}
+      virtual Value *Codegen();
+    };
+
+Parser Extensions for the 'for' Loop
+------------------------------------
+
+The parser code is also fairly standard. The only interesting thing here
+is handling of the optional step value. The parser code handles it by
+checking to see if the second comma is present. If not, it sets the step
+value to null in the AST node:
+
+.. code-block:: c++
+
+    /// forexpr ::= 'for' identifier '=' expr ',' expr (',' expr)? 'in' expression
+    static ExprAST *ParseForExpr() {
+      getNextToken();  // eat the for.
+
+      if (CurTok != tok_identifier)
+        return Error("expected identifier after for");
+
+      std::string IdName = IdentifierStr;
+      getNextToken();  // eat identifier.
+
+      if (CurTok != '=')
+        return Error("expected '=' after for");
+      getNextToken();  // eat '='.
+
+
+      ExprAST *Start = ParseExpression();
+      if (Start == 0) return 0;
+      if (CurTok != ',')
+        return Error("expected ',' after for start value");
+      getNextToken();
+
+      ExprAST *End = ParseExpression();
+      if (End == 0) return 0;
+
+      // The step value is optional.
+      ExprAST *Step = 0;
+      if (CurTok == ',') {
+        getNextToken();
+        Step = ParseExpression();
+        if (Step == 0) return 0;
+      }
+
+      if (CurTok != tok_in)
+        return Error("expected 'in' after for");
+      getNextToken();  // eat 'in'.
+
+      ExprAST *Body = ParseExpression();
+      if (Body == 0) return 0;
+
+      return new ForExprAST(IdName, Start, End, Step, Body);
+    }
+
+LLVM IR for the 'for' Loop
+--------------------------
+
+Now we get to the good part: the LLVM IR we want to generate for this
+thing. With the simple example above, we get this LLVM IR (note that
+this dump is generated with optimizations disabled for clarity):
+
+.. code-block:: llvm
+
+    declare double @putchard(double)
+
+    define double @printstar(double %n) {
+    entry:
+      ; initial value = 1.0 (inlined into phi)
+      br label %loop
+
+    loop:       ; preds = %loop, %entry
+      %i = phi double [ 1.000000e+00, %entry ], [ %nextvar, %loop ]
+      ; body
+      %calltmp = call double @putchard(double 4.200000e+01)
+      ; increment
+      %nextvar = fadd double %i, 1.000000e+00
+
+      ; termination test
+      %cmptmp = fcmp ult double %i, %n
+      %booltmp = uitofp i1 %cmptmp to double
+      %loopcond = fcmp one double %booltmp, 0.000000e+00
+      br i1 %loopcond, label %loop, label %afterloop
+
+    afterloop:      ; preds = %loop
+      ; loop always returns 0.0
+      ret double 0.000000e+00
+    }
+
+This loop contains all the same constructs we saw before: a phi node,
+several expressions, and some basic blocks. Lets see how this fits
+together.
+
+Code Generation for the 'for' Loop
+----------------------------------
+
+The first part of Codegen is very simple: we just output the start
+expression for the loop value:
+
+.. code-block:: c++
+
+    Value *ForExprAST::Codegen() {
+      // Emit the start code first, without 'variable' in scope.
+      Value *StartVal = Start->Codegen();
+      if (StartVal == 0) return 0;
+
+With this out of the way, the next step is to set up the LLVM basic
+block for the start of the loop body. In the case above, the whole loop
+body is one block, but remember that the body code itself could consist
+of multiple blocks (e.g. if it contains an if/then/else or a for/in
+expression).
+
+.. code-block:: c++
+
+      // Make the new basic block for the loop header, inserting after current
+      // block.
+      Function *TheFunction = Builder.GetInsertBlock()->getParent();
+      BasicBlock *PreheaderBB = Builder.GetInsertBlock();
+      BasicBlock *LoopBB = BasicBlock::Create(getGlobalContext(), "loop", TheFunction);
+
+      // Insert an explicit fall through from the current block to the LoopBB.
+      Builder.CreateBr(LoopBB);
+
+This code is similar to what we saw for if/then/else. Because we will
+need it to create the Phi node, we remember the block that falls through
+into the loop. Once we have that, we create the actual block that starts
+the loop and create an unconditional branch for the fall-through between
+the two blocks.
+
+.. code-block:: c++
+
+      // Start insertion in LoopBB.
+      Builder.SetInsertPoint(LoopBB);
+
+      // Start the PHI node with an entry for Start.
+      PHINode *Variable = Builder.CreatePHI(Type::getDoubleTy(getGlobalContext()), 2, VarName.c_str());
+      Variable->addIncoming(StartVal, PreheaderBB);
+
+Now that the "preheader" for the loop is set up, we switch to emitting
+code for the loop body. To begin with, we move the insertion point and
+create the PHI node for the loop induction variable. Since we already
+know the incoming value for the starting value, we add it to the Phi
+node. Note that the Phi will eventually get a second value for the
+backedge, but we can't set it up yet (because it doesn't exist!).
+
+.. code-block:: c++
+
+      // Within the loop, the variable is defined equal to the PHI node.  If it
+      // shadows an existing variable, we have to restore it, so save it now.
+      Value *OldVal = NamedValues[VarName];
+      NamedValues[VarName] = Variable;
+
+      // Emit the body of the loop.  This, like any other expr, can change the
+      // current BB.  Note that we ignore the value computed by the body, but don't
+      // allow an error.
+      if (Body->Codegen() == 0)
+        return 0;
+
+Now the code starts to get more interesting. Our 'for' loop introduces a
+new variable to the symbol table. This means that our symbol table can
+now contain either function arguments or loop variables. To handle this,
+before we codegen the body of the loop, we add the loop variable as the
+current value for its name. Note that it is possible that there is a
+variable of the same name in the outer scope. It would be easy to make
+this an error (emit an error and return null if there is already an
+entry for VarName) but we choose to allow shadowing of variables. In
+order to handle this correctly, we remember the Value that we are
+potentially shadowing in ``OldVal`` (which will be null if there is no
+shadowed variable).
+
+Once the loop variable is set into the symbol table, the code
+recursively codegen's the body. This allows the body to use the loop
+variable: any references to it will naturally find it in the symbol
+table.
+
+.. code-block:: c++
+
+      // Emit the step value.
+      Value *StepVal;
+      if (Step) {
+        StepVal = Step->Codegen();
+        if (StepVal == 0) return 0;
+      } else {
+        // If not specified, use 1.0.
+        StepVal = ConstantFP::get(getGlobalContext(), APFloat(1.0));
+      }
+
+      Value *NextVar = Builder.CreateFAdd(Variable, StepVal, "nextvar");
+
+Now that the body is emitted, we compute the next value of the iteration
+variable by adding the step value, or 1.0 if it isn't present.
+'``NextVar``' will be the value of the loop variable on the next
+iteration of the loop.
+
+.. code-block:: c++
+
+      // Compute the end condition.
+      Value *EndCond = End->Codegen();
+      if (EndCond == 0) return EndCond;
+
+      // Convert condition to a bool by comparing equal to 0.0.
+      EndCond = Builder.CreateFCmpONE(EndCond,
+                                  ConstantFP::get(getGlobalContext(), APFloat(0.0)),
+                                      "loopcond");
+
+Finally, we evaluate the exit value of the loop, to determine whether
+the loop should exit. This mirrors the condition evaluation for the
+if/then/else statement.
+
+.. code-block:: c++
+
+      // Create the "after loop" block and insert it.
+      BasicBlock *LoopEndBB = Builder.GetInsertBlock();
+      BasicBlock *AfterBB = BasicBlock::Create(getGlobalContext(), "afterloop", TheFunction);
+
+      // Insert the conditional branch into the end of LoopEndBB.
+      Builder.CreateCondBr(EndCond, LoopBB, AfterBB);
+
+      // Any new code will be inserted in AfterBB.
+      Builder.SetInsertPoint(AfterBB);
+
+With the code for the body of the loop complete, we just need to finish
+up the control flow for it. This code remembers the end block (for the
+phi node), then creates the block for the loop exit ("afterloop"). Based
+on the value of the exit condition, it creates a conditional branch that
+chooses between executing the loop again and exiting the loop. Any
+future code is emitted in the "afterloop" block, so it sets the
+insertion position to it.
+
+.. code-block:: c++
+
+      // Add a new entry to the PHI node for the backedge.
+      Variable->addIncoming(NextVar, LoopEndBB);
+
+      // Restore the unshadowed variable.
+      if (OldVal)
+        NamedValues[VarName] = OldVal;
+      else
+        NamedValues.erase(VarName);
+
+      // for expr always returns 0.0.
+      return Constant::getNullValue(Type::getDoubleTy(getGlobalContext()));
+    }
+
+The final code handles various cleanups: now that we have the "NextVar"
+value, we can add the incoming value to the loop PHI node. After that,
+we remove the loop variable from the symbol table, so that it isn't in
+scope after the for loop. Finally, code generation of the for loop
+always returns 0.0, so that is what we return from
+``ForExprAST::Codegen``.
+
+With this, we conclude the "adding control flow to Kaleidoscope" chapter
+of the tutorial. In this chapter we added two control flow constructs,
+and used them to motivate a couple of aspects of the LLVM IR that are
+important for front-end implementors to know. In the next chapter of our
+saga, we will get a bit crazier and add `user-defined
+operators <LangImpl6.html>`_ to our poor innocent language.
+
+Full Code Listing
+=================
+
+Here is the complete code listing for our running example, enhanced with
+the if/then/else and for expressions.. To build this example, use:
+
+.. code-block:: bash
+
+    # Compile
+    clang++ -g toy.cpp `llvm-config --cppflags --ldflags --libs core jit native` -O3 -o toy
+    # Run
+    ./toy
+
+Here is the code:
+
+.. literalinclude:: ../../examples/Kaleidoscope/Chapter5/toy.cpp
+   :language: c++
+
+`Next: Extending the language: user-defined operators <LangImpl6.html>`_
+

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==============================================================================
--- www-releases/trunk/3.5.1/docs/_sources/tutorial/LangImpl6.txt (added)
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@@ -0,0 +1,750 @@
+============================================================
+Kaleidoscope: Extending the Language: User-defined Operators
+============================================================
+
+.. contents::
+   :local:
+
+Chapter 6 Introduction
+======================
+
+Welcome to Chapter 6 of the "`Implementing a language with
+LLVM <index.html>`_" tutorial. At this point in our tutorial, we now
+have a fully functional language that is fairly minimal, but also
+useful. There is still one big problem with it, however. Our language
+doesn't have many useful operators (like division, logical negation, or
+even any comparisons besides less-than).
+
+This chapter of the tutorial takes a wild digression into adding
+user-defined operators to the simple and beautiful Kaleidoscope
+language. This digression now gives us a simple and ugly language in
+some ways, but also a powerful one at the same time. One of the great
+things about creating your own language is that you get to decide what
+is good or bad. In this tutorial we'll assume that it is okay to use
+this as a way to show some interesting parsing techniques.
+
+At the end of this tutorial, we'll run through an example Kaleidoscope
+application that `renders the Mandelbrot set <#example>`_. This gives an
+example of what you can build with Kaleidoscope and its feature set.
+
+User-defined Operators: the Idea
+================================
+
+The "operator overloading" that we will add to Kaleidoscope is more
+general than languages like C++. In C++, you are only allowed to
+redefine existing operators: you can't programatically change the
+grammar, introduce new operators, change precedence levels, etc. In this
+chapter, we will add this capability to Kaleidoscope, which will let the
+user round out the set of operators that are supported.
+
+The point of going into user-defined operators in a tutorial like this
+is to show the power and flexibility of using a hand-written parser.
+Thus far, the parser we have been implementing uses recursive descent
+for most parts of the grammar and operator precedence parsing for the
+expressions. See `Chapter 2 <LangImpl2.html>`_ for details. Without
+using operator precedence parsing, it would be very difficult to allow
+the programmer to introduce new operators into the grammar: the grammar
+is dynamically extensible as the JIT runs.
+
+The two specific features we'll add are programmable unary operators
+(right now, Kaleidoscope has no unary operators at all) as well as
+binary operators. An example of this is:
+
+::
+
+    # Logical unary not.
+    def unary!(v)
+      if v then
+        0
+      else
+        1;
+
+    # Define > with the same precedence as <.
+    def binary> 10 (LHS RHS)
+      RHS < LHS;
+
+    # Binary "logical or", (note that it does not "short circuit")
+    def binary| 5 (LHS RHS)
+      if LHS then
+        1
+      else if RHS then
+        1
+      else
+        0;
+
+    # Define = with slightly lower precedence than relationals.
+    def binary= 9 (LHS RHS)
+      !(LHS < RHS | LHS > RHS);
+
+Many languages aspire to being able to implement their standard runtime
+library in the language itself. In Kaleidoscope, we can implement
+significant parts of the language in the library!
+
+We will break down implementation of these features into two parts:
+implementing support for user-defined binary operators and adding unary
+operators.
+
+User-defined Binary Operators
+=============================
+
+Adding support for user-defined binary operators is pretty simple with
+our current framework. We'll first add support for the unary/binary
+keywords:
+
+.. code-block:: c++
+
+    enum Token {
+      ...
+      // operators
+      tok_binary = -11, tok_unary = -12
+    };
+    ...
+    static int gettok() {
+    ...
+        if (IdentifierStr == "for") return tok_for;
+        if (IdentifierStr == "in") return tok_in;
+        if (IdentifierStr == "binary") return tok_binary;
+        if (IdentifierStr == "unary") return tok_unary;
+        return tok_identifier;
+
+This just adds lexer support for the unary and binary keywords, like we
+did in `previous chapters <LangImpl5.html#iflexer>`_. One nice thing
+about our current AST, is that we represent binary operators with full
+generalisation by using their ASCII code as the opcode. For our extended
+operators, we'll use this same representation, so we don't need any new
+AST or parser support.
+
+On the other hand, we have to be able to represent the definitions of
+these new operators, in the "def binary\| 5" part of the function
+definition. In our grammar so far, the "name" for the function
+definition is parsed as the "prototype" production and into the
+``PrototypeAST`` AST node. To represent our new user-defined operators
+as prototypes, we have to extend the ``PrototypeAST`` AST node like
+this:
+
+.. code-block:: c++
+
+    /// PrototypeAST - This class represents the "prototype" for a function,
+    /// which captures its argument names as well as if it is an operator.
+    class PrototypeAST {
+      std::string Name;
+      std::vector<std::string> Args;
+      bool isOperator;
+      unsigned Precedence;  // Precedence if a binary op.
+    public:
+      PrototypeAST(const std::string &name, const std::vector<std::string> &args,
+                   bool isoperator = false, unsigned prec = 0)
+      : Name(name), Args(args), isOperator(isoperator), Precedence(prec) {}
+
+      bool isUnaryOp() const { return isOperator && Args.size() == 1; }
+      bool isBinaryOp() const { return isOperator && Args.size() == 2; }
+
+      char getOperatorName() const {
+        assert(isUnaryOp() || isBinaryOp());
+        return Name[Name.size()-1];
+      }
+
+      unsigned getBinaryPrecedence() const { return Precedence; }
+
+      Function *Codegen();
+    };
+
+Basically, in addition to knowing a name for the prototype, we now keep
+track of whether it was an operator, and if it was, what precedence
+level the operator is at. The precedence is only used for binary
+operators (as you'll see below, it just doesn't apply for unary
+operators). Now that we have a way to represent the prototype for a
+user-defined operator, we need to parse it:
+
+.. code-block:: c++
+
+    /// prototype
+    ///   ::= id '(' id* ')'
+    ///   ::= binary LETTER number? (id, id)
+    static PrototypeAST *ParsePrototype() {
+      std::string FnName;
+
+      unsigned Kind = 0;  // 0 = identifier, 1 = unary, 2 = binary.
+      unsigned BinaryPrecedence = 30;
+
+      switch (CurTok) {
+      default:
+        return ErrorP("Expected function name in prototype");
+      case tok_identifier:
+        FnName = IdentifierStr;
+        Kind = 0;
+        getNextToken();
+        break;
+      case tok_binary:
+        getNextToken();
+        if (!isascii(CurTok))
+          return ErrorP("Expected binary operator");
+        FnName = "binary";
+        FnName += (char)CurTok;
+        Kind = 2;
+        getNextToken();
+
+        // Read the precedence if present.
+        if (CurTok == tok_number) {
+          if (NumVal < 1 || NumVal > 100)
+            return ErrorP("Invalid precedecnce: must be 1..100");
+          BinaryPrecedence = (unsigned)NumVal;
+          getNextToken();
+        }
+        break;
+      }
+
+      if (CurTok != '(')
+        return ErrorP("Expected '(' in prototype");
+
+      std::vector<std::string> ArgNames;
+      while (getNextToken() == tok_identifier)
+        ArgNames.push_back(IdentifierStr);
+      if (CurTok != ')')
+        return ErrorP("Expected ')' in prototype");
+
+      // success.
+      getNextToken();  // eat ')'.
+
+      // Verify right number of names for operator.
+      if (Kind && ArgNames.size() != Kind)
+        return ErrorP("Invalid number of operands for operator");
+
+      return new PrototypeAST(FnName, ArgNames, Kind != 0, BinaryPrecedence);
+    }
+
+This is all fairly straightforward parsing code, and we have already
+seen a lot of similar code in the past. One interesting part about the
+code above is the couple lines that set up ``FnName`` for binary
+operators. This builds names like "binary@" for a newly defined "@"
+operator. This then takes advantage of the fact that symbol names in the
+LLVM symbol table are allowed to have any character in them, including
+embedded nul characters.
+
+The next interesting thing to add, is codegen support for these binary
+operators. Given our current structure, this is a simple addition of a
+default case for our existing binary operator node:
+
+.. code-block:: c++
+
+    Value *BinaryExprAST::Codegen() {
+      Value *L = LHS->Codegen();
+      Value *R = RHS->Codegen();
+      if (L == 0 || R == 0) return 0;
+
+      switch (Op) {
+      case '+': return Builder.CreateFAdd(L, R, "addtmp");
+      case '-': return Builder.CreateFSub(L, R, "subtmp");
+      case '*': return Builder.CreateFMul(L, R, "multmp");
+      case '<':
+        L = Builder.CreateFCmpULT(L, R, "cmptmp");
+        // Convert bool 0/1 to double 0.0 or 1.0
+        return Builder.CreateUIToFP(L, Type::getDoubleTy(getGlobalContext()),
+                                    "booltmp");
+      default: break;
+      }
+
+      // If it wasn't a builtin binary operator, it must be a user defined one. Emit
+      // a call to it.
+      Function *F = TheModule->getFunction(std::string("binary")+Op);
+      assert(F && "binary operator not found!");
+
+      Value *Ops[2] = { L, R };
+      return Builder.CreateCall(F, Ops, "binop");
+    }
+
+As you can see above, the new code is actually really simple. It just
+does a lookup for the appropriate operator in the symbol table and
+generates a function call to it. Since user-defined operators are just
+built as normal functions (because the "prototype" boils down to a
+function with the right name) everything falls into place.
+
+The final piece of code we are missing, is a bit of top-level magic:
+
+.. code-block:: c++
+
+    Function *FunctionAST::Codegen() {
+      NamedValues.clear();
+
+      Function *TheFunction = Proto->Codegen();
+      if (TheFunction == 0)
+        return 0;
+
+      // If this is an operator, install it.
+      if (Proto->isBinaryOp())
+        BinopPrecedence[Proto->getOperatorName()] = Proto->getBinaryPrecedence();
+
+      // Create a new basic block to start insertion into.
+      BasicBlock *BB = BasicBlock::Create(getGlobalContext(), "entry", TheFunction);
+      Builder.SetInsertPoint(BB);
+
+      if (Value *RetVal = Body->Codegen()) {
+        ...
+
+Basically, before codegening a function, if it is a user-defined
+operator, we register it in the precedence table. This allows the binary
+operator parsing logic we already have in place to handle it. Since we
+are working on a fully-general operator precedence parser, this is all
+we need to do to "extend the grammar".
+
+Now we have useful user-defined binary operators. This builds a lot on
+the previous framework we built for other operators. Adding unary
+operators is a bit more challenging, because we don't have any framework
+for it yet - lets see what it takes.
+
+User-defined Unary Operators
+============================
+
+Since we don't currently support unary operators in the Kaleidoscope
+language, we'll need to add everything to support them. Above, we added
+simple support for the 'unary' keyword to the lexer. In addition to
+that, we need an AST node:
+
+.. code-block:: c++
+
+    /// UnaryExprAST - Expression class for a unary operator.
+    class UnaryExprAST : public ExprAST {
+      char Opcode;
+      ExprAST *Operand;
+    public:
+      UnaryExprAST(char opcode, ExprAST *operand)
+        : Opcode(opcode), Operand(operand) {}
+      virtual Value *Codegen();
+    };
+
+This AST node is very simple and obvious by now. It directly mirrors the
+binary operator AST node, except that it only has one child. With this,
+we need to add the parsing logic. Parsing a unary operator is pretty
+simple: we'll add a new function to do it:
+
+.. code-block:: c++
+
+    /// unary
+    ///   ::= primary
+    ///   ::= '!' unary
+    static ExprAST *ParseUnary() {
+      // If the current token is not an operator, it must be a primary expr.
+      if (!isascii(CurTok) || CurTok == '(' || CurTok == ',')
+        return ParsePrimary();
+
+      // If this is a unary operator, read it.
+      int Opc = CurTok;
+      getNextToken();
+      if (ExprAST *Operand = ParseUnary())
+        return new UnaryExprAST(Opc, Operand);
+      return 0;
+    }
+
+The grammar we add is pretty straightforward here. If we see a unary
+operator when parsing a primary operator, we eat the operator as a
+prefix and parse the remaining piece as another unary operator. This
+allows us to handle multiple unary operators (e.g. "!!x"). Note that
+unary operators can't have ambiguous parses like binary operators can,
+so there is no need for precedence information.
+
+The problem with this function, is that we need to call ParseUnary from
+somewhere. To do this, we change previous callers of ParsePrimary to
+call ParseUnary instead:
+
+.. code-block:: c++
+
+    /// binoprhs
+    ///   ::= ('+' unary)*
+    static ExprAST *ParseBinOpRHS(int ExprPrec, ExprAST *LHS) {
+      ...
+        // Parse the unary expression after the binary operator.
+        ExprAST *RHS = ParseUnary();
+        if (!RHS) return 0;
+      ...
+    }
+    /// expression
+    ///   ::= unary binoprhs
+    ///
+    static ExprAST *ParseExpression() {
+      ExprAST *LHS = ParseUnary();
+      if (!LHS) return 0;
+
+      return ParseBinOpRHS(0, LHS);
+    }
+
+With these two simple changes, we are now able to parse unary operators
+and build the AST for them. Next up, we need to add parser support for
+prototypes, to parse the unary operator prototype. We extend the binary
+operator code above with:
+
+.. code-block:: c++
+
+    /// prototype
+    ///   ::= id '(' id* ')'
+    ///   ::= binary LETTER number? (id, id)
+    ///   ::= unary LETTER (id)
+    static PrototypeAST *ParsePrototype() {
+      std::string FnName;
+
+      unsigned Kind = 0;  // 0 = identifier, 1 = unary, 2 = binary.
+      unsigned BinaryPrecedence = 30;
+
+      switch (CurTok) {
+      default:
+        return ErrorP("Expected function name in prototype");
+      case tok_identifier:
+        FnName = IdentifierStr;
+        Kind = 0;
+        getNextToken();
+        break;
+      case tok_unary:
+        getNextToken();
+        if (!isascii(CurTok))
+          return ErrorP("Expected unary operator");
+        FnName = "unary";
+        FnName += (char)CurTok;
+        Kind = 1;
+        getNextToken();
+        break;
+      case tok_binary:
+        ...
+
+As with binary operators, we name unary operators with a name that
+includes the operator character. This assists us at code generation
+time. Speaking of, the final piece we need to add is codegen support for
+unary operators. It looks like this:
+
+.. code-block:: c++
+
+    Value *UnaryExprAST::Codegen() {
+      Value *OperandV = Operand->Codegen();
+      if (OperandV == 0) return 0;
+
+      Function *F = TheModule->getFunction(std::string("unary")+Opcode);
+      if (F == 0)
+        return ErrorV("Unknown unary operator");
+
+      return Builder.CreateCall(F, OperandV, "unop");
+    }
+
+This code is similar to, but simpler than, the code for binary
+operators. It is simpler primarily because it doesn't need to handle any
+predefined operators.
+
+Kicking the Tires
+=================
+
+It is somewhat hard to believe, but with a few simple extensions we've
+covered in the last chapters, we have grown a real-ish language. With
+this, we can do a lot of interesting things, including I/O, math, and a
+bunch of other things. For example, we can now add a nice sequencing
+operator (printd is defined to print out the specified value and a
+newline):
+
+::
+
+    ready> extern printd(x);
+    Read extern:
+    declare double @printd(double)
+
+    ready> def binary : 1 (x y) 0;  # Low-precedence operator that ignores operands.
+    ..
+    ready> printd(123) : printd(456) : printd(789);
+    123.000000
+    456.000000
+    789.000000
+    Evaluated to 0.000000
+
+We can also define a bunch of other "primitive" operations, such as:
+
+::
+
+    # Logical unary not.
+    def unary!(v)
+      if v then
+        0
+      else
+        1;
+
+    # Unary negate.
+    def unary-(v)
+      0-v;
+
+    # Define > with the same precedence as <.
+    def binary> 10 (LHS RHS)
+      RHS < LHS;
+
+    # Binary logical or, which does not short circuit.
+    def binary| 5 (LHS RHS)
+      if LHS then
+        1
+      else if RHS then
+        1
+      else
+        0;
+
+    # Binary logical and, which does not short circuit.
+    def binary& 6 (LHS RHS)
+      if !LHS then
+        0
+      else
+        !!RHS;
+
+    # Define = with slightly lower precedence than relationals.
+    def binary = 9 (LHS RHS)
+      !(LHS < RHS | LHS > RHS);
+
+    # Define ':' for sequencing: as a low-precedence operator that ignores operands
+    # and just returns the RHS.
+    def binary : 1 (x y) y;
+
+Given the previous if/then/else support, we can also define interesting
+functions for I/O. For example, the following prints out a character
+whose "density" reflects the value passed in: the lower the value, the
+denser the character:
+
+::
+
+    ready>
+
+    extern putchard(char)
+    def printdensity(d)
+      if d > 8 then
+        putchard(32)  # ' '
+      else if d > 4 then
+        putchard(46)  # '.'
+      else if d > 2 then
+        putchard(43)  # '+'
+      else
+        putchard(42); # '*'
+    ...
+    ready> printdensity(1): printdensity(2): printdensity(3):
+           printdensity(4): printdensity(5): printdensity(9):
+           putchard(10);
+    **++.
+    Evaluated to 0.000000
+
+Based on these simple primitive operations, we can start to define more
+interesting things. For example, here's a little function that solves
+for the number of iterations it takes a function in the complex plane to
+converge:
+
+::
+
+    # Determine whether the specific location diverges.
+    # Solve for z = z^2 + c in the complex plane.
+    def mandleconverger(real imag iters creal cimag)
+      if iters > 255 | (real*real + imag*imag > 4) then
+        iters
+      else
+        mandleconverger(real*real - imag*imag + creal,
+                        2*real*imag + cimag,
+                        iters+1, creal, cimag);
+
+    # Return the number of iterations required for the iteration to escape
+    def mandleconverge(real imag)
+      mandleconverger(real, imag, 0, real, imag);
+
+This "``z = z2 + c``" function is a beautiful little creature that is
+the basis for computation of the `Mandelbrot
+Set <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mandelbrot_set>`_. Our
+``mandelconverge`` function returns the number of iterations that it
+takes for a complex orbit to escape, saturating to 255. This is not a
+very useful function by itself, but if you plot its value over a
+two-dimensional plane, you can see the Mandelbrot set. Given that we are
+limited to using putchard here, our amazing graphical output is limited,
+but we can whip together something using the density plotter above:
+
+::
+
+    # Compute and plot the mandlebrot set with the specified 2 dimensional range
+    # info.
+    def mandelhelp(xmin xmax xstep   ymin ymax ystep)
+      for y = ymin, y < ymax, ystep in (
+        (for x = xmin, x < xmax, xstep in
+           printdensity(mandleconverge(x,y)))
+        : putchard(10)
+      )
+
+    # mandel - This is a convenient helper function for plotting the mandelbrot set
+    # from the specified position with the specified Magnification.
+    def mandel(realstart imagstart realmag imagmag)
+      mandelhelp(realstart, realstart+realmag*78, realmag,
+                 imagstart, imagstart+imagmag*40, imagmag);
+
+Given this, we can try plotting out the mandlebrot set! Lets try it out:
+
+::
+
+    ready> mandel(-2.3, -1.3, 0.05, 0.07);
+    *******************************+++++++++++*************************************
+    *************************+++++++++++++++++++++++*******************************
+    **********************+++++++++++++++++++++++++++++****************************
+    *******************+++++++++++++++++++++.. ...++++++++*************************
+    *****************++++++++++++++++++++++.... ...+++++++++***********************
+    ***************+++++++++++++++++++++++.....   ...+++++++++*********************
+    **************+++++++++++++++++++++++....     ....+++++++++********************
+    *************++++++++++++++++++++++......      .....++++++++*******************
+    ************+++++++++++++++++++++.......       .......+++++++******************
+    ***********+++++++++++++++++++....                ... .+++++++*****************
+    **********+++++++++++++++++.......                     .+++++++****************
+    *********++++++++++++++...........                    ...+++++++***************
+    ********++++++++++++............                      ...++++++++**************
+    ********++++++++++... ..........                        .++++++++**************
+    *******+++++++++.....                                   .+++++++++*************
+    *******++++++++......                                  ..+++++++++*************
+    *******++++++.......                                   ..+++++++++*************
+    *******+++++......                                     ..+++++++++*************
+    *******.... ....                                      ...+++++++++*************
+    *******.... .                                         ...+++++++++*************
+    *******+++++......                                    ...+++++++++*************
+    *******++++++.......                                   ..+++++++++*************
+    *******++++++++......                                   .+++++++++*************
+    *******+++++++++.....                                  ..+++++++++*************
+    ********++++++++++... ..........                        .++++++++**************
+    ********++++++++++++............                      ...++++++++**************
+    *********++++++++++++++..........                     ...+++++++***************
+    **********++++++++++++++++........                     .+++++++****************
+    **********++++++++++++++++++++....                ... ..+++++++****************
+    ***********++++++++++++++++++++++.......       .......++++++++*****************
+    ************+++++++++++++++++++++++......      ......++++++++******************
+    **************+++++++++++++++++++++++....      ....++++++++********************
+    ***************+++++++++++++++++++++++.....   ...+++++++++*********************
+    *****************++++++++++++++++++++++....  ...++++++++***********************
+    *******************+++++++++++++++++++++......++++++++*************************
+    *********************++++++++++++++++++++++.++++++++***************************
+    *************************+++++++++++++++++++++++*******************************
+    ******************************+++++++++++++************************************
+    *******************************************************************************
+    *******************************************************************************
+    *******************************************************************************
+    Evaluated to 0.000000
+    ready> mandel(-2, -1, 0.02, 0.04);
+    **************************+++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++
+    ***********************++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++
+    *********************+++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++.
+    *******************+++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++...
+    *****************+++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++.....
+    ***************++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++........
+    **************++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++...........
+    ************+++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++..............
+    ***********++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++........        .
+    **********++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++.............
+    ********+++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++..................
+    *******+++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++.......................
+    ******+++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++...........................
+    *****++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++............................
+    *****++++++++++++++++++++++++++++...............................
+    ****++++++++++++++++++++++++++......   .........................
+    ***++++++++++++++++++++++++.........     ......    ...........
+    ***++++++++++++++++++++++............
+    **+++++++++++++++++++++..............
+    **+++++++++++++++++++................
+    *++++++++++++++++++.................
+    *++++++++++++++++............ ...
+    *++++++++++++++..............
+    *+++....++++................
+    *..........  ...........
+    *
+    *..........  ...........
+    *+++....++++................
+    *++++++++++++++..............
+    *++++++++++++++++............ ...
+    *++++++++++++++++++.................
+    **+++++++++++++++++++................
+    **+++++++++++++++++++++..............
+    ***++++++++++++++++++++++............
+    ***++++++++++++++++++++++++.........     ......    ...........
+    ****++++++++++++++++++++++++++......   .........................
+    *****++++++++++++++++++++++++++++...............................
+    *****++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++............................
+    ******+++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++...........................
+    *******+++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++.......................
+    ********+++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++..................
+    Evaluated to 0.000000
+    ready> mandel(-0.9, -1.4, 0.02, 0.03);
+    *******************************************************************************
+    *******************************************************************************
+    *******************************************************************************
+    **********+++++++++++++++++++++************************************************
+    *+++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++***************************************
+    +++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++**********************************
+    ++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++*****************************
+    ++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++*************************
+    +++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++**********************
+    +++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++.........++++++++++++++++++*******************
+    +++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++....   ......+++++++++++++++++++****************
+    +++++++++++++++++++++++++++++.......  ........+++++++++++++++++++**************
+    ++++++++++++++++++++++++++++........   ........++++++++++++++++++++************
+    +++++++++++++++++++++++++++.........     ..  ...+++++++++++++++++++++**********
+    ++++++++++++++++++++++++++...........        ....++++++++++++++++++++++********
+    ++++++++++++++++++++++++.............       .......++++++++++++++++++++++******
+    +++++++++++++++++++++++.............        ........+++++++++++++++++++++++****
+    ++++++++++++++++++++++...........           ..........++++++++++++++++++++++***
+    ++++++++++++++++++++...........                .........++++++++++++++++++++++*
+    ++++++++++++++++++............                  ...........++++++++++++++++++++
+    ++++++++++++++++...............                 .............++++++++++++++++++
+    ++++++++++++++.................                 ...............++++++++++++++++
+    ++++++++++++..................                  .................++++++++++++++
+    +++++++++..................                      .................+++++++++++++
+    ++++++........        .                               .........  ..++++++++++++
+    ++............                                         ......    ....++++++++++
+    ..............                                                    ...++++++++++
+    ..............                                                    ....+++++++++
+    ..............                                                    .....++++++++
+    .............                                                    ......++++++++
+    ...........                                                     .......++++++++
+    .........                                                       ........+++++++
+    .........                                                       ........+++++++
+    .........                                                           ....+++++++
+    ........                                                             ...+++++++
+    .......                                                              ...+++++++
+                                                                        ....+++++++
+                                                                       .....+++++++
+                                                                        ....+++++++
+                                                                        ....+++++++
+                                                                        ....+++++++
+    Evaluated to 0.000000
+    ready> ^D
+
+At this point, you may be starting to realize that Kaleidoscope is a
+real and powerful language. It may not be self-similar :), but it can be
+used to plot things that are!
+
+With this, we conclude the "adding user-defined operators" chapter of
+the tutorial. We have successfully augmented our language, adding the
+ability to extend the language in the library, and we have shown how
+this can be used to build a simple but interesting end-user application
+in Kaleidoscope. At this point, Kaleidoscope can build a variety of
+applications that are functional and can call functions with
+side-effects, but it can't actually define and mutate a variable itself.
+
+Strikingly, variable mutation is an important feature of some languages,
+and it is not at all obvious how to `add support for mutable
+variables <LangImpl7.html>`_ without having to add an "SSA construction"
+phase to your front-end. In the next chapter, we will describe how you
+can add variable mutation without building SSA in your front-end.
+
+Full Code Listing
+=================
+
+Here is the complete code listing for our running example, enhanced with
+the if/then/else and for expressions.. To build this example, use:
+
+.. code-block:: bash
+
+    # Compile
+    clang++ -g toy.cpp `llvm-config --cppflags --ldflags --libs core jit native` -O3 -o toy
+    # Run
+    ./toy
+
+On some platforms, you will need to specify -rdynamic or
+-Wl,--export-dynamic when linking. This ensures that symbols defined in
+the main executable are exported to the dynamic linker and so are
+available for symbol resolution at run time. This is not needed if you
+compile your support code into a shared library, although doing that
+will cause problems on Windows.
+
+Here is the code:
+
+.. literalinclude:: ../../examples/Kaleidoscope/Chapter6/toy.cpp
+   :language: c++
+
+`Next: Extending the language: mutable variables / SSA
+construction <LangImpl7.html>`_
+

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==============================================================================
--- www-releases/trunk/3.5.1/docs/_sources/tutorial/LangImpl7.txt (added)
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+=======================================================
+Kaleidoscope: Extending the Language: Mutable Variables
+=======================================================
+
+.. contents::
+   :local:
+
+Chapter 7 Introduction
+======================
+
+Welcome to Chapter 7 of the "`Implementing a language with
+LLVM <index.html>`_" tutorial. In chapters 1 through 6, we've built a
+very respectable, albeit simple, `functional programming
+language <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Functional_programming>`_. In our
+journey, we learned some parsing techniques, how to build and represent
+an AST, how to build LLVM IR, and how to optimize the resultant code as
+well as JIT compile it.
+
+While Kaleidoscope is interesting as a functional language, the fact
+that it is functional makes it "too easy" to generate LLVM IR for it. In
+particular, a functional language makes it very easy to build LLVM IR
+directly in `SSA
+form <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Static_single_assignment_form>`_.
+Since LLVM requires that the input code be in SSA form, this is a very
+nice property and it is often unclear to newcomers how to generate code
+for an imperative language with mutable variables.
+
+The short (and happy) summary of this chapter is that there is no need
+for your front-end to build SSA form: LLVM provides highly tuned and
+well tested support for this, though the way it works is a bit
+unexpected for some.
+
+Why is this a hard problem?
+===========================
+
+To understand why mutable variables cause complexities in SSA
+construction, consider this extremely simple C example:
+
+.. code-block:: c
+
+    int G, H;
+    int test(_Bool Condition) {
+      int X;
+      if (Condition)
+        X = G;
+      else
+        X = H;
+      return X;
+    }
+
+In this case, we have the variable "X", whose value depends on the path
+executed in the program. Because there are two different possible values
+for X before the return instruction, a PHI node is inserted to merge the
+two values. The LLVM IR that we want for this example looks like this:
+
+.. code-block:: llvm
+
+    @G = weak global i32 0   ; type of @G is i32*
+    @H = weak global i32 0   ; type of @H is i32*
+
+    define i32 @test(i1 %Condition) {
+    entry:
+      br i1 %Condition, label %cond_true, label %cond_false
+
+    cond_true:
+      %X.0 = load i32* @G
+      br label %cond_next
+
+    cond_false:
+      %X.1 = load i32* @H
+      br label %cond_next
+
+    cond_next:
+      %X.2 = phi i32 [ %X.1, %cond_false ], [ %X.0, %cond_true ]
+      ret i32 %X.2
+    }
+
+In this example, the loads from the G and H global variables are
+explicit in the LLVM IR, and they live in the then/else branches of the
+if statement (cond\_true/cond\_false). In order to merge the incoming
+values, the X.2 phi node in the cond\_next block selects the right value
+to use based on where control flow is coming from: if control flow comes
+from the cond\_false block, X.2 gets the value of X.1. Alternatively, if
+control flow comes from cond\_true, it gets the value of X.0. The intent
+of this chapter is not to explain the details of SSA form. For more
+information, see one of the many `online
+references <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Static_single_assignment_form>`_.
+
+The question for this article is "who places the phi nodes when lowering
+assignments to mutable variables?". The issue here is that LLVM
+*requires* that its IR be in SSA form: there is no "non-ssa" mode for
+it. However, SSA construction requires non-trivial algorithms and data
+structures, so it is inconvenient and wasteful for every front-end to
+have to reproduce this logic.
+
+Memory in LLVM
+==============
+
+The 'trick' here is that while LLVM does require all register values to
+be in SSA form, it does not require (or permit) memory objects to be in
+SSA form. In the example above, note that the loads from G and H are
+direct accesses to G and H: they are not renamed or versioned. This
+differs from some other compiler systems, which do try to version memory
+objects. In LLVM, instead of encoding dataflow analysis of memory into
+the LLVM IR, it is handled with `Analysis
+Passes <../WritingAnLLVMPass.html>`_ which are computed on demand.
+
+With this in mind, the high-level idea is that we want to make a stack
+variable (which lives in memory, because it is on the stack) for each
+mutable object in a function. To take advantage of this trick, we need
+to talk about how LLVM represents stack variables.
+
+In LLVM, all memory accesses are explicit with load/store instructions,
+and it is carefully designed not to have (or need) an "address-of"
+operator. Notice how the type of the @G/@H global variables is actually
+"i32\*" even though the variable is defined as "i32". What this means is
+that @G defines *space* for an i32 in the global data area, but its
+*name* actually refers to the address for that space. Stack variables
+work the same way, except that instead of being declared with global
+variable definitions, they are declared with the `LLVM alloca
+instruction <../LangRef.html#i_alloca>`_:
+
+.. code-block:: llvm
+
+    define i32 @example() {
+    entry:
+      %X = alloca i32           ; type of %X is i32*.
+      ...
+      %tmp = load i32* %X       ; load the stack value %X from the stack.
+      %tmp2 = add i32 %tmp, 1   ; increment it
+      store i32 %tmp2, i32* %X  ; store it back
+      ...
+
+This code shows an example of how you can declare and manipulate a stack
+variable in the LLVM IR. Stack memory allocated with the alloca
+instruction is fully general: you can pass the address of the stack slot
+to functions, you can store it in other variables, etc. In our example
+above, we could rewrite the example to use the alloca technique to avoid
+using a PHI node:
+
+.. code-block:: llvm
+
+    @G = weak global i32 0   ; type of @G is i32*
+    @H = weak global i32 0   ; type of @H is i32*
+
+    define i32 @test(i1 %Condition) {
+    entry:
+      %X = alloca i32           ; type of %X is i32*.
+      br i1 %Condition, label %cond_true, label %cond_false
+
+    cond_true:
+      %X.0 = load i32* @G
+      store i32 %X.0, i32* %X   ; Update X
+      br label %cond_next
+
+    cond_false:
+      %X.1 = load i32* @H
+      store i32 %X.1, i32* %X   ; Update X
+      br label %cond_next
+
+    cond_next:
+      %X.2 = load i32* %X       ; Read X
+      ret i32 %X.2
+    }
+
+With this, we have discovered a way to handle arbitrary mutable
+variables without the need to create Phi nodes at all:
+
+#. Each mutable variable becomes a stack allocation.
+#. Each read of the variable becomes a load from the stack.
+#. Each update of the variable becomes a store to the stack.
+#. Taking the address of a variable just uses the stack address
+   directly.
+
+While this solution has solved our immediate problem, it introduced
+another one: we have now apparently introduced a lot of stack traffic
+for very simple and common operations, a major performance problem.
+Fortunately for us, the LLVM optimizer has a highly-tuned optimization
+pass named "mem2reg" that handles this case, promoting allocas like this
+into SSA registers, inserting Phi nodes as appropriate. If you run this
+example through the pass, for example, you'll get:
+
+.. code-block:: bash
+
+    $ llvm-as < example.ll | opt -mem2reg | llvm-dis
+    @G = weak global i32 0
+    @H = weak global i32 0
+
+    define i32 @test(i1 %Condition) {
+    entry:
+      br i1 %Condition, label %cond_true, label %cond_false
+
+    cond_true:
+      %X.0 = load i32* @G
+      br label %cond_next
+
+    cond_false:
+      %X.1 = load i32* @H
+      br label %cond_next
+
+    cond_next:
+      %X.01 = phi i32 [ %X.1, %cond_false ], [ %X.0, %cond_true ]
+      ret i32 %X.01
+    }
+
+The mem2reg pass implements the standard "iterated dominance frontier"
+algorithm for constructing SSA form and has a number of optimizations
+that speed up (very common) degenerate cases. The mem2reg optimization
+pass is the answer to dealing with mutable variables, and we highly
+recommend that you depend on it. Note that mem2reg only works on
+variables in certain circumstances:
+
+#. mem2reg is alloca-driven: it looks for allocas and if it can handle
+   them, it promotes them. It does not apply to global variables or heap
+   allocations.
+#. mem2reg only looks for alloca instructions in the entry block of the
+   function. Being in the entry block guarantees that the alloca is only
+   executed once, which makes analysis simpler.
+#. mem2reg only promotes allocas whose uses are direct loads and stores.
+   If the address of the stack object is passed to a function, or if any
+   funny pointer arithmetic is involved, the alloca will not be
+   promoted.
+#. mem2reg only works on allocas of `first
+   class <../LangRef.html#t_classifications>`_ values (such as pointers,
+   scalars and vectors), and only if the array size of the allocation is
+   1 (or missing in the .ll file). mem2reg is not capable of promoting
+   structs or arrays to registers. Note that the "scalarrepl" pass is
+   more powerful and can promote structs, "unions", and arrays in many
+   cases.
+
+All of these properties are easy to satisfy for most imperative
+languages, and we'll illustrate it below with Kaleidoscope. The final
+question you may be asking is: should I bother with this nonsense for my
+front-end? Wouldn't it be better if I just did SSA construction
+directly, avoiding use of the mem2reg optimization pass? In short, we
+strongly recommend that you use this technique for building SSA form,
+unless there is an extremely good reason not to. Using this technique
+is:
+
+-  Proven and well tested: clang uses this technique
+   for local mutable variables. As such, the most common clients of LLVM
+   are using this to handle a bulk of their variables. You can be sure
+   that bugs are found fast and fixed early.
+-  Extremely Fast: mem2reg has a number of special cases that make it
+   fast in common cases as well as fully general. For example, it has
+   fast-paths for variables that are only used in a single block,
+   variables that only have one assignment point, good heuristics to
+   avoid insertion of unneeded phi nodes, etc.
+-  Needed for debug info generation: `Debug information in
+   LLVM <../SourceLevelDebugging.html>`_ relies on having the address of
+   the variable exposed so that debug info can be attached to it. This
+   technique dovetails very naturally with this style of debug info.
+
+If nothing else, this makes it much easier to get your front-end up and
+running, and is very simple to implement. Lets extend Kaleidoscope with
+mutable variables now!
+
+Mutable Variables in Kaleidoscope
+=================================
+
+Now that we know the sort of problem we want to tackle, lets see what
+this looks like in the context of our little Kaleidoscope language.
+We're going to add two features:
+
+#. The ability to mutate variables with the '=' operator.
+#. The ability to define new variables.
+
+While the first item is really what this is about, we only have
+variables for incoming arguments as well as for induction variables, and
+redefining those only goes so far :). Also, the ability to define new
+variables is a useful thing regardless of whether you will be mutating
+them. Here's a motivating example that shows how we could use these:
+
+::
+
+    # Define ':' for sequencing: as a low-precedence operator that ignores operands
+    # and just returns the RHS.
+    def binary : 1 (x y) y;
+
+    # Recursive fib, we could do this before.
+    def fib(x)
+      if (x < 3) then
+        1
+      else
+        fib(x-1)+fib(x-2);
+
+    # Iterative fib.
+    def fibi(x)
+      var a = 1, b = 1, c in
+      (for i = 3, i < x in
+         c = a + b :
+         a = b :
+         b = c) :
+      b;
+
+    # Call it.
+    fibi(10);
+
+In order to mutate variables, we have to change our existing variables
+to use the "alloca trick". Once we have that, we'll add our new
+operator, then extend Kaleidoscope to support new variable definitions.
+
+Adjusting Existing Variables for Mutation
+=========================================
+
+The symbol table in Kaleidoscope is managed at code generation time by
+the '``NamedValues``' map. This map currently keeps track of the LLVM
+"Value\*" that holds the double value for the named variable. In order
+to support mutation, we need to change this slightly, so that it
+``NamedValues`` holds the *memory location* of the variable in question.
+Note that this change is a refactoring: it changes the structure of the
+code, but does not (by itself) change the behavior of the compiler. All
+of these changes are isolated in the Kaleidoscope code generator.
+
+At this point in Kaleidoscope's development, it only supports variables
+for two things: incoming arguments to functions and the induction
+variable of 'for' loops. For consistency, we'll allow mutation of these
+variables in addition to other user-defined variables. This means that
+these will both need memory locations.
+
+To start our transformation of Kaleidoscope, we'll change the
+NamedValues map so that it maps to AllocaInst\* instead of Value\*. Once
+we do this, the C++ compiler will tell us what parts of the code we need
+to update:
+
+.. code-block:: c++
+
+    static std::map<std::string, AllocaInst*> NamedValues;
+
+Also, since we will need to create these alloca's, we'll use a helper
+function that ensures that the allocas are created in the entry block of
+the function:
+
+.. code-block:: c++
+
+    /// CreateEntryBlockAlloca - Create an alloca instruction in the entry block of
+    /// the function.  This is used for mutable variables etc.
+    static AllocaInst *CreateEntryBlockAlloca(Function *TheFunction,
+                                              const std::string &VarName) {
+      IRBuilder<> TmpB(&TheFunction->getEntryBlock(),
+                     TheFunction->getEntryBlock().begin());
+      return TmpB.CreateAlloca(Type::getDoubleTy(getGlobalContext()), 0,
+                               VarName.c_str());
+    }
+
+This funny looking code creates an IRBuilder object that is pointing at
+the first instruction (.begin()) of the entry block. It then creates an
+alloca with the expected name and returns it. Because all values in
+Kaleidoscope are doubles, there is no need to pass in a type to use.
+
+With this in place, the first functionality change we want to make is to
+variable references. In our new scheme, variables live on the stack, so
+code generating a reference to them actually needs to produce a load
+from the stack slot:
+
+.. code-block:: c++
+
+    Value *VariableExprAST::Codegen() {
+      // Look this variable up in the function.
+      Value *V = NamedValues[Name];
+      if (V == 0) return ErrorV("Unknown variable name");
+
+      // Load the value.
+      return Builder.CreateLoad(V, Name.c_str());
+    }
+
+As you can see, this is pretty straightforward. Now we need to update
+the things that define the variables to set up the alloca. We'll start
+with ``ForExprAST::Codegen`` (see the `full code listing <#code>`_ for
+the unabridged code):
+
+.. code-block:: c++
+
+      Function *TheFunction = Builder.GetInsertBlock()->getParent();
+
+      // Create an alloca for the variable in the entry block.
+      AllocaInst *Alloca = CreateEntryBlockAlloca(TheFunction, VarName);
+
+        // Emit the start code first, without 'variable' in scope.
+      Value *StartVal = Start->Codegen();
+      if (StartVal == 0) return 0;
+
+      // Store the value into the alloca.
+      Builder.CreateStore(StartVal, Alloca);
+      ...
+
+      // Compute the end condition.
+      Value *EndCond = End->Codegen();
+      if (EndCond == 0) return EndCond;
+
+      // Reload, increment, and restore the alloca.  This handles the case where
+      // the body of the loop mutates the variable.
+      Value *CurVar = Builder.CreateLoad(Alloca);
+      Value *NextVar = Builder.CreateFAdd(CurVar, StepVal, "nextvar");
+      Builder.CreateStore(NextVar, Alloca);
+      ...
+
+This code is virtually identical to the code `before we allowed mutable
+variables <LangImpl5.html#forcodegen>`_. The big difference is that we
+no longer have to construct a PHI node, and we use load/store to access
+the variable as needed.
+
+To support mutable argument variables, we need to also make allocas for
+them. The code for this is also pretty simple:
+
+.. code-block:: c++
+
+    /// CreateArgumentAllocas - Create an alloca for each argument and register the
+    /// argument in the symbol table so that references to it will succeed.
+    void PrototypeAST::CreateArgumentAllocas(Function *F) {
+      Function::arg_iterator AI = F->arg_begin();
+      for (unsigned Idx = 0, e = Args.size(); Idx != e; ++Idx, ++AI) {
+        // Create an alloca for this variable.
+        AllocaInst *Alloca = CreateEntryBlockAlloca(F, Args[Idx]);
+
+        // Store the initial value into the alloca.
+        Builder.CreateStore(AI, Alloca);
+
+        // Add arguments to variable symbol table.
+        NamedValues[Args[Idx]] = Alloca;
+      }
+    }
+
+For each argument, we make an alloca, store the input value to the
+function into the alloca, and register the alloca as the memory location
+for the argument. This method gets invoked by ``FunctionAST::Codegen``
+right after it sets up the entry block for the function.
+
+The final missing piece is adding the mem2reg pass, which allows us to
+get good codegen once again:
+
+.. code-block:: c++
+
+        // Set up the optimizer pipeline.  Start with registering info about how the
+        // target lays out data structures.
+        OurFPM.add(new DataLayout(*TheExecutionEngine->getDataLayout()));
+        // Promote allocas to registers.
+        OurFPM.add(createPromoteMemoryToRegisterPass());
+        // Do simple "peephole" optimizations and bit-twiddling optzns.
+        OurFPM.add(createInstructionCombiningPass());
+        // Reassociate expressions.
+        OurFPM.add(createReassociatePass());
+
+It is interesting to see what the code looks like before and after the
+mem2reg optimization runs. For example, this is the before/after code
+for our recursive fib function. Before the optimization:
+
+.. code-block:: llvm
+
+    define double @fib(double %x) {
+    entry:
+      %x1 = alloca double
+      store double %x, double* %x1
+      %x2 = load double* %x1
+      %cmptmp = fcmp ult double %x2, 3.000000e+00
+      %booltmp = uitofp i1 %cmptmp to double
+      %ifcond = fcmp one double %booltmp, 0.000000e+00
+      br i1 %ifcond, label %then, label %else
+
+    then:       ; preds = %entry
+      br label %ifcont
+
+    else:       ; preds = %entry
+      %x3 = load double* %x1
+      %subtmp = fsub double %x3, 1.000000e+00
+      %calltmp = call double @fib(double %subtmp)
+      %x4 = load double* %x1
+      %subtmp5 = fsub double %x4, 2.000000e+00
+      %calltmp6 = call double @fib(double %subtmp5)
+      %addtmp = fadd double %calltmp, %calltmp6
+      br label %ifcont
+
+    ifcont:     ; preds = %else, %then
+      %iftmp = phi double [ 1.000000e+00, %then ], [ %addtmp, %else ]
+      ret double %iftmp
+    }
+
+Here there is only one variable (x, the input argument) but you can
+still see the extremely simple-minded code generation strategy we are
+using. In the entry block, an alloca is created, and the initial input
+value is stored into it. Each reference to the variable does a reload
+from the stack. Also, note that we didn't modify the if/then/else
+expression, so it still inserts a PHI node. While we could make an
+alloca for it, it is actually easier to create a PHI node for it, so we
+still just make the PHI.
+
+Here is the code after the mem2reg pass runs:
+
+.. code-block:: llvm
+
+    define double @fib(double %x) {
+    entry:
+      %cmptmp = fcmp ult double %x, 3.000000e+00
+      %booltmp = uitofp i1 %cmptmp to double
+      %ifcond = fcmp one double %booltmp, 0.000000e+00
+      br i1 %ifcond, label %then, label %else
+
+    then:
+      br label %ifcont
+
+    else:
+      %subtmp = fsub double %x, 1.000000e+00
+      %calltmp = call double @fib(double %subtmp)
+      %subtmp5 = fsub double %x, 2.000000e+00
+      %calltmp6 = call double @fib(double %subtmp5)
+      %addtmp = fadd double %calltmp, %calltmp6
+      br label %ifcont
+
+    ifcont:     ; preds = %else, %then
+      %iftmp = phi double [ 1.000000e+00, %then ], [ %addtmp, %else ]
+      ret double %iftmp
+    }
+
+This is a trivial case for mem2reg, since there are no redefinitions of
+the variable. The point of showing this is to calm your tension about
+inserting such blatent inefficiencies :).
+
+After the rest of the optimizers run, we get:
+
+.. code-block:: llvm
+
+    define double @fib(double %x) {
+    entry:
+      %cmptmp = fcmp ult double %x, 3.000000e+00
+      %booltmp = uitofp i1 %cmptmp to double
+      %ifcond = fcmp ueq double %booltmp, 0.000000e+00
+      br i1 %ifcond, label %else, label %ifcont
+
+    else:
+      %subtmp = fsub double %x, 1.000000e+00
+      %calltmp = call double @fib(double %subtmp)
+      %subtmp5 = fsub double %x, 2.000000e+00
+      %calltmp6 = call double @fib(double %subtmp5)
+      %addtmp = fadd double %calltmp, %calltmp6
+      ret double %addtmp
+
+    ifcont:
+      ret double 1.000000e+00
+    }
+
+Here we see that the simplifycfg pass decided to clone the return
+instruction into the end of the 'else' block. This allowed it to
+eliminate some branches and the PHI node.
+
+Now that all symbol table references are updated to use stack variables,
+we'll add the assignment operator.
+
+New Assignment Operator
+=======================
+
+With our current framework, adding a new assignment operator is really
+simple. We will parse it just like any other binary operator, but handle
+it internally (instead of allowing the user to define it). The first
+step is to set a precedence:
+
+.. code-block:: c++
+
+     int main() {
+       // Install standard binary operators.
+       // 1 is lowest precedence.
+       BinopPrecedence['='] = 2;
+       BinopPrecedence['<'] = 10;
+       BinopPrecedence['+'] = 20;
+       BinopPrecedence['-'] = 20;
+
+Now that the parser knows the precedence of the binary operator, it
+takes care of all the parsing and AST generation. We just need to
+implement codegen for the assignment operator. This looks like:
+
+.. code-block:: c++
+
+    Value *BinaryExprAST::Codegen() {
+      // Special case '=' because we don't want to emit the LHS as an expression.
+      if (Op == '=') {
+        // Assignment requires the LHS to be an identifier.
+        VariableExprAST *LHSE = dynamic_cast<VariableExprAST*>(LHS);
+        if (!LHSE)
+          return ErrorV("destination of '=' must be a variable");
+
+Unlike the rest of the binary operators, our assignment operator doesn't
+follow the "emit LHS, emit RHS, do computation" model. As such, it is
+handled as a special case before the other binary operators are handled.
+The other strange thing is that it requires the LHS to be a variable. It
+is invalid to have "(x+1) = expr" - only things like "x = expr" are
+allowed.
+
+.. code-block:: c++
+
+        // Codegen the RHS.
+        Value *Val = RHS->Codegen();
+        if (Val == 0) return 0;
+
+        // Look up the name.
+        Value *Variable = NamedValues[LHSE->getName()];
+        if (Variable == 0) return ErrorV("Unknown variable name");
+
+        Builder.CreateStore(Val, Variable);
+        return Val;
+      }
+      ...
+
+Once we have the variable, codegen'ing the assignment is
+straightforward: we emit the RHS of the assignment, create a store, and
+return the computed value. Returning a value allows for chained
+assignments like "X = (Y = Z)".
+
+Now that we have an assignment operator, we can mutate loop variables
+and arguments. For example, we can now run code like this:
+
+::
+
+    # Function to print a double.
+    extern printd(x);
+
+    # Define ':' for sequencing: as a low-precedence operator that ignores operands
+    # and just returns the RHS.
+    def binary : 1 (x y) y;
+
+    def test(x)
+      printd(x) :
+      x = 4 :
+      printd(x);
+
+    test(123);
+
+When run, this example prints "123" and then "4", showing that we did
+actually mutate the value! Okay, we have now officially implemented our
+goal: getting this to work requires SSA construction in the general
+case. However, to be really useful, we want the ability to define our
+own local variables, lets add this next!
+
+User-defined Local Variables
+============================
+
+Adding var/in is just like any other other extensions we made to
+Kaleidoscope: we extend the lexer, the parser, the AST and the code
+generator. The first step for adding our new 'var/in' construct is to
+extend the lexer. As before, this is pretty trivial, the code looks like
+this:
+
+.. code-block:: c++
+
+    enum Token {
+      ...
+      // var definition
+      tok_var = -13
+    ...
+    }
+    ...
+    static int gettok() {
+    ...
+        if (IdentifierStr == "in") return tok_in;
+        if (IdentifierStr == "binary") return tok_binary;
+        if (IdentifierStr == "unary") return tok_unary;
+        if (IdentifierStr == "var") return tok_var;
+        return tok_identifier;
+    ...
+
+The next step is to define the AST node that we will construct. For
+var/in, it looks like this:
+
+.. code-block:: c++
+
+    /// VarExprAST - Expression class for var/in
+    class VarExprAST : public ExprAST {
+      std::vector<std::pair<std::string, ExprAST*> > VarNames;
+      ExprAST *Body;
+    public:
+      VarExprAST(const std::vector<std::pair<std::string, ExprAST*> > &varnames,
+                 ExprAST *body)
+      : VarNames(varnames), Body(body) {}
+
+      virtual Value *Codegen();
+    };
+
+var/in allows a list of names to be defined all at once, and each name
+can optionally have an initializer value. As such, we capture this
+information in the VarNames vector. Also, var/in has a body, this body
+is allowed to access the variables defined by the var/in.
+
+With this in place, we can define the parser pieces. The first thing we
+do is add it as a primary expression:
+
+.. code-block:: c++
+
+    /// primary
+    ///   ::= identifierexpr
+    ///   ::= numberexpr
+    ///   ::= parenexpr
+    ///   ::= ifexpr
+    ///   ::= forexpr
+    ///   ::= varexpr
+    static ExprAST *ParsePrimary() {
+      switch (CurTok) {
+      default: return Error("unknown token when expecting an expression");
+      case tok_identifier: return ParseIdentifierExpr();
+      case tok_number:     return ParseNumberExpr();
+      case '(':            return ParseParenExpr();
+      case tok_if:         return ParseIfExpr();
+      case tok_for:        return ParseForExpr();
+      case tok_var:        return ParseVarExpr();
+      }
+    }
+
+Next we define ParseVarExpr:
+
+.. code-block:: c++
+
+    /// varexpr ::= 'var' identifier ('=' expression)?
+    //                    (',' identifier ('=' expression)?)* 'in' expression
+    static ExprAST *ParseVarExpr() {
+      getNextToken();  // eat the var.
+
+      std::vector<std::pair<std::string, ExprAST*> > VarNames;
+
+      // At least one variable name is required.
+      if (CurTok != tok_identifier)
+        return Error("expected identifier after var");
+
+The first part of this code parses the list of identifier/expr pairs
+into the local ``VarNames`` vector.
+
+.. code-block:: c++
+
+      while (1) {
+        std::string Name = IdentifierStr;
+        getNextToken();  // eat identifier.
+
+        // Read the optional initializer.
+        ExprAST *Init = 0;
+        if (CurTok == '=') {
+          getNextToken(); // eat the '='.
+
+          Init = ParseExpression();
+          if (Init == 0) return 0;
+        }
+
+        VarNames.push_back(std::make_pair(Name, Init));
+
+        // End of var list, exit loop.
+        if (CurTok != ',') break;
+        getNextToken(); // eat the ','.
+
+        if (CurTok != tok_identifier)
+          return Error("expected identifier list after var");
+      }
+
+Once all the variables are parsed, we then parse the body and create the
+AST node:
+
+.. code-block:: c++
+
+      // At this point, we have to have 'in'.
+      if (CurTok != tok_in)
+        return Error("expected 'in' keyword after 'var'");
+      getNextToken();  // eat 'in'.
+
+      ExprAST *Body = ParseExpression();
+      if (Body == 0) return 0;
+
+      return new VarExprAST(VarNames, Body);
+    }
+
+Now that we can parse and represent the code, we need to support
+emission of LLVM IR for it. This code starts out with:
+
+.. code-block:: c++
+
+    Value *VarExprAST::Codegen() {
+      std::vector<AllocaInst *> OldBindings;
+
+      Function *TheFunction = Builder.GetInsertBlock()->getParent();
+
+      // Register all variables and emit their initializer.
+      for (unsigned i = 0, e = VarNames.size(); i != e; ++i) {
+        const std::string &VarName = VarNames[i].first;
+        ExprAST *Init = VarNames[i].second;
+
+Basically it loops over all the variables, installing them one at a
+time. For each variable we put into the symbol table, we remember the
+previous value that we replace in OldBindings.
+
+.. code-block:: c++
+
+        // Emit the initializer before adding the variable to scope, this prevents
+        // the initializer from referencing the variable itself, and permits stuff
+        // like this:
+        //  var a = 1 in
+        //    var a = a in ...   # refers to outer 'a'.
+        Value *InitVal;
+        if (Init) {
+          InitVal = Init->Codegen();
+          if (InitVal == 0) return 0;
+        } else { // If not specified, use 0.0.
+          InitVal = ConstantFP::get(getGlobalContext(), APFloat(0.0));
+        }
+
+        AllocaInst *Alloca = CreateEntryBlockAlloca(TheFunction, VarName);
+        Builder.CreateStore(InitVal, Alloca);
+
+        // Remember the old variable binding so that we can restore the binding when
+        // we unrecurse.
+        OldBindings.push_back(NamedValues[VarName]);
+
+        // Remember this binding.
+        NamedValues[VarName] = Alloca;
+      }
+
+There are more comments here than code. The basic idea is that we emit
+the initializer, create the alloca, then update the symbol table to
+point to it. Once all the variables are installed in the symbol table,
+we evaluate the body of the var/in expression:
+
+.. code-block:: c++
+
+      // Codegen the body, now that all vars are in scope.
+      Value *BodyVal = Body->Codegen();
+      if (BodyVal == 0) return 0;
+
+Finally, before returning, we restore the previous variable bindings:
+
+.. code-block:: c++
+
+      // Pop all our variables from scope.
+      for (unsigned i = 0, e = VarNames.size(); i != e; ++i)
+        NamedValues[VarNames[i].first] = OldBindings[i];
+
+      // Return the body computation.
+      return BodyVal;
+    }
+
+The end result of all of this is that we get properly scoped variable
+definitions, and we even (trivially) allow mutation of them :).
+
+With this, we completed what we set out to do. Our nice iterative fib
+example from the intro compiles and runs just fine. The mem2reg pass
+optimizes all of our stack variables into SSA registers, inserting PHI
+nodes where needed, and our front-end remains simple: no "iterated
+dominance frontier" computation anywhere in sight.
+
+Full Code Listing
+=================
+
+Here is the complete code listing for our running example, enhanced with
+mutable variables and var/in support. To build this example, use:
+
+.. code-block:: bash
+
+    # Compile
+    clang++ -g toy.cpp `llvm-config --cppflags --ldflags --libs core jit native` -O3 -o toy
+    # Run
+    ./toy
+
+Here is the code:
+
+.. literalinclude:: ../../examples/Kaleidoscope/Chapter7/toy.cpp
+   :language: c++
+
+`Next: Conclusion and other useful LLVM tidbits <LangImpl8.html>`_
+

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+======================================================
+Kaleidoscope: Conclusion and other useful LLVM tidbits
+======================================================
+
+.. contents::
+   :local:
+
+Tutorial Conclusion
+===================
+
+Welcome to the final chapter of the "`Implementing a language with
+LLVM <index.html>`_" tutorial. In the course of this tutorial, we have
+grown our little Kaleidoscope language from being a useless toy, to
+being a semi-interesting (but probably still useless) toy. :)
+
+It is interesting to see how far we've come, and how little code it has
+taken. We built the entire lexer, parser, AST, code generator, and an
+interactive run-loop (with a JIT!) by-hand in under 700 lines of
+(non-comment/non-blank) code.
+
+Our little language supports a couple of interesting features: it
+supports user defined binary and unary operators, it uses JIT
+compilation for immediate evaluation, and it supports a few control flow
+constructs with SSA construction.
+
+Part of the idea of this tutorial was to show you how easy and fun it
+can be to define, build, and play with languages. Building a compiler
+need not be a scary or mystical process! Now that you've seen some of
+the basics, I strongly encourage you to take the code and hack on it.
+For example, try adding:
+
+-  **global variables** - While global variables have questional value
+   in modern software engineering, they are often useful when putting
+   together quick little hacks like the Kaleidoscope compiler itself.
+   Fortunately, our current setup makes it very easy to add global
+   variables: just have value lookup check to see if an unresolved
+   variable is in the global variable symbol table before rejecting it.
+   To create a new global variable, make an instance of the LLVM
+   ``GlobalVariable`` class.
+-  **typed variables** - Kaleidoscope currently only supports variables
+   of type double. This gives the language a very nice elegance, because
+   only supporting one type means that you never have to specify types.
+   Different languages have different ways of handling this. The easiest
+   way is to require the user to specify types for every variable
+   definition, and record the type of the variable in the symbol table
+   along with its Value\*.
+-  **arrays, structs, vectors, etc** - Once you add types, you can start
+   extending the type system in all sorts of interesting ways. Simple
+   arrays are very easy and are quite useful for many different
+   applications. Adding them is mostly an exercise in learning how the
+   LLVM `getelementptr <../LangRef.html#i_getelementptr>`_ instruction
+   works: it is so nifty/unconventional, it `has its own
+   FAQ <../GetElementPtr.html>`_! If you add support for recursive types
+   (e.g. linked lists), make sure to read the `section in the LLVM
+   Programmer's Manual <../ProgrammersManual.html#TypeResolve>`_ that
+   describes how to construct them.
+-  **standard runtime** - Our current language allows the user to access
+   arbitrary external functions, and we use it for things like "printd"
+   and "putchard". As you extend the language to add higher-level
+   constructs, often these constructs make the most sense if they are
+   lowered to calls into a language-supplied runtime. For example, if
+   you add hash tables to the language, it would probably make sense to
+   add the routines to a runtime, instead of inlining them all the way.
+-  **memory management** - Currently we can only access the stack in
+   Kaleidoscope. It would also be useful to be able to allocate heap
+   memory, either with calls to the standard libc malloc/free interface
+   or with a garbage collector. If you would like to use garbage
+   collection, note that LLVM fully supports `Accurate Garbage
+   Collection <../GarbageCollection.html>`_ including algorithms that
+   move objects and need to scan/update the stack.
+-  **debugger support** - LLVM supports generation of `DWARF Debug
+   info <../SourceLevelDebugging.html>`_ which is understood by common
+   debuggers like GDB. Adding support for debug info is fairly
+   straightforward. The best way to understand it is to compile some
+   C/C++ code with "``clang -g -O0``" and taking a look at what it
+   produces.
+-  **exception handling support** - LLVM supports generation of `zero
+   cost exceptions <../ExceptionHandling.html>`_ which interoperate with
+   code compiled in other languages. You could also generate code by
+   implicitly making every function return an error value and checking
+   it. You could also make explicit use of setjmp/longjmp. There are
+   many different ways to go here.
+-  **object orientation, generics, database access, complex numbers,
+   geometric programming, ...** - Really, there is no end of crazy
+   features that you can add to the language.
+-  **unusual domains** - We've been talking about applying LLVM to a
+   domain that many people are interested in: building a compiler for a
+   specific language. However, there are many other domains that can use
+   compiler technology that are not typically considered. For example,
+   LLVM has been used to implement OpenGL graphics acceleration,
+   translate C++ code to ActionScript, and many other cute and clever
+   things. Maybe you will be the first to JIT compile a regular
+   expression interpreter into native code with LLVM?
+
+Have fun - try doing something crazy and unusual. Building a language
+like everyone else always has, is much less fun than trying something a
+little crazy or off the wall and seeing how it turns out. If you get
+stuck or want to talk about it, feel free to email the `llvmdev mailing
+list <http://lists.cs.uiuc.edu/mailman/listinfo/llvmdev>`_: it has lots
+of people who are interested in languages and are often willing to help
+out.
+
+Before we end this tutorial, I want to talk about some "tips and tricks"
+for generating LLVM IR. These are some of the more subtle things that
+may not be obvious, but are very useful if you want to take advantage of
+LLVM's capabilities.
+
+Properties of the LLVM IR
+=========================
+
+We have a couple common questions about code in the LLVM IR form - lets
+just get these out of the way right now, shall we?
+
+Target Independence
+-------------------
+
+Kaleidoscope is an example of a "portable language": any program written
+in Kaleidoscope will work the same way on any target that it runs on.
+Many other languages have this property, e.g. lisp, java, haskell,
+javascript, python, etc (note that while these languages are portable,
+not all their libraries are).
+
+One nice aspect of LLVM is that it is often capable of preserving target
+independence in the IR: you can take the LLVM IR for a
+Kaleidoscope-compiled program and run it on any target that LLVM
+supports, even emitting C code and compiling that on targets that LLVM
+doesn't support natively. You can trivially tell that the Kaleidoscope
+compiler generates target-independent code because it never queries for
+any target-specific information when generating code.
+
+The fact that LLVM provides a compact, target-independent,
+representation for code gets a lot of people excited. Unfortunately,
+these people are usually thinking about C or a language from the C
+family when they are asking questions about language portability. I say
+"unfortunately", because there is really no way to make (fully general)
+C code portable, other than shipping the source code around (and of
+course, C source code is not actually portable in general either - ever
+port a really old application from 32- to 64-bits?).
+
+The problem with C (again, in its full generality) is that it is heavily
+laden with target specific assumptions. As one simple example, the
+preprocessor often destructively removes target-independence from the
+code when it processes the input text:
+
+.. code-block:: c
+
+    #ifdef __i386__
+      int X = 1;
+    #else
+      int X = 42;
+    #endif
+
+While it is possible to engineer more and more complex solutions to
+problems like this, it cannot be solved in full generality in a way that
+is better than shipping the actual source code.
+
+That said, there are interesting subsets of C that can be made portable.
+If you are willing to fix primitive types to a fixed size (say int =
+32-bits, and long = 64-bits), don't care about ABI compatibility with
+existing binaries, and are willing to give up some other minor features,
+you can have portable code. This can make sense for specialized domains
+such as an in-kernel language.
+
+Safety Guarantees
+-----------------
+
+Many of the languages above are also "safe" languages: it is impossible
+for a program written in Java to corrupt its address space and crash the
+process (assuming the JVM has no bugs). Safety is an interesting
+property that requires a combination of language design, runtime
+support, and often operating system support.
+
+It is certainly possible to implement a safe language in LLVM, but LLVM
+IR does not itself guarantee safety. The LLVM IR allows unsafe pointer
+casts, use after free bugs, buffer over-runs, and a variety of other
+problems. Safety needs to be implemented as a layer on top of LLVM and,
+conveniently, several groups have investigated this. Ask on the `llvmdev
+mailing list <http://lists.cs.uiuc.edu/mailman/listinfo/llvmdev>`_ if
+you are interested in more details.
+
+Language-Specific Optimizations
+-------------------------------
+
+One thing about LLVM that turns off many people is that it does not
+solve all the world's problems in one system (sorry 'world hunger',
+someone else will have to solve you some other day). One specific
+complaint is that people perceive LLVM as being incapable of performing
+high-level language-specific optimization: LLVM "loses too much
+information".
+
+Unfortunately, this is really not the place to give you a full and
+unified version of "Chris Lattner's theory of compiler design". Instead,
+I'll make a few observations:
+
+First, you're right that LLVM does lose information. For example, as of
+this writing, there is no way to distinguish in the LLVM IR whether an
+SSA-value came from a C "int" or a C "long" on an ILP32 machine (other
+than debug info). Both get compiled down to an 'i32' value and the
+information about what it came from is lost. The more general issue
+here, is that the LLVM type system uses "structural equivalence" instead
+of "name equivalence". Another place this surprises people is if you
+have two types in a high-level language that have the same structure
+(e.g. two different structs that have a single int field): these types
+will compile down into a single LLVM type and it will be impossible to
+tell what it came from.
+
+Second, while LLVM does lose information, LLVM is not a fixed target: we
+continue to enhance and improve it in many different ways. In addition
+to adding new features (LLVM did not always support exceptions or debug
+info), we also extend the IR to capture important information for
+optimization (e.g. whether an argument is sign or zero extended,
+information about pointers aliasing, etc). Many of the enhancements are
+user-driven: people want LLVM to include some specific feature, so they
+go ahead and extend it.
+
+Third, it is *possible and easy* to add language-specific optimizations,
+and you have a number of choices in how to do it. As one trivial
+example, it is easy to add language-specific optimization passes that
+"know" things about code compiled for a language. In the case of the C
+family, there is an optimization pass that "knows" about the standard C
+library functions. If you call "exit(0)" in main(), it knows that it is
+safe to optimize that into "return 0;" because C specifies what the
+'exit' function does.
+
+In addition to simple library knowledge, it is possible to embed a
+variety of other language-specific information into the LLVM IR. If you
+have a specific need and run into a wall, please bring the topic up on
+the llvmdev list. At the very worst, you can always treat LLVM as if it
+were a "dumb code generator" and implement the high-level optimizations
+you desire in your front-end, on the language-specific AST.
+
+Tips and Tricks
+===============
+
+There is a variety of useful tips and tricks that you come to know after
+working on/with LLVM that aren't obvious at first glance. Instead of
+letting everyone rediscover them, this section talks about some of these
+issues.
+
+Implementing portable offsetof/sizeof
+-------------------------------------
+
+One interesting thing that comes up, if you are trying to keep the code
+generated by your compiler "target independent", is that you often need
+to know the size of some LLVM type or the offset of some field in an
+llvm structure. For example, you might need to pass the size of a type
+into a function that allocates memory.
+
+Unfortunately, this can vary widely across targets: for example the
+width of a pointer is trivially target-specific. However, there is a
+`clever way to use the getelementptr
+instruction <http://nondot.org/sabre/LLVMNotes/SizeOf-OffsetOf-VariableSizedStructs.txt>`_
+that allows you to compute this in a portable way.
+
+Garbage Collected Stack Frames
+------------------------------
+
+Some languages want to explicitly manage their stack frames, often so
+that they are garbage collected or to allow easy implementation of
+closures. There are often better ways to implement these features than
+explicit stack frames, but `LLVM does support
+them, <http://nondot.org/sabre/LLVMNotes/ExplicitlyManagedStackFrames.txt>`_
+if you want. It requires your front-end to convert the code into
+`Continuation Passing
+Style <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Continuation-passing_style>`_ and
+the use of tail calls (which LLVM also supports).
+

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+=================================================
+Kaleidoscope: Tutorial Introduction and the Lexer
+=================================================
+
+.. contents::
+   :local:
+
+Tutorial Introduction
+=====================
+
+Welcome to the "Implementing a language with LLVM" tutorial. This
+tutorial runs through the implementation of a simple language, showing
+how fun and easy it can be. This tutorial will get you up and started as
+well as help to build a framework you can extend to other languages. The
+code in this tutorial can also be used as a playground to hack on other
+LLVM specific things.
+
+The goal of this tutorial is to progressively unveil our language,
+describing how it is built up over time. This will let us cover a fairly
+broad range of language design and LLVM-specific usage issues, showing
+and explaining the code for it all along the way, without overwhelming
+you with tons of details up front.
+
+It is useful to point out ahead of time that this tutorial is really
+about teaching compiler techniques and LLVM specifically, *not* about
+teaching modern and sane software engineering principles. In practice,
+this means that we'll take a number of shortcuts to simplify the
+exposition. For example, the code leaks memory, uses global variables
+all over the place, doesn't use nice design patterns like
+`visitors <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Visitor_pattern>`_, etc... but
+it is very simple. If you dig in and use the code as a basis for future
+projects, fixing these deficiencies shouldn't be hard.
+
+I've tried to put this tutorial together in a way that makes chapters
+easy to skip over if you are already familiar with or are uninterested
+in the various pieces. The structure of the tutorial is:
+
+-  `Chapter #1 <#language>`_: Introduction to the Kaleidoscope
+   language, and the definition of its Lexer - This shows where we are
+   going and the basic functionality that we want it to do. In order to
+   make this tutorial maximally understandable and hackable, we choose
+   to implement everything in Objective Caml instead of using lexer and
+   parser generators. LLVM obviously works just fine with such tools,
+   feel free to use one if you prefer.
+-  `Chapter #2 <OCamlLangImpl2.html>`_: Implementing a Parser and
+   AST - With the lexer in place, we can talk about parsing techniques
+   and basic AST construction. This tutorial describes recursive descent
+   parsing and operator precedence parsing. Nothing in Chapters 1 or 2
+   is LLVM-specific, the code doesn't even link in LLVM at this point.
+   :)
+-  `Chapter #3 <OCamlLangImpl3.html>`_: Code generation to LLVM IR -
+   With the AST ready, we can show off how easy generation of LLVM IR
+   really is.
+-  `Chapter #4 <OCamlLangImpl4.html>`_: Adding JIT and Optimizer
+   Support - Because a lot of people are interested in using LLVM as a
+   JIT, we'll dive right into it and show you the 3 lines it takes to
+   add JIT support. LLVM is also useful in many other ways, but this is
+   one simple and "sexy" way to shows off its power. :)
+-  `Chapter #5 <OCamlLangImpl5.html>`_: Extending the Language:
+   Control Flow - With the language up and running, we show how to
+   extend it with control flow operations (if/then/else and a 'for'
+   loop). This gives us a chance to talk about simple SSA construction
+   and control flow.
+-  `Chapter #6 <OCamlLangImpl6.html>`_: Extending the Language:
+   User-defined Operators - This is a silly but fun chapter that talks
+   about extending the language to let the user program define their own
+   arbitrary unary and binary operators (with assignable precedence!).
+   This lets us build a significant piece of the "language" as library
+   routines.
+-  `Chapter #7 <OCamlLangImpl7.html>`_: Extending the Language:
+   Mutable Variables - This chapter talks about adding user-defined
+   local variables along with an assignment operator. The interesting
+   part about this is how easy and trivial it is to construct SSA form
+   in LLVM: no, LLVM does *not* require your front-end to construct SSA
+   form!
+-  `Chapter #8 <OCamlLangImpl8.html>`_: Conclusion and other useful
+   LLVM tidbits - This chapter wraps up the series by talking about
+   potential ways to extend the language, but also includes a bunch of
+   pointers to info about "special topics" like adding garbage
+   collection support, exceptions, debugging, support for "spaghetti
+   stacks", and a bunch of other tips and tricks.
+
+By the end of the tutorial, we'll have written a bit less than 700 lines
+of non-comment, non-blank, lines of code. With this small amount of
+code, we'll have built up a very reasonable compiler for a non-trivial
+language including a hand-written lexer, parser, AST, as well as code
+generation support with a JIT compiler. While other systems may have
+interesting "hello world" tutorials, I think the breadth of this
+tutorial is a great testament to the strengths of LLVM and why you
+should consider it if you're interested in language or compiler design.
+
+A note about this tutorial: we expect you to extend the language and
+play with it on your own. Take the code and go crazy hacking away at it,
+compilers don't need to be scary creatures - it can be a lot of fun to
+play with languages!
+
+The Basic Language
+==================
+
+This tutorial will be illustrated with a toy language that we'll call
+"`Kaleidoscope <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kaleidoscope>`_" (derived
+from "meaning beautiful, form, and view"). Kaleidoscope is a procedural
+language that allows you to define functions, use conditionals, math,
+etc. Over the course of the tutorial, we'll extend Kaleidoscope to
+support the if/then/else construct, a for loop, user defined operators,
+JIT compilation with a simple command line interface, etc.
+
+Because we want to keep things simple, the only datatype in Kaleidoscope
+is a 64-bit floating point type (aka 'float' in O'Caml parlance). As
+such, all values are implicitly double precision and the language
+doesn't require type declarations. This gives the language a very nice
+and simple syntax. For example, the following simple example computes
+`Fibonacci numbers: <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fibonacci_number>`_
+
+::
+
+    # Compute the x'th fibonacci number.
+    def fib(x)
+      if x < 3 then
+        1
+      else
+        fib(x-1)+fib(x-2)
+
+    # This expression will compute the 40th number.
+    fib(40)
+
+We also allow Kaleidoscope to call into standard library functions (the
+LLVM JIT makes this completely trivial). This means that you can use the
+'extern' keyword to define a function before you use it (this is also
+useful for mutually recursive functions). For example:
+
+::
+
+    extern sin(arg);
+    extern cos(arg);
+    extern atan2(arg1 arg2);
+
+    atan2(sin(.4), cos(42))
+
+A more interesting example is included in Chapter 6 where we write a
+little Kaleidoscope application that `displays a Mandelbrot
+Set <OCamlLangImpl6.html#example>`_ at various levels of magnification.
+
+Lets dive into the implementation of this language!
+
+The Lexer
+=========
+
+When it comes to implementing a language, the first thing needed is the
+ability to process a text file and recognize what it says. The
+traditional way to do this is to use a
+"`lexer <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lexical_analysis>`_" (aka
+'scanner') to break the input up into "tokens". Each token returned by
+the lexer includes a token code and potentially some metadata (e.g. the
+numeric value of a number). First, we define the possibilities:
+
+.. code-block:: ocaml
+
+    (* The lexer returns these 'Kwd' if it is an unknown character, otherwise one of
+     * these others for known things. *)
+    type token =
+      (* commands *)
+      | Def | Extern
+
+      (* primary *)
+      | Ident of string | Number of float
+
+      (* unknown *)
+      | Kwd of char
+
+Each token returned by our lexer will be one of the token variant
+values. An unknown character like '+' will be returned as
+``Token.Kwd '+'``. If the curr token is an identifier, the value will be
+``Token.Ident s``. If the current token is a numeric literal (like 1.0),
+the value will be ``Token.Number 1.0``.
+
+The actual implementation of the lexer is a collection of functions
+driven by a function named ``Lexer.lex``. The ``Lexer.lex`` function is
+called to return the next token from standard input. We will use
+`Camlp4 <http://caml.inria.fr/pub/docs/manual-camlp4/index.html>`_ to
+simplify the tokenization of the standard input. Its definition starts
+as:
+
+.. code-block:: ocaml
+
+    (*===----------------------------------------------------------------------===
+     * Lexer
+     *===----------------------------------------------------------------------===*)
+
+    let rec lex = parser
+      (* Skip any whitespace. *)
+      | [< ' (' ' | '\n' | '\r' | '\t'); stream >] -> lex stream
+
+``Lexer.lex`` works by recursing over a ``char Stream.t`` to read
+characters one at a time from the standard input. It eats them as it
+recognizes them and stores them in in a ``Token.token`` variant. The
+first thing that it has to do is ignore whitespace between tokens. This
+is accomplished with the recursive call above.
+
+The next thing ``Lexer.lex`` needs to do is recognize identifiers and
+specific keywords like "def". Kaleidoscope does this with a pattern
+match and a helper function.
+
+.. code-block:: ocaml
+
+      (* identifier: [a-zA-Z][a-zA-Z0-9] *)
+      | [< ' ('A' .. 'Z' | 'a' .. 'z' as c); stream >] ->
+          let buffer = Buffer.create 1 in
+          Buffer.add_char buffer c;
+          lex_ident buffer stream
+
+    ...
+
+    and lex_ident buffer = parser
+      | [< ' ('A' .. 'Z' | 'a' .. 'z' | '0' .. '9' as c); stream >] ->
+          Buffer.add_char buffer c;
+          lex_ident buffer stream
+      | [< stream=lex >] ->
+          match Buffer.contents buffer with
+          | "def" -> [< 'Token.Def; stream >]
+          | "extern" -> [< 'Token.Extern; stream >]
+          | id -> [< 'Token.Ident id; stream >]
+
+Numeric values are similar:
+
+.. code-block:: ocaml
+
+      (* number: [0-9.]+ *)
+      | [< ' ('0' .. '9' as c); stream >] ->
+          let buffer = Buffer.create 1 in
+          Buffer.add_char buffer c;
+          lex_number buffer stream
+
+    ...
+
+    and lex_number buffer = parser
+      | [< ' ('0' .. '9' | '.' as c); stream >] ->
+          Buffer.add_char buffer c;
+          lex_number buffer stream
+      | [< stream=lex >] ->
+          [< 'Token.Number (float_of_string (Buffer.contents buffer)); stream >]
+
+This is all pretty straight-forward code for processing input. When
+reading a numeric value from input, we use the ocaml ``float_of_string``
+function to convert it to a numeric value that we store in
+``Token.Number``. Note that this isn't doing sufficient error checking:
+it will raise ``Failure`` if the string "1.23.45.67". Feel free to
+extend it :). Next we handle comments:
+
+.. code-block:: ocaml
+
+      (* Comment until end of line. *)
+      | [< ' ('#'); stream >] ->
+          lex_comment stream
+
+    ...
+
+    and lex_comment = parser
+      | [< ' ('\n'); stream=lex >] -> stream
+      | [< 'c; e=lex_comment >] -> e
+      | [< >] -> [< >]
+
+We handle comments by skipping to the end of the line and then return
+the next token. Finally, if the input doesn't match one of the above
+cases, it is either an operator character like '+' or the end of the
+file. These are handled with this code:
+
+.. code-block:: ocaml
+
+      (* Otherwise, just return the character as its ascii value. *)
+      | [< 'c; stream >] ->
+          [< 'Token.Kwd c; lex stream >]
+
+      (* end of stream. *)
+      | [< >] -> [< >]
+
+With this, we have the complete lexer for the basic Kaleidoscope
+language (the `full code listing <OCamlLangImpl2.html#code>`_ for the
+Lexer is available in the `next chapter <OCamlLangImpl2.html>`_ of the
+tutorial). Next we'll `build a simple parser that uses this to build an
+Abstract Syntax Tree <OCamlLangImpl2.html>`_. When we have that, we'll
+include a driver so that you can use the lexer and parser together.
+
+`Next: Implementing a Parser and AST <OCamlLangImpl2.html>`_
+

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+===========================================
+Kaleidoscope: Implementing a Parser and AST
+===========================================
+
+.. contents::
+   :local:
+
+Chapter 2 Introduction
+======================
+
+Welcome to Chapter 2 of the "`Implementing a language with LLVM in
+Objective Caml <index.html>`_" tutorial. This chapter shows you how to
+use the lexer, built in `Chapter 1 <OCamlLangImpl1.html>`_, to build a
+full `parser <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Parsing>`_ for our
+Kaleidoscope language. Once we have a parser, we'll define and build an
+`Abstract Syntax
+Tree <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Abstract_syntax_tree>`_ (AST).
+
+The parser we will build uses a combination of `Recursive Descent
+Parsing <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Recursive_descent_parser>`_ and
+`Operator-Precedence
+Parsing <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Operator-precedence_parser>`_ to
+parse the Kaleidoscope language (the latter for binary expressions and
+the former for everything else). Before we get to parsing though, lets
+talk about the output of the parser: the Abstract Syntax Tree.
+
+The Abstract Syntax Tree (AST)
+==============================
+
+The AST for a program captures its behavior in such a way that it is
+easy for later stages of the compiler (e.g. code generation) to
+interpret. We basically want one object for each construct in the
+language, and the AST should closely model the language. In
+Kaleidoscope, we have expressions, a prototype, and a function object.
+We'll start with expressions first:
+
+.. code-block:: ocaml
+
+    (* expr - Base type for all expression nodes. *)
+    type expr =
+      (* variant for numeric literals like "1.0". *)
+      | Number of float
+
+The code above shows the definition of the base ExprAST class and one
+subclass which we use for numeric literals. The important thing to note
+about this code is that the Number variant captures the numeric value of
+the literal as an instance variable. This allows later phases of the
+compiler to know what the stored numeric value is.
+
+Right now we only create the AST, so there are no useful functions on
+them. It would be very easy to add a function to pretty print the code,
+for example. Here are the other expression AST node definitions that
+we'll use in the basic form of the Kaleidoscope language:
+
+.. code-block:: ocaml
+
+      (* variant for referencing a variable, like "a". *)
+      | Variable of string
+
+      (* variant for a binary operator. *)
+      | Binary of char * expr * expr
+
+      (* variant for function calls. *)
+      | Call of string * expr array
+
+This is all (intentionally) rather straight-forward: variables capture
+the variable name, binary operators capture their opcode (e.g. '+'), and
+calls capture a function name as well as a list of any argument
+expressions. One thing that is nice about our AST is that it captures
+the language features without talking about the syntax of the language.
+Note that there is no discussion about precedence of binary operators,
+lexical structure, etc.
+
+For our basic language, these are all of the expression nodes we'll
+define. Because it doesn't have conditional control flow, it isn't
+Turing-complete; we'll fix that in a later installment. The two things
+we need next are a way to talk about the interface to a function, and a
+way to talk about functions themselves:
+
+.. code-block:: ocaml
+
+    (* proto - This type represents the "prototype" for a function, which captures
+     * its name, and its argument names (thus implicitly the number of arguments the
+     * function takes). *)
+    type proto = Prototype of string * string array
+
+    (* func - This type represents a function definition itself. *)
+    type func = Function of proto * expr
+
+In Kaleidoscope, functions are typed with just a count of their
+arguments. Since all values are double precision floating point, the
+type of each argument doesn't need to be stored anywhere. In a more
+aggressive and realistic language, the "expr" variants would probably
+have a type field.
+
+With this scaffolding, we can now talk about parsing expressions and
+function bodies in Kaleidoscope.
+
+Parser Basics
+=============
+
+Now that we have an AST to build, we need to define the parser code to
+build it. The idea here is that we want to parse something like "x+y"
+(which is returned as three tokens by the lexer) into an AST that could
+be generated with calls like this:
+
+.. code-block:: ocaml
+
+      let x = Variable "x" in
+      let y = Variable "y" in
+      let result = Binary ('+', x, y) in
+      ...
+
+The error handling routines make use of the builtin ``Stream.Failure``
+and ``Stream.Error``s. ``Stream.Failure`` is raised when the parser is
+unable to find any matching token in the first position of a pattern.
+``Stream.Error`` is raised when the first token matches, but the rest do
+not. The error recovery in our parser will not be the best and is not
+particular user-friendly, but it will be enough for our tutorial. These
+exceptions make it easier to handle errors in routines that have various
+return types.
+
+With these basic types and exceptions, we can implement the first piece
+of our grammar: numeric literals.
+
+Basic Expression Parsing
+========================
+
+We start with numeric literals, because they are the simplest to
+process. For each production in our grammar, we'll define a function
+which parses that production. We call this class of expressions
+"primary" expressions, for reasons that will become more clear `later in
+the tutorial <OCamlLangImpl6.html#unary>`_. In order to parse an
+arbitrary primary expression, we need to determine what sort of
+expression it is. For numeric literals, we have:
+
+.. code-block:: ocaml
+
+    (* primary
+     *   ::= identifier
+     *   ::= numberexpr
+     *   ::= parenexpr *)
+    parse_primary = parser
+      (* numberexpr ::= number *)
+      | [< 'Token.Number n >] -> Ast.Number n
+
+This routine is very simple: it expects to be called when the current
+token is a ``Token.Number`` token. It takes the current number value,
+creates a ``Ast.Number`` node, advances the lexer to the next token, and
+finally returns.
+
+There are some interesting aspects to this. The most important one is
+that this routine eats all of the tokens that correspond to the
+production and returns the lexer buffer with the next token (which is
+not part of the grammar production) ready to go. This is a fairly
+standard way to go for recursive descent parsers. For a better example,
+the parenthesis operator is defined like this:
+
+.. code-block:: ocaml
+
+      (* parenexpr ::= '(' expression ')' *)
+      | [< 'Token.Kwd '('; e=parse_expr; 'Token.Kwd ')' ?? "expected ')'" >] -> e
+
+This function illustrates a number of interesting things about the
+parser:
+
+1) It shows how we use the ``Stream.Error`` exception. When called, this
+function expects that the current token is a '(' token, but after
+parsing the subexpression, it is possible that there is no ')' waiting.
+For example, if the user types in "(4 x" instead of "(4)", the parser
+should emit an error. Because errors can occur, the parser needs a way
+to indicate that they happened. In our parser, we use the camlp4
+shortcut syntax ``token ?? "parse error"``, where if the token before
+the ``??`` does not match, then ``Stream.Error "parse error"`` will be
+raised.
+
+2) Another interesting aspect of this function is that it uses recursion
+by calling ``Parser.parse_primary`` (we will soon see that
+``Parser.parse_primary`` can call ``Parser.parse_primary``). This is
+powerful because it allows us to handle recursive grammars, and keeps
+each production very simple. Note that parentheses do not cause
+construction of AST nodes themselves. While we could do it this way, the
+most important role of parentheses are to guide the parser and provide
+grouping. Once the parser constructs the AST, parentheses are not
+needed.
+
+The next simple production is for handling variable references and
+function calls:
+
+.. code-block:: ocaml
+
+      (* identifierexpr
+       *   ::= identifier
+       *   ::= identifier '(' argumentexpr ')' *)
+      | [< 'Token.Ident id; stream >] ->
+          let rec parse_args accumulator = parser
+            | [< e=parse_expr; stream >] ->
+                begin parser
+                  | [< 'Token.Kwd ','; e=parse_args (e :: accumulator) >] -> e
+                  | [< >] -> e :: accumulator
+                end stream
+            | [< >] -> accumulator
+          in
+          let rec parse_ident id = parser
+            (* Call. *)
+            | [< 'Token.Kwd '(';
+                 args=parse_args [];
+                 'Token.Kwd ')' ?? "expected ')'">] ->
+                Ast.Call (id, Array.of_list (List.rev args))
+
+            (* Simple variable ref. *)
+            | [< >] -> Ast.Variable id
+          in
+          parse_ident id stream
+
+This routine follows the same style as the other routines. (It expects
+to be called if the current token is a ``Token.Ident`` token). It also
+has recursion and error handling. One interesting aspect of this is that
+it uses *look-ahead* to determine if the current identifier is a stand
+alone variable reference or if it is a function call expression. It
+handles this by checking to see if the token after the identifier is a
+'(' token, constructing either a ``Ast.Variable`` or ``Ast.Call`` node
+as appropriate.
+
+We finish up by raising an exception if we received a token we didn't
+expect:
+
+.. code-block:: ocaml
+
+      | [< >] -> raise (Stream.Error "unknown token when expecting an expression.")
+
+Now that basic expressions are handled, we need to handle binary
+expressions. They are a bit more complex.
+
+Binary Expression Parsing
+=========================
+
+Binary expressions are significantly harder to parse because they are
+often ambiguous. For example, when given the string "x+y\*z", the parser
+can choose to parse it as either "(x+y)\*z" or "x+(y\*z)". With common
+definitions from mathematics, we expect the later parse, because "\*"
+(multiplication) has higher *precedence* than "+" (addition).
+
+There are many ways to handle this, but an elegant and efficient way is
+to use `Operator-Precedence
+Parsing <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Operator-precedence_parser>`_.
+This parsing technique uses the precedence of binary operators to guide
+recursion. To start with, we need a table of precedences:
+
+.. code-block:: ocaml
+
+    (* binop_precedence - This holds the precedence for each binary operator that is
+     * defined *)
+    let binop_precedence:(char, int) Hashtbl.t = Hashtbl.create 10
+
+    (* precedence - Get the precedence of the pending binary operator token. *)
+    let precedence c = try Hashtbl.find binop_precedence c with Not_found -> -1
+
+    ...
+
+    let main () =
+      (* Install standard binary operators.
+       * 1 is the lowest precedence. *)
+      Hashtbl.add Parser.binop_precedence '<' 10;
+      Hashtbl.add Parser.binop_precedence '+' 20;
+      Hashtbl.add Parser.binop_precedence '-' 20;
+      Hashtbl.add Parser.binop_precedence '*' 40;    (* highest. *)
+      ...
+
+For the basic form of Kaleidoscope, we will only support 4 binary
+operators (this can obviously be extended by you, our brave and intrepid
+reader). The ``Parser.precedence`` function returns the precedence for
+the current token, or -1 if the token is not a binary operator. Having a
+``Hashtbl.t`` makes it easy to add new operators and makes it clear that
+the algorithm doesn't depend on the specific operators involved, but it
+would be easy enough to eliminate the ``Hashtbl.t`` and do the
+comparisons in the ``Parser.precedence`` function. (Or just use a
+fixed-size array).
+
+With the helper above defined, we can now start parsing binary
+expressions. The basic idea of operator precedence parsing is to break
+down an expression with potentially ambiguous binary operators into
+pieces. Consider ,for example, the expression "a+b+(c+d)\*e\*f+g".
+Operator precedence parsing considers this as a stream of primary
+expressions separated by binary operators. As such, it will first parse
+the leading primary expression "a", then it will see the pairs [+, b]
+[+, (c+d)] [\*, e] [\*, f] and [+, g]. Note that because parentheses are
+primary expressions, the binary expression parser doesn't need to worry
+about nested subexpressions like (c+d) at all.
+
+To start, an expression is a primary expression potentially followed by
+a sequence of [binop,primaryexpr] pairs:
+
+.. code-block:: ocaml
+
+    (* expression
+     *   ::= primary binoprhs *)
+    and parse_expr = parser
+      | [< lhs=parse_primary; stream >] -> parse_bin_rhs 0 lhs stream
+
+``Parser.parse_bin_rhs`` is the function that parses the sequence of
+pairs for us. It takes a precedence and a pointer to an expression for
+the part that has been parsed so far. Note that "x" is a perfectly valid
+expression: As such, "binoprhs" is allowed to be empty, in which case it
+returns the expression that is passed into it. In our example above, the
+code passes the expression for "a" into ``Parser.parse_bin_rhs`` and the
+current token is "+".
+
+The precedence value passed into ``Parser.parse_bin_rhs`` indicates the
+*minimal operator precedence* that the function is allowed to eat. For
+example, if the current pair stream is [+, x] and
+``Parser.parse_bin_rhs`` is passed in a precedence of 40, it will not
+consume any tokens (because the precedence of '+' is only 20). With this
+in mind, ``Parser.parse_bin_rhs`` starts with:
+
+.. code-block:: ocaml
+
+    (* binoprhs
+     *   ::= ('+' primary)* *)
+    and parse_bin_rhs expr_prec lhs stream =
+      match Stream.peek stream with
+      (* If this is a binop, find its precedence. *)
+      | Some (Token.Kwd c) when Hashtbl.mem binop_precedence c ->
+          let token_prec = precedence c in
+
+          (* If this is a binop that binds at least as tightly as the current binop,
+           * consume it, otherwise we are done. *)
+          if token_prec < expr_prec then lhs else begin
+
+This code gets the precedence of the current token and checks to see if
+if is too low. Because we defined invalid tokens to have a precedence of
+-1, this check implicitly knows that the pair-stream ends when the token
+stream runs out of binary operators. If this check succeeds, we know
+that the token is a binary operator and that it will be included in this
+expression:
+
+.. code-block:: ocaml
+
+            (* Eat the binop. *)
+            Stream.junk stream;
+
+            (* Parse the primary expression after the binary operator *)
+            let rhs = parse_primary stream in
+
+            (* Okay, we know this is a binop. *)
+            let rhs =
+              match Stream.peek stream with
+              | Some (Token.Kwd c2) ->
+
+As such, this code eats (and remembers) the binary operator and then
+parses the primary expression that follows. This builds up the whole
+pair, the first of which is [+, b] for the running example.
+
+Now that we parsed the left-hand side of an expression and one pair of
+the RHS sequence, we have to decide which way the expression associates.
+In particular, we could have "(a+b) binop unparsed" or "a + (b binop
+unparsed)". To determine this, we look ahead at "binop" to determine its
+precedence and compare it to BinOp's precedence (which is '+' in this
+case):
+
+.. code-block:: ocaml
+
+                  (* If BinOp binds less tightly with rhs than the operator after
+                   * rhs, let the pending operator take rhs as its lhs. *)
+                  let next_prec = precedence c2 in
+                  if token_prec < next_prec
+
+If the precedence of the binop to the right of "RHS" is lower or equal
+to the precedence of our current operator, then we know that the
+parentheses associate as "(a+b) binop ...". In our example, the current
+operator is "+" and the next operator is "+", we know that they have the
+same precedence. In this case we'll create the AST node for "a+b", and
+then continue parsing:
+
+.. code-block:: ocaml
+
+              ... if body omitted ...
+            in
+
+            (* Merge lhs/rhs. *)
+            let lhs = Ast.Binary (c, lhs, rhs) in
+            parse_bin_rhs expr_prec lhs stream
+          end
+
+In our example above, this will turn "a+b+" into "(a+b)" and execute the
+next iteration of the loop, with "+" as the current token. The code
+above will eat, remember, and parse "(c+d)" as the primary expression,
+which makes the current pair equal to [+, (c+d)]. It will then evaluate
+the 'if' conditional above with "\*" as the binop to the right of the
+primary. In this case, the precedence of "\*" is higher than the
+precedence of "+" so the if condition will be entered.
+
+The critical question left here is "how can the if condition parse the
+right hand side in full"? In particular, to build the AST correctly for
+our example, it needs to get all of "(c+d)\*e\*f" as the RHS expression
+variable. The code to do this is surprisingly simple (code from the
+above two blocks duplicated for context):
+
+.. code-block:: ocaml
+
+              match Stream.peek stream with
+              | Some (Token.Kwd c2) ->
+                  (* If BinOp binds less tightly with rhs than the operator after
+                   * rhs, let the pending operator take rhs as its lhs. *)
+                  if token_prec < precedence c2
+                  then parse_bin_rhs (token_prec + 1) rhs stream
+                  else rhs
+              | _ -> rhs
+            in
+
+            (* Merge lhs/rhs. *)
+            let lhs = Ast.Binary (c, lhs, rhs) in
+            parse_bin_rhs expr_prec lhs stream
+          end
+
+At this point, we know that the binary operator to the RHS of our
+primary has higher precedence than the binop we are currently parsing.
+As such, we know that any sequence of pairs whose operators are all
+higher precedence than "+" should be parsed together and returned as
+"RHS". To do this, we recursively invoke the ``Parser.parse_bin_rhs``
+function specifying "token\_prec+1" as the minimum precedence required
+for it to continue. In our example above, this will cause it to return
+the AST node for "(c+d)\*e\*f" as RHS, which is then set as the RHS of
+the '+' expression.
+
+Finally, on the next iteration of the while loop, the "+g" piece is
+parsed and added to the AST. With this little bit of code (14
+non-trivial lines), we correctly handle fully general binary expression
+parsing in a very elegant way. This was a whirlwind tour of this code,
+and it is somewhat subtle. I recommend running through it with a few
+tough examples to see how it works.
+
+This wraps up handling of expressions. At this point, we can point the
+parser at an arbitrary token stream and build an expression from it,
+stopping at the first token that is not part of the expression. Next up
+we need to handle function definitions, etc.
+
+Parsing the Rest
+================
+
+The next thing missing is handling of function prototypes. In
+Kaleidoscope, these are used both for 'extern' function declarations as
+well as function body definitions. The code to do this is
+straight-forward and not very interesting (once you've survived
+expressions):
+
+.. code-block:: ocaml
+
+    (* prototype
+     *   ::= id '(' id* ')' *)
+    let parse_prototype =
+      let rec parse_args accumulator = parser
+        | [< 'Token.Ident id; e=parse_args (id::accumulator) >] -> e
+        | [< >] -> accumulator
+      in
+
+      parser
+      | [< 'Token.Ident id;
+           'Token.Kwd '(' ?? "expected '(' in prototype";
+           args=parse_args [];
+           'Token.Kwd ')' ?? "expected ')' in prototype" >] ->
+          (* success. *)
+          Ast.Prototype (id, Array.of_list (List.rev args))
+
+      | [< >] ->
+          raise (Stream.Error "expected function name in prototype")
+
+Given this, a function definition is very simple, just a prototype plus
+an expression to implement the body:
+
+.. code-block:: ocaml
+
+    (* definition ::= 'def' prototype expression *)
+    let parse_definition = parser
+      | [< 'Token.Def; p=parse_prototype; e=parse_expr >] ->
+          Ast.Function (p, e)
+
+In addition, we support 'extern' to declare functions like 'sin' and
+'cos' as well as to support forward declaration of user functions. These
+'extern's are just prototypes with no body:
+
+.. code-block:: ocaml
+
+    (*  external ::= 'extern' prototype *)
+    let parse_extern = parser
+      | [< 'Token.Extern; e=parse_prototype >] -> e
+
+Finally, we'll also let the user type in arbitrary top-level expressions
+and evaluate them on the fly. We will handle this by defining anonymous
+nullary (zero argument) functions for them:
+
+.. code-block:: ocaml
+
+    (* toplevelexpr ::= expression *)
+    let parse_toplevel = parser
+      | [< e=parse_expr >] ->
+          (* Make an anonymous proto. *)
+          Ast.Function (Ast.Prototype ("", [||]), e)
+
+Now that we have all the pieces, let's build a little driver that will
+let us actually *execute* this code we've built!
+
+The Driver
+==========
+
+The driver for this simply invokes all of the parsing pieces with a
+top-level dispatch loop. There isn't much interesting here, so I'll just
+include the top-level loop. See `below <#code>`_ for full code in the
+"Top-Level Parsing" section.
+
+.. code-block:: ocaml
+
+    (* top ::= definition | external | expression | ';' *)
+    let rec main_loop stream =
+      match Stream.peek stream with
+      | None -> ()
+
+      (* ignore top-level semicolons. *)
+      | Some (Token.Kwd ';') ->
+          Stream.junk stream;
+          main_loop stream
+
+      | Some token ->
+          begin
+            try match token with
+            | Token.Def ->
+                ignore(Parser.parse_definition stream);
+                print_endline "parsed a function definition.";
+            | Token.Extern ->
+                ignore(Parser.parse_extern stream);
+                print_endline "parsed an extern.";
+            | _ ->
+                (* Evaluate a top-level expression into an anonymous function. *)
+                ignore(Parser.parse_toplevel stream);
+                print_endline "parsed a top-level expr";
+            with Stream.Error s ->
+              (* Skip token for error recovery. *)
+              Stream.junk stream;
+              print_endline s;
+          end;
+          print_string "ready> "; flush stdout;
+          main_loop stream
+
+The most interesting part of this is that we ignore top-level
+semicolons. Why is this, you ask? The basic reason is that if you type
+"4 + 5" at the command line, the parser doesn't know whether that is the
+end of what you will type or not. For example, on the next line you
+could type "def foo..." in which case 4+5 is the end of a top-level
+expression. Alternatively you could type "\* 6", which would continue
+the expression. Having top-level semicolons allows you to type "4+5;",
+and the parser will know you are done.
+
+Conclusions
+===========
+
+With just under 300 lines of commented code (240 lines of non-comment,
+non-blank code), we fully defined our minimal language, including a
+lexer, parser, and AST builder. With this done, the executable will
+validate Kaleidoscope code and tell us if it is grammatically invalid.
+For example, here is a sample interaction:
+
+.. code-block:: bash
+
+    $ ./toy.byte
+    ready> def foo(x y) x+foo(y, 4.0);
+    Parsed a function definition.
+    ready> def foo(x y) x+y y;
+    Parsed a function definition.
+    Parsed a top-level expr
+    ready> def foo(x y) x+y );
+    Parsed a function definition.
+    Error: unknown token when expecting an expression
+    ready> extern sin(a);
+    ready> Parsed an extern
+    ready> ^D
+    $
+
+There is a lot of room for extension here. You can define new AST nodes,
+extend the language in many ways, etc. In the `next
+installment <OCamlLangImpl3.html>`_, we will describe how to generate
+LLVM Intermediate Representation (IR) from the AST.
+
+Full Code Listing
+=================
+
+Here is the complete code listing for this and the previous chapter.
+Note that it is fully self-contained: you don't need LLVM or any
+external libraries at all for this. (Besides the ocaml standard
+libraries, of course.) To build this, just compile with:
+
+.. code-block:: bash
+
+    # Compile
+    ocamlbuild toy.byte
+    # Run
+    ./toy.byte
+
+Here is the code:
+
+\_tags:
+    ::
+
+        <{lexer,parser}.ml>: use_camlp4, pp(camlp4of)
+
+token.ml:
+    .. code-block:: ocaml
+
+        (*===----------------------------------------------------------------------===
+         * Lexer Tokens
+         *===----------------------------------------------------------------------===*)
+
+        (* The lexer returns these 'Kwd' if it is an unknown character, otherwise one of
+         * these others for known things. *)
+        type token =
+          (* commands *)
+          | Def | Extern
+
+          (* primary *)
+          | Ident of string | Number of float
+
+          (* unknown *)
+          | Kwd of char
+
+lexer.ml:
+    .. code-block:: ocaml
+
+        (*===----------------------------------------------------------------------===
+         * Lexer
+         *===----------------------------------------------------------------------===*)
+
+        let rec lex = parser
+          (* Skip any whitespace. *)
+          | [< ' (' ' | '\n' | '\r' | '\t'); stream >] -> lex stream
+
+          (* identifier: [a-zA-Z][a-zA-Z0-9] *)
+          | [< ' ('A' .. 'Z' | 'a' .. 'z' as c); stream >] ->
+              let buffer = Buffer.create 1 in
+              Buffer.add_char buffer c;
+              lex_ident buffer stream
+
+          (* number: [0-9.]+ *)
+          | [< ' ('0' .. '9' as c); stream >] ->
+              let buffer = Buffer.create 1 in
+              Buffer.add_char buffer c;
+              lex_number buffer stream
+
+          (* Comment until end of line. *)
+          | [< ' ('#'); stream >] ->
+              lex_comment stream
+
+          (* Otherwise, just return the character as its ascii value. *)
+          | [< 'c; stream >] ->
+              [< 'Token.Kwd c; lex stream >]
+
+          (* end of stream. *)
+          | [< >] -> [< >]
+
+        and lex_number buffer = parser
+          | [< ' ('0' .. '9' | '.' as c); stream >] ->
+              Buffer.add_char buffer c;
+              lex_number buffer stream
+          | [< stream=lex >] ->
+              [< 'Token.Number (float_of_string (Buffer.contents buffer)); stream >]
+
+        and lex_ident buffer = parser
+          | [< ' ('A' .. 'Z' | 'a' .. 'z' | '0' .. '9' as c); stream >] ->
+              Buffer.add_char buffer c;
+              lex_ident buffer stream
+          | [< stream=lex >] ->
+              match Buffer.contents buffer with
+              | "def" -> [< 'Token.Def; stream >]
+              | "extern" -> [< 'Token.Extern; stream >]
+              | id -> [< 'Token.Ident id; stream >]
+
+        and lex_comment = parser
+          | [< ' ('\n'); stream=lex >] -> stream
+          | [< 'c; e=lex_comment >] -> e
+          | [< >] -> [< >]
+
+ast.ml:
+    .. code-block:: ocaml
+
+        (*===----------------------------------------------------------------------===
+         * Abstract Syntax Tree (aka Parse Tree)
+         *===----------------------------------------------------------------------===*)
+
+        (* expr - Base type for all expression nodes. *)
+        type expr =
+          (* variant for numeric literals like "1.0". *)
+          | Number of float
+
+          (* variant for referencing a variable, like "a". *)
+          | Variable of string
+
+          (* variant for a binary operator. *)
+          | Binary of char * expr * expr
+
+          (* variant for function calls. *)
+          | Call of string * expr array
+
+        (* proto - This type represents the "prototype" for a function, which captures
+         * its name, and its argument names (thus implicitly the number of arguments the
+         * function takes). *)
+        type proto = Prototype of string * string array
+
+        (* func - This type represents a function definition itself. *)
+        type func = Function of proto * expr
+
+parser.ml:
+    .. code-block:: ocaml
+
+        (*===---------------------------------------------------------------------===
+         * Parser
+         *===---------------------------------------------------------------------===*)
+
+        (* binop_precedence - This holds the precedence for each binary operator that is
+         * defined *)
+        let binop_precedence:(char, int) Hashtbl.t = Hashtbl.create 10
+
+        (* precedence - Get the precedence of the pending binary operator token. *)
+        let precedence c = try Hashtbl.find binop_precedence c with Not_found -> -1
+
+        (* primary
+         *   ::= identifier
+         *   ::= numberexpr
+         *   ::= parenexpr *)
+        let rec parse_primary = parser
+          (* numberexpr ::= number *)
+          | [< 'Token.Number n >] -> Ast.Number n
+
+          (* parenexpr ::= '(' expression ')' *)
+          | [< 'Token.Kwd '('; e=parse_expr; 'Token.Kwd ')' ?? "expected ')'" >] -> e
+
+          (* identifierexpr
+           *   ::= identifier
+           *   ::= identifier '(' argumentexpr ')' *)
+          | [< 'Token.Ident id; stream >] ->
+              let rec parse_args accumulator = parser
+                | [< e=parse_expr; stream >] ->
+                    begin parser
+                      | [< 'Token.Kwd ','; e=parse_args (e :: accumulator) >] -> e
+                      | [< >] -> e :: accumulator
+                    end stream
+                | [< >] -> accumulator
+              in
+              let rec parse_ident id = parser
+                (* Call. *)
+                | [< 'Token.Kwd '(';
+                     args=parse_args [];
+                     'Token.Kwd ')' ?? "expected ')'">] ->
+                    Ast.Call (id, Array.of_list (List.rev args))
+
+                (* Simple variable ref. *)
+                | [< >] -> Ast.Variable id
+              in
+              parse_ident id stream
+
+          | [< >] -> raise (Stream.Error "unknown token when expecting an expression.")
+
+        (* binoprhs
+         *   ::= ('+' primary)* *)
+        and parse_bin_rhs expr_prec lhs stream =
+          match Stream.peek stream with
+          (* If this is a binop, find its precedence. *)
+          | Some (Token.Kwd c) when Hashtbl.mem binop_precedence c ->
+              let token_prec = precedence c in
+
+              (* If this is a binop that binds at least as tightly as the current binop,
+               * consume it, otherwise we are done. *)
+              if token_prec < expr_prec then lhs else begin
+                (* Eat the binop. *)
+                Stream.junk stream;
+
+                (* Parse the primary expression after the binary operator. *)
+                let rhs = parse_primary stream in
+
+                (* Okay, we know this is a binop. *)
+                let rhs =
+                  match Stream.peek stream with
+                  | Some (Token.Kwd c2) ->
+                      (* If BinOp binds less tightly with rhs than the operator after
+                       * rhs, let the pending operator take rhs as its lhs. *)
+                      let next_prec = precedence c2 in
+                      if token_prec < next_prec
+                      then parse_bin_rhs (token_prec + 1) rhs stream
+                      else rhs
+                  | _ -> rhs
+                in
+
+                (* Merge lhs/rhs. *)
+                let lhs = Ast.Binary (c, lhs, rhs) in
+                parse_bin_rhs expr_prec lhs stream
+              end
+          | _ -> lhs
+
+        (* expression
+         *   ::= primary binoprhs *)
+        and parse_expr = parser
+          | [< lhs=parse_primary; stream >] -> parse_bin_rhs 0 lhs stream
+
+        (* prototype
+         *   ::= id '(' id* ')' *)
+        let parse_prototype =
+          let rec parse_args accumulator = parser
+            | [< 'Token.Ident id; e=parse_args (id::accumulator) >] -> e
+            | [< >] -> accumulator
+          in
+
+          parser
+          | [< 'Token.Ident id;
+               'Token.Kwd '(' ?? "expected '(' in prototype";
+               args=parse_args [];
+               'Token.Kwd ')' ?? "expected ')' in prototype" >] ->
+              (* success. *)
+              Ast.Prototype (id, Array.of_list (List.rev args))
+
+          | [< >] ->
+              raise (Stream.Error "expected function name in prototype")
+
+        (* definition ::= 'def' prototype expression *)
+        let parse_definition = parser
+          | [< 'Token.Def; p=parse_prototype; e=parse_expr >] ->
+              Ast.Function (p, e)
+
+        (* toplevelexpr ::= expression *)
+        let parse_toplevel = parser
+          | [< e=parse_expr >] ->
+              (* Make an anonymous proto. *)
+              Ast.Function (Ast.Prototype ("", [||]), e)
+
+        (*  external ::= 'extern' prototype *)
+        let parse_extern = parser
+          | [< 'Token.Extern; e=parse_prototype >] -> e
+
+toplevel.ml:
+    .. code-block:: ocaml
+
+        (*===----------------------------------------------------------------------===
+         * Top-Level parsing and JIT Driver
+         *===----------------------------------------------------------------------===*)
+
+        (* top ::= definition | external | expression | ';' *)
+        let rec main_loop stream =
+          match Stream.peek stream with
+          | None -> ()
+
+          (* ignore top-level semicolons. *)
+          | Some (Token.Kwd ';') ->
+              Stream.junk stream;
+              main_loop stream
+
+          | Some token ->
+              begin
+                try match token with
+                | Token.Def ->
+                    ignore(Parser.parse_definition stream);
+                    print_endline "parsed a function definition.";
+                | Token.Extern ->
+                    ignore(Parser.parse_extern stream);
+                    print_endline "parsed an extern.";
+                | _ ->
+                    (* Evaluate a top-level expression into an anonymous function. *)
+                    ignore(Parser.parse_toplevel stream);
+                    print_endline "parsed a top-level expr";
+                with Stream.Error s ->
+                  (* Skip token for error recovery. *)
+                  Stream.junk stream;
+                  print_endline s;
+              end;
+              print_string "ready> "; flush stdout;
+              main_loop stream
+
+toy.ml:
+    .. code-block:: ocaml
+
+        (*===----------------------------------------------------------------------===
+         * Main driver code.
+         *===----------------------------------------------------------------------===*)
+
+        let main () =
+          (* Install standard binary operators.
+           * 1 is the lowest precedence. *)
+          Hashtbl.add Parser.binop_precedence '<' 10;
+          Hashtbl.add Parser.binop_precedence '+' 20;
+          Hashtbl.add Parser.binop_precedence '-' 20;
+          Hashtbl.add Parser.binop_precedence '*' 40;    (* highest. *)
+
+          (* Prime the first token. *)
+          print_string "ready> "; flush stdout;
+          let stream = Lexer.lex (Stream.of_channel stdin) in
+
+          (* Run the main "interpreter loop" now. *)
+          Toplevel.main_loop stream;
+        ;;
+
+        main ()
+
+`Next: Implementing Code Generation to LLVM IR <OCamlLangImpl3.html>`_
+

Added: www-releases/trunk/3.5.1/docs/_sources/tutorial/OCamlLangImpl3.txt
URL: http://llvm.org/viewvc/llvm-project/www-releases/trunk/3.5.1/docs/_sources/tutorial/OCamlLangImpl3.txt?rev=225843&view=auto
==============================================================================
--- www-releases/trunk/3.5.1/docs/_sources/tutorial/OCamlLangImpl3.txt (added)
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@@ -0,0 +1,961 @@
+========================================
+Kaleidoscope: Code generation to LLVM IR
+========================================
+
+.. contents::
+   :local:
+
+Chapter 3 Introduction
+======================
+
+Welcome to Chapter 3 of the "`Implementing a language with
+LLVM <index.html>`_" tutorial. This chapter shows you how to transform
+the `Abstract Syntax Tree <OCamlLangImpl2.html>`_, built in Chapter 2,
+into LLVM IR. This will teach you a little bit about how LLVM does
+things, as well as demonstrate how easy it is to use. It's much more
+work to build a lexer and parser than it is to generate LLVM IR code. :)
+
+**Please note**: the code in this chapter and later require LLVM 2.3 or
+LLVM SVN to work. LLVM 2.2 and before will not work with it.
+
+Code Generation Setup
+=====================
+
+In order to generate LLVM IR, we want some simple setup to get started.
+First we define virtual code generation (codegen) methods in each AST
+class:
+
+.. code-block:: ocaml
+
+    let rec codegen_expr = function
+      | Ast.Number n -> ...
+      | Ast.Variable name -> ...
+
+The ``Codegen.codegen_expr`` function says to emit IR for that AST node
+along with all the things it depends on, and they all return an LLVM
+Value object. "Value" is the class used to represent a "`Static Single
+Assignment
+(SSA) <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Static_single_assignment_form>`_
+register" or "SSA value" in LLVM. The most distinct aspect of SSA values
+is that their value is computed as the related instruction executes, and
+it does not get a new value until (and if) the instruction re-executes.
+In other words, there is no way to "change" an SSA value. For more
+information, please read up on `Static Single
+Assignment <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Static_single_assignment_form>`_
+- the concepts are really quite natural once you grok them.
+
+The second thing we want is an "Error" exception like we used for the
+parser, which will be used to report errors found during code generation
+(for example, use of an undeclared parameter):
+
+.. code-block:: ocaml
+
+    exception Error of string
+
+    let context = global_context ()
+    let the_module = create_module context "my cool jit"
+    let builder = builder context
+    let named_values:(string, llvalue) Hashtbl.t = Hashtbl.create 10
+    let double_type = double_type context
+
+The static variables will be used during code generation.
+``Codgen.the_module`` is the LLVM construct that contains all of the
+functions and global variables in a chunk of code. In many ways, it is
+the top-level structure that the LLVM IR uses to contain code.
+
+The ``Codegen.builder`` object is a helper object that makes it easy to
+generate LLVM instructions. Instances of the
+```IRBuilder`` <http://llvm.org/doxygen/IRBuilder_8h-source.html>`_
+class keep track of the current place to insert instructions and has
+methods to create new instructions.
+
+The ``Codegen.named_values`` map keeps track of which values are defined
+in the current scope and what their LLVM representation is. (In other
+words, it is a symbol table for the code). In this form of Kaleidoscope,
+the only things that can be referenced are function parameters. As such,
+function parameters will be in this map when generating code for their
+function body.
+
+With these basics in place, we can start talking about how to generate
+code for each expression. Note that this assumes that the
+``Codgen.builder`` has been set up to generate code *into* something.
+For now, we'll assume that this has already been done, and we'll just
+use it to emit code.
+
+Expression Code Generation
+==========================
+
+Generating LLVM code for expression nodes is very straightforward: less
+than 30 lines of commented code for all four of our expression nodes.
+First we'll do numeric literals:
+
+.. code-block:: ocaml
+
+      | Ast.Number n -> const_float double_type n
+
+In the LLVM IR, numeric constants are represented with the
+``ConstantFP`` class, which holds the numeric value in an ``APFloat``
+internally (``APFloat`` has the capability of holding floating point
+constants of Arbitrary Precision). This code basically just creates
+and returns a ``ConstantFP``. Note that in the LLVM IR that constants
+are all uniqued together and shared. For this reason, the API uses "the
+foo::get(..)" idiom instead of "new foo(..)" or "foo::Create(..)".
+
+.. code-block:: ocaml
+
+      | Ast.Variable name ->
+          (try Hashtbl.find named_values name with
+            | Not_found -> raise (Error "unknown variable name"))
+
+References to variables are also quite simple using LLVM. In the simple
+version of Kaleidoscope, we assume that the variable has already been
+emitted somewhere and its value is available. In practice, the only
+values that can be in the ``Codegen.named_values`` map are function
+arguments. This code simply checks to see that the specified name is in
+the map (if not, an unknown variable is being referenced) and returns
+the value for it. In future chapters, we'll add support for `loop
+induction variables <LangImpl5.html#for>`_ in the symbol table, and for
+`local variables <LangImpl7.html#localvars>`_.
+
+.. code-block:: ocaml
+
+      | Ast.Binary (op, lhs, rhs) ->
+          let lhs_val = codegen_expr lhs in
+          let rhs_val = codegen_expr rhs in
+          begin
+            match op with
+            | '+' -> build_fadd lhs_val rhs_val "addtmp" builder
+            | '-' -> build_fsub lhs_val rhs_val "subtmp" builder
+            | '*' -> build_fmul lhs_val rhs_val "multmp" builder
+            | '<' ->
+                (* Convert bool 0/1 to double 0.0 or 1.0 *)
+                let i = build_fcmp Fcmp.Ult lhs_val rhs_val "cmptmp" builder in
+                build_uitofp i double_type "booltmp" builder
+            | _ -> raise (Error "invalid binary operator")
+          end
+
+Binary operators start to get more interesting. The basic idea here is
+that we recursively emit code for the left-hand side of the expression,
+then the right-hand side, then we compute the result of the binary
+expression. In this code, we do a simple switch on the opcode to create
+the right LLVM instruction.
+
+In the example above, the LLVM builder class is starting to show its
+value. IRBuilder knows where to insert the newly created instruction,
+all you have to do is specify what instruction to create (e.g. with
+``Llvm.create_add``), which operands to use (``lhs`` and ``rhs`` here)
+and optionally provide a name for the generated instruction.
+
+One nice thing about LLVM is that the name is just a hint. For instance,
+if the code above emits multiple "addtmp" variables, LLVM will
+automatically provide each one with an increasing, unique numeric
+suffix. Local value names for instructions are purely optional, but it
+makes it much easier to read the IR dumps.
+
+`LLVM instructions <../LangRef.html#instref>`_ are constrained by strict
+rules: for example, the Left and Right operators of an `add
+instruction <../LangRef.html#i_add>`_ must have the same type, and the
+result type of the add must match the operand types. Because all values
+in Kaleidoscope are doubles, this makes for very simple code for add,
+sub and mul.
+
+On the other hand, LLVM specifies that the `fcmp
+instruction <../LangRef.html#i_fcmp>`_ always returns an 'i1' value (a
+one bit integer). The problem with this is that Kaleidoscope wants the
+value to be a 0.0 or 1.0 value. In order to get these semantics, we
+combine the fcmp instruction with a `uitofp
+instruction <../LangRef.html#i_uitofp>`_. This instruction converts its
+input integer into a floating point value by treating the input as an
+unsigned value. In contrast, if we used the `sitofp
+instruction <../LangRef.html#i_sitofp>`_, the Kaleidoscope '<' operator
+would return 0.0 and -1.0, depending on the input value.
+
+.. code-block:: ocaml
+
+      | Ast.Call (callee, args) ->
+          (* Look up the name in the module table. *)
+          let callee =
+            match lookup_function callee the_module with
+            | Some callee -> callee
+            | None -> raise (Error "unknown function referenced")
+          in
+          let params = params callee in
+
+          (* If argument mismatch error. *)
+          if Array.length params == Array.length args then () else
+            raise (Error "incorrect # arguments passed");
+          let args = Array.map codegen_expr args in
+          build_call callee args "calltmp" builder
+
+Code generation for function calls is quite straightforward with LLVM.
+The code above initially does a function name lookup in the LLVM
+Module's symbol table. Recall that the LLVM Module is the container that
+holds all of the functions we are JIT'ing. By giving each function the
+same name as what the user specifies, we can use the LLVM symbol table
+to resolve function names for us.
+
+Once we have the function to call, we recursively codegen each argument
+that is to be passed in, and create an LLVM `call
+instruction <../LangRef.html#i_call>`_. Note that LLVM uses the native C
+calling conventions by default, allowing these calls to also call into
+standard library functions like "sin" and "cos", with no additional
+effort.
+
+This wraps up our handling of the four basic expressions that we have so
+far in Kaleidoscope. Feel free to go in and add some more. For example,
+by browsing the `LLVM language reference <../LangRef.html>`_ you'll find
+several other interesting instructions that are really easy to plug into
+our basic framework.
+
+Function Code Generation
+========================
+
+Code generation for prototypes and functions must handle a number of
+details, which make their code less beautiful than expression code
+generation, but allows us to illustrate some important points. First,
+lets talk about code generation for prototypes: they are used both for
+function bodies and external function declarations. The code starts
+with:
+
+.. code-block:: ocaml
+
+    let codegen_proto = function
+      | Ast.Prototype (name, args) ->
+          (* Make the function type: double(double,double) etc. *)
+          let doubles = Array.make (Array.length args) double_type in
+          let ft = function_type double_type doubles in
+          let f =
+            match lookup_function name the_module with
+
+This code packs a lot of power into a few lines. Note first that this
+function returns a "Function\*" instead of a "Value\*" (although at the
+moment they both are modeled by ``llvalue`` in ocaml). Because a
+"prototype" really talks about the external interface for a function
+(not the value computed by an expression), it makes sense for it to
+return the LLVM Function it corresponds to when codegen'd.
+
+The call to ``Llvm.function_type`` creates the ``Llvm.llvalue`` that
+should be used for a given Prototype. Since all function arguments in
+Kaleidoscope are of type double, the first line creates a vector of "N"
+LLVM double types. It then uses the ``Llvm.function_type`` method to
+create a function type that takes "N" doubles as arguments, returns one
+double as a result, and that is not vararg (that uses the function
+``Llvm.var_arg_function_type``). Note that Types in LLVM are uniqued
+just like ``Constant``'s are, so you don't "new" a type, you "get" it.
+
+The final line above checks if the function has already been defined in
+``Codegen.the_module``. If not, we will create it.
+
+.. code-block:: ocaml
+
+            | None -> declare_function name ft the_module
+
+This indicates the type and name to use, as well as which module to
+insert into. By default we assume a function has
+``Llvm.Linkage.ExternalLinkage``. "`external
+linkage <LangRef.html#linkage>`_" means that the function may be defined
+outside the current module and/or that it is callable by functions
+outside the module. The "``name``" passed in is the name the user
+specified: this name is registered in "``Codegen.the_module``"s symbol
+table, which is used by the function call code above.
+
+In Kaleidoscope, I choose to allow redefinitions of functions in two
+cases: first, we want to allow 'extern'ing a function more than once, as
+long as the prototypes for the externs match (since all arguments have
+the same type, we just have to check that the number of arguments
+match). Second, we want to allow 'extern'ing a function and then
+defining a body for it. This is useful when defining mutually recursive
+functions.
+
+.. code-block:: ocaml
+
+            (* If 'f' conflicted, there was already something named 'name'. If it
+             * has a body, don't allow redefinition or reextern. *)
+            | Some f ->
+                (* If 'f' already has a body, reject this. *)
+                if Array.length (basic_blocks f) == 0 then () else
+                  raise (Error "redefinition of function");
+
+                (* If 'f' took a different number of arguments, reject. *)
+                if Array.length (params f) == Array.length args then () else
+                  raise (Error "redefinition of function with different # args");
+                f
+          in
+
+In order to verify the logic above, we first check to see if the
+pre-existing function is "empty". In this case, empty means that it has
+no basic blocks in it, which means it has no body. If it has no body, it
+is a forward declaration. Since we don't allow anything after a full
+definition of the function, the code rejects this case. If the previous
+reference to a function was an 'extern', we simply verify that the
+number of arguments for that definition and this one match up. If not,
+we emit an error.
+
+.. code-block:: ocaml
+
+          (* Set names for all arguments. *)
+          Array.iteri (fun i a ->
+            let n = args.(i) in
+            set_value_name n a;
+            Hashtbl.add named_values n a;
+          ) (params f);
+          f
+
+The last bit of code for prototypes loops over all of the arguments in
+the function, setting the name of the LLVM Argument objects to match,
+and registering the arguments in the ``Codegen.named_values`` map for
+future use by the ``Ast.Variable`` variant. Once this is set up, it
+returns the Function object to the caller. Note that we don't check for
+conflicting argument names here (e.g. "extern foo(a b a)"). Doing so
+would be very straight-forward with the mechanics we have already used
+above.
+
+.. code-block:: ocaml
+
+    let codegen_func = function
+      | Ast.Function (proto, body) ->
+          Hashtbl.clear named_values;
+          let the_function = codegen_proto proto in
+
+Code generation for function definitions starts out simply enough: we
+just codegen the prototype (Proto) and verify that it is ok. We then
+clear out the ``Codegen.named_values`` map to make sure that there isn't
+anything in it from the last function we compiled. Code generation of
+the prototype ensures that there is an LLVM Function object that is
+ready to go for us.
+
+.. code-block:: ocaml
+
+          (* Create a new basic block to start insertion into. *)
+          let bb = append_block context "entry" the_function in
+          position_at_end bb builder;
+
+          try
+            let ret_val = codegen_expr body in
+
+Now we get to the point where the ``Codegen.builder`` is set up. The
+first line creates a new `basic
+block <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Basic_block>`_ (named "entry"),
+which is inserted into ``the_function``. The second line then tells the
+builder that new instructions should be inserted into the end of the new
+basic block. Basic blocks in LLVM are an important part of functions
+that define the `Control Flow
+Graph <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Control_flow_graph>`_. Since we
+don't have any control flow, our functions will only contain one block
+at this point. We'll fix this in `Chapter 5 <OCamlLangImpl5.html>`_ :).
+
+.. code-block:: ocaml
+
+            let ret_val = codegen_expr body in
+
+            (* Finish off the function. *)
+            let _ = build_ret ret_val builder in
+
+            (* Validate the generated code, checking for consistency. *)
+            Llvm_analysis.assert_valid_function the_function;
+
+            the_function
+
+Once the insertion point is set up, we call the ``Codegen.codegen_func``
+method for the root expression of the function. If no error happens,
+this emits code to compute the expression into the entry block and
+returns the value that was computed. Assuming no error, we then create
+an LLVM `ret instruction <../LangRef.html#i_ret>`_, which completes the
+function. Once the function is built, we call
+``Llvm_analysis.assert_valid_function``, which is provided by LLVM. This
+function does a variety of consistency checks on the generated code, to
+determine if our compiler is doing everything right. Using this is
+important: it can catch a lot of bugs. Once the function is finished and
+validated, we return it.
+
+.. code-block:: ocaml
+
+          with e ->
+            delete_function the_function;
+            raise e
+
+The only piece left here is handling of the error case. For simplicity,
+we handle this by merely deleting the function we produced with the
+``Llvm.delete_function`` method. This allows the user to redefine a
+function that they incorrectly typed in before: if we didn't delete it,
+it would live in the symbol table, with a body, preventing future
+redefinition.
+
+This code does have a bug, though. Since the ``Codegen.codegen_proto``
+can return a previously defined forward declaration, our code can
+actually delete a forward declaration. There are a number of ways to fix
+this bug, see what you can come up with! Here is a testcase:
+
+::
+
+    extern foo(a b);     # ok, defines foo.
+    def foo(a b) c;      # error, 'c' is invalid.
+    def bar() foo(1, 2); # error, unknown function "foo"
+
+Driver Changes and Closing Thoughts
+===================================
+
+For now, code generation to LLVM doesn't really get us much, except that
+we can look at the pretty IR calls. The sample code inserts calls to
+Codegen into the "``Toplevel.main_loop``", and then dumps out the LLVM
+IR. This gives a nice way to look at the LLVM IR for simple functions.
+For example:
+
+::
+
+    ready> 4+5;
+    Read top-level expression:
+    define double @""() {
+    entry:
+            %addtmp = fadd double 4.000000e+00, 5.000000e+00
+            ret double %addtmp
+    }
+
+Note how the parser turns the top-level expression into anonymous
+functions for us. This will be handy when we add `JIT
+support <OCamlLangImpl4.html#jit>`_ in the next chapter. Also note that
+the code is very literally transcribed, no optimizations are being
+performed. We will `add
+optimizations <OCamlLangImpl4.html#trivialconstfold>`_ explicitly in the
+next chapter.
+
+::
+
+    ready> def foo(a b) a*a + 2*a*b + b*b;
+    Read function definition:
+    define double @foo(double %a, double %b) {
+    entry:
+            %multmp = fmul double %a, %a
+            %multmp1 = fmul double 2.000000e+00, %a
+            %multmp2 = fmul double %multmp1, %b
+            %addtmp = fadd double %multmp, %multmp2
+            %multmp3 = fmul double %b, %b
+            %addtmp4 = fadd double %addtmp, %multmp3
+            ret double %addtmp4
+    }
+
+This shows some simple arithmetic. Notice the striking similarity to the
+LLVM builder calls that we use to create the instructions.
+
+::
+
+    ready> def bar(a) foo(a, 4.0) + bar(31337);
+    Read function definition:
+    define double @bar(double %a) {
+    entry:
+            %calltmp = call double @foo(double %a, double 4.000000e+00)
+            %calltmp1 = call double @bar(double 3.133700e+04)
+            %addtmp = fadd double %calltmp, %calltmp1
+            ret double %addtmp
+    }
+
+This shows some function calls. Note that this function will take a long
+time to execute if you call it. In the future we'll add conditional
+control flow to actually make recursion useful :).
+
+::
+
+    ready> extern cos(x);
+    Read extern:
+    declare double @cos(double)
+
+    ready> cos(1.234);
+    Read top-level expression:
+    define double @""() {
+    entry:
+            %calltmp = call double @cos(double 1.234000e+00)
+            ret double %calltmp
+    }
+
+This shows an extern for the libm "cos" function, and a call to it.
+
+::
+
+    ready> ^D
+    ; ModuleID = 'my cool jit'
+
+    define double @""() {
+    entry:
+            %addtmp = fadd double 4.000000e+00, 5.000000e+00
+            ret double %addtmp
+    }
+
+    define double @foo(double %a, double %b) {
+    entry:
+            %multmp = fmul double %a, %a
+            %multmp1 = fmul double 2.000000e+00, %a
+            %multmp2 = fmul double %multmp1, %b
+            %addtmp = fadd double %multmp, %multmp2
+            %multmp3 = fmul double %b, %b
+            %addtmp4 = fadd double %addtmp, %multmp3
+            ret double %addtmp4
+    }
+
+    define double @bar(double %a) {
+    entry:
+            %calltmp = call double @foo(double %a, double 4.000000e+00)
+            %calltmp1 = call double @bar(double 3.133700e+04)
+            %addtmp = fadd double %calltmp, %calltmp1
+            ret double %addtmp
+    }
+
+    declare double @cos(double)
+
+    define double @""() {
+    entry:
+            %calltmp = call double @cos(double 1.234000e+00)
+            ret double %calltmp
+    }
+
+When you quit the current demo, it dumps out the IR for the entire
+module generated. Here you can see the big picture with all the
+functions referencing each other.
+
+This wraps up the third chapter of the Kaleidoscope tutorial. Up next,
+we'll describe how to `add JIT codegen and optimizer
+support <OCamlLangImpl4.html>`_ to this so we can actually start running
+code!
+
+Full Code Listing
+=================
+
+Here is the complete code listing for our running example, enhanced with
+the LLVM code generator. Because this uses the LLVM libraries, we need
+to link them in. To do this, we use the
+`llvm-config <http://llvm.org/cmds/llvm-config.html>`_ tool to inform
+our makefile/command line about which options to use:
+
+.. code-block:: bash
+
+    # Compile
+    ocamlbuild toy.byte
+    # Run
+    ./toy.byte
+
+Here is the code:
+
+\_tags:
+    ::
+
+        <{lexer,parser}.ml>: use_camlp4, pp(camlp4of)
+        <*.{byte,native}>: g++, use_llvm, use_llvm_analysis
+
+myocamlbuild.ml:
+    .. code-block:: ocaml
+
+        open Ocamlbuild_plugin;;
+
+        ocaml_lib ~extern:true "llvm";;
+        ocaml_lib ~extern:true "llvm_analysis";;
+
+        flag ["link"; "ocaml"; "g++"] (S[A"-cc"; A"g++"]);;
+
+token.ml:
+    .. code-block:: ocaml
+
+        (*===----------------------------------------------------------------------===
+         * Lexer Tokens
+         *===----------------------------------------------------------------------===*)
+
+        (* The lexer returns these 'Kwd' if it is an unknown character, otherwise one of
+         * these others for known things. *)
+        type token =
+          (* commands *)
+          | Def | Extern
+
+          (* primary *)
+          | Ident of string | Number of float
+
+          (* unknown *)
+          | Kwd of char
+
+lexer.ml:
+    .. code-block:: ocaml
+
+        (*===----------------------------------------------------------------------===
+         * Lexer
+         *===----------------------------------------------------------------------===*)
+
+        let rec lex = parser
+          (* Skip any whitespace. *)
+          | [< ' (' ' | '\n' | '\r' | '\t'); stream >] -> lex stream
+
+          (* identifier: [a-zA-Z][a-zA-Z0-9] *)
+          | [< ' ('A' .. 'Z' | 'a' .. 'z' as c); stream >] ->
+              let buffer = Buffer.create 1 in
+              Buffer.add_char buffer c;
+              lex_ident buffer stream
+
+          (* number: [0-9.]+ *)
+          | [< ' ('0' .. '9' as c); stream >] ->
+              let buffer = Buffer.create 1 in
+              Buffer.add_char buffer c;
+              lex_number buffer stream
+
+          (* Comment until end of line. *)
+          | [< ' ('#'); stream >] ->
+              lex_comment stream
+
+          (* Otherwise, just return the character as its ascii value. *)
+          | [< 'c; stream >] ->
+              [< 'Token.Kwd c; lex stream >]
+
+          (* end of stream. *)
+          | [< >] -> [< >]
+
+        and lex_number buffer = parser
+          | [< ' ('0' .. '9' | '.' as c); stream >] ->
+              Buffer.add_char buffer c;
+              lex_number buffer stream
+          | [< stream=lex >] ->
+              [< 'Token.Number (float_of_string (Buffer.contents buffer)); stream >]
+
+        and lex_ident buffer = parser
+          | [< ' ('A' .. 'Z' | 'a' .. 'z' | '0' .. '9' as c); stream >] ->
+              Buffer.add_char buffer c;
+              lex_ident buffer stream
+          | [< stream=lex >] ->
+              match Buffer.contents buffer with
+              | "def" -> [< 'Token.Def; stream >]
+              | "extern" -> [< 'Token.Extern; stream >]
+              | id -> [< 'Token.Ident id; stream >]
+
+        and lex_comment = parser
+          | [< ' ('\n'); stream=lex >] -> stream
+          | [< 'c; e=lex_comment >] -> e
+          | [< >] -> [< >]
+
+ast.ml:
+    .. code-block:: ocaml
+
+        (*===----------------------------------------------------------------------===
+         * Abstract Syntax Tree (aka Parse Tree)
+         *===----------------------------------------------------------------------===*)
+
+        (* expr - Base type for all expression nodes. *)
+        type expr =
+          (* variant for numeric literals like "1.0". *)
+          | Number of float
+
+          (* variant for referencing a variable, like "a". *)
+          | Variable of string
+
+          (* variant for a binary operator. *)
+          | Binary of char * expr * expr
+
+          (* variant for function calls. *)
+          | Call of string * expr array
+
+        (* proto - This type represents the "prototype" for a function, which captures
+         * its name, and its argument names (thus implicitly the number of arguments the
+         * function takes). *)
+        type proto = Prototype of string * string array
+
+        (* func - This type represents a function definition itself. *)
+        type func = Function of proto * expr
+
+parser.ml:
+    .. code-block:: ocaml
+
+        (*===---------------------------------------------------------------------===
+         * Parser
+         *===---------------------------------------------------------------------===*)
+
+        (* binop_precedence - This holds the precedence for each binary operator that is
+         * defined *)
+        let binop_precedence:(char, int) Hashtbl.t = Hashtbl.create 10
+
+        (* precedence - Get the precedence of the pending binary operator token. *)
+        let precedence c = try Hashtbl.find binop_precedence c with Not_found -> -1
+
+        (* primary
+         *   ::= identifier
+         *   ::= numberexpr
+         *   ::= parenexpr *)
+        let rec parse_primary = parser
+          (* numberexpr ::= number *)
+          | [< 'Token.Number n >] -> Ast.Number n
+
+          (* parenexpr ::= '(' expression ')' *)
+          | [< 'Token.Kwd '('; e=parse_expr; 'Token.Kwd ')' ?? "expected ')'" >] -> e
+
+          (* identifierexpr
+           *   ::= identifier
+           *   ::= identifier '(' argumentexpr ')' *)
+          | [< 'Token.Ident id; stream >] ->
+              let rec parse_args accumulator = parser
+                | [< e=parse_expr; stream >] ->
+                    begin parser
+                      | [< 'Token.Kwd ','; e=parse_args (e :: accumulator) >] -> e
+                      | [< >] -> e :: accumulator
+                    end stream
+                | [< >] -> accumulator
+              in
+              let rec parse_ident id = parser
+                (* Call. *)
+                | [< 'Token.Kwd '(';
+                     args=parse_args [];
+                     'Token.Kwd ')' ?? "expected ')'">] ->
+                    Ast.Call (id, Array.of_list (List.rev args))
+
+                (* Simple variable ref. *)
+                | [< >] -> Ast.Variable id
+              in
+              parse_ident id stream
+
+          | [< >] -> raise (Stream.Error "unknown token when expecting an expression.")
+
+        (* binoprhs
+         *   ::= ('+' primary)* *)
+        and parse_bin_rhs expr_prec lhs stream =
+          match Stream.peek stream with
+          (* If this is a binop, find its precedence. *)
+          | Some (Token.Kwd c) when Hashtbl.mem binop_precedence c ->
+              let token_prec = precedence c in
+
+              (* If this is a binop that binds at least as tightly as the current binop,
+               * consume it, otherwise we are done. *)
+              if token_prec < expr_prec then lhs else begin
+                (* Eat the binop. *)
+                Stream.junk stream;
+
+                (* Parse the primary expression after the binary operator. *)
+                let rhs = parse_primary stream in
+
+                (* Okay, we know this is a binop. *)
+                let rhs =
+                  match Stream.peek stream with
+                  | Some (Token.Kwd c2) ->
+                      (* If BinOp binds less tightly with rhs than the operator after
+                       * rhs, let the pending operator take rhs as its lhs. *)
+                      let next_prec = precedence c2 in
+                      if token_prec < next_prec
+                      then parse_bin_rhs (token_prec + 1) rhs stream
+                      else rhs
+                  | _ -> rhs
+                in
+
+                (* Merge lhs/rhs. *)
+                let lhs = Ast.Binary (c, lhs, rhs) in
+                parse_bin_rhs expr_prec lhs stream
+              end
+          | _ -> lhs
+
+        (* expression
+         *   ::= primary binoprhs *)
+        and parse_expr = parser
+          | [< lhs=parse_primary; stream >] -> parse_bin_rhs 0 lhs stream
+
+        (* prototype
+         *   ::= id '(' id* ')' *)
+        let parse_prototype =
+          let rec parse_args accumulator = parser
+            | [< 'Token.Ident id; e=parse_args (id::accumulator) >] -> e
+            | [< >] -> accumulator
+          in
+
+          parser
+          | [< 'Token.Ident id;
+               'Token.Kwd '(' ?? "expected '(' in prototype";
+               args=parse_args [];
+               'Token.Kwd ')' ?? "expected ')' in prototype" >] ->
+              (* success. *)
+              Ast.Prototype (id, Array.of_list (List.rev args))
+
+          | [< >] ->
+              raise (Stream.Error "expected function name in prototype")
+
+        (* definition ::= 'def' prototype expression *)
+        let parse_definition = parser
+          | [< 'Token.Def; p=parse_prototype; e=parse_expr >] ->
+              Ast.Function (p, e)
+
+        (* toplevelexpr ::= expression *)
+        let parse_toplevel = parser
+          | [< e=parse_expr >] ->
+              (* Make an anonymous proto. *)
+              Ast.Function (Ast.Prototype ("", [||]), e)
+
+        (*  external ::= 'extern' prototype *)
+        let parse_extern = parser
+          | [< 'Token.Extern; e=parse_prototype >] -> e
+
+codegen.ml:
+    .. code-block:: ocaml
+
+        (*===----------------------------------------------------------------------===
+         * Code Generation
+         *===----------------------------------------------------------------------===*)
+
+        open Llvm
+
+        exception Error of string
+
+        let context = global_context ()
+        let the_module = create_module context "my cool jit"
+        let builder = builder context
+        let named_values:(string, llvalue) Hashtbl.t = Hashtbl.create 10
+        let double_type = double_type context
+
+        let rec codegen_expr = function
+          | Ast.Number n -> const_float double_type n
+          | Ast.Variable name ->
+              (try Hashtbl.find named_values name with
+                | Not_found -> raise (Error "unknown variable name"))
+          | Ast.Binary (op, lhs, rhs) ->
+              let lhs_val = codegen_expr lhs in
+              let rhs_val = codegen_expr rhs in
+              begin
+                match op with
+                | '+' -> build_add lhs_val rhs_val "addtmp" builder
+                | '-' -> build_sub lhs_val rhs_val "subtmp" builder
+                | '*' -> build_mul lhs_val rhs_val "multmp" builder
+                | '<' ->
+                    (* Convert bool 0/1 to double 0.0 or 1.0 *)
+                    let i = build_fcmp Fcmp.Ult lhs_val rhs_val "cmptmp" builder in
+                    build_uitofp i double_type "booltmp" builder
+                | _ -> raise (Error "invalid binary operator")
+              end
+          | Ast.Call (callee, args) ->
+              (* Look up the name in the module table. *)
+              let callee =
+                match lookup_function callee the_module with
+                | Some callee -> callee
+                | None -> raise (Error "unknown function referenced")
+              in
+              let params = params callee in
+
+              (* If argument mismatch error. *)
+              if Array.length params == Array.length args then () else
+                raise (Error "incorrect # arguments passed");
+              let args = Array.map codegen_expr args in
+              build_call callee args "calltmp" builder
+
+        let codegen_proto = function
+          | Ast.Prototype (name, args) ->
+              (* Make the function type: double(double,double) etc. *)
+              let doubles = Array.make (Array.length args) double_type in
+              let ft = function_type double_type doubles in
+              let f =
+                match lookup_function name the_module with
+                | None -> declare_function name ft the_module
+
+                (* If 'f' conflicted, there was already something named 'name'. If it
+                 * has a body, don't allow redefinition or reextern. *)
+                | Some f ->
+                    (* If 'f' already has a body, reject this. *)
+                    if block_begin f <> At_end f then
+                      raise (Error "redefinition of function");
+
+                    (* If 'f' took a different number of arguments, reject. *)
+                    if element_type (type_of f) <> ft then
+                      raise (Error "redefinition of function with different # args");
+                    f
+              in
+
+              (* Set names for all arguments. *)
+              Array.iteri (fun i a ->
+                let n = args.(i) in
+                set_value_name n a;
+                Hashtbl.add named_values n a;
+              ) (params f);
+              f
+
+        let codegen_func = function
+          | Ast.Function (proto, body) ->
+              Hashtbl.clear named_values;
+              let the_function = codegen_proto proto in
+
+              (* Create a new basic block to start insertion into. *)
+              let bb = append_block context "entry" the_function in
+              position_at_end bb builder;
+
+              try
+                let ret_val = codegen_expr body in
+
+                (* Finish off the function. *)
+                let _ = build_ret ret_val builder in
+
+                (* Validate the generated code, checking for consistency. *)
+                Llvm_analysis.assert_valid_function the_function;
+
+                the_function
+              with e ->
+                delete_function the_function;
+                raise e
+
+toplevel.ml:
+    .. code-block:: ocaml
+
+        (*===----------------------------------------------------------------------===
+         * Top-Level parsing and JIT Driver
+         *===----------------------------------------------------------------------===*)
+
+        open Llvm
+
+        (* top ::= definition | external | expression | ';' *)
+        let rec main_loop stream =
+          match Stream.peek stream with
+          | None -> ()
+
+          (* ignore top-level semicolons. *)
+          | Some (Token.Kwd ';') ->
+              Stream.junk stream;
+              main_loop stream
+
+          | Some token ->
+              begin
+                try match token with
+                | Token.Def ->
+                    let e = Parser.parse_definition stream in
+                    print_endline "parsed a function definition.";
+                    dump_value (Codegen.codegen_func e);
+                | Token.Extern ->
+                    let e = Parser.parse_extern stream in
+                    print_endline "parsed an extern.";
+                    dump_value (Codegen.codegen_proto e);
+                | _ ->
+                    (* Evaluate a top-level expression into an anonymous function. *)
+                    let e = Parser.parse_toplevel stream in
+                    print_endline "parsed a top-level expr";
+                    dump_value (Codegen.codegen_func e);
+                with Stream.Error s | Codegen.Error s ->
+                  (* Skip token for error recovery. *)
+                  Stream.junk stream;
+                  print_endline s;
+              end;
+              print_string "ready> "; flush stdout;
+              main_loop stream
+
+toy.ml:
+    .. code-block:: ocaml
+
+        (*===----------------------------------------------------------------------===
+         * Main driver code.
+         *===----------------------------------------------------------------------===*)
+
+        open Llvm
+
+        let main () =
+          (* Install standard binary operators.
+           * 1 is the lowest precedence. *)
+          Hashtbl.add Parser.binop_precedence '<' 10;
+          Hashtbl.add Parser.binop_precedence '+' 20;
+          Hashtbl.add Parser.binop_precedence '-' 20;
+          Hashtbl.add Parser.binop_precedence '*' 40;    (* highest. *)
+
+          (* Prime the first token. *)
+          print_string "ready> "; flush stdout;
+          let stream = Lexer.lex (Stream.of_channel stdin) in
+
+          (* Run the main "interpreter loop" now. *)
+          Toplevel.main_loop stream;
+
+          (* Print out all the generated code. *)
+          dump_module Codegen.the_module
+        ;;
+
+        main ()
+
+`Next: Adding JIT and Optimizer Support <OCamlLangImpl4.html>`_
+

Added: www-releases/trunk/3.5.1/docs/_sources/tutorial/OCamlLangImpl4.txt
URL: http://llvm.org/viewvc/llvm-project/www-releases/trunk/3.5.1/docs/_sources/tutorial/OCamlLangImpl4.txt?rev=225843&view=auto
==============================================================================
--- www-releases/trunk/3.5.1/docs/_sources/tutorial/OCamlLangImpl4.txt (added)
+++ www-releases/trunk/3.5.1/docs/_sources/tutorial/OCamlLangImpl4.txt Tue Jan 13 16:55:20 2015
@@ -0,0 +1,915 @@
+==============================================
+Kaleidoscope: Adding JIT and Optimizer Support
+==============================================
+
+.. contents::
+   :local:
+
+Chapter 4 Introduction
+======================
+
+Welcome to Chapter 4 of the "`Implementing a language with
+LLVM <index.html>`_" tutorial. Chapters 1-3 described the implementation
+of a simple language and added support for generating LLVM IR. This
+chapter describes two new techniques: adding optimizer support to your
+language, and adding JIT compiler support. These additions will
+demonstrate how to get nice, efficient code for the Kaleidoscope
+language.
+
+Trivial Constant Folding
+========================
+
+**Note:** the default ``IRBuilder`` now always includes the constant
+folding optimisations below.
+
+Our demonstration for Chapter 3 is elegant and easy to extend.
+Unfortunately, it does not produce wonderful code. For example, when
+compiling simple code, we don't get obvious optimizations:
+
+::
+
+    ready> def test(x) 1+2+x;
+    Read function definition:
+    define double @test(double %x) {
+    entry:
+            %addtmp = fadd double 1.000000e+00, 2.000000e+00
+            %addtmp1 = fadd double %addtmp, %x
+            ret double %addtmp1
+    }
+
+This code is a very, very literal transcription of the AST built by
+parsing the input. As such, this transcription lacks optimizations like
+constant folding (we'd like to get "``add x, 3.0``" in the example
+above) as well as other more important optimizations. Constant folding,
+in particular, is a very common and very important optimization: so much
+so that many language implementors implement constant folding support in
+their AST representation.
+
+With LLVM, you don't need this support in the AST. Since all calls to
+build LLVM IR go through the LLVM builder, it would be nice if the
+builder itself checked to see if there was a constant folding
+opportunity when you call it. If so, it could just do the constant fold
+and return the constant instead of creating an instruction. This is
+exactly what the ``LLVMFoldingBuilder`` class does.
+
+All we did was switch from ``LLVMBuilder`` to ``LLVMFoldingBuilder``.
+Though we change no other code, we now have all of our instructions
+implicitly constant folded without us having to do anything about it.
+For example, the input above now compiles to:
+
+::
+
+    ready> def test(x) 1+2+x;
+    Read function definition:
+    define double @test(double %x) {
+    entry:
+            %addtmp = fadd double 3.000000e+00, %x
+            ret double %addtmp
+    }
+
+Well, that was easy :). In practice, we recommend always using
+``LLVMFoldingBuilder`` when generating code like this. It has no
+"syntactic overhead" for its use (you don't have to uglify your compiler
+with constant checks everywhere) and it can dramatically reduce the
+amount of LLVM IR that is generated in some cases (particular for
+languages with a macro preprocessor or that use a lot of constants).
+
+On the other hand, the ``LLVMFoldingBuilder`` is limited by the fact
+that it does all of its analysis inline with the code as it is built. If
+you take a slightly more complex example:
+
+::
+
+    ready> def test(x) (1+2+x)*(x+(1+2));
+    ready> Read function definition:
+    define double @test(double %x) {
+    entry:
+            %addtmp = fadd double 3.000000e+00, %x
+            %addtmp1 = fadd double %x, 3.000000e+00
+            %multmp = fmul double %addtmp, %addtmp1
+            ret double %multmp
+    }
+
+In this case, the LHS and RHS of the multiplication are the same value.
+We'd really like to see this generate "``tmp = x+3; result = tmp*tmp;``"
+instead of computing "``x*3``" twice.
+
+Unfortunately, no amount of local analysis will be able to detect and
+correct this. This requires two transformations: reassociation of
+expressions (to make the add's lexically identical) and Common
+Subexpression Elimination (CSE) to delete the redundant add instruction.
+Fortunately, LLVM provides a broad range of optimizations that you can
+use, in the form of "passes".
+
+LLVM Optimization Passes
+========================
+
+LLVM provides many optimization passes, which do many different sorts of
+things and have different tradeoffs. Unlike other systems, LLVM doesn't
+hold to the mistaken notion that one set of optimizations is right for
+all languages and for all situations. LLVM allows a compiler implementor
+to make complete decisions about what optimizations to use, in which
+order, and in what situation.
+
+As a concrete example, LLVM supports both "whole module" passes, which
+look across as large of body of code as they can (often a whole file,
+but if run at link time, this can be a substantial portion of the whole
+program). It also supports and includes "per-function" passes which just
+operate on a single function at a time, without looking at other
+functions. For more information on passes and how they are run, see the
+`How to Write a Pass <../WritingAnLLVMPass.html>`_ document and the
+`List of LLVM Passes <../Passes.html>`_.
+
+For Kaleidoscope, we are currently generating functions on the fly, one
+at a time, as the user types them in. We aren't shooting for the
+ultimate optimization experience in this setting, but we also want to
+catch the easy and quick stuff where possible. As such, we will choose
+to run a few per-function optimizations as the user types the function
+in. If we wanted to make a "static Kaleidoscope compiler", we would use
+exactly the code we have now, except that we would defer running the
+optimizer until the entire file has been parsed.
+
+In order to get per-function optimizations going, we need to set up a
+`Llvm.PassManager <../WritingAnLLVMPass.html#passmanager>`_ to hold and
+organize the LLVM optimizations that we want to run. Once we have that,
+we can add a set of optimizations to run. The code looks like this:
+
+.. code-block:: ocaml
+
+      (* Create the JIT. *)
+      let the_execution_engine = ExecutionEngine.create Codegen.the_module in
+      let the_fpm = PassManager.create_function Codegen.the_module in
+
+      (* Set up the optimizer pipeline.  Start with registering info about how the
+       * target lays out data structures. *)
+      DataLayout.add (ExecutionEngine.target_data the_execution_engine) the_fpm;
+
+      (* Do simple "peephole" optimizations and bit-twiddling optzn. *)
+      add_instruction_combining the_fpm;
+
+      (* reassociate expressions. *)
+      add_reassociation the_fpm;
+
+      (* Eliminate Common SubExpressions. *)
+      add_gvn the_fpm;
+
+      (* Simplify the control flow graph (deleting unreachable blocks, etc). *)
+      add_cfg_simplification the_fpm;
+
+      ignore (PassManager.initialize the_fpm);
+
+      (* Run the main "interpreter loop" now. *)
+      Toplevel.main_loop the_fpm the_execution_engine stream;
+
+The meat of the matter here, is the definition of "``the_fpm``". It
+requires a pointer to the ``the_module`` to construct itself. Once it is
+set up, we use a series of "add" calls to add a bunch of LLVM passes.
+The first pass is basically boilerplate, it adds a pass so that later
+optimizations know how the data structures in the program are laid out.
+The "``the_execution_engine``" variable is related to the JIT, which we
+will get to in the next section.
+
+In this case, we choose to add 4 optimization passes. The passes we
+chose here are a pretty standard set of "cleanup" optimizations that are
+useful for a wide variety of code. I won't delve into what they do but,
+believe me, they are a good starting place :).
+
+Once the ``Llvm.PassManager.`` is set up, we need to make use of it. We
+do this by running it after our newly created function is constructed
+(in ``Codegen.codegen_func``), but before it is returned to the client:
+
+.. code-block:: ocaml
+
+    let codegen_func the_fpm = function
+          ...
+          try
+            let ret_val = codegen_expr body in
+
+            (* Finish off the function. *)
+            let _ = build_ret ret_val builder in
+
+            (* Validate the generated code, checking for consistency. *)
+            Llvm_analysis.assert_valid_function the_function;
+
+            (* Optimize the function. *)
+            let _ = PassManager.run_function the_function the_fpm in
+
+            the_function
+
+As you can see, this is pretty straightforward. The ``the_fpm``
+optimizes and updates the LLVM Function\* in place, improving
+(hopefully) its body. With this in place, we can try our test above
+again:
+
+::
+
+    ready> def test(x) (1+2+x)*(x+(1+2));
+    ready> Read function definition:
+    define double @test(double %x) {
+    entry:
+            %addtmp = fadd double %x, 3.000000e+00
+            %multmp = fmul double %addtmp, %addtmp
+            ret double %multmp
+    }
+
+As expected, we now get our nicely optimized code, saving a floating
+point add instruction from every execution of this function.
+
+LLVM provides a wide variety of optimizations that can be used in
+certain circumstances. Some `documentation about the various
+passes <../Passes.html>`_ is available, but it isn't very complete.
+Another good source of ideas can come from looking at the passes that
+``Clang`` runs to get started. The "``opt``" tool allows you to
+experiment with passes from the command line, so you can see if they do
+anything.
+
+Now that we have reasonable code coming out of our front-end, lets talk
+about executing it!
+
+Adding a JIT Compiler
+=====================
+
+Code that is available in LLVM IR can have a wide variety of tools
+applied to it. For example, you can run optimizations on it (as we did
+above), you can dump it out in textual or binary forms, you can compile
+the code to an assembly file (.s) for some target, or you can JIT
+compile it. The nice thing about the LLVM IR representation is that it
+is the "common currency" between many different parts of the compiler.
+
+In this section, we'll add JIT compiler support to our interpreter. The
+basic idea that we want for Kaleidoscope is to have the user enter
+function bodies as they do now, but immediately evaluate the top-level
+expressions they type in. For example, if they type in "1 + 2;", we
+should evaluate and print out 3. If they define a function, they should
+be able to call it from the command line.
+
+In order to do this, we first declare and initialize the JIT. This is
+done by adding a global variable and a call in ``main``:
+
+.. code-block:: ocaml
+
+    ...
+    let main () =
+      ...
+      (* Create the JIT. *)
+      let the_execution_engine = ExecutionEngine.create Codegen.the_module in
+      ...
+
+This creates an abstract "Execution Engine" which can be either a JIT
+compiler or the LLVM interpreter. LLVM will automatically pick a JIT
+compiler for you if one is available for your platform, otherwise it
+will fall back to the interpreter.
+
+Once the ``Llvm_executionengine.ExecutionEngine.t`` is created, the JIT
+is ready to be used. There are a variety of APIs that are useful, but
+the simplest one is the
+"``Llvm_executionengine.ExecutionEngine.run_function``" function. This
+method JIT compiles the specified LLVM Function and returns a function
+pointer to the generated machine code. In our case, this means that we
+can change the code that parses a top-level expression to look like
+this:
+
+.. code-block:: ocaml
+
+                (* Evaluate a top-level expression into an anonymous function. *)
+                let e = Parser.parse_toplevel stream in
+                print_endline "parsed a top-level expr";
+                let the_function = Codegen.codegen_func the_fpm e in
+                dump_value the_function;
+
+                (* JIT the function, returning a function pointer. *)
+                let result = ExecutionEngine.run_function the_function [||]
+                  the_execution_engine in
+
+                print_string "Evaluated to ";
+                print_float (GenericValue.as_float Codegen.double_type result);
+                print_newline ();
+
+Recall that we compile top-level expressions into a self-contained LLVM
+function that takes no arguments and returns the computed double.
+Because the LLVM JIT compiler matches the native platform ABI, this
+means that you can just cast the result pointer to a function pointer of
+that type and call it directly. This means, there is no difference
+between JIT compiled code and native machine code that is statically
+linked into your application.
+
+With just these two changes, lets see how Kaleidoscope works now!
+
+::
+
+    ready> 4+5;
+    define double @""() {
+    entry:
+            ret double 9.000000e+00
+    }
+
+    Evaluated to 9.000000
+
+Well this looks like it is basically working. The dump of the function
+shows the "no argument function that always returns double" that we
+synthesize for each top level expression that is typed in. This
+demonstrates very basic functionality, but can we do more?
+
+::
+
+    ready> def testfunc(x y) x + y*2;
+    Read function definition:
+    define double @testfunc(double %x, double %y) {
+    entry:
+            %multmp = fmul double %y, 2.000000e+00
+            %addtmp = fadd double %multmp, %x
+            ret double %addtmp
+    }
+
+    ready> testfunc(4, 10);
+    define double @""() {
+    entry:
+            %calltmp = call double @testfunc(double 4.000000e+00, double 1.000000e+01)
+            ret double %calltmp
+    }
+
+    Evaluated to 24.000000
+
+This illustrates that we can now call user code, but there is something
+a bit subtle going on here. Note that we only invoke the JIT on the
+anonymous functions that *call testfunc*, but we never invoked it on
+*testfunc* itself. What actually happened here is that the JIT scanned
+for all non-JIT'd functions transitively called from the anonymous
+function and compiled all of them before returning from
+``run_function``.
+
+The JIT provides a number of other more advanced interfaces for things
+like freeing allocated machine code, rejit'ing functions to update them,
+etc. However, even with this simple code, we get some surprisingly
+powerful capabilities - check this out (I removed the dump of the
+anonymous functions, you should get the idea by now :) :
+
+::
+
+    ready> extern sin(x);
+    Read extern:
+    declare double @sin(double)
+
+    ready> extern cos(x);
+    Read extern:
+    declare double @cos(double)
+
+    ready> sin(1.0);
+    Evaluated to 0.841471
+
+    ready> def foo(x) sin(x)*sin(x) + cos(x)*cos(x);
+    Read function definition:
+    define double @foo(double %x) {
+    entry:
+            %calltmp = call double @sin(double %x)
+            %multmp = fmul double %calltmp, %calltmp
+            %calltmp2 = call double @cos(double %x)
+            %multmp4 = fmul double %calltmp2, %calltmp2
+            %addtmp = fadd double %multmp, %multmp4
+            ret double %addtmp
+    }
+
+    ready> foo(4.0);
+    Evaluated to 1.000000
+
+Whoa, how does the JIT know about sin and cos? The answer is
+surprisingly simple: in this example, the JIT started execution of a
+function and got to a function call. It realized that the function was
+not yet JIT compiled and invoked the standard set of routines to resolve
+the function. In this case, there is no body defined for the function,
+so the JIT ended up calling "``dlsym("sin")``" on the Kaleidoscope
+process itself. Since "``sin``" is defined within the JIT's address
+space, it simply patches up calls in the module to call the libm version
+of ``sin`` directly.
+
+The LLVM JIT provides a number of interfaces (look in the
+``llvm_executionengine.mli`` file) for controlling how unknown functions
+get resolved. It allows you to establish explicit mappings between IR
+objects and addresses (useful for LLVM global variables that you want to
+map to static tables, for example), allows you to dynamically decide on
+the fly based on the function name, and even allows you to have the JIT
+compile functions lazily the first time they're called.
+
+One interesting application of this is that we can now extend the
+language by writing arbitrary C code to implement operations. For
+example, if we add:
+
+.. code-block:: c++
+
+    /* putchard - putchar that takes a double and returns 0. */
+    extern "C"
+    double putchard(double X) {
+      putchar((char)X);
+      return 0;
+    }
+
+Now we can produce simple output to the console by using things like:
+"``extern putchard(x); putchard(120);``", which prints a lowercase 'x'
+on the console (120 is the ASCII code for 'x'). Similar code could be
+used to implement file I/O, console input, and many other capabilities
+in Kaleidoscope.
+
+This completes the JIT and optimizer chapter of the Kaleidoscope
+tutorial. At this point, we can compile a non-Turing-complete
+programming language, optimize and JIT compile it in a user-driven way.
+Next up we'll look into `extending the language with control flow
+constructs <OCamlLangImpl5.html>`_, tackling some interesting LLVM IR
+issues along the way.
+
+Full Code Listing
+=================
+
+Here is the complete code listing for our running example, enhanced with
+the LLVM JIT and optimizer. To build this example, use:
+
+.. code-block:: bash
+
+    # Compile
+    ocamlbuild toy.byte
+    # Run
+    ./toy.byte
+
+Here is the code:
+
+\_tags:
+    ::
+
+        <{lexer,parser}.ml>: use_camlp4, pp(camlp4of)
+        <*.{byte,native}>: g++, use_llvm, use_llvm_analysis
+        <*.{byte,native}>: use_llvm_executionengine, use_llvm_target
+        <*.{byte,native}>: use_llvm_scalar_opts, use_bindings
+
+myocamlbuild.ml:
+    .. code-block:: ocaml
+
+        open Ocamlbuild_plugin;;
+
+        ocaml_lib ~extern:true "llvm";;
+        ocaml_lib ~extern:true "llvm_analysis";;
+        ocaml_lib ~extern:true "llvm_executionengine";;
+        ocaml_lib ~extern:true "llvm_target";;
+        ocaml_lib ~extern:true "llvm_scalar_opts";;
+
+        flag ["link"; "ocaml"; "g++"] (S[A"-cc"; A"g++"]);;
+        dep ["link"; "ocaml"; "use_bindings"] ["bindings.o"];;
+
+token.ml:
+    .. code-block:: ocaml
+
+        (*===----------------------------------------------------------------------===
+         * Lexer Tokens
+         *===----------------------------------------------------------------------===*)
+
+        (* The lexer returns these 'Kwd' if it is an unknown character, otherwise one of
+         * these others for known things. *)
+        type token =
+          (* commands *)
+          | Def | Extern
+
+          (* primary *)
+          | Ident of string | Number of float
+
+          (* unknown *)
+          | Kwd of char
+
+lexer.ml:
+    .. code-block:: ocaml
+
+        (*===----------------------------------------------------------------------===
+         * Lexer
+         *===----------------------------------------------------------------------===*)
+
+        let rec lex = parser
+          (* Skip any whitespace. *)
+          | [< ' (' ' | '\n' | '\r' | '\t'); stream >] -> lex stream
+
+          (* identifier: [a-zA-Z][a-zA-Z0-9] *)
+          | [< ' ('A' .. 'Z' | 'a' .. 'z' as c); stream >] ->
+              let buffer = Buffer.create 1 in
+              Buffer.add_char buffer c;
+              lex_ident buffer stream
+
+          (* number: [0-9.]+ *)
+          | [< ' ('0' .. '9' as c); stream >] ->
+              let buffer = Buffer.create 1 in
+              Buffer.add_char buffer c;
+              lex_number buffer stream
+
+          (* Comment until end of line. *)
+          | [< ' ('#'); stream >] ->
+              lex_comment stream
+
+          (* Otherwise, just return the character as its ascii value. *)
+          | [< 'c; stream >] ->
+              [< 'Token.Kwd c; lex stream >]
+
+          (* end of stream. *)
+          | [< >] -> [< >]
+
+        and lex_number buffer = parser
+          | [< ' ('0' .. '9' | '.' as c); stream >] ->
+              Buffer.add_char buffer c;
+              lex_number buffer stream
+          | [< stream=lex >] ->
+              [< 'Token.Number (float_of_string (Buffer.contents buffer)); stream >]
+
+        and lex_ident buffer = parser
+          | [< ' ('A' .. 'Z' | 'a' .. 'z' | '0' .. '9' as c); stream >] ->
+              Buffer.add_char buffer c;
+              lex_ident buffer stream
+          | [< stream=lex >] ->
+              match Buffer.contents buffer with
+              | "def" -> [< 'Token.Def; stream >]
+              | "extern" -> [< 'Token.Extern; stream >]
+              | id -> [< 'Token.Ident id; stream >]
+
+        and lex_comment = parser
+          | [< ' ('\n'); stream=lex >] -> stream
+          | [< 'c; e=lex_comment >] -> e
+          | [< >] -> [< >]
+
+ast.ml:
+    .. code-block:: ocaml
+
+        (*===----------------------------------------------------------------------===
+         * Abstract Syntax Tree (aka Parse Tree)
+         *===----------------------------------------------------------------------===*)
+
+        (* expr - Base type for all expression nodes. *)
+        type expr =
+          (* variant for numeric literals like "1.0". *)
+          | Number of float
+
+          (* variant for referencing a variable, like "a". *)
+          | Variable of string
+
+          (* variant for a binary operator. *)
+          | Binary of char * expr * expr
+
+          (* variant for function calls. *)
+          | Call of string * expr array
+
+        (* proto - This type represents the "prototype" for a function, which captures
+         * its name, and its argument names (thus implicitly the number of arguments the
+         * function takes). *)
+        type proto = Prototype of string * string array
+
+        (* func - This type represents a function definition itself. *)
+        type func = Function of proto * expr
+
+parser.ml:
+    .. code-block:: ocaml
+
+        (*===---------------------------------------------------------------------===
+         * Parser
+         *===---------------------------------------------------------------------===*)
+
+        (* binop_precedence - This holds the precedence for each binary operator that is
+         * defined *)
+        let binop_precedence:(char, int) Hashtbl.t = Hashtbl.create 10
+
+        (* precedence - Get the precedence of the pending binary operator token. *)
+        let precedence c = try Hashtbl.find binop_precedence c with Not_found -> -1
+
+        (* primary
+         *   ::= identifier
+         *   ::= numberexpr
+         *   ::= parenexpr *)
+        let rec parse_primary = parser
+          (* numberexpr ::= number *)
+          | [< 'Token.Number n >] -> Ast.Number n
+
+          (* parenexpr ::= '(' expression ')' *)
+          | [< 'Token.Kwd '('; e=parse_expr; 'Token.Kwd ')' ?? "expected ')'" >] -> e
+
+          (* identifierexpr
+           *   ::= identifier
+           *   ::= identifier '(' argumentexpr ')' *)
+          | [< 'Token.Ident id; stream >] ->
+              let rec parse_args accumulator = parser
+                | [< e=parse_expr; stream >] ->
+                    begin parser
+                      | [< 'Token.Kwd ','; e=parse_args (e :: accumulator) >] -> e
+                      | [< >] -> e :: accumulator
+                    end stream
+                | [< >] -> accumulator
+              in
+              let rec parse_ident id = parser
+                (* Call. *)
+                | [< 'Token.Kwd '(';
+                     args=parse_args [];
+                     'Token.Kwd ')' ?? "expected ')'">] ->
+                    Ast.Call (id, Array.of_list (List.rev args))
+
+                (* Simple variable ref. *)
+                | [< >] -> Ast.Variable id
+              in
+              parse_ident id stream
+
+          | [< >] -> raise (Stream.Error "unknown token when expecting an expression.")
+
+        (* binoprhs
+         *   ::= ('+' primary)* *)
+        and parse_bin_rhs expr_prec lhs stream =
+          match Stream.peek stream with
+          (* If this is a binop, find its precedence. *)
+          | Some (Token.Kwd c) when Hashtbl.mem binop_precedence c ->
+              let token_prec = precedence c in
+
+              (* If this is a binop that binds at least as tightly as the current binop,
+               * consume it, otherwise we are done. *)
+              if token_prec < expr_prec then lhs else begin
+                (* Eat the binop. *)
+                Stream.junk stream;
+
+                (* Parse the primary expression after the binary operator. *)
+                let rhs = parse_primary stream in
+
+                (* Okay, we know this is a binop. *)
+                let rhs =
+                  match Stream.peek stream with
+                  | Some (Token.Kwd c2) ->
+                      (* If BinOp binds less tightly with rhs than the operator after
+                       * rhs, let the pending operator take rhs as its lhs. *)
+                      let next_prec = precedence c2 in
+                      if token_prec < next_prec
+                      then parse_bin_rhs (token_prec + 1) rhs stream
+                      else rhs
+                  | _ -> rhs
+                in
+
+                (* Merge lhs/rhs. *)
+                let lhs = Ast.Binary (c, lhs, rhs) in
+                parse_bin_rhs expr_prec lhs stream
+              end
+          | _ -> lhs
+
+        (* expression
+         *   ::= primary binoprhs *)
+        and parse_expr = parser
+          | [< lhs=parse_primary; stream >] -> parse_bin_rhs 0 lhs stream
+
+        (* prototype
+         *   ::= id '(' id* ')' *)
+        let parse_prototype =
+          let rec parse_args accumulator = parser
+            | [< 'Token.Ident id; e=parse_args (id::accumulator) >] -> e
+            | [< >] -> accumulator
+          in
+
+          parser
+          | [< 'Token.Ident id;
+               'Token.Kwd '(' ?? "expected '(' in prototype";
+               args=parse_args [];
+               'Token.Kwd ')' ?? "expected ')' in prototype" >] ->
+              (* success. *)
+              Ast.Prototype (id, Array.of_list (List.rev args))
+
+          | [< >] ->
+              raise (Stream.Error "expected function name in prototype")
+
+        (* definition ::= 'def' prototype expression *)
+        let parse_definition = parser
+          | [< 'Token.Def; p=parse_prototype; e=parse_expr >] ->
+              Ast.Function (p, e)
+
+        (* toplevelexpr ::= expression *)
+        let parse_toplevel = parser
+          | [< e=parse_expr >] ->
+              (* Make an anonymous proto. *)
+              Ast.Function (Ast.Prototype ("", [||]), e)
+
+        (*  external ::= 'extern' prototype *)
+        let parse_extern = parser
+          | [< 'Token.Extern; e=parse_prototype >] -> e
+
+codegen.ml:
+    .. code-block:: ocaml
+
+        (*===----------------------------------------------------------------------===
+         * Code Generation
+         *===----------------------------------------------------------------------===*)
+
+        open Llvm
+
+        exception Error of string
+
+        let context = global_context ()
+        let the_module = create_module context "my cool jit"
+        let builder = builder context
+        let named_values:(string, llvalue) Hashtbl.t = Hashtbl.create 10
+        let double_type = double_type context
+
+        let rec codegen_expr = function
+          | Ast.Number n -> const_float double_type n
+          | Ast.Variable name ->
+              (try Hashtbl.find named_values name with
+                | Not_found -> raise (Error "unknown variable name"))
+          | Ast.Binary (op, lhs, rhs) ->
+              let lhs_val = codegen_expr lhs in
+              let rhs_val = codegen_expr rhs in
+              begin
+                match op with
+                | '+' -> build_add lhs_val rhs_val "addtmp" builder
+                | '-' -> build_sub lhs_val rhs_val "subtmp" builder
+                | '*' -> build_mul lhs_val rhs_val "multmp" builder
+                | '<' ->
+                    (* Convert bool 0/1 to double 0.0 or 1.0 *)
+                    let i = build_fcmp Fcmp.Ult lhs_val rhs_val "cmptmp" builder in
+                    build_uitofp i double_type "booltmp" builder
+                | _ -> raise (Error "invalid binary operator")
+              end
+          | Ast.Call (callee, args) ->
+              (* Look up the name in the module table. *)
+              let callee =
+                match lookup_function callee the_module with
+                | Some callee -> callee
+                | None -> raise (Error "unknown function referenced")
+              in
+              let params = params callee in
+
+              (* If argument mismatch error. *)
+              if Array.length params == Array.length args then () else
+                raise (Error "incorrect # arguments passed");
+              let args = Array.map codegen_expr args in
+              build_call callee args "calltmp" builder
+
+        let codegen_proto = function
+          | Ast.Prototype (name, args) ->
+              (* Make the function type: double(double,double) etc. *)
+              let doubles = Array.make (Array.length args) double_type in
+              let ft = function_type double_type doubles in
+              let f =
+                match lookup_function name the_module with
+                | None -> declare_function name ft the_module
+
+                (* If 'f' conflicted, there was already something named 'name'. If it
+                 * has a body, don't allow redefinition or reextern. *)
+                | Some f ->
+                    (* If 'f' already has a body, reject this. *)
+                    if block_begin f <> At_end f then
+                      raise (Error "redefinition of function");
+
+                    (* If 'f' took a different number of arguments, reject. *)
+                    if element_type (type_of f) <> ft then
+                      raise (Error "redefinition of function with different # args");
+                    f
+              in
+
+              (* Set names for all arguments. *)
+              Array.iteri (fun i a ->
+                let n = args.(i) in
+                set_value_name n a;
+                Hashtbl.add named_values n a;
+              ) (params f);
+              f
+
+        let codegen_func the_fpm = function
+          | Ast.Function (proto, body) ->
+              Hashtbl.clear named_values;
+              let the_function = codegen_proto proto in
+
+              (* Create a new basic block to start insertion into. *)
+              let bb = append_block context "entry" the_function in
+              position_at_end bb builder;
+
+              try
+                let ret_val = codegen_expr body in
+
+                (* Finish off the function. *)
+                let _ = build_ret ret_val builder in
+
+                (* Validate the generated code, checking for consistency. *)
+                Llvm_analysis.assert_valid_function the_function;
+
+                (* Optimize the function. *)
+                let _ = PassManager.run_function the_function the_fpm in
+
+                the_function
+              with e ->
+                delete_function the_function;
+                raise e
+
+toplevel.ml:
+    .. code-block:: ocaml
+
+        (*===----------------------------------------------------------------------===
+         * Top-Level parsing and JIT Driver
+         *===----------------------------------------------------------------------===*)
+
+        open Llvm
+        open Llvm_executionengine
+
+        (* top ::= definition | external | expression | ';' *)
+        let rec main_loop the_fpm the_execution_engine stream =
+          match Stream.peek stream with
+          | None -> ()
+
+          (* ignore top-level semicolons. *)
+          | Some (Token.Kwd ';') ->
+              Stream.junk stream;
+              main_loop the_fpm the_execution_engine stream
+
+          | Some token ->
+              begin
+                try match token with
+                | Token.Def ->
+                    let e = Parser.parse_definition stream in
+                    print_endline "parsed a function definition.";
+                    dump_value (Codegen.codegen_func the_fpm e);
+                | Token.Extern ->
+                    let e = Parser.parse_extern stream in
+                    print_endline "parsed an extern.";
+                    dump_value (Codegen.codegen_proto e);
+                | _ ->
+                    (* Evaluate a top-level expression into an anonymous function. *)
+                    let e = Parser.parse_toplevel stream in
+                    print_endline "parsed a top-level expr";
+                    let the_function = Codegen.codegen_func the_fpm e in
+                    dump_value the_function;
+
+                    (* JIT the function, returning a function pointer. *)
+                    let result = ExecutionEngine.run_function the_function [||]
+                      the_execution_engine in
+
+                    print_string "Evaluated to ";
+                    print_float (GenericValue.as_float Codegen.double_type result);
+                    print_newline ();
+                with Stream.Error s | Codegen.Error s ->
+                  (* Skip token for error recovery. *)
+                  Stream.junk stream;
+                  print_endline s;
+              end;
+              print_string "ready> "; flush stdout;
+              main_loop the_fpm the_execution_engine stream
+
+toy.ml:
+    .. code-block:: ocaml
+
+        (*===----------------------------------------------------------------------===
+         * Main driver code.
+         *===----------------------------------------------------------------------===*)
+
+        open Llvm
+        open Llvm_executionengine
+        open Llvm_target
+        open Llvm_scalar_opts
+
+        let main () =
+          ignore (initialize_native_target ());
+
+          (* Install standard binary operators.
+           * 1 is the lowest precedence. *)
+          Hashtbl.add Parser.binop_precedence '<' 10;
+          Hashtbl.add Parser.binop_precedence '+' 20;
+          Hashtbl.add Parser.binop_precedence '-' 20;
+          Hashtbl.add Parser.binop_precedence '*' 40;    (* highest. *)
+
+          (* Prime the first token. *)
+          print_string "ready> "; flush stdout;
+          let stream = Lexer.lex (Stream.of_channel stdin) in
+
+          (* Create the JIT. *)
+          let the_execution_engine = ExecutionEngine.create Codegen.the_module in
+          let the_fpm = PassManager.create_function Codegen.the_module in
+
+          (* Set up the optimizer pipeline.  Start with registering info about how the
+           * target lays out data structures. *)
+          DataLayout.add (ExecutionEngine.target_data the_execution_engine) the_fpm;
+
+          (* Do simple "peephole" optimizations and bit-twiddling optzn. *)
+          add_instruction_combination the_fpm;
+
+          (* reassociate expressions. *)
+          add_reassociation the_fpm;
+
+          (* Eliminate Common SubExpressions. *)
+          add_gvn the_fpm;
+
+          (* Simplify the control flow graph (deleting unreachable blocks, etc). *)
+          add_cfg_simplification the_fpm;
+
+          ignore (PassManager.initialize the_fpm);
+
+          (* Run the main "interpreter loop" now. *)
+          Toplevel.main_loop the_fpm the_execution_engine stream;
+
+          (* Print out all the generated code. *)
+          dump_module Codegen.the_module
+        ;;
+
+        main ()
+
+bindings.c
+    .. code-block:: c
+
+        #include <stdio.h>
+
+        /* putchard - putchar that takes a double and returns 0. */
+        extern double putchard(double X) {
+          putchar((char)X);
+          return 0;
+        }
+
+`Next: Extending the language: control flow <OCamlLangImpl5.html>`_
+

Added: www-releases/trunk/3.5.1/docs/_sources/tutorial/OCamlLangImpl5.txt
URL: http://llvm.org/viewvc/llvm-project/www-releases/trunk/3.5.1/docs/_sources/tutorial/OCamlLangImpl5.txt?rev=225843&view=auto
==============================================================================
--- www-releases/trunk/3.5.1/docs/_sources/tutorial/OCamlLangImpl5.txt (added)
+++ www-releases/trunk/3.5.1/docs/_sources/tutorial/OCamlLangImpl5.txt Tue Jan 13 16:55:20 2015
@@ -0,0 +1,1362 @@
+==================================================
+Kaleidoscope: Extending the Language: Control Flow
+==================================================
+
+.. contents::
+   :local:
+
+Chapter 5 Introduction
+======================
+
+Welcome to Chapter 5 of the "`Implementing a language with
+LLVM <index.html>`_" tutorial. Parts 1-4 described the implementation of
+the simple Kaleidoscope language and included support for generating
+LLVM IR, followed by optimizations and a JIT compiler. Unfortunately, as
+presented, Kaleidoscope is mostly useless: it has no control flow other
+than call and return. This means that you can't have conditional
+branches in the code, significantly limiting its power. In this episode
+of "build that compiler", we'll extend Kaleidoscope to have an
+if/then/else expression plus a simple 'for' loop.
+
+If/Then/Else
+============
+
+Extending Kaleidoscope to support if/then/else is quite straightforward.
+It basically requires adding lexer support for this "new" concept to the
+lexer, parser, AST, and LLVM code emitter. This example is nice, because
+it shows how easy it is to "grow" a language over time, incrementally
+extending it as new ideas are discovered.
+
+Before we get going on "how" we add this extension, lets talk about
+"what" we want. The basic idea is that we want to be able to write this
+sort of thing:
+
+::
+
+    def fib(x)
+      if x < 3 then
+        1
+      else
+        fib(x-1)+fib(x-2);
+
+In Kaleidoscope, every construct is an expression: there are no
+statements. As such, the if/then/else expression needs to return a value
+like any other. Since we're using a mostly functional form, we'll have
+it evaluate its conditional, then return the 'then' or 'else' value
+based on how the condition was resolved. This is very similar to the C
+"?:" expression.
+
+The semantics of the if/then/else expression is that it evaluates the
+condition to a boolean equality value: 0.0 is considered to be false and
+everything else is considered to be true. If the condition is true, the
+first subexpression is evaluated and returned, if the condition is
+false, the second subexpression is evaluated and returned. Since
+Kaleidoscope allows side-effects, this behavior is important to nail
+down.
+
+Now that we know what we "want", lets break this down into its
+constituent pieces.
+
+Lexer Extensions for If/Then/Else
+---------------------------------
+
+The lexer extensions are straightforward. First we add new variants for
+the relevant tokens:
+
+.. code-block:: ocaml
+
+      (* control *)
+      | If | Then | Else | For | In
+
+Once we have that, we recognize the new keywords in the lexer. This is
+pretty simple stuff:
+
+.. code-block:: ocaml
+
+          ...
+          match Buffer.contents buffer with
+          | "def" -> [< 'Token.Def; stream >]
+          | "extern" -> [< 'Token.Extern; stream >]
+          | "if" -> [< 'Token.If; stream >]
+          | "then" -> [< 'Token.Then; stream >]
+          | "else" -> [< 'Token.Else; stream >]
+          | "for" -> [< 'Token.For; stream >]
+          | "in" -> [< 'Token.In; stream >]
+          | id -> [< 'Token.Ident id; stream >]
+
+AST Extensions for If/Then/Else
+-------------------------------
+
+To represent the new expression we add a new AST variant for it:
+
+.. code-block:: ocaml
+
+    type expr =
+      ...
+      (* variant for if/then/else. *)
+      | If of expr * expr * expr
+
+The AST variant just has pointers to the various subexpressions.
+
+Parser Extensions for If/Then/Else
+----------------------------------
+
+Now that we have the relevant tokens coming from the lexer and we have
+the AST node to build, our parsing logic is relatively straightforward.
+First we define a new parsing function:
+
+.. code-block:: ocaml
+
+    let rec parse_primary = parser
+      ...
+      (* ifexpr ::= 'if' expr 'then' expr 'else' expr *)
+      | [< 'Token.If; c=parse_expr;
+           'Token.Then ?? "expected 'then'"; t=parse_expr;
+           'Token.Else ?? "expected 'else'"; e=parse_expr >] ->
+          Ast.If (c, t, e)
+
+Next we hook it up as a primary expression:
+
+.. code-block:: ocaml
+
+    let rec parse_primary = parser
+      ...
+      (* ifexpr ::= 'if' expr 'then' expr 'else' expr *)
+      | [< 'Token.If; c=parse_expr;
+           'Token.Then ?? "expected 'then'"; t=parse_expr;
+           'Token.Else ?? "expected 'else'"; e=parse_expr >] ->
+          Ast.If (c, t, e)
+
+LLVM IR for If/Then/Else
+------------------------
+
+Now that we have it parsing and building the AST, the final piece is
+adding LLVM code generation support. This is the most interesting part
+of the if/then/else example, because this is where it starts to
+introduce new concepts. All of the code above has been thoroughly
+described in previous chapters.
+
+To motivate the code we want to produce, lets take a look at a simple
+example. Consider:
+
+::
+
+    extern foo();
+    extern bar();
+    def baz(x) if x then foo() else bar();
+
+If you disable optimizations, the code you'll (soon) get from
+Kaleidoscope looks like this:
+
+.. code-block:: llvm
+
+    declare double @foo()
+
+    declare double @bar()
+
+    define double @baz(double %x) {
+    entry:
+      %ifcond = fcmp one double %x, 0.000000e+00
+      br i1 %ifcond, label %then, label %else
+
+    then:    ; preds = %entry
+      %calltmp = call double @foo()
+      br label %ifcont
+
+    else:    ; preds = %entry
+      %calltmp1 = call double @bar()
+      br label %ifcont
+
+    ifcont:    ; preds = %else, %then
+      %iftmp = phi double [ %calltmp, %then ], [ %calltmp1, %else ]
+      ret double %iftmp
+    }
+
+To visualize the control flow graph, you can use a nifty feature of the
+LLVM '`opt <http://llvm.org/cmds/opt.html>`_' tool. If you put this LLVM
+IR into "t.ll" and run "``llvm-as < t.ll | opt -analyze -view-cfg``", `a
+window will pop up <../ProgrammersManual.html#ViewGraph>`_ and you'll
+see this graph:
+
+.. figure:: LangImpl5-cfg.png
+   :align: center
+   :alt: Example CFG
+
+   Example CFG
+
+Another way to get this is to call
+"``Llvm_analysis.view_function_cfg f``" or
+"``Llvm_analysis.view_function_cfg_only f``" (where ``f`` is a
+"``Function``") either by inserting actual calls into the code and
+recompiling or by calling these in the debugger. LLVM has many nice
+features for visualizing various graphs.
+
+Getting back to the generated code, it is fairly simple: the entry block
+evaluates the conditional expression ("x" in our case here) and compares
+the result to 0.0 with the "``fcmp one``" instruction ('one' is "Ordered
+and Not Equal"). Based on the result of this expression, the code jumps
+to either the "then" or "else" blocks, which contain the expressions for
+the true/false cases.
+
+Once the then/else blocks are finished executing, they both branch back
+to the 'ifcont' block to execute the code that happens after the
+if/then/else. In this case the only thing left to do is to return to the
+caller of the function. The question then becomes: how does the code
+know which expression to return?
+
+The answer to this question involves an important SSA operation: the
+`Phi
+operation <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Static_single_assignment_form>`_.
+If you're not familiar with SSA, `the wikipedia
+article <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Static_single_assignment_form>`_
+is a good introduction and there are various other introductions to it
+available on your favorite search engine. The short version is that
+"execution" of the Phi operation requires "remembering" which block
+control came from. The Phi operation takes on the value corresponding to
+the input control block. In this case, if control comes in from the
+"then" block, it gets the value of "calltmp". If control comes from the
+"else" block, it gets the value of "calltmp1".
+
+At this point, you are probably starting to think "Oh no! This means my
+simple and elegant front-end will have to start generating SSA form in
+order to use LLVM!". Fortunately, this is not the case, and we strongly
+advise *not* implementing an SSA construction algorithm in your
+front-end unless there is an amazingly good reason to do so. In
+practice, there are two sorts of values that float around in code
+written for your average imperative programming language that might need
+Phi nodes:
+
+#. Code that involves user variables: ``x = 1; x = x + 1;``
+#. Values that are implicit in the structure of your AST, such as the
+   Phi node in this case.
+
+In `Chapter 7 <OCamlLangImpl7.html>`_ of this tutorial ("mutable
+variables"), we'll talk about #1 in depth. For now, just believe me that
+you don't need SSA construction to handle this case. For #2, you have
+the choice of using the techniques that we will describe for #1, or you
+can insert Phi nodes directly, if convenient. In this case, it is really
+really easy to generate the Phi node, so we choose to do it directly.
+
+Okay, enough of the motivation and overview, lets generate code!
+
+Code Generation for If/Then/Else
+--------------------------------
+
+In order to generate code for this, we implement the ``Codegen`` method
+for ``IfExprAST``:
+
+.. code-block:: ocaml
+
+    let rec codegen_expr = function
+      ...
+      | Ast.If (cond, then_, else_) ->
+          let cond = codegen_expr cond in
+
+          (* Convert condition to a bool by comparing equal to 0.0 *)
+          let zero = const_float double_type 0.0 in
+          let cond_val = build_fcmp Fcmp.One cond zero "ifcond" builder in
+
+This code is straightforward and similar to what we saw before. We emit
+the expression for the condition, then compare that value to zero to get
+a truth value as a 1-bit (bool) value.
+
+.. code-block:: ocaml
+
+          (* Grab the first block so that we might later add the conditional branch
+           * to it at the end of the function. *)
+          let start_bb = insertion_block builder in
+          let the_function = block_parent start_bb in
+
+          let then_bb = append_block context "then" the_function in
+          position_at_end then_bb builder;
+
+As opposed to the `C++ tutorial <LangImpl5.html>`_, we have to build our
+basic blocks bottom up since we can't have dangling BasicBlocks. We
+start off by saving a pointer to the first block (which might not be the
+entry block), which we'll need to build a conditional branch later. We
+do this by asking the ``builder`` for the current BasicBlock. The fourth
+line gets the current Function object that is being built. It gets this
+by the ``start_bb`` for its "parent" (the function it is currently
+embedded into).
+
+Once it has that, it creates one block. It is automatically appended
+into the function's list of blocks.
+
+.. code-block:: ocaml
+
+          (* Emit 'then' value. *)
+          position_at_end then_bb builder;
+          let then_val = codegen_expr then_ in
+
+          (* Codegen of 'then' can change the current block, update then_bb for the
+           * phi. We create a new name because one is used for the phi node, and the
+           * other is used for the conditional branch. *)
+          let new_then_bb = insertion_block builder in
+
+We move the builder to start inserting into the "then" block. Strictly
+speaking, this call moves the insertion point to be at the end of the
+specified block. However, since the "then" block is empty, it also
+starts out by inserting at the beginning of the block. :)
+
+Once the insertion point is set, we recursively codegen the "then"
+expression from the AST.
+
+The final line here is quite subtle, but is very important. The basic
+issue is that when we create the Phi node in the merge block, we need to
+set up the block/value pairs that indicate how the Phi will work.
+Importantly, the Phi node expects to have an entry for each predecessor
+of the block in the CFG. Why then, are we getting the current block when
+we just set it to ThenBB 5 lines above? The problem is that the "Then"
+expression may actually itself change the block that the Builder is
+emitting into if, for example, it contains a nested "if/then/else"
+expression. Because calling Codegen recursively could arbitrarily change
+the notion of the current block, we are required to get an up-to-date
+value for code that will set up the Phi node.
+
+.. code-block:: ocaml
+
+          (* Emit 'else' value. *)
+          let else_bb = append_block context "else" the_function in
+          position_at_end else_bb builder;
+          let else_val = codegen_expr else_ in
+
+          (* Codegen of 'else' can change the current block, update else_bb for the
+           * phi. *)
+          let new_else_bb = insertion_block builder in
+
+Code generation for the 'else' block is basically identical to codegen
+for the 'then' block.
+
+.. code-block:: ocaml
+
+          (* Emit merge block. *)
+          let merge_bb = append_block context "ifcont" the_function in
+          position_at_end merge_bb builder;
+          let incoming = [(then_val, new_then_bb); (else_val, new_else_bb)] in
+          let phi = build_phi incoming "iftmp" builder in
+
+The first two lines here are now familiar: the first adds the "merge"
+block to the Function object. The second block changes the insertion
+point so that newly created code will go into the "merge" block. Once
+that is done, we need to create the PHI node and set up the block/value
+pairs for the PHI.
+
+.. code-block:: ocaml
+
+          (* Return to the start block to add the conditional branch. *)
+          position_at_end start_bb builder;
+          ignore (build_cond_br cond_val then_bb else_bb builder);
+
+Once the blocks are created, we can emit the conditional branch that
+chooses between them. Note that creating new blocks does not implicitly
+affect the IRBuilder, so it is still inserting into the block that the
+condition went into. This is why we needed to save the "start" block.
+
+.. code-block:: ocaml
+
+          (* Set a unconditional branch at the end of the 'then' block and the
+           * 'else' block to the 'merge' block. *)
+          position_at_end new_then_bb builder; ignore (build_br merge_bb builder);
+          position_at_end new_else_bb builder; ignore (build_br merge_bb builder);
+
+          (* Finally, set the builder to the end of the merge block. *)
+          position_at_end merge_bb builder;
+
+          phi
+
+To finish off the blocks, we create an unconditional branch to the merge
+block. One interesting (and very important) aspect of the LLVM IR is
+that it `requires all basic blocks to be
+"terminated" <../LangRef.html#functionstructure>`_ with a `control flow
+instruction <../LangRef.html#terminators>`_ such as return or branch.
+This means that all control flow, *including fall throughs* must be made
+explicit in the LLVM IR. If you violate this rule, the verifier will
+emit an error.
+
+Finally, the CodeGen function returns the phi node as the value computed
+by the if/then/else expression. In our example above, this returned
+value will feed into the code for the top-level function, which will
+create the return instruction.
+
+Overall, we now have the ability to execute conditional code in
+Kaleidoscope. With this extension, Kaleidoscope is a fairly complete
+language that can calculate a wide variety of numeric functions. Next up
+we'll add another useful expression that is familiar from non-functional
+languages...
+
+'for' Loop Expression
+=====================
+
+Now that we know how to add basic control flow constructs to the
+language, we have the tools to add more powerful things. Lets add
+something more aggressive, a 'for' expression:
+
+::
+
+     extern putchard(char);
+     def printstar(n)
+       for i = 1, i < n, 1.0 in
+         putchard(42);  # ascii 42 = '*'
+
+     # print 100 '*' characters
+     printstar(100);
+
+This expression defines a new variable ("i" in this case) which iterates
+from a starting value, while the condition ("i < n" in this case) is
+true, incrementing by an optional step value ("1.0" in this case). If
+the step value is omitted, it defaults to 1.0. While the loop is true,
+it executes its body expression. Because we don't have anything better
+to return, we'll just define the loop as always returning 0.0. In the
+future when we have mutable variables, it will get more useful.
+
+As before, lets talk about the changes that we need to Kaleidoscope to
+support this.
+
+Lexer Extensions for the 'for' Loop
+-----------------------------------
+
+The lexer extensions are the same sort of thing as for if/then/else:
+
+.. code-block:: ocaml
+
+      ... in Token.token ...
+      (* control *)
+      | If | Then | Else
+      | For | In
+
+      ... in Lexer.lex_ident...
+          match Buffer.contents buffer with
+          | "def" -> [< 'Token.Def; stream >]
+          | "extern" -> [< 'Token.Extern; stream >]
+          | "if" -> [< 'Token.If; stream >]
+          | "then" -> [< 'Token.Then; stream >]
+          | "else" -> [< 'Token.Else; stream >]
+          | "for" -> [< 'Token.For; stream >]
+          | "in" -> [< 'Token.In; stream >]
+          | id -> [< 'Token.Ident id; stream >]
+
+AST Extensions for the 'for' Loop
+---------------------------------
+
+The AST variant is just as simple. It basically boils down to capturing
+the variable name and the constituent expressions in the node.
+
+.. code-block:: ocaml
+
+    type expr =
+      ...
+      (* variant for for/in. *)
+      | For of string * expr * expr * expr option * expr
+
+Parser Extensions for the 'for' Loop
+------------------------------------
+
+The parser code is also fairly standard. The only interesting thing here
+is handling of the optional step value. The parser code handles it by
+checking to see if the second comma is present. If not, it sets the step
+value to null in the AST node:
+
+.. code-block:: ocaml
+
+    let rec parse_primary = parser
+      ...
+      (* forexpr
+            ::= 'for' identifier '=' expr ',' expr (',' expr)? 'in' expression *)
+      | [< 'Token.For;
+           'Token.Ident id ?? "expected identifier after for";
+           'Token.Kwd '=' ?? "expected '=' after for";
+           stream >] ->
+          begin parser
+            | [<
+                 start=parse_expr;
+                 'Token.Kwd ',' ?? "expected ',' after for";
+                 end_=parse_expr;
+                 stream >] ->
+                let step =
+                  begin parser
+                  | [< 'Token.Kwd ','; step=parse_expr >] -> Some step
+                  | [< >] -> None
+                  end stream
+                in
+                begin parser
+                | [< 'Token.In; body=parse_expr >] ->
+                    Ast.For (id, start, end_, step, body)
+                | [< >] ->
+                    raise (Stream.Error "expected 'in' after for")
+                end stream
+            | [< >] ->
+                raise (Stream.Error "expected '=' after for")
+          end stream
+
+LLVM IR for the 'for' Loop
+--------------------------
+
+Now we get to the good part: the LLVM IR we want to generate for this
+thing. With the simple example above, we get this LLVM IR (note that
+this dump is generated with optimizations disabled for clarity):
+
+.. code-block:: llvm
+
+    declare double @putchard(double)
+
+    define double @printstar(double %n) {
+    entry:
+            ; initial value = 1.0 (inlined into phi)
+      br label %loop
+
+    loop:    ; preds = %loop, %entry
+      %i = phi double [ 1.000000e+00, %entry ], [ %nextvar, %loop ]
+            ; body
+      %calltmp = call double @putchard(double 4.200000e+01)
+            ; increment
+      %nextvar = fadd double %i, 1.000000e+00
+
+            ; termination test
+      %cmptmp = fcmp ult double %i, %n
+      %booltmp = uitofp i1 %cmptmp to double
+      %loopcond = fcmp one double %booltmp, 0.000000e+00
+      br i1 %loopcond, label %loop, label %afterloop
+
+    afterloop:    ; preds = %loop
+            ; loop always returns 0.0
+      ret double 0.000000e+00
+    }
+
+This loop contains all the same constructs we saw before: a phi node,
+several expressions, and some basic blocks. Lets see how this fits
+together.
+
+Code Generation for the 'for' Loop
+----------------------------------
+
+The first part of Codegen is very simple: we just output the start
+expression for the loop value:
+
+.. code-block:: ocaml
+
+    let rec codegen_expr = function
+      ...
+      | Ast.For (var_name, start, end_, step, body) ->
+          (* Emit the start code first, without 'variable' in scope. *)
+          let start_val = codegen_expr start in
+
+With this out of the way, the next step is to set up the LLVM basic
+block for the start of the loop body. In the case above, the whole loop
+body is one block, but remember that the body code itself could consist
+of multiple blocks (e.g. if it contains an if/then/else or a for/in
+expression).
+
+.. code-block:: ocaml
+
+          (* Make the new basic block for the loop header, inserting after current
+           * block. *)
+          let preheader_bb = insertion_block builder in
+          let the_function = block_parent preheader_bb in
+          let loop_bb = append_block context "loop" the_function in
+
+          (* Insert an explicit fall through from the current block to the
+           * loop_bb. *)
+          ignore (build_br loop_bb builder);
+
+This code is similar to what we saw for if/then/else. Because we will
+need it to create the Phi node, we remember the block that falls through
+into the loop. Once we have that, we create the actual block that starts
+the loop and create an unconditional branch for the fall-through between
+the two blocks.
+
+.. code-block:: ocaml
+
+          (* Start insertion in loop_bb. *)
+          position_at_end loop_bb builder;
+
+          (* Start the PHI node with an entry for start. *)
+          let variable = build_phi [(start_val, preheader_bb)] var_name builder in
+
+Now that the "preheader" for the loop is set up, we switch to emitting
+code for the loop body. To begin with, we move the insertion point and
+create the PHI node for the loop induction variable. Since we already
+know the incoming value for the starting value, we add it to the Phi
+node. Note that the Phi will eventually get a second value for the
+backedge, but we can't set it up yet (because it doesn't exist!).
+
+.. code-block:: ocaml
+
+          (* Within the loop, the variable is defined equal to the PHI node. If it
+           * shadows an existing variable, we have to restore it, so save it
+           * now. *)
+          let old_val =
+            try Some (Hashtbl.find named_values var_name) with Not_found -> None
+          in
+          Hashtbl.add named_values var_name variable;
+
+          (* Emit the body of the loop.  This, like any other expr, can change the
+           * current BB.  Note that we ignore the value computed by the body, but
+           * don't allow an error *)
+          ignore (codegen_expr body);
+
+Now the code starts to get more interesting. Our 'for' loop introduces a
+new variable to the symbol table. This means that our symbol table can
+now contain either function arguments or loop variables. To handle this,
+before we codegen the body of the loop, we add the loop variable as the
+current value for its name. Note that it is possible that there is a
+variable of the same name in the outer scope. It would be easy to make
+this an error (emit an error and return null if there is already an
+entry for VarName) but we choose to allow shadowing of variables. In
+order to handle this correctly, we remember the Value that we are
+potentially shadowing in ``old_val`` (which will be None if there is no
+shadowed variable).
+
+Once the loop variable is set into the symbol table, the code
+recursively codegen's the body. This allows the body to use the loop
+variable: any references to it will naturally find it in the symbol
+table.
+
+.. code-block:: ocaml
+
+          (* Emit the step value. *)
+          let step_val =
+            match step with
+            | Some step -> codegen_expr step
+            (* If not specified, use 1.0. *)
+            | None -> const_float double_type 1.0
+          in
+
+          let next_var = build_add variable step_val "nextvar" builder in
+
+Now that the body is emitted, we compute the next value of the iteration
+variable by adding the step value, or 1.0 if it isn't present.
+'``next_var``' will be the value of the loop variable on the next
+iteration of the loop.
+
+.. code-block:: ocaml
+
+          (* Compute the end condition. *)
+          let end_cond = codegen_expr end_ in
+
+          (* Convert condition to a bool by comparing equal to 0.0. *)
+          let zero = const_float double_type 0.0 in
+          let end_cond = build_fcmp Fcmp.One end_cond zero "loopcond" builder in
+
+Finally, we evaluate the exit value of the loop, to determine whether
+the loop should exit. This mirrors the condition evaluation for the
+if/then/else statement.
+
+.. code-block:: ocaml
+
+          (* Create the "after loop" block and insert it. *)
+          let loop_end_bb = insertion_block builder in
+          let after_bb = append_block context "afterloop" the_function in
+
+          (* Insert the conditional branch into the end of loop_end_bb. *)
+          ignore (build_cond_br end_cond loop_bb after_bb builder);
+
+          (* Any new code will be inserted in after_bb. *)
+          position_at_end after_bb builder;
+
+With the code for the body of the loop complete, we just need to finish
+up the control flow for it. This code remembers the end block (for the
+phi node), then creates the block for the loop exit ("afterloop"). Based
+on the value of the exit condition, it creates a conditional branch that
+chooses between executing the loop again and exiting the loop. Any
+future code is emitted in the "afterloop" block, so it sets the
+insertion position to it.
+
+.. code-block:: ocaml
+
+          (* Add a new entry to the PHI node for the backedge. *)
+          add_incoming (next_var, loop_end_bb) variable;
+
+          (* Restore the unshadowed variable. *)
+          begin match old_val with
+          | Some old_val -> Hashtbl.add named_values var_name old_val
+          | None -> ()
+          end;
+
+          (* for expr always returns 0.0. *)
+          const_null double_type
+
+The final code handles various cleanups: now that we have the
+"``next_var``" value, we can add the incoming value to the loop PHI
+node. After that, we remove the loop variable from the symbol table, so
+that it isn't in scope after the for loop. Finally, code generation of
+the for loop always returns 0.0, so that is what we return from
+``Codegen.codegen_expr``.
+
+With this, we conclude the "adding control flow to Kaleidoscope" chapter
+of the tutorial. In this chapter we added two control flow constructs,
+and used them to motivate a couple of aspects of the LLVM IR that are
+important for front-end implementors to know. In the next chapter of our
+saga, we will get a bit crazier and add `user-defined
+operators <OCamlLangImpl6.html>`_ to our poor innocent language.
+
+Full Code Listing
+=================
+
+Here is the complete code listing for our running example, enhanced with
+the if/then/else and for expressions.. To build this example, use:
+
+.. code-block:: bash
+
+    # Compile
+    ocamlbuild toy.byte
+    # Run
+    ./toy.byte
+
+Here is the code:
+
+\_tags:
+    ::
+
+        <{lexer,parser}.ml>: use_camlp4, pp(camlp4of)
+        <*.{byte,native}>: g++, use_llvm, use_llvm_analysis
+        <*.{byte,native}>: use_llvm_executionengine, use_llvm_target
+        <*.{byte,native}>: use_llvm_scalar_opts, use_bindings
+
+myocamlbuild.ml:
+    .. code-block:: ocaml
+
+        open Ocamlbuild_plugin;;
+
+        ocaml_lib ~extern:true "llvm";;
+        ocaml_lib ~extern:true "llvm_analysis";;
+        ocaml_lib ~extern:true "llvm_executionengine";;
+        ocaml_lib ~extern:true "llvm_target";;
+        ocaml_lib ~extern:true "llvm_scalar_opts";;
+
+        flag ["link"; "ocaml"; "g++"] (S[A"-cc"; A"g++"]);;
+        dep ["link"; "ocaml"; "use_bindings"] ["bindings.o"];;
+
+token.ml:
+    .. code-block:: ocaml
+
+        (*===----------------------------------------------------------------------===
+         * Lexer Tokens
+         *===----------------------------------------------------------------------===*)
+
+        (* The lexer returns these 'Kwd' if it is an unknown character, otherwise one of
+         * these others for known things. *)
+        type token =
+          (* commands *)
+          | Def | Extern
+
+          (* primary *)
+          | Ident of string | Number of float
+
+          (* unknown *)
+          | Kwd of char
+
+          (* control *)
+          | If | Then | Else
+          | For | In
+
+lexer.ml:
+    .. code-block:: ocaml
+
+        (*===----------------------------------------------------------------------===
+         * Lexer
+         *===----------------------------------------------------------------------===*)
+
+        let rec lex = parser
+          (* Skip any whitespace. *)
+          | [< ' (' ' | '\n' | '\r' | '\t'); stream >] -> lex stream
+
+          (* identifier: [a-zA-Z][a-zA-Z0-9] *)
+          | [< ' ('A' .. 'Z' | 'a' .. 'z' as c); stream >] ->
+              let buffer = Buffer.create 1 in
+              Buffer.add_char buffer c;
+              lex_ident buffer stream
+
+          (* number: [0-9.]+ *)
+          | [< ' ('0' .. '9' as c); stream >] ->
+              let buffer = Buffer.create 1 in
+              Buffer.add_char buffer c;
+              lex_number buffer stream
+
+          (* Comment until end of line. *)
+          | [< ' ('#'); stream >] ->
+              lex_comment stream
+
+          (* Otherwise, just return the character as its ascii value. *)
+          | [< 'c; stream >] ->
+              [< 'Token.Kwd c; lex stream >]
+
+          (* end of stream. *)
+          | [< >] -> [< >]
+
+        and lex_number buffer = parser
+          | [< ' ('0' .. '9' | '.' as c); stream >] ->
+              Buffer.add_char buffer c;
+              lex_number buffer stream
+          | [< stream=lex >] ->
+              [< 'Token.Number (float_of_string (Buffer.contents buffer)); stream >]
+
+        and lex_ident buffer = parser
+          | [< ' ('A' .. 'Z' | 'a' .. 'z' | '0' .. '9' as c); stream >] ->
+              Buffer.add_char buffer c;
+              lex_ident buffer stream
+          | [< stream=lex >] ->
+              match Buffer.contents buffer with
+              | "def" -> [< 'Token.Def; stream >]
+              | "extern" -> [< 'Token.Extern; stream >]
+              | "if" -> [< 'Token.If; stream >]
+              | "then" -> [< 'Token.Then; stream >]
+              | "else" -> [< 'Token.Else; stream >]
+              | "for" -> [< 'Token.For; stream >]
+              | "in" -> [< 'Token.In; stream >]
+              | id -> [< 'Token.Ident id; stream >]
+
+        and lex_comment = parser
+          | [< ' ('\n'); stream=lex >] -> stream
+          | [< 'c; e=lex_comment >] -> e
+          | [< >] -> [< >]
+
+ast.ml:
+    .. code-block:: ocaml
+
+        (*===----------------------------------------------------------------------===
+         * Abstract Syntax Tree (aka Parse Tree)
+         *===----------------------------------------------------------------------===*)
+
+        (* expr - Base type for all expression nodes. *)
+        type expr =
+          (* variant for numeric literals like "1.0". *)
+          | Number of float
+
+          (* variant for referencing a variable, like "a". *)
+          | Variable of string
+
+          (* variant for a binary operator. *)
+          | Binary of char * expr * expr
+
+          (* variant for function calls. *)
+          | Call of string * expr array
+
+          (* variant for if/then/else. *)
+          | If of expr * expr * expr
+
+          (* variant for for/in. *)
+          | For of string * expr * expr * expr option * expr
+
+        (* proto - This type represents the "prototype" for a function, which captures
+         * its name, and its argument names (thus implicitly the number of arguments the
+         * function takes). *)
+        type proto = Prototype of string * string array
+
+        (* func - This type represents a function definition itself. *)
+        type func = Function of proto * expr
+
+parser.ml:
+    .. code-block:: ocaml
+
+        (*===---------------------------------------------------------------------===
+         * Parser
+         *===---------------------------------------------------------------------===*)
+
+        (* binop_precedence - This holds the precedence for each binary operator that is
+         * defined *)
+        let binop_precedence:(char, int) Hashtbl.t = Hashtbl.create 10
+
+        (* precedence - Get the precedence of the pending binary operator token. *)
+        let precedence c = try Hashtbl.find binop_precedence c with Not_found -> -1
+
+        (* primary
+         *   ::= identifier
+         *   ::= numberexpr
+         *   ::= parenexpr
+         *   ::= ifexpr
+         *   ::= forexpr *)
+        let rec parse_primary = parser
+          (* numberexpr ::= number *)
+          | [< 'Token.Number n >] -> Ast.Number n
+
+          (* parenexpr ::= '(' expression ')' *)
+          | [< 'Token.Kwd '('; e=parse_expr; 'Token.Kwd ')' ?? "expected ')'" >] -> e
+
+          (* identifierexpr
+           *   ::= identifier
+           *   ::= identifier '(' argumentexpr ')' *)
+          | [< 'Token.Ident id; stream >] ->
+              let rec parse_args accumulator = parser
+                | [< e=parse_expr; stream >] ->
+                    begin parser
+                      | [< 'Token.Kwd ','; e=parse_args (e :: accumulator) >] -> e
+                      | [< >] -> e :: accumulator
+                    end stream
+                | [< >] -> accumulator
+              in
+              let rec parse_ident id = parser
+                (* Call. *)
+                | [< 'Token.Kwd '(';
+                     args=parse_args [];
+                     'Token.Kwd ')' ?? "expected ')'">] ->
+                    Ast.Call (id, Array.of_list (List.rev args))
+
+                (* Simple variable ref. *)
+                | [< >] -> Ast.Variable id
+              in
+              parse_ident id stream
+
+          (* ifexpr ::= 'if' expr 'then' expr 'else' expr *)
+          | [< 'Token.If; c=parse_expr;
+               'Token.Then ?? "expected 'then'"; t=parse_expr;
+               'Token.Else ?? "expected 'else'"; e=parse_expr >] ->
+              Ast.If (c, t, e)
+
+          (* forexpr
+                ::= 'for' identifier '=' expr ',' expr (',' expr)? 'in' expression *)
+          | [< 'Token.For;
+               'Token.Ident id ?? "expected identifier after for";
+               'Token.Kwd '=' ?? "expected '=' after for";
+               stream >] ->
+              begin parser
+                | [<
+                     start=parse_expr;
+                     'Token.Kwd ',' ?? "expected ',' after for";
+                     end_=parse_expr;
+                     stream >] ->
+                    let step =
+                      begin parser
+                      | [< 'Token.Kwd ','; step=parse_expr >] -> Some step
+                      | [< >] -> None
+                      end stream
+                    in
+                    begin parser
+                    | [< 'Token.In; body=parse_expr >] ->
+                        Ast.For (id, start, end_, step, body)
+                    | [< >] ->
+                        raise (Stream.Error "expected 'in' after for")
+                    end stream
+                | [< >] ->
+                    raise (Stream.Error "expected '=' after for")
+              end stream
+
+          | [< >] -> raise (Stream.Error "unknown token when expecting an expression.")
+
+        (* binoprhs
+         *   ::= ('+' primary)* *)
+        and parse_bin_rhs expr_prec lhs stream =
+          match Stream.peek stream with
+          (* If this is a binop, find its precedence. *)
+          | Some (Token.Kwd c) when Hashtbl.mem binop_precedence c ->
+              let token_prec = precedence c in
+
+              (* If this is a binop that binds at least as tightly as the current binop,
+               * consume it, otherwise we are done. *)
+              if token_prec < expr_prec then lhs else begin
+                (* Eat the binop. *)
+                Stream.junk stream;
+
+                (* Parse the primary expression after the binary operator. *)
+                let rhs = parse_primary stream in
+
+                (* Okay, we know this is a binop. *)
+                let rhs =
+                  match Stream.peek stream with
+                  | Some (Token.Kwd c2) ->
+                      (* If BinOp binds less tightly with rhs than the operator after
+                       * rhs, let the pending operator take rhs as its lhs. *)
+                      let next_prec = precedence c2 in
+                      if token_prec < next_prec
+                      then parse_bin_rhs (token_prec + 1) rhs stream
+                      else rhs
+                  | _ -> rhs
+                in
+
+                (* Merge lhs/rhs. *)
+                let lhs = Ast.Binary (c, lhs, rhs) in
+                parse_bin_rhs expr_prec lhs stream
+              end
+          | _ -> lhs
+
+        (* expression
+         *   ::= primary binoprhs *)
+        and parse_expr = parser
+          | [< lhs=parse_primary; stream >] -> parse_bin_rhs 0 lhs stream
+
+        (* prototype
+         *   ::= id '(' id* ')' *)
+        let parse_prototype =
+          let rec parse_args accumulator = parser
+            | [< 'Token.Ident id; e=parse_args (id::accumulator) >] -> e
+            | [< >] -> accumulator
+          in
+
+          parser
+          | [< 'Token.Ident id;
+               'Token.Kwd '(' ?? "expected '(' in prototype";
+               args=parse_args [];
+               'Token.Kwd ')' ?? "expected ')' in prototype" >] ->
+              (* success. *)
+              Ast.Prototype (id, Array.of_list (List.rev args))
+
+          | [< >] ->
+              raise (Stream.Error "expected function name in prototype")
+
+        (* definition ::= 'def' prototype expression *)
+        let parse_definition = parser
+          | [< 'Token.Def; p=parse_prototype; e=parse_expr >] ->
+              Ast.Function (p, e)
+
+        (* toplevelexpr ::= expression *)
+        let parse_toplevel = parser
+          | [< e=parse_expr >] ->
+              (* Make an anonymous proto. *)
+              Ast.Function (Ast.Prototype ("", [||]), e)
+
+        (*  external ::= 'extern' prototype *)
+        let parse_extern = parser
+          | [< 'Token.Extern; e=parse_prototype >] -> e
+
+codegen.ml:
+    .. code-block:: ocaml
+
+        (*===----------------------------------------------------------------------===
+         * Code Generation
+         *===----------------------------------------------------------------------===*)
+
+        open Llvm
+
+        exception Error of string
+
+        let context = global_context ()
+        let the_module = create_module context "my cool jit"
+        let builder = builder context
+        let named_values:(string, llvalue) Hashtbl.t = Hashtbl.create 10
+        let double_type = double_type context
+
+        let rec codegen_expr = function
+          | Ast.Number n -> const_float double_type n
+          | Ast.Variable name ->
+              (try Hashtbl.find named_values name with
+                | Not_found -> raise (Error "unknown variable name"))
+          | Ast.Binary (op, lhs, rhs) ->
+              let lhs_val = codegen_expr lhs in
+              let rhs_val = codegen_expr rhs in
+              begin
+                match op with
+                | '+' -> build_add lhs_val rhs_val "addtmp" builder
+                | '-' -> build_sub lhs_val rhs_val "subtmp" builder
+                | '*' -> build_mul lhs_val rhs_val "multmp" builder
+                | '<' ->
+                    (* Convert bool 0/1 to double 0.0 or 1.0 *)
+                    let i = build_fcmp Fcmp.Ult lhs_val rhs_val "cmptmp" builder in
+                    build_uitofp i double_type "booltmp" builder
+                | _ -> raise (Error "invalid binary operator")
+              end
+          | Ast.Call (callee, args) ->
+              (* Look up the name in the module table. *)
+              let callee =
+                match lookup_function callee the_module with
+                | Some callee -> callee
+                | None -> raise (Error "unknown function referenced")
+              in
+              let params = params callee in
+
+              (* If argument mismatch error. *)
+              if Array.length params == Array.length args then () else
+                raise (Error "incorrect # arguments passed");
+              let args = Array.map codegen_expr args in
+              build_call callee args "calltmp" builder
+          | Ast.If (cond, then_, else_) ->
+              let cond = codegen_expr cond in
+
+              (* Convert condition to a bool by comparing equal to 0.0 *)
+              let zero = const_float double_type 0.0 in
+              let cond_val = build_fcmp Fcmp.One cond zero "ifcond" builder in
+
+              (* Grab the first block so that we might later add the conditional branch
+               * to it at the end of the function. *)
+              let start_bb = insertion_block builder in
+              let the_function = block_parent start_bb in
+
+              let then_bb = append_block context "then" the_function in
+
+              (* Emit 'then' value. *)
+              position_at_end then_bb builder;
+              let then_val = codegen_expr then_ in
+
+              (* Codegen of 'then' can change the current block, update then_bb for the
+               * phi. We create a new name because one is used for the phi node, and the
+               * other is used for the conditional branch. *)
+              let new_then_bb = insertion_block builder in
+
+              (* Emit 'else' value. *)
+              let else_bb = append_block context "else" the_function in
+              position_at_end else_bb builder;
+              let else_val = codegen_expr else_ in
+
+              (* Codegen of 'else' can change the current block, update else_bb for the
+               * phi. *)
+              let new_else_bb = insertion_block builder in
+
+              (* Emit merge block. *)
+              let merge_bb = append_block context "ifcont" the_function in
+              position_at_end merge_bb builder;
+              let incoming = [(then_val, new_then_bb); (else_val, new_else_bb)] in
+              let phi = build_phi incoming "iftmp" builder in
+
+              (* Return to the start block to add the conditional branch. *)
+              position_at_end start_bb builder;
+              ignore (build_cond_br cond_val then_bb else_bb builder);
+
+              (* Set a unconditional branch at the end of the 'then' block and the
+               * 'else' block to the 'merge' block. *)
+              position_at_end new_then_bb builder; ignore (build_br merge_bb builder);
+              position_at_end new_else_bb builder; ignore (build_br merge_bb builder);
+
+              (* Finally, set the builder to the end of the merge block. *)
+              position_at_end merge_bb builder;
+
+              phi
+          | Ast.For (var_name, start, end_, step, body) ->
+              (* Emit the start code first, without 'variable' in scope. *)
+              let start_val = codegen_expr start in
+
+              (* Make the new basic block for the loop header, inserting after current
+               * block. *)
+              let preheader_bb = insertion_block builder in
+              let the_function = block_parent preheader_bb in
+              let loop_bb = append_block context "loop" the_function in
+
+              (* Insert an explicit fall through from the current block to the
+               * loop_bb. *)
+              ignore (build_br loop_bb builder);
+
+              (* Start insertion in loop_bb. *)
+              position_at_end loop_bb builder;
+
+              (* Start the PHI node with an entry for start. *)
+              let variable = build_phi [(start_val, preheader_bb)] var_name builder in
+
+              (* Within the loop, the variable is defined equal to the PHI node. If it
+               * shadows an existing variable, we have to restore it, so save it
+               * now. *)
+              let old_val =
+                try Some (Hashtbl.find named_values var_name) with Not_found -> None
+              in
+              Hashtbl.add named_values var_name variable;
+
+              (* Emit the body of the loop.  This, like any other expr, can change the
+               * current BB.  Note that we ignore the value computed by the body, but
+               * don't allow an error *)
+              ignore (codegen_expr body);
+
+              (* Emit the step value. *)
+              let step_val =
+                match step with
+                | Some step -> codegen_expr step
+                (* If not specified, use 1.0. *)
+                | None -> const_float double_type 1.0
+              in
+
+              let next_var = build_add variable step_val "nextvar" builder in
+
+              (* Compute the end condition. *)
+              let end_cond = codegen_expr end_ in
+
+              (* Convert condition to a bool by comparing equal to 0.0. *)
+              let zero = const_float double_type 0.0 in
+              let end_cond = build_fcmp Fcmp.One end_cond zero "loopcond" builder in
+
+              (* Create the "after loop" block and insert it. *)
+              let loop_end_bb = insertion_block builder in
+              let after_bb = append_block context "afterloop" the_function in
+
+              (* Insert the conditional branch into the end of loop_end_bb. *)
+              ignore (build_cond_br end_cond loop_bb after_bb builder);
+
+              (* Any new code will be inserted in after_bb. *)
+              position_at_end after_bb builder;
+
+              (* Add a new entry to the PHI node for the backedge. *)
+              add_incoming (next_var, loop_end_bb) variable;
+
+              (* Restore the unshadowed variable. *)
+              begin match old_val with
+              | Some old_val -> Hashtbl.add named_values var_name old_val
+              | None -> ()
+              end;
+
+              (* for expr always returns 0.0. *)
+              const_null double_type
+
+        let codegen_proto = function
+          | Ast.Prototype (name, args) ->
+              (* Make the function type: double(double,double) etc. *)
+              let doubles = Array.make (Array.length args) double_type in
+              let ft = function_type double_type doubles in
+              let f =
+                match lookup_function name the_module with
+                | None -> declare_function name ft the_module
+
+                (* If 'f' conflicted, there was already something named 'name'. If it
+                 * has a body, don't allow redefinition or reextern. *)
+                | Some f ->
+                    (* If 'f' already has a body, reject this. *)
+                    if block_begin f <> At_end f then
+                      raise (Error "redefinition of function");
+
+                    (* If 'f' took a different number of arguments, reject. *)
+                    if element_type (type_of f) <> ft then
+                      raise (Error "redefinition of function with different # args");
+                    f
+              in
+
+              (* Set names for all arguments. *)
+              Array.iteri (fun i a ->
+                let n = args.(i) in
+                set_value_name n a;
+                Hashtbl.add named_values n a;
+              ) (params f);
+              f
+
+        let codegen_func the_fpm = function
+          | Ast.Function (proto, body) ->
+              Hashtbl.clear named_values;
+              let the_function = codegen_proto proto in
+
+              (* Create a new basic block to start insertion into. *)
+              let bb = append_block context "entry" the_function in
+              position_at_end bb builder;
+
+              try
+                let ret_val = codegen_expr body in
+
+                (* Finish off the function. *)
+                let _ = build_ret ret_val builder in
+
+                (* Validate the generated code, checking for consistency. *)
+                Llvm_analysis.assert_valid_function the_function;
+
+                (* Optimize the function. *)
+                let _ = PassManager.run_function the_function the_fpm in
+
+                the_function
+              with e ->
+                delete_function the_function;
+                raise e
+
+toplevel.ml:
+    .. code-block:: ocaml
+
+        (*===----------------------------------------------------------------------===
+         * Top-Level parsing and JIT Driver
+         *===----------------------------------------------------------------------===*)
+
+        open Llvm
+        open Llvm_executionengine
+
+        (* top ::= definition | external | expression | ';' *)
+        let rec main_loop the_fpm the_execution_engine stream =
+          match Stream.peek stream with
+          | None -> ()
+
+          (* ignore top-level semicolons. *)
+          | Some (Token.Kwd ';') ->
+              Stream.junk stream;
+              main_loop the_fpm the_execution_engine stream
+
+          | Some token ->
+              begin
+                try match token with
+                | Token.Def ->
+                    let e = Parser.parse_definition stream in
+                    print_endline "parsed a function definition.";
+                    dump_value (Codegen.codegen_func the_fpm e);
+                | Token.Extern ->
+                    let e = Parser.parse_extern stream in
+                    print_endline "parsed an extern.";
+                    dump_value (Codegen.codegen_proto e);
+                | _ ->
+                    (* Evaluate a top-level expression into an anonymous function. *)
+                    let e = Parser.parse_toplevel stream in
+                    print_endline "parsed a top-level expr";
+                    let the_function = Codegen.codegen_func the_fpm e in
+                    dump_value the_function;
+
+                    (* JIT the function, returning a function pointer. *)
+                    let result = ExecutionEngine.run_function the_function [||]
+                      the_execution_engine in
+
+                    print_string "Evaluated to ";
+                    print_float (GenericValue.as_float Codegen.double_type result);
+                    print_newline ();
+                with Stream.Error s | Codegen.Error s ->
+                  (* Skip token for error recovery. *)
+                  Stream.junk stream;
+                  print_endline s;
+              end;
+              print_string "ready> "; flush stdout;
+              main_loop the_fpm the_execution_engine stream
+
+toy.ml:
+    .. code-block:: ocaml
+
+        (*===----------------------------------------------------------------------===
+         * Main driver code.
+         *===----------------------------------------------------------------------===*)
+
+        open Llvm
+        open Llvm_executionengine
+        open Llvm_target
+        open Llvm_scalar_opts
+
+        let main () =
+          ignore (initialize_native_target ());
+
+          (* Install standard binary operators.
+           * 1 is the lowest precedence. *)
+          Hashtbl.add Parser.binop_precedence '<' 10;
+          Hashtbl.add Parser.binop_precedence '+' 20;
+          Hashtbl.add Parser.binop_precedence '-' 20;
+          Hashtbl.add Parser.binop_precedence '*' 40;    (* highest. *)
+
+          (* Prime the first token. *)
+          print_string "ready> "; flush stdout;
+          let stream = Lexer.lex (Stream.of_channel stdin) in
+
+          (* Create the JIT. *)
+          let the_execution_engine = ExecutionEngine.create Codegen.the_module in
+          let the_fpm = PassManager.create_function Codegen.the_module in
+
+          (* Set up the optimizer pipeline.  Start with registering info about how the
+           * target lays out data structures. *)
+          DataLayout.add (ExecutionEngine.target_data the_execution_engine) the_fpm;
+
+          (* Do simple "peephole" optimizations and bit-twiddling optzn. *)
+          add_instruction_combination the_fpm;
+
+          (* reassociate expressions. *)
+          add_reassociation the_fpm;
+
+          (* Eliminate Common SubExpressions. *)
+          add_gvn the_fpm;
+
+          (* Simplify the control flow graph (deleting unreachable blocks, etc). *)
+          add_cfg_simplification the_fpm;
+
+          ignore (PassManager.initialize the_fpm);
+
+          (* Run the main "interpreter loop" now. *)
+          Toplevel.main_loop the_fpm the_execution_engine stream;
+
+          (* Print out all the generated code. *)
+          dump_module Codegen.the_module
+        ;;
+
+        main ()
+
+bindings.c
+    .. code-block:: c
+
+        #include <stdio.h>
+
+        /* putchard - putchar that takes a double and returns 0. */
+        extern double putchard(double X) {
+          putchar((char)X);
+          return 0;
+        }
+
+`Next: Extending the language: user-defined
+operators <OCamlLangImpl6.html>`_
+

Added: www-releases/trunk/3.5.1/docs/_sources/tutorial/OCamlLangImpl6.txt
URL: http://llvm.org/viewvc/llvm-project/www-releases/trunk/3.5.1/docs/_sources/tutorial/OCamlLangImpl6.txt?rev=225843&view=auto
==============================================================================
--- www-releases/trunk/3.5.1/docs/_sources/tutorial/OCamlLangImpl6.txt (added)
+++ www-releases/trunk/3.5.1/docs/_sources/tutorial/OCamlLangImpl6.txt Tue Jan 13 16:55:20 2015
@@ -0,0 +1,1441 @@
+============================================================
+Kaleidoscope: Extending the Language: User-defined Operators
+============================================================
+
+.. contents::
+   :local:
+
+Chapter 6 Introduction
+======================
+
+Welcome to Chapter 6 of the "`Implementing a language with
+LLVM <index.html>`_" tutorial. At this point in our tutorial, we now
+have a fully functional language that is fairly minimal, but also
+useful. There is still one big problem with it, however. Our language
+doesn't have many useful operators (like division, logical negation, or
+even any comparisons besides less-than).
+
+This chapter of the tutorial takes a wild digression into adding
+user-defined operators to the simple and beautiful Kaleidoscope
+language. This digression now gives us a simple and ugly language in
+some ways, but also a powerful one at the same time. One of the great
+things about creating your own language is that you get to decide what
+is good or bad. In this tutorial we'll assume that it is okay to use
+this as a way to show some interesting parsing techniques.
+
+At the end of this tutorial, we'll run through an example Kaleidoscope
+application that `renders the Mandelbrot set <#example>`_. This gives an
+example of what you can build with Kaleidoscope and its feature set.
+
+User-defined Operators: the Idea
+================================
+
+The "operator overloading" that we will add to Kaleidoscope is more
+general than languages like C++. In C++, you are only allowed to
+redefine existing operators: you can't programatically change the
+grammar, introduce new operators, change precedence levels, etc. In this
+chapter, we will add this capability to Kaleidoscope, which will let the
+user round out the set of operators that are supported.
+
+The point of going into user-defined operators in a tutorial like this
+is to show the power and flexibility of using a hand-written parser.
+Thus far, the parser we have been implementing uses recursive descent
+for most parts of the grammar and operator precedence parsing for the
+expressions. See `Chapter 2 <OCamlLangImpl2.html>`_ for details. Without
+using operator precedence parsing, it would be very difficult to allow
+the programmer to introduce new operators into the grammar: the grammar
+is dynamically extensible as the JIT runs.
+
+The two specific features we'll add are programmable unary operators
+(right now, Kaleidoscope has no unary operators at all) as well as
+binary operators. An example of this is:
+
+::
+
+    # Logical unary not.
+    def unary!(v)
+      if v then
+        0
+      else
+        1;
+
+    # Define > with the same precedence as <.
+    def binary> 10 (LHS RHS)
+      RHS < LHS;
+
+    # Binary "logical or", (note that it does not "short circuit")
+    def binary| 5 (LHS RHS)
+      if LHS then
+        1
+      else if RHS then
+        1
+      else
+        0;
+
+    # Define = with slightly lower precedence than relationals.
+    def binary= 9 (LHS RHS)
+      !(LHS < RHS | LHS > RHS);
+
+Many languages aspire to being able to implement their standard runtime
+library in the language itself. In Kaleidoscope, we can implement
+significant parts of the language in the library!
+
+We will break down implementation of these features into two parts:
+implementing support for user-defined binary operators and adding unary
+operators.
+
+User-defined Binary Operators
+=============================
+
+Adding support for user-defined binary operators is pretty simple with
+our current framework. We'll first add support for the unary/binary
+keywords:
+
+.. code-block:: ocaml
+
+    type token =
+      ...
+      (* operators *)
+      | Binary | Unary
+
+    ...
+
+    and lex_ident buffer = parser
+      ...
+          | "for" -> [< 'Token.For; stream >]
+          | "in" -> [< 'Token.In; stream >]
+          | "binary" -> [< 'Token.Binary; stream >]
+          | "unary" -> [< 'Token.Unary; stream >]
+
+This just adds lexer support for the unary and binary keywords, like we
+did in `previous chapters <OCamlLangImpl5.html#iflexer>`_. One nice
+thing about our current AST, is that we represent binary operators with
+full generalisation by using their ASCII code as the opcode. For our
+extended operators, we'll use this same representation, so we don't need
+any new AST or parser support.
+
+On the other hand, we have to be able to represent the definitions of
+these new operators, in the "def binary\| 5" part of the function
+definition. In our grammar so far, the "name" for the function
+definition is parsed as the "prototype" production and into the
+``Ast.Prototype`` AST node. To represent our new user-defined operators
+as prototypes, we have to extend the ``Ast.Prototype`` AST node like
+this:
+
+.. code-block:: ocaml
+
+    (* proto - This type represents the "prototype" for a function, which captures
+     * its name, and its argument names (thus implicitly the number of arguments the
+     * function takes). *)
+    type proto =
+      | Prototype of string * string array
+      | BinOpPrototype of string * string array * int
+
+Basically, in addition to knowing a name for the prototype, we now keep
+track of whether it was an operator, and if it was, what precedence
+level the operator is at. The precedence is only used for binary
+operators (as you'll see below, it just doesn't apply for unary
+operators). Now that we have a way to represent the prototype for a
+user-defined operator, we need to parse it:
+
+.. code-block:: ocaml
+
+    (* prototype
+     *   ::= id '(' id* ')'
+     *   ::= binary LETTER number? (id, id)
+     *   ::= unary LETTER number? (id) *)
+    let parse_prototype =
+      let rec parse_args accumulator = parser
+        | [< 'Token.Ident id; e=parse_args (id::accumulator) >] -> e
+        | [< >] -> accumulator
+      in
+      let parse_operator = parser
+        | [< 'Token.Unary >] -> "unary", 1
+        | [< 'Token.Binary >] -> "binary", 2
+      in
+      let parse_binary_precedence = parser
+        | [< 'Token.Number n >] -> int_of_float n
+        | [< >] -> 30
+      in
+      parser
+      | [< 'Token.Ident id;
+           'Token.Kwd '(' ?? "expected '(' in prototype";
+           args=parse_args [];
+           'Token.Kwd ')' ?? "expected ')' in prototype" >] ->
+          (* success. *)
+          Ast.Prototype (id, Array.of_list (List.rev args))
+      | [< (prefix, kind)=parse_operator;
+           'Token.Kwd op ?? "expected an operator";
+           (* Read the precedence if present. *)
+           binary_precedence=parse_binary_precedence;
+           'Token.Kwd '(' ?? "expected '(' in prototype";
+            args=parse_args [];
+           'Token.Kwd ')' ?? "expected ')' in prototype" >] ->
+          let name = prefix ^ (String.make 1 op) in
+          let args = Array.of_list (List.rev args) in
+
+          (* Verify right number of arguments for operator. *)
+          if Array.length args != kind
+          then raise (Stream.Error "invalid number of operands for operator")
+          else
+            if kind == 1 then
+              Ast.Prototype (name, args)
+            else
+              Ast.BinOpPrototype (name, args, binary_precedence)
+      | [< >] ->
+          raise (Stream.Error "expected function name in prototype")
+
+This is all fairly straightforward parsing code, and we have already
+seen a lot of similar code in the past. One interesting part about the
+code above is the couple lines that set up ``name`` for binary
+operators. This builds names like "binary@" for a newly defined "@"
+operator. This then takes advantage of the fact that symbol names in the
+LLVM symbol table are allowed to have any character in them, including
+embedded nul characters.
+
+The next interesting thing to add, is codegen support for these binary
+operators. Given our current structure, this is a simple addition of a
+default case for our existing binary operator node:
+
+.. code-block:: ocaml
+
+    let codegen_expr = function
+      ...
+      | Ast.Binary (op, lhs, rhs) ->
+          let lhs_val = codegen_expr lhs in
+          let rhs_val = codegen_expr rhs in
+          begin
+            match op with
+            | '+' -> build_add lhs_val rhs_val "addtmp" builder
+            | '-' -> build_sub lhs_val rhs_val "subtmp" builder
+            | '*' -> build_mul lhs_val rhs_val "multmp" builder
+            | '<' ->
+                (* Convert bool 0/1 to double 0.0 or 1.0 *)
+                let i = build_fcmp Fcmp.Ult lhs_val rhs_val "cmptmp" builder in
+                build_uitofp i double_type "booltmp" builder
+            | _ ->
+                (* If it wasn't a builtin binary operator, it must be a user defined
+                 * one. Emit a call to it. *)
+                let callee = "binary" ^ (String.make 1 op) in
+                let callee =
+                  match lookup_function callee the_module with
+                  | Some callee -> callee
+                  | None -> raise (Error "binary operator not found!")
+                in
+                build_call callee [|lhs_val; rhs_val|] "binop" builder
+          end
+
+As you can see above, the new code is actually really simple. It just
+does a lookup for the appropriate operator in the symbol table and
+generates a function call to it. Since user-defined operators are just
+built as normal functions (because the "prototype" boils down to a
+function with the right name) everything falls into place.
+
+The final piece of code we are missing, is a bit of top level magic:
+
+.. code-block:: ocaml
+
+    let codegen_func the_fpm = function
+      | Ast.Function (proto, body) ->
+          Hashtbl.clear named_values;
+          let the_function = codegen_proto proto in
+
+          (* If this is an operator, install it. *)
+          begin match proto with
+          | Ast.BinOpPrototype (name, args, prec) ->
+              let op = name.[String.length name - 1] in
+              Hashtbl.add Parser.binop_precedence op prec;
+          | _ -> ()
+          end;
+
+          (* Create a new basic block to start insertion into. *)
+          let bb = append_block context "entry" the_function in
+          position_at_end bb builder;
+          ...
+
+Basically, before codegening a function, if it is a user-defined
+operator, we register it in the precedence table. This allows the binary
+operator parsing logic we already have in place to handle it. Since we
+are working on a fully-general operator precedence parser, this is all
+we need to do to "extend the grammar".
+
+Now we have useful user-defined binary operators. This builds a lot on
+the previous framework we built for other operators. Adding unary
+operators is a bit more challenging, because we don't have any framework
+for it yet - lets see what it takes.
+
+User-defined Unary Operators
+============================
+
+Since we don't currently support unary operators in the Kaleidoscope
+language, we'll need to add everything to support them. Above, we added
+simple support for the 'unary' keyword to the lexer. In addition to
+that, we need an AST node:
+
+.. code-block:: ocaml
+
+    type expr =
+      ...
+      (* variant for a unary operator. *)
+      | Unary of char * expr
+      ...
+
+This AST node is very simple and obvious by now. It directly mirrors the
+binary operator AST node, except that it only has one child. With this,
+we need to add the parsing logic. Parsing a unary operator is pretty
+simple: we'll add a new function to do it:
+
+.. code-block:: ocaml
+
+    (* unary
+     *   ::= primary
+     *   ::= '!' unary *)
+    and parse_unary = parser
+      (* If this is a unary operator, read it. *)
+      | [< 'Token.Kwd op when op != '(' && op != ')'; operand=parse_expr >] ->
+          Ast.Unary (op, operand)
+
+      (* If the current token is not an operator, it must be a primary expr. *)
+      | [< stream >] -> parse_primary stream
+
+The grammar we add is pretty straightforward here. If we see a unary
+operator when parsing a primary operator, we eat the operator as a
+prefix and parse the remaining piece as another unary operator. This
+allows us to handle multiple unary operators (e.g. "!!x"). Note that
+unary operators can't have ambiguous parses like binary operators can,
+so there is no need for precedence information.
+
+The problem with this function, is that we need to call ParseUnary from
+somewhere. To do this, we change previous callers of ParsePrimary to
+call ``parse_unary`` instead:
+
+.. code-block:: ocaml
+
+    (* binoprhs
+     *   ::= ('+' primary)* *)
+    and parse_bin_rhs expr_prec lhs stream =
+            ...
+            (* Parse the unary expression after the binary operator. *)
+            let rhs = parse_unary stream in
+            ...
+
+    ...
+
+    (* expression
+     *   ::= primary binoprhs *)
+    and parse_expr = parser
+      | [< lhs=parse_unary; stream >] -> parse_bin_rhs 0 lhs stream
+
+With these two simple changes, we are now able to parse unary operators
+and build the AST for them. Next up, we need to add parser support for
+prototypes, to parse the unary operator prototype. We extend the binary
+operator code above with:
+
+.. code-block:: ocaml
+
+    (* prototype
+     *   ::= id '(' id* ')'
+     *   ::= binary LETTER number? (id, id)
+     *   ::= unary LETTER number? (id) *)
+    let parse_prototype =
+      let rec parse_args accumulator = parser
+        | [< 'Token.Ident id; e=parse_args (id::accumulator) >] -> e
+        | [< >] -> accumulator
+      in
+      let parse_operator = parser
+        | [< 'Token.Unary >] -> "unary", 1
+        | [< 'Token.Binary >] -> "binary", 2
+      in
+      let parse_binary_precedence = parser
+        | [< 'Token.Number n >] -> int_of_float n
+        | [< >] -> 30
+      in
+      parser
+      | [< 'Token.Ident id;
+           'Token.Kwd '(' ?? "expected '(' in prototype";
+           args=parse_args [];
+           'Token.Kwd ')' ?? "expected ')' in prototype" >] ->
+          (* success. *)
+          Ast.Prototype (id, Array.of_list (List.rev args))
+      | [< (prefix, kind)=parse_operator;
+           'Token.Kwd op ?? "expected an operator";
+           (* Read the precedence if present. *)
+           binary_precedence=parse_binary_precedence;
+           'Token.Kwd '(' ?? "expected '(' in prototype";
+            args=parse_args [];
+           'Token.Kwd ')' ?? "expected ')' in prototype" >] ->
+          let name = prefix ^ (String.make 1 op) in
+          let args = Array.of_list (List.rev args) in
+
+          (* Verify right number of arguments for operator. *)
+          if Array.length args != kind
+          then raise (Stream.Error "invalid number of operands for operator")
+          else
+            if kind == 1 then
+              Ast.Prototype (name, args)
+            else
+              Ast.BinOpPrototype (name, args, binary_precedence)
+      | [< >] ->
+          raise (Stream.Error "expected function name in prototype")
+
+As with binary operators, we name unary operators with a name that
+includes the operator character. This assists us at code generation
+time. Speaking of, the final piece we need to add is codegen support for
+unary operators. It looks like this:
+
+.. code-block:: ocaml
+
+    let rec codegen_expr = function
+      ...
+      | Ast.Unary (op, operand) ->
+          let operand = codegen_expr operand in
+          let callee = "unary" ^ (String.make 1 op) in
+          let callee =
+            match lookup_function callee the_module with
+            | Some callee -> callee
+            | None -> raise (Error "unknown unary operator")
+          in
+          build_call callee [|operand|] "unop" builder
+
+This code is similar to, but simpler than, the code for binary
+operators. It is simpler primarily because it doesn't need to handle any
+predefined operators.
+
+Kicking the Tires
+=================
+
+It is somewhat hard to believe, but with a few simple extensions we've
+covered in the last chapters, we have grown a real-ish language. With
+this, we can do a lot of interesting things, including I/O, math, and a
+bunch of other things. For example, we can now add a nice sequencing
+operator (printd is defined to print out the specified value and a
+newline):
+
+::
+
+    ready> extern printd(x);
+    Read extern: declare double @printd(double)
+    ready> def binary : 1 (x y) 0;  # Low-precedence operator that ignores operands.
+    ..
+    ready> printd(123) : printd(456) : printd(789);
+    123.000000
+    456.000000
+    789.000000
+    Evaluated to 0.000000
+
+We can also define a bunch of other "primitive" operations, such as:
+
+::
+
+    # Logical unary not.
+    def unary!(v)
+      if v then
+        0
+      else
+        1;
+
+    # Unary negate.
+    def unary-(v)
+      0-v;
+
+    # Define > with the same precedence as <.
+    def binary> 10 (LHS RHS)
+      RHS < LHS;
+
+    # Binary logical or, which does not short circuit.
+    def binary| 5 (LHS RHS)
+      if LHS then
+        1
+      else if RHS then
+        1
+      else
+        0;
+
+    # Binary logical and, which does not short circuit.
+    def binary& 6 (LHS RHS)
+      if !LHS then
+        0
+      else
+        !!RHS;
+
+    # Define = with slightly lower precedence than relationals.
+    def binary = 9 (LHS RHS)
+      !(LHS < RHS | LHS > RHS);
+
+Given the previous if/then/else support, we can also define interesting
+functions for I/O. For example, the following prints out a character
+whose "density" reflects the value passed in: the lower the value, the
+denser the character:
+
+::
+
+    ready>
+
+    extern putchard(char)
+    def printdensity(d)
+      if d > 8 then
+        putchard(32)  # ' '
+      else if d > 4 then
+        putchard(46)  # '.'
+      else if d > 2 then
+        putchard(43)  # '+'
+      else
+        putchard(42); # '*'
+    ...
+    ready> printdensity(1): printdensity(2): printdensity(3) :
+              printdensity(4): printdensity(5): printdensity(9): putchard(10);
+    *++..
+    Evaluated to 0.000000
+
+Based on these simple primitive operations, we can start to define more
+interesting things. For example, here's a little function that solves
+for the number of iterations it takes a function in the complex plane to
+converge:
+
+::
+
+    # determine whether the specific location diverges.
+    # Solve for z = z^2 + c in the complex plane.
+    def mandleconverger(real imag iters creal cimag)
+      if iters > 255 | (real*real + imag*imag > 4) then
+        iters
+      else
+        mandleconverger(real*real - imag*imag + creal,
+                        2*real*imag + cimag,
+                        iters+1, creal, cimag);
+
+    # return the number of iterations required for the iteration to escape
+    def mandleconverge(real imag)
+      mandleconverger(real, imag, 0, real, imag);
+
+This "z = z\ :sup:`2`\  + c" function is a beautiful little creature
+that is the basis for computation of the `Mandelbrot
+Set <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mandelbrot_set>`_. Our
+``mandelconverge`` function returns the number of iterations that it
+takes for a complex orbit to escape, saturating to 255. This is not a
+very useful function by itself, but if you plot its value over a
+two-dimensional plane, you can see the Mandelbrot set. Given that we are
+limited to using putchard here, our amazing graphical output is limited,
+but we can whip together something using the density plotter above:
+
+::
+
+    # compute and plot the mandlebrot set with the specified 2 dimensional range
+    # info.
+    def mandelhelp(xmin xmax xstep   ymin ymax ystep)
+      for y = ymin, y < ymax, ystep in (
+        (for x = xmin, x < xmax, xstep in
+           printdensity(mandleconverge(x,y)))
+        : putchard(10)
+      )
+
+    # mandel - This is a convenient helper function for plotting the mandelbrot set
+    # from the specified position with the specified Magnification.
+    def mandel(realstart imagstart realmag imagmag)
+      mandelhelp(realstart, realstart+realmag*78, realmag,
+                 imagstart, imagstart+imagmag*40, imagmag);
+
+Given this, we can try plotting out the mandlebrot set! Lets try it out:
+
+::
+
+    ready> mandel(-2.3, -1.3, 0.05, 0.07);
+    *******************************+++++++++++*************************************
+    *************************+++++++++++++++++++++++*******************************
+    **********************+++++++++++++++++++++++++++++****************************
+    *******************+++++++++++++++++++++.. ...++++++++*************************
+    *****************++++++++++++++++++++++.... ...+++++++++***********************
+    ***************+++++++++++++++++++++++.....   ...+++++++++*********************
+    **************+++++++++++++++++++++++....     ....+++++++++********************
+    *************++++++++++++++++++++++......      .....++++++++*******************
+    ************+++++++++++++++++++++.......       .......+++++++******************
+    ***********+++++++++++++++++++....                ... .+++++++*****************
+    **********+++++++++++++++++.......                     .+++++++****************
+    *********++++++++++++++...........                    ...+++++++***************
+    ********++++++++++++............                      ...++++++++**************
+    ********++++++++++... ..........                        .++++++++**************
+    *******+++++++++.....                                   .+++++++++*************
+    *******++++++++......                                  ..+++++++++*************
+    *******++++++.......                                   ..+++++++++*************
+    *******+++++......                                     ..+++++++++*************
+    *******.... ....                                      ...+++++++++*************
+    *******.... .                                         ...+++++++++*************
+    *******+++++......                                    ...+++++++++*************
+    *******++++++.......                                   ..+++++++++*************
+    *******++++++++......                                   .+++++++++*************
+    *******+++++++++.....                                  ..+++++++++*************
+    ********++++++++++... ..........                        .++++++++**************
+    ********++++++++++++............                      ...++++++++**************
+    *********++++++++++++++..........                     ...+++++++***************
+    **********++++++++++++++++........                     .+++++++****************
+    **********++++++++++++++++++++....                ... ..+++++++****************
+    ***********++++++++++++++++++++++.......       .......++++++++*****************
+    ************+++++++++++++++++++++++......      ......++++++++******************
+    **************+++++++++++++++++++++++....      ....++++++++********************
+    ***************+++++++++++++++++++++++.....   ...+++++++++*********************
+    *****************++++++++++++++++++++++....  ...++++++++***********************
+    *******************+++++++++++++++++++++......++++++++*************************
+    *********************++++++++++++++++++++++.++++++++***************************
+    *************************+++++++++++++++++++++++*******************************
+    ******************************+++++++++++++************************************
+    *******************************************************************************
+    *******************************************************************************
+    *******************************************************************************
+    Evaluated to 0.000000
+    ready> mandel(-2, -1, 0.02, 0.04);
+    **************************+++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++
+    ***********************++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++
+    *********************+++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++.
+    *******************+++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++...
+    *****************+++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++.....
+    ***************++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++........
+    **************++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++...........
+    ************+++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++..............
+    ***********++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++........        .
+    **********++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++.............
+    ********+++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++..................
+    *******+++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++.......................
+    ******+++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++...........................
+    *****++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++............................
+    *****++++++++++++++++++++++++++++...............................
+    ****++++++++++++++++++++++++++......   .........................
+    ***++++++++++++++++++++++++.........     ......    ...........
+    ***++++++++++++++++++++++............
+    **+++++++++++++++++++++..............
+    **+++++++++++++++++++................
+    *++++++++++++++++++.................
+    *++++++++++++++++............ ...
+    *++++++++++++++..............
+    *+++....++++................
+    *..........  ...........
+    *
+    *..........  ...........
+    *+++....++++................
+    *++++++++++++++..............
+    *++++++++++++++++............ ...
+    *++++++++++++++++++.................
+    **+++++++++++++++++++................
+    **+++++++++++++++++++++..............
+    ***++++++++++++++++++++++............
+    ***++++++++++++++++++++++++.........     ......    ...........
+    ****++++++++++++++++++++++++++......   .........................
+    *****++++++++++++++++++++++++++++...............................
+    *****++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++............................
+    ******+++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++...........................
+    *******+++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++.......................
+    ********+++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++..................
+    Evaluated to 0.000000
+    ready> mandel(-0.9, -1.4, 0.02, 0.03);
+    *******************************************************************************
+    *******************************************************************************
+    *******************************************************************************
+    **********+++++++++++++++++++++************************************************
+    *+++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++***************************************
+    +++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++**********************************
+    ++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++*****************************
+    ++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++*************************
+    +++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++**********************
+    +++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++.........++++++++++++++++++*******************
+    +++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++....   ......+++++++++++++++++++****************
+    +++++++++++++++++++++++++++++.......  ........+++++++++++++++++++**************
+    ++++++++++++++++++++++++++++........   ........++++++++++++++++++++************
+    +++++++++++++++++++++++++++.........     ..  ...+++++++++++++++++++++**********
+    ++++++++++++++++++++++++++...........        ....++++++++++++++++++++++********
+    ++++++++++++++++++++++++.............       .......++++++++++++++++++++++******
+    +++++++++++++++++++++++.............        ........+++++++++++++++++++++++****
+    ++++++++++++++++++++++...........           ..........++++++++++++++++++++++***
+    ++++++++++++++++++++...........                .........++++++++++++++++++++++*
+    ++++++++++++++++++............                  ...........++++++++++++++++++++
+    ++++++++++++++++...............                 .............++++++++++++++++++
+    ++++++++++++++.................                 ...............++++++++++++++++
+    ++++++++++++..................                  .................++++++++++++++
+    +++++++++..................                      .................+++++++++++++
+    ++++++........        .                               .........  ..++++++++++++
+    ++............                                         ......    ....++++++++++
+    ..............                                                    ...++++++++++
+    ..............                                                    ....+++++++++
+    ..............                                                    .....++++++++
+    .............                                                    ......++++++++
+    ...........                                                     .......++++++++
+    .........                                                       ........+++++++
+    .........                                                       ........+++++++
+    .........                                                           ....+++++++
+    ........                                                             ...+++++++
+    .......                                                              ...+++++++
+                                                                        ....+++++++
+                                                                       .....+++++++
+                                                                        ....+++++++
+                                                                        ....+++++++
+                                                                        ....+++++++
+    Evaluated to 0.000000
+    ready> ^D
+
+At this point, you may be starting to realize that Kaleidoscope is a
+real and powerful language. It may not be self-similar :), but it can be
+used to plot things that are!
+
+With this, we conclude the "adding user-defined operators" chapter of
+the tutorial. We have successfully augmented our language, adding the
+ability to extend the language in the library, and we have shown how
+this can be used to build a simple but interesting end-user application
+in Kaleidoscope. At this point, Kaleidoscope can build a variety of
+applications that are functional and can call functions with
+side-effects, but it can't actually define and mutate a variable itself.
+
+Strikingly, variable mutation is an important feature of some languages,
+and it is not at all obvious how to `add support for mutable
+variables <OCamlLangImpl7.html>`_ without having to add an "SSA
+construction" phase to your front-end. In the next chapter, we will
+describe how you can add variable mutation without building SSA in your
+front-end.
+
+Full Code Listing
+=================
+
+Here is the complete code listing for our running example, enhanced with
+the if/then/else and for expressions.. To build this example, use:
+
+.. code-block:: bash
+
+    # Compile
+    ocamlbuild toy.byte
+    # Run
+    ./toy.byte
+
+Here is the code:
+
+\_tags:
+    ::
+
+        <{lexer,parser}.ml>: use_camlp4, pp(camlp4of)
+        <*.{byte,native}>: g++, use_llvm, use_llvm_analysis
+        <*.{byte,native}>: use_llvm_executionengine, use_llvm_target
+        <*.{byte,native}>: use_llvm_scalar_opts, use_bindings
+
+myocamlbuild.ml:
+    .. code-block:: ocaml
+
+        open Ocamlbuild_plugin;;
+
+        ocaml_lib ~extern:true "llvm";;
+        ocaml_lib ~extern:true "llvm_analysis";;
+        ocaml_lib ~extern:true "llvm_executionengine";;
+        ocaml_lib ~extern:true "llvm_target";;
+        ocaml_lib ~extern:true "llvm_scalar_opts";;
+
+        flag ["link"; "ocaml"; "g++"] (S[A"-cc"; A"g++"; A"-cclib"; A"-rdynamic"]);;
+        dep ["link"; "ocaml"; "use_bindings"] ["bindings.o"];;
+
+token.ml:
+    .. code-block:: ocaml
+
+        (*===----------------------------------------------------------------------===
+         * Lexer Tokens
+         *===----------------------------------------------------------------------===*)
+
+        (* The lexer returns these 'Kwd' if it is an unknown character, otherwise one of
+         * these others for known things. *)
+        type token =
+          (* commands *)
+          | Def | Extern
+
+          (* primary *)
+          | Ident of string | Number of float
+
+          (* unknown *)
+          | Kwd of char
+
+          (* control *)
+          | If | Then | Else
+          | For | In
+
+          (* operators *)
+          | Binary | Unary
+
+lexer.ml:
+    .. code-block:: ocaml
+
+        (*===----------------------------------------------------------------------===
+         * Lexer
+         *===----------------------------------------------------------------------===*)
+
+        let rec lex = parser
+          (* Skip any whitespace. *)
+          | [< ' (' ' | '\n' | '\r' | '\t'); stream >] -> lex stream
+
+          (* identifier: [a-zA-Z][a-zA-Z0-9] *)
+          | [< ' ('A' .. 'Z' | 'a' .. 'z' as c); stream >] ->
+              let buffer = Buffer.create 1 in
+              Buffer.add_char buffer c;
+              lex_ident buffer stream
+
+          (* number: [0-9.]+ *)
+          | [< ' ('0' .. '9' as c); stream >] ->
+              let buffer = Buffer.create 1 in
+              Buffer.add_char buffer c;
+              lex_number buffer stream
+
+          (* Comment until end of line. *)
+          | [< ' ('#'); stream >] ->
+              lex_comment stream
+
+          (* Otherwise, just return the character as its ascii value. *)
+          | [< 'c; stream >] ->
+              [< 'Token.Kwd c; lex stream >]
+
+          (* end of stream. *)
+          | [< >] -> [< >]
+
+        and lex_number buffer = parser
+          | [< ' ('0' .. '9' | '.' as c); stream >] ->
+              Buffer.add_char buffer c;
+              lex_number buffer stream
+          | [< stream=lex >] ->
+              [< 'Token.Number (float_of_string (Buffer.contents buffer)); stream >]
+
+        and lex_ident buffer = parser
+          | [< ' ('A' .. 'Z' | 'a' .. 'z' | '0' .. '9' as c); stream >] ->
+              Buffer.add_char buffer c;
+              lex_ident buffer stream
+          | [< stream=lex >] ->
+              match Buffer.contents buffer with
+              | "def" -> [< 'Token.Def; stream >]
+              | "extern" -> [< 'Token.Extern; stream >]
+              | "if" -> [< 'Token.If; stream >]
+              | "then" -> [< 'Token.Then; stream >]
+              | "else" -> [< 'Token.Else; stream >]
+              | "for" -> [< 'Token.For; stream >]
+              | "in" -> [< 'Token.In; stream >]
+              | "binary" -> [< 'Token.Binary; stream >]
+              | "unary" -> [< 'Token.Unary; stream >]
+              | id -> [< 'Token.Ident id; stream >]
+
+        and lex_comment = parser
+          | [< ' ('\n'); stream=lex >] -> stream
+          | [< 'c; e=lex_comment >] -> e
+          | [< >] -> [< >]
+
+ast.ml:
+    .. code-block:: ocaml
+
+        (*===----------------------------------------------------------------------===
+         * Abstract Syntax Tree (aka Parse Tree)
+         *===----------------------------------------------------------------------===*)
+
+        (* expr - Base type for all expression nodes. *)
+        type expr =
+          (* variant for numeric literals like "1.0". *)
+          | Number of float
+
+          (* variant for referencing a variable, like "a". *)
+          | Variable of string
+
+          (* variant for a unary operator. *)
+          | Unary of char * expr
+
+          (* variant for a binary operator. *)
+          | Binary of char * expr * expr
+
+          (* variant for function calls. *)
+          | Call of string * expr array
+
+          (* variant for if/then/else. *)
+          | If of expr * expr * expr
+
+          (* variant for for/in. *)
+          | For of string * expr * expr * expr option * expr
+
+        (* proto - This type represents the "prototype" for a function, which captures
+         * its name, and its argument names (thus implicitly the number of arguments the
+         * function takes). *)
+        type proto =
+          | Prototype of string * string array
+          | BinOpPrototype of string * string array * int
+
+        (* func - This type represents a function definition itself. *)
+        type func = Function of proto * expr
+
+parser.ml:
+    .. code-block:: ocaml
+
+        (*===---------------------------------------------------------------------===
+         * Parser
+         *===---------------------------------------------------------------------===*)
+
+        (* binop_precedence - This holds the precedence for each binary operator that is
+         * defined *)
+        let binop_precedence:(char, int) Hashtbl.t = Hashtbl.create 10
+
+        (* precedence - Get the precedence of the pending binary operator token. *)
+        let precedence c = try Hashtbl.find binop_precedence c with Not_found -> -1
+
+        (* primary
+         *   ::= identifier
+         *   ::= numberexpr
+         *   ::= parenexpr
+         *   ::= ifexpr
+         *   ::= forexpr *)
+        let rec parse_primary = parser
+          (* numberexpr ::= number *)
+          | [< 'Token.Number n >] -> Ast.Number n
+
+          (* parenexpr ::= '(' expression ')' *)
+          | [< 'Token.Kwd '('; e=parse_expr; 'Token.Kwd ')' ?? "expected ')'" >] -> e
+
+          (* identifierexpr
+           *   ::= identifier
+           *   ::= identifier '(' argumentexpr ')' *)
+          | [< 'Token.Ident id; stream >] ->
+              let rec parse_args accumulator = parser
+                | [< e=parse_expr; stream >] ->
+                    begin parser
+                      | [< 'Token.Kwd ','; e=parse_args (e :: accumulator) >] -> e
+                      | [< >] -> e :: accumulator
+                    end stream
+                | [< >] -> accumulator
+              in
+              let rec parse_ident id = parser
+                (* Call. *)
+                | [< 'Token.Kwd '(';
+                     args=parse_args [];
+                     'Token.Kwd ')' ?? "expected ')'">] ->
+                    Ast.Call (id, Array.of_list (List.rev args))
+
+                (* Simple variable ref. *)
+                | [< >] -> Ast.Variable id
+              in
+              parse_ident id stream
+
+          (* ifexpr ::= 'if' expr 'then' expr 'else' expr *)
+          | [< 'Token.If; c=parse_expr;
+               'Token.Then ?? "expected 'then'"; t=parse_expr;
+               'Token.Else ?? "expected 'else'"; e=parse_expr >] ->
+              Ast.If (c, t, e)
+
+          (* forexpr
+                ::= 'for' identifier '=' expr ',' expr (',' expr)? 'in' expression *)
+          | [< 'Token.For;
+               'Token.Ident id ?? "expected identifier after for";
+               'Token.Kwd '=' ?? "expected '=' after for";
+               stream >] ->
+              begin parser
+                | [<
+                     start=parse_expr;
+                     'Token.Kwd ',' ?? "expected ',' after for";
+                     end_=parse_expr;
+                     stream >] ->
+                    let step =
+                      begin parser
+                      | [< 'Token.Kwd ','; step=parse_expr >] -> Some step
+                      | [< >] -> None
+                      end stream
+                    in
+                    begin parser
+                    | [< 'Token.In; body=parse_expr >] ->
+                        Ast.For (id, start, end_, step, body)
+                    | [< >] ->
+                        raise (Stream.Error "expected 'in' after for")
+                    end stream
+                | [< >] ->
+                    raise (Stream.Error "expected '=' after for")
+              end stream
+
+          | [< >] -> raise (Stream.Error "unknown token when expecting an expression.")
+
+        (* unary
+         *   ::= primary
+         *   ::= '!' unary *)
+        and parse_unary = parser
+          (* If this is a unary operator, read it. *)
+          | [< 'Token.Kwd op when op != '(' && op != ')'; operand=parse_expr >] ->
+              Ast.Unary (op, operand)
+
+          (* If the current token is not an operator, it must be a primary expr. *)
+          | [< stream >] -> parse_primary stream
+
+        (* binoprhs
+         *   ::= ('+' primary)* *)
+        and parse_bin_rhs expr_prec lhs stream =
+          match Stream.peek stream with
+          (* If this is a binop, find its precedence. *)
+          | Some (Token.Kwd c) when Hashtbl.mem binop_precedence c ->
+              let token_prec = precedence c in
+
+              (* If this is a binop that binds at least as tightly as the current binop,
+               * consume it, otherwise we are done. *)
+              if token_prec < expr_prec then lhs else begin
+                (* Eat the binop. *)
+                Stream.junk stream;
+
+                (* Parse the unary expression after the binary operator. *)
+                let rhs = parse_unary stream in
+
+                (* Okay, we know this is a binop. *)
+                let rhs =
+                  match Stream.peek stream with
+                  | Some (Token.Kwd c2) ->
+                      (* If BinOp binds less tightly with rhs than the operator after
+                       * rhs, let the pending operator take rhs as its lhs. *)
+                      let next_prec = precedence c2 in
+                      if token_prec < next_prec
+                      then parse_bin_rhs (token_prec + 1) rhs stream
+                      else rhs
+                  | _ -> rhs
+                in
+
+                (* Merge lhs/rhs. *)
+                let lhs = Ast.Binary (c, lhs, rhs) in
+                parse_bin_rhs expr_prec lhs stream
+              end
+          | _ -> lhs
+
+        (* expression
+         *   ::= primary binoprhs *)
+        and parse_expr = parser
+          | [< lhs=parse_unary; stream >] -> parse_bin_rhs 0 lhs stream
+
+        (* prototype
+         *   ::= id '(' id* ')'
+         *   ::= binary LETTER number? (id, id)
+         *   ::= unary LETTER number? (id) *)
+        let parse_prototype =
+          let rec parse_args accumulator = parser
+            | [< 'Token.Ident id; e=parse_args (id::accumulator) >] -> e
+            | [< >] -> accumulator
+          in
+          let parse_operator = parser
+            | [< 'Token.Unary >] -> "unary", 1
+            | [< 'Token.Binary >] -> "binary", 2
+          in
+          let parse_binary_precedence = parser
+            | [< 'Token.Number n >] -> int_of_float n
+            | [< >] -> 30
+          in
+          parser
+          | [< 'Token.Ident id;
+               'Token.Kwd '(' ?? "expected '(' in prototype";
+               args=parse_args [];
+               'Token.Kwd ')' ?? "expected ')' in prototype" >] ->
+              (* success. *)
+              Ast.Prototype (id, Array.of_list (List.rev args))
+          | [< (prefix, kind)=parse_operator;
+               'Token.Kwd op ?? "expected an operator";
+               (* Read the precedence if present. *)
+               binary_precedence=parse_binary_precedence;
+               'Token.Kwd '(' ?? "expected '(' in prototype";
+                args=parse_args [];
+               'Token.Kwd ')' ?? "expected ')' in prototype" >] ->
+              let name = prefix ^ (String.make 1 op) in
+              let args = Array.of_list (List.rev args) in
+
+              (* Verify right number of arguments for operator. *)
+              if Array.length args != kind
+              then raise (Stream.Error "invalid number of operands for operator")
+              else
+                if kind == 1 then
+                  Ast.Prototype (name, args)
+                else
+                  Ast.BinOpPrototype (name, args, binary_precedence)
+          | [< >] ->
+              raise (Stream.Error "expected function name in prototype")
+
+        (* definition ::= 'def' prototype expression *)
+        let parse_definition = parser
+          | [< 'Token.Def; p=parse_prototype; e=parse_expr >] ->
+              Ast.Function (p, e)
+
+        (* toplevelexpr ::= expression *)
+        let parse_toplevel = parser
+          | [< e=parse_expr >] ->
+              (* Make an anonymous proto. *)
+              Ast.Function (Ast.Prototype ("", [||]), e)
+
+        (*  external ::= 'extern' prototype *)
+        let parse_extern = parser
+          | [< 'Token.Extern; e=parse_prototype >] -> e
+
+codegen.ml:
+    .. code-block:: ocaml
+
+        (*===----------------------------------------------------------------------===
+         * Code Generation
+         *===----------------------------------------------------------------------===*)
+
+        open Llvm
+
+        exception Error of string
+
+        let context = global_context ()
+        let the_module = create_module context "my cool jit"
+        let builder = builder context
+        let named_values:(string, llvalue) Hashtbl.t = Hashtbl.create 10
+        let double_type = double_type context
+
+        let rec codegen_expr = function
+          | Ast.Number n -> const_float double_type n
+          | Ast.Variable name ->
+              (try Hashtbl.find named_values name with
+                | Not_found -> raise (Error "unknown variable name"))
+          | Ast.Unary (op, operand) ->
+              let operand = codegen_expr operand in
+              let callee = "unary" ^ (String.make 1 op) in
+              let callee =
+                match lookup_function callee the_module with
+                | Some callee -> callee
+                | None -> raise (Error "unknown unary operator")
+              in
+              build_call callee [|operand|] "unop" builder
+          | Ast.Binary (op, lhs, rhs) ->
+              let lhs_val = codegen_expr lhs in
+              let rhs_val = codegen_expr rhs in
+              begin
+                match op with
+                | '+' -> build_add lhs_val rhs_val "addtmp" builder
+                | '-' -> build_sub lhs_val rhs_val "subtmp" builder
+                | '*' -> build_mul lhs_val rhs_val "multmp" builder
+                | '<' ->
+                    (* Convert bool 0/1 to double 0.0 or 1.0 *)
+                    let i = build_fcmp Fcmp.Ult lhs_val rhs_val "cmptmp" builder in
+                    build_uitofp i double_type "booltmp" builder
+                | _ ->
+                    (* If it wasn't a builtin binary operator, it must be a user defined
+                     * one. Emit a call to it. *)
+                    let callee = "binary" ^ (String.make 1 op) in
+                    let callee =
+                      match lookup_function callee the_module with
+                      | Some callee -> callee
+                      | None -> raise (Error "binary operator not found!")
+                    in
+                    build_call callee [|lhs_val; rhs_val|] "binop" builder
+              end
+          | Ast.Call (callee, args) ->
+              (* Look up the name in the module table. *)
+              let callee =
+                match lookup_function callee the_module with
+                | Some callee -> callee
+                | None -> raise (Error "unknown function referenced")
+              in
+              let params = params callee in
+
+              (* If argument mismatch error. *)
+              if Array.length params == Array.length args then () else
+                raise (Error "incorrect # arguments passed");
+              let args = Array.map codegen_expr args in
+              build_call callee args "calltmp" builder
+          | Ast.If (cond, then_, else_) ->
+              let cond = codegen_expr cond in
+
+              (* Convert condition to a bool by comparing equal to 0.0 *)
+              let zero = const_float double_type 0.0 in
+              let cond_val = build_fcmp Fcmp.One cond zero "ifcond" builder in
+
+              (* Grab the first block so that we might later add the conditional branch
+               * to it at the end of the function. *)
+              let start_bb = insertion_block builder in
+              let the_function = block_parent start_bb in
+
+              let then_bb = append_block context "then" the_function in
+
+              (* Emit 'then' value. *)
+              position_at_end then_bb builder;
+              let then_val = codegen_expr then_ in
+
+              (* Codegen of 'then' can change the current block, update then_bb for the
+               * phi. We create a new name because one is used for the phi node, and the
+               * other is used for the conditional branch. *)
+              let new_then_bb = insertion_block builder in
+
+              (* Emit 'else' value. *)
+              let else_bb = append_block context "else" the_function in
+              position_at_end else_bb builder;
+              let else_val = codegen_expr else_ in
+
+              (* Codegen of 'else' can change the current block, update else_bb for the
+               * phi. *)
+              let new_else_bb = insertion_block builder in
+
+              (* Emit merge block. *)
+              let merge_bb = append_block context "ifcont" the_function in
+              position_at_end merge_bb builder;
+              let incoming = [(then_val, new_then_bb); (else_val, new_else_bb)] in
+              let phi = build_phi incoming "iftmp" builder in
+
+              (* Return to the start block to add the conditional branch. *)
+              position_at_end start_bb builder;
+              ignore (build_cond_br cond_val then_bb else_bb builder);
+
+              (* Set a unconditional branch at the end of the 'then' block and the
+               * 'else' block to the 'merge' block. *)
+              position_at_end new_then_bb builder; ignore (build_br merge_bb builder);
+              position_at_end new_else_bb builder; ignore (build_br merge_bb builder);
+
+              (* Finally, set the builder to the end of the merge block. *)
+              position_at_end merge_bb builder;
+
+              phi
+          | Ast.For (var_name, start, end_, step, body) ->
+              (* Emit the start code first, without 'variable' in scope. *)
+              let start_val = codegen_expr start in
+
+              (* Make the new basic block for the loop header, inserting after current
+               * block. *)
+              let preheader_bb = insertion_block builder in
+              let the_function = block_parent preheader_bb in
+              let loop_bb = append_block context "loop" the_function in
+
+              (* Insert an explicit fall through from the current block to the
+               * loop_bb. *)
+              ignore (build_br loop_bb builder);
+
+              (* Start insertion in loop_bb. *)
+              position_at_end loop_bb builder;
+
+              (* Start the PHI node with an entry for start. *)
+              let variable = build_phi [(start_val, preheader_bb)] var_name builder in
+
+              (* Within the loop, the variable is defined equal to the PHI node. If it
+               * shadows an existing variable, we have to restore it, so save it
+               * now. *)
+              let old_val =
+                try Some (Hashtbl.find named_values var_name) with Not_found -> None
+              in
+              Hashtbl.add named_values var_name variable;
+
+              (* Emit the body of the loop.  This, like any other expr, can change the
+               * current BB.  Note that we ignore the value computed by the body, but
+               * don't allow an error *)
+              ignore (codegen_expr body);
+
+              (* Emit the step value. *)
+              let step_val =
+                match step with
+                | Some step -> codegen_expr step
+                (* If not specified, use 1.0. *)
+                | None -> const_float double_type 1.0
+              in
+
+              let next_var = build_add variable step_val "nextvar" builder in
+
+              (* Compute the end condition. *)
+              let end_cond = codegen_expr end_ in
+
+              (* Convert condition to a bool by comparing equal to 0.0. *)
+              let zero = const_float double_type 0.0 in
+              let end_cond = build_fcmp Fcmp.One end_cond zero "loopcond" builder in
+
+              (* Create the "after loop" block and insert it. *)
+              let loop_end_bb = insertion_block builder in
+              let after_bb = append_block context "afterloop" the_function in
+
+              (* Insert the conditional branch into the end of loop_end_bb. *)
+              ignore (build_cond_br end_cond loop_bb after_bb builder);
+
+              (* Any new code will be inserted in after_bb. *)
+              position_at_end after_bb builder;
+
+              (* Add a new entry to the PHI node for the backedge. *)
+              add_incoming (next_var, loop_end_bb) variable;
+
+              (* Restore the unshadowed variable. *)
+              begin match old_val with
+              | Some old_val -> Hashtbl.add named_values var_name old_val
+              | None -> ()
+              end;
+
+              (* for expr always returns 0.0. *)
+              const_null double_type
+
+        let codegen_proto = function
+          | Ast.Prototype (name, args) | Ast.BinOpPrototype (name, args, _) ->
+              (* Make the function type: double(double,double) etc. *)
+              let doubles = Array.make (Array.length args) double_type in
+              let ft = function_type double_type doubles in
+              let f =
+                match lookup_function name the_module with
+                | None -> declare_function name ft the_module
+
+                (* If 'f' conflicted, there was already something named 'name'. If it
+                 * has a body, don't allow redefinition or reextern. *)
+                | Some f ->
+                    (* If 'f' already has a body, reject this. *)
+                    if block_begin f <> At_end f then
+                      raise (Error "redefinition of function");
+
+                    (* If 'f' took a different number of arguments, reject. *)
+                    if element_type (type_of f) <> ft then
+                      raise (Error "redefinition of function with different # args");
+                    f
+              in
+
+              (* Set names for all arguments. *)
+              Array.iteri (fun i a ->
+                let n = args.(i) in
+                set_value_name n a;
+                Hashtbl.add named_values n a;
+              ) (params f);
+              f
+
+        let codegen_func the_fpm = function
+          | Ast.Function (proto, body) ->
+              Hashtbl.clear named_values;
+              let the_function = codegen_proto proto in
+
+              (* If this is an operator, install it. *)
+              begin match proto with
+              | Ast.BinOpPrototype (name, args, prec) ->
+                  let op = name.[String.length name - 1] in
+                  Hashtbl.add Parser.binop_precedence op prec;
+              | _ -> ()
+              end;
+
+              (* Create a new basic block to start insertion into. *)
+              let bb = append_block context "entry" the_function in
+              position_at_end bb builder;
+
+              try
+                let ret_val = codegen_expr body in
+
+                (* Finish off the function. *)
+                let _ = build_ret ret_val builder in
+
+                (* Validate the generated code, checking for consistency. *)
+                Llvm_analysis.assert_valid_function the_function;
+
+                (* Optimize the function. *)
+                let _ = PassManager.run_function the_function the_fpm in
+
+                the_function
+              with e ->
+                delete_function the_function;
+                raise e
+
+toplevel.ml:
+    .. code-block:: ocaml
+
+        (*===----------------------------------------------------------------------===
+         * Top-Level parsing and JIT Driver
+         *===----------------------------------------------------------------------===*)
+
+        open Llvm
+        open Llvm_executionengine
+
+        (* top ::= definition | external | expression | ';' *)
+        let rec main_loop the_fpm the_execution_engine stream =
+          match Stream.peek stream with
+          | None -> ()
+
+          (* ignore top-level semicolons. *)
+          | Some (Token.Kwd ';') ->
+              Stream.junk stream;
+              main_loop the_fpm the_execution_engine stream
+
+          | Some token ->
+              begin
+                try match token with
+                | Token.Def ->
+                    let e = Parser.parse_definition stream in
+                    print_endline "parsed a function definition.";
+                    dump_value (Codegen.codegen_func the_fpm e);
+                | Token.Extern ->
+                    let e = Parser.parse_extern stream in
+                    print_endline "parsed an extern.";
+                    dump_value (Codegen.codegen_proto e);
+                | _ ->
+                    (* Evaluate a top-level expression into an anonymous function. *)
+                    let e = Parser.parse_toplevel stream in
+                    print_endline "parsed a top-level expr";
+                    let the_function = Codegen.codegen_func the_fpm e in
+                    dump_value the_function;
+
+                    (* JIT the function, returning a function pointer. *)
+                    let result = ExecutionEngine.run_function the_function [||]
+                      the_execution_engine in
+
+                    print_string "Evaluated to ";
+                    print_float (GenericValue.as_float Codegen.double_type result);
+                    print_newline ();
+                with Stream.Error s | Codegen.Error s ->
+                  (* Skip token for error recovery. *)
+                  Stream.junk stream;
+                  print_endline s;
+              end;
+              print_string "ready> "; flush stdout;
+              main_loop the_fpm the_execution_engine stream
+
+toy.ml:
+    .. code-block:: ocaml
+
+        (*===----------------------------------------------------------------------===
+         * Main driver code.
+         *===----------------------------------------------------------------------===*)
+
+        open Llvm
+        open Llvm_executionengine
+        open Llvm_target
+        open Llvm_scalar_opts
+
+        let main () =
+          ignore (initialize_native_target ());
+
+          (* Install standard binary operators.
+           * 1 is the lowest precedence. *)
+          Hashtbl.add Parser.binop_precedence '<' 10;
+          Hashtbl.add Parser.binop_precedence '+' 20;
+          Hashtbl.add Parser.binop_precedence '-' 20;
+          Hashtbl.add Parser.binop_precedence '*' 40;    (* highest. *)
+
+          (* Prime the first token. *)
+          print_string "ready> "; flush stdout;
+          let stream = Lexer.lex (Stream.of_channel stdin) in
+
+          (* Create the JIT. *)
+          let the_execution_engine = ExecutionEngine.create Codegen.the_module in
+          let the_fpm = PassManager.create_function Codegen.the_module in
+
+          (* Set up the optimizer pipeline.  Start with registering info about how the
+           * target lays out data structures. *)
+          DataLayout.add (ExecutionEngine.target_data the_execution_engine) the_fpm;
+
+          (* Do simple "peephole" optimizations and bit-twiddling optzn. *)
+          add_instruction_combination the_fpm;
+
+          (* reassociate expressions. *)
+          add_reassociation the_fpm;
+
+          (* Eliminate Common SubExpressions. *)
+          add_gvn the_fpm;
+
+          (* Simplify the control flow graph (deleting unreachable blocks, etc). *)
+          add_cfg_simplification the_fpm;
+
+          ignore (PassManager.initialize the_fpm);
+
+          (* Run the main "interpreter loop" now. *)
+          Toplevel.main_loop the_fpm the_execution_engine stream;
+
+          (* Print out all the generated code. *)
+          dump_module Codegen.the_module
+        ;;
+
+        main ()
+
+bindings.c
+    .. code-block:: c
+
+        #include <stdio.h>
+
+        /* putchard - putchar that takes a double and returns 0. */
+        extern double putchard(double X) {
+          putchar((char)X);
+          return 0;
+        }
+
+        /* printd - printf that takes a double prints it as "%f\n", returning 0. */
+        extern double printd(double X) {
+          printf("%f\n", X);
+          return 0;
+        }
+
+`Next: Extending the language: mutable variables / SSA
+construction <OCamlLangImpl7.html>`_
+

Added: www-releases/trunk/3.5.1/docs/_sources/tutorial/OCamlLangImpl7.txt
URL: http://llvm.org/viewvc/llvm-project/www-releases/trunk/3.5.1/docs/_sources/tutorial/OCamlLangImpl7.txt?rev=225843&view=auto
==============================================================================
--- www-releases/trunk/3.5.1/docs/_sources/tutorial/OCamlLangImpl7.txt (added)
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@@ -0,0 +1,1723 @@
+=======================================================
+Kaleidoscope: Extending the Language: Mutable Variables
+=======================================================
+
+.. contents::
+   :local:
+
+Chapter 7 Introduction
+======================
+
+Welcome to Chapter 7 of the "`Implementing a language with
+LLVM <index.html>`_" tutorial. In chapters 1 through 6, we've built a
+very respectable, albeit simple, `functional programming
+language <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Functional_programming>`_. In our
+journey, we learned some parsing techniques, how to build and represent
+an AST, how to build LLVM IR, and how to optimize the resultant code as
+well as JIT compile it.
+
+While Kaleidoscope is interesting as a functional language, the fact
+that it is functional makes it "too easy" to generate LLVM IR for it. In
+particular, a functional language makes it very easy to build LLVM IR
+directly in `SSA
+form <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Static_single_assignment_form>`_.
+Since LLVM requires that the input code be in SSA form, this is a very
+nice property and it is often unclear to newcomers how to generate code
+for an imperative language with mutable variables.
+
+The short (and happy) summary of this chapter is that there is no need
+for your front-end to build SSA form: LLVM provides highly tuned and
+well tested support for this, though the way it works is a bit
+unexpected for some.
+
+Why is this a hard problem?
+===========================
+
+To understand why mutable variables cause complexities in SSA
+construction, consider this extremely simple C example:
+
+.. code-block:: c
+
+    int G, H;
+    int test(_Bool Condition) {
+      int X;
+      if (Condition)
+        X = G;
+      else
+        X = H;
+      return X;
+    }
+
+In this case, we have the variable "X", whose value depends on the path
+executed in the program. Because there are two different possible values
+for X before the return instruction, a PHI node is inserted to merge the
+two values. The LLVM IR that we want for this example looks like this:
+
+.. code-block:: llvm
+
+    @G = weak global i32 0   ; type of @G is i32*
+    @H = weak global i32 0   ; type of @H is i32*
+
+    define i32 @test(i1 %Condition) {
+    entry:
+      br i1 %Condition, label %cond_true, label %cond_false
+
+    cond_true:
+      %X.0 = load i32* @G
+      br label %cond_next
+
+    cond_false:
+      %X.1 = load i32* @H
+      br label %cond_next
+
+    cond_next:
+      %X.2 = phi i32 [ %X.1, %cond_false ], [ %X.0, %cond_true ]
+      ret i32 %X.2
+    }
+
+In this example, the loads from the G and H global variables are
+explicit in the LLVM IR, and they live in the then/else branches of the
+if statement (cond\_true/cond\_false). In order to merge the incoming
+values, the X.2 phi node in the cond\_next block selects the right value
+to use based on where control flow is coming from: if control flow comes
+from the cond\_false block, X.2 gets the value of X.1. Alternatively, if
+control flow comes from cond\_true, it gets the value of X.0. The intent
+of this chapter is not to explain the details of SSA form. For more
+information, see one of the many `online
+references <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Static_single_assignment_form>`_.
+
+The question for this article is "who places the phi nodes when lowering
+assignments to mutable variables?". The issue here is that LLVM
+*requires* that its IR be in SSA form: there is no "non-ssa" mode for
+it. However, SSA construction requires non-trivial algorithms and data
+structures, so it is inconvenient and wasteful for every front-end to
+have to reproduce this logic.
+
+Memory in LLVM
+==============
+
+The 'trick' here is that while LLVM does require all register values to
+be in SSA form, it does not require (or permit) memory objects to be in
+SSA form. In the example above, note that the loads from G and H are
+direct accesses to G and H: they are not renamed or versioned. This
+differs from some other compiler systems, which do try to version memory
+objects. In LLVM, instead of encoding dataflow analysis of memory into
+the LLVM IR, it is handled with `Analysis
+Passes <../WritingAnLLVMPass.html>`_ which are computed on demand.
+
+With this in mind, the high-level idea is that we want to make a stack
+variable (which lives in memory, because it is on the stack) for each
+mutable object in a function. To take advantage of this trick, we need
+to talk about how LLVM represents stack variables.
+
+In LLVM, all memory accesses are explicit with load/store instructions,
+and it is carefully designed not to have (or need) an "address-of"
+operator. Notice how the type of the @G/@H global variables is actually
+"i32\*" even though the variable is defined as "i32". What this means is
+that @G defines *space* for an i32 in the global data area, but its
+*name* actually refers to the address for that space. Stack variables
+work the same way, except that instead of being declared with global
+variable definitions, they are declared with the `LLVM alloca
+instruction <../LangRef.html#i_alloca>`_:
+
+.. code-block:: llvm
+
+    define i32 @example() {
+    entry:
+      %X = alloca i32           ; type of %X is i32*.
+      ...
+      %tmp = load i32* %X       ; load the stack value %X from the stack.
+      %tmp2 = add i32 %tmp, 1   ; increment it
+      store i32 %tmp2, i32* %X  ; store it back
+      ...
+
+This code shows an example of how you can declare and manipulate a stack
+variable in the LLVM IR. Stack memory allocated with the alloca
+instruction is fully general: you can pass the address of the stack slot
+to functions, you can store it in other variables, etc. In our example
+above, we could rewrite the example to use the alloca technique to avoid
+using a PHI node:
+
+.. code-block:: llvm
+
+    @G = weak global i32 0   ; type of @G is i32*
+    @H = weak global i32 0   ; type of @H is i32*
+
+    define i32 @test(i1 %Condition) {
+    entry:
+      %X = alloca i32           ; type of %X is i32*.
+      br i1 %Condition, label %cond_true, label %cond_false
+
+    cond_true:
+      %X.0 = load i32* @G
+            store i32 %X.0, i32* %X   ; Update X
+      br label %cond_next
+
+    cond_false:
+      %X.1 = load i32* @H
+            store i32 %X.1, i32* %X   ; Update X
+      br label %cond_next
+
+    cond_next:
+      %X.2 = load i32* %X       ; Read X
+      ret i32 %X.2
+    }
+
+With this, we have discovered a way to handle arbitrary mutable
+variables without the need to create Phi nodes at all:
+
+#. Each mutable variable becomes a stack allocation.
+#. Each read of the variable becomes a load from the stack.
+#. Each update of the variable becomes a store to the stack.
+#. Taking the address of a variable just uses the stack address
+   directly.
+
+While this solution has solved our immediate problem, it introduced
+another one: we have now apparently introduced a lot of stack traffic
+for very simple and common operations, a major performance problem.
+Fortunately for us, the LLVM optimizer has a highly-tuned optimization
+pass named "mem2reg" that handles this case, promoting allocas like this
+into SSA registers, inserting Phi nodes as appropriate. If you run this
+example through the pass, for example, you'll get:
+
+.. code-block:: bash
+
+    $ llvm-as < example.ll | opt -mem2reg | llvm-dis
+    @G = weak global i32 0
+    @H = weak global i32 0
+
+    define i32 @test(i1 %Condition) {
+    entry:
+      br i1 %Condition, label %cond_true, label %cond_false
+
+    cond_true:
+      %X.0 = load i32* @G
+      br label %cond_next
+
+    cond_false:
+      %X.1 = load i32* @H
+      br label %cond_next
+
+    cond_next:
+      %X.01 = phi i32 [ %X.1, %cond_false ], [ %X.0, %cond_true ]
+      ret i32 %X.01
+    }
+
+The mem2reg pass implements the standard "iterated dominance frontier"
+algorithm for constructing SSA form and has a number of optimizations
+that speed up (very common) degenerate cases. The mem2reg optimization
+pass is the answer to dealing with mutable variables, and we highly
+recommend that you depend on it. Note that mem2reg only works on
+variables in certain circumstances:
+
+#. mem2reg is alloca-driven: it looks for allocas and if it can handle
+   them, it promotes them. It does not apply to global variables or heap
+   allocations.
+#. mem2reg only looks for alloca instructions in the entry block of the
+   function. Being in the entry block guarantees that the alloca is only
+   executed once, which makes analysis simpler.
+#. mem2reg only promotes allocas whose uses are direct loads and stores.
+   If the address of the stack object is passed to a function, or if any
+   funny pointer arithmetic is involved, the alloca will not be
+   promoted.
+#. mem2reg only works on allocas of `first
+   class <../LangRef.html#t_classifications>`_ values (such as pointers,
+   scalars and vectors), and only if the array size of the allocation is
+   1 (or missing in the .ll file). mem2reg is not capable of promoting
+   structs or arrays to registers. Note that the "scalarrepl" pass is
+   more powerful and can promote structs, "unions", and arrays in many
+   cases.
+
+All of these properties are easy to satisfy for most imperative
+languages, and we'll illustrate it below with Kaleidoscope. The final
+question you may be asking is: should I bother with this nonsense for my
+front-end? Wouldn't it be better if I just did SSA construction
+directly, avoiding use of the mem2reg optimization pass? In short, we
+strongly recommend that you use this technique for building SSA form,
+unless there is an extremely good reason not to. Using this technique
+is:
+
+-  Proven and well tested: clang uses this technique
+   for local mutable variables. As such, the most common clients of LLVM
+   are using this to handle a bulk of their variables. You can be sure
+   that bugs are found fast and fixed early.
+-  Extremely Fast: mem2reg has a number of special cases that make it
+   fast in common cases as well as fully general. For example, it has
+   fast-paths for variables that are only used in a single block,
+   variables that only have one assignment point, good heuristics to
+   avoid insertion of unneeded phi nodes, etc.
+-  Needed for debug info generation: `Debug information in
+   LLVM <../SourceLevelDebugging.html>`_ relies on having the address of
+   the variable exposed so that debug info can be attached to it. This
+   technique dovetails very naturally with this style of debug info.
+
+If nothing else, this makes it much easier to get your front-end up and
+running, and is very simple to implement. Lets extend Kaleidoscope with
+mutable variables now!
+
+Mutable Variables in Kaleidoscope
+=================================
+
+Now that we know the sort of problem we want to tackle, lets see what
+this looks like in the context of our little Kaleidoscope language.
+We're going to add two features:
+
+#. The ability to mutate variables with the '=' operator.
+#. The ability to define new variables.
+
+While the first item is really what this is about, we only have
+variables for incoming arguments as well as for induction variables, and
+redefining those only goes so far :). Also, the ability to define new
+variables is a useful thing regardless of whether you will be mutating
+them. Here's a motivating example that shows how we could use these:
+
+::
+
+    # Define ':' for sequencing: as a low-precedence operator that ignores operands
+    # and just returns the RHS.
+    def binary : 1 (x y) y;
+
+    # Recursive fib, we could do this before.
+    def fib(x)
+      if (x < 3) then
+        1
+      else
+        fib(x-1)+fib(x-2);
+
+    # Iterative fib.
+    def fibi(x)
+      var a = 1, b = 1, c in
+      (for i = 3, i < x in
+         c = a + b :
+         a = b :
+         b = c) :
+      b;
+
+    # Call it.
+    fibi(10);
+
+In order to mutate variables, we have to change our existing variables
+to use the "alloca trick". Once we have that, we'll add our new
+operator, then extend Kaleidoscope to support new variable definitions.
+
+Adjusting Existing Variables for Mutation
+=========================================
+
+The symbol table in Kaleidoscope is managed at code generation time by
+the '``named_values``' map. This map currently keeps track of the LLVM
+"Value\*" that holds the double value for the named variable. In order
+to support mutation, we need to change this slightly, so that it
+``named_values`` holds the *memory location* of the variable in
+question. Note that this change is a refactoring: it changes the
+structure of the code, but does not (by itself) change the behavior of
+the compiler. All of these changes are isolated in the Kaleidoscope code
+generator.
+
+At this point in Kaleidoscope's development, it only supports variables
+for two things: incoming arguments to functions and the induction
+variable of 'for' loops. For consistency, we'll allow mutation of these
+variables in addition to other user-defined variables. This means that
+these will both need memory locations.
+
+To start our transformation of Kaleidoscope, we'll change the
+``named_values`` map so that it maps to AllocaInst\* instead of Value\*.
+Once we do this, the C++ compiler will tell us what parts of the code we
+need to update:
+
+**Note:** the ocaml bindings currently model both ``Value*``'s and
+``AllocInst*``'s as ``Llvm.llvalue``'s, but this may change in the future
+to be more type safe.
+
+.. code-block:: ocaml
+
+    let named_values:(string, llvalue) Hashtbl.t = Hashtbl.create 10
+
+Also, since we will need to create these alloca's, we'll use a helper
+function that ensures that the allocas are created in the entry block of
+the function:
+
+.. code-block:: ocaml
+
+    (* Create an alloca instruction in the entry block of the function. This
+     * is used for mutable variables etc. *)
+    let create_entry_block_alloca the_function var_name =
+      let builder = builder_at (instr_begin (entry_block the_function)) in
+      build_alloca double_type var_name builder
+
+This funny looking code creates an ``Llvm.llbuilder`` object that is
+pointing at the first instruction of the entry block. It then creates an
+alloca with the expected name and returns it. Because all values in
+Kaleidoscope are doubles, there is no need to pass in a type to use.
+
+With this in place, the first functionality change we want to make is to
+variable references. In our new scheme, variables live on the stack, so
+code generating a reference to them actually needs to produce a load
+from the stack slot:
+
+.. code-block:: ocaml
+
+    let rec codegen_expr = function
+      ...
+      | Ast.Variable name ->
+          let v = try Hashtbl.find named_values name with
+            | Not_found -> raise (Error "unknown variable name")
+          in
+          (* Load the value. *)
+          build_load v name builder
+
+As you can see, this is pretty straightforward. Now we need to update
+the things that define the variables to set up the alloca. We'll start
+with ``codegen_expr Ast.For ...`` (see the `full code listing <#code>`_
+for the unabridged code):
+
+.. code-block:: ocaml
+
+      | Ast.For (var_name, start, end_, step, body) ->
+          let the_function = block_parent (insertion_block builder) in
+
+          (* Create an alloca for the variable in the entry block. *)
+          let alloca = create_entry_block_alloca the_function var_name in
+
+          (* Emit the start code first, without 'variable' in scope. *)
+          let start_val = codegen_expr start in
+
+          (* Store the value into the alloca. *)
+          ignore(build_store start_val alloca builder);
+
+          ...
+
+          (* Within the loop, the variable is defined equal to the PHI node. If it
+           * shadows an existing variable, we have to restore it, so save it
+           * now. *)
+          let old_val =
+            try Some (Hashtbl.find named_values var_name) with Not_found -> None
+          in
+          Hashtbl.add named_values var_name alloca;
+
+          ...
+
+          (* Compute the end condition. *)
+          let end_cond = codegen_expr end_ in
+
+          (* Reload, increment, and restore the alloca. This handles the case where
+           * the body of the loop mutates the variable. *)
+          let cur_var = build_load alloca var_name builder in
+          let next_var = build_add cur_var step_val "nextvar" builder in
+          ignore(build_store next_var alloca builder);
+          ...
+
+This code is virtually identical to the code `before we allowed mutable
+variables <OCamlLangImpl5.html#forcodegen>`_. The big difference is that
+we no longer have to construct a PHI node, and we use load/store to
+access the variable as needed.
+
+To support mutable argument variables, we need to also make allocas for
+them. The code for this is also pretty simple:
+
+.. code-block:: ocaml
+
+    (* Create an alloca for each argument and register the argument in the symbol
+     * table so that references to it will succeed. *)
+    let create_argument_allocas the_function proto =
+      let args = match proto with
+        | Ast.Prototype (_, args) | Ast.BinOpPrototype (_, args, _) -> args
+      in
+      Array.iteri (fun i ai ->
+        let var_name = args.(i) in
+        (* Create an alloca for this variable. *)
+        let alloca = create_entry_block_alloca the_function var_name in
+
+        (* Store the initial value into the alloca. *)
+        ignore(build_store ai alloca builder);
+
+        (* Add arguments to variable symbol table. *)
+        Hashtbl.add named_values var_name alloca;
+      ) (params the_function)
+
+For each argument, we make an alloca, store the input value to the
+function into the alloca, and register the alloca as the memory location
+for the argument. This method gets invoked by ``Codegen.codegen_func``
+right after it sets up the entry block for the function.
+
+The final missing piece is adding the mem2reg pass, which allows us to
+get good codegen once again:
+
+.. code-block:: ocaml
+
+    let main () =
+      ...
+      let the_fpm = PassManager.create_function Codegen.the_module in
+
+      (* Set up the optimizer pipeline.  Start with registering info about how the
+       * target lays out data structures. *)
+      DataLayout.add (ExecutionEngine.target_data the_execution_engine) the_fpm;
+
+      (* Promote allocas to registers. *)
+      add_memory_to_register_promotion the_fpm;
+
+      (* Do simple "peephole" optimizations and bit-twiddling optzn. *)
+      add_instruction_combining the_fpm;
+
+      (* reassociate expressions. *)
+      add_reassociation the_fpm;
+
+It is interesting to see what the code looks like before and after the
+mem2reg optimization runs. For example, this is the before/after code
+for our recursive fib function. Before the optimization:
+
+.. code-block:: llvm
+
+    define double @fib(double %x) {
+    entry:
+      %x1 = alloca double
+      store double %x, double* %x1
+      %x2 = load double* %x1
+      %cmptmp = fcmp ult double %x2, 3.000000e+00
+      %booltmp = uitofp i1 %cmptmp to double
+      %ifcond = fcmp one double %booltmp, 0.000000e+00
+      br i1 %ifcond, label %then, label %else
+
+    then:    ; preds = %entry
+      br label %ifcont
+
+    else:    ; preds = %entry
+      %x3 = load double* %x1
+      %subtmp = fsub double %x3, 1.000000e+00
+      %calltmp = call double @fib(double %subtmp)
+      %x4 = load double* %x1
+      %subtmp5 = fsub double %x4, 2.000000e+00
+      %calltmp6 = call double @fib(double %subtmp5)
+      %addtmp = fadd double %calltmp, %calltmp6
+      br label %ifcont
+
+    ifcont:    ; preds = %else, %then
+      %iftmp = phi double [ 1.000000e+00, %then ], [ %addtmp, %else ]
+      ret double %iftmp
+    }
+
+Here there is only one variable (x, the input argument) but you can
+still see the extremely simple-minded code generation strategy we are
+using. In the entry block, an alloca is created, and the initial input
+value is stored into it. Each reference to the variable does a reload
+from the stack. Also, note that we didn't modify the if/then/else
+expression, so it still inserts a PHI node. While we could make an
+alloca for it, it is actually easier to create a PHI node for it, so we
+still just make the PHI.
+
+Here is the code after the mem2reg pass runs:
+
+.. code-block:: llvm
+
+    define double @fib(double %x) {
+    entry:
+      %cmptmp = fcmp ult double %x, 3.000000e+00
+      %booltmp = uitofp i1 %cmptmp to double
+      %ifcond = fcmp one double %booltmp, 0.000000e+00
+      br i1 %ifcond, label %then, label %else
+
+    then:
+      br label %ifcont
+
+    else:
+      %subtmp = fsub double %x, 1.000000e+00
+      %calltmp = call double @fib(double %subtmp)
+      %subtmp5 = fsub double %x, 2.000000e+00
+      %calltmp6 = call double @fib(double %subtmp5)
+      %addtmp = fadd double %calltmp, %calltmp6
+      br label %ifcont
+
+    ifcont:    ; preds = %else, %then
+      %iftmp = phi double [ 1.000000e+00, %then ], [ %addtmp, %else ]
+      ret double %iftmp
+    }
+
+This is a trivial case for mem2reg, since there are no redefinitions of
+the variable. The point of showing this is to calm your tension about
+inserting such blatent inefficiencies :).
+
+After the rest of the optimizers run, we get:
+
+.. code-block:: llvm
+
+    define double @fib(double %x) {
+    entry:
+      %cmptmp = fcmp ult double %x, 3.000000e+00
+      %booltmp = uitofp i1 %cmptmp to double
+      %ifcond = fcmp ueq double %booltmp, 0.000000e+00
+      br i1 %ifcond, label %else, label %ifcont
+
+    else:
+      %subtmp = fsub double %x, 1.000000e+00
+      %calltmp = call double @fib(double %subtmp)
+      %subtmp5 = fsub double %x, 2.000000e+00
+      %calltmp6 = call double @fib(double %subtmp5)
+      %addtmp = fadd double %calltmp, %calltmp6
+      ret double %addtmp
+
+    ifcont:
+      ret double 1.000000e+00
+    }
+
+Here we see that the simplifycfg pass decided to clone the return
+instruction into the end of the 'else' block. This allowed it to
+eliminate some branches and the PHI node.
+
+Now that all symbol table references are updated to use stack variables,
+we'll add the assignment operator.
+
+New Assignment Operator
+=======================
+
+With our current framework, adding a new assignment operator is really
+simple. We will parse it just like any other binary operator, but handle
+it internally (instead of allowing the user to define it). The first
+step is to set a precedence:
+
+.. code-block:: ocaml
+
+    let main () =
+      (* Install standard binary operators.
+       * 1 is the lowest precedence. *)
+      Hashtbl.add Parser.binop_precedence '=' 2;
+      Hashtbl.add Parser.binop_precedence '<' 10;
+      Hashtbl.add Parser.binop_precedence '+' 20;
+      Hashtbl.add Parser.binop_precedence '-' 20;
+      ...
+
+Now that the parser knows the precedence of the binary operator, it
+takes care of all the parsing and AST generation. We just need to
+implement codegen for the assignment operator. This looks like:
+
+.. code-block:: ocaml
+
+    let rec codegen_expr = function
+          begin match op with
+          | '=' ->
+              (* Special case '=' because we don't want to emit the LHS as an
+               * expression. *)
+              let name =
+                match lhs with
+                | Ast.Variable name -> name
+                | _ -> raise (Error "destination of '=' must be a variable")
+              in
+
+Unlike the rest of the binary operators, our assignment operator doesn't
+follow the "emit LHS, emit RHS, do computation" model. As such, it is
+handled as a special case before the other binary operators are handled.
+The other strange thing is that it requires the LHS to be a variable. It
+is invalid to have "(x+1) = expr" - only things like "x = expr" are
+allowed.
+
+.. code-block:: ocaml
+
+              (* Codegen the rhs. *)
+              let val_ = codegen_expr rhs in
+
+              (* Lookup the name. *)
+              let variable = try Hashtbl.find named_values name with
+              | Not_found -> raise (Error "unknown variable name")
+              in
+              ignore(build_store val_ variable builder);
+              val_
+          | _ ->
+                ...
+
+Once we have the variable, codegen'ing the assignment is
+straightforward: we emit the RHS of the assignment, create a store, and
+return the computed value. Returning a value allows for chained
+assignments like "X = (Y = Z)".
+
+Now that we have an assignment operator, we can mutate loop variables
+and arguments. For example, we can now run code like this:
+
+::
+
+    # Function to print a double.
+    extern printd(x);
+
+    # Define ':' for sequencing: as a low-precedence operator that ignores operands
+    # and just returns the RHS.
+    def binary : 1 (x y) y;
+
+    def test(x)
+      printd(x) :
+      x = 4 :
+      printd(x);
+
+    test(123);
+
+When run, this example prints "123" and then "4", showing that we did
+actually mutate the value! Okay, we have now officially implemented our
+goal: getting this to work requires SSA construction in the general
+case. However, to be really useful, we want the ability to define our
+own local variables, lets add this next!
+
+User-defined Local Variables
+============================
+
+Adding var/in is just like any other other extensions we made to
+Kaleidoscope: we extend the lexer, the parser, the AST and the code
+generator. The first step for adding our new 'var/in' construct is to
+extend the lexer. As before, this is pretty trivial, the code looks like
+this:
+
+.. code-block:: ocaml
+
+    type token =
+      ...
+      (* var definition *)
+      | Var
+
+    ...
+
+    and lex_ident buffer = parser
+          ...
+          | "in" -> [< 'Token.In; stream >]
+          | "binary" -> [< 'Token.Binary; stream >]
+          | "unary" -> [< 'Token.Unary; stream >]
+          | "var" -> [< 'Token.Var; stream >]
+          ...
+
+The next step is to define the AST node that we will construct. For
+var/in, it looks like this:
+
+.. code-block:: ocaml
+
+    type expr =
+      ...
+      (* variant for var/in. *)
+      | Var of (string * expr option) array * expr
+      ...
+
+var/in allows a list of names to be defined all at once, and each name
+can optionally have an initializer value. As such, we capture this
+information in the VarNames vector. Also, var/in has a body, this body
+is allowed to access the variables defined by the var/in.
+
+With this in place, we can define the parser pieces. The first thing we
+do is add it as a primary expression:
+
+.. code-block:: ocaml
+
+    (* primary
+     *   ::= identifier
+     *   ::= numberexpr
+     *   ::= parenexpr
+     *   ::= ifexpr
+     *   ::= forexpr
+     *   ::= varexpr *)
+    let rec parse_primary = parser
+      ...
+      (* varexpr
+       *   ::= 'var' identifier ('=' expression?
+       *             (',' identifier ('=' expression)?)* 'in' expression *)
+      | [< 'Token.Var;
+           (* At least one variable name is required. *)
+           'Token.Ident id ?? "expected identifier after var";
+           init=parse_var_init;
+           var_names=parse_var_names [(id, init)];
+           (* At this point, we have to have 'in'. *)
+           'Token.In ?? "expected 'in' keyword after 'var'";
+           body=parse_expr >] ->
+          Ast.Var (Array.of_list (List.rev var_names), body)
+
+    ...
+
+    and parse_var_init = parser
+      (* read in the optional initializer. *)
+      | [< 'Token.Kwd '='; e=parse_expr >] -> Some e
+      | [< >] -> None
+
+    and parse_var_names accumulator = parser
+      | [< 'Token.Kwd ',';
+           'Token.Ident id ?? "expected identifier list after var";
+           init=parse_var_init;
+           e=parse_var_names ((id, init) :: accumulator) >] -> e
+      | [< >] -> accumulator
+
+Now that we can parse and represent the code, we need to support
+emission of LLVM IR for it. This code starts out with:
+
+.. code-block:: ocaml
+
+    let rec codegen_expr = function
+      ...
+      | Ast.Var (var_names, body)
+          let old_bindings = ref [] in
+
+          let the_function = block_parent (insertion_block builder) in
+
+          (* Register all variables and emit their initializer. *)
+          Array.iter (fun (var_name, init) ->
+
+Basically it loops over all the variables, installing them one at a
+time. For each variable we put into the symbol table, we remember the
+previous value that we replace in OldBindings.
+
+.. code-block:: ocaml
+
+            (* Emit the initializer before adding the variable to scope, this
+             * prevents the initializer from referencing the variable itself, and
+             * permits stuff like this:
+             *   var a = 1 in
+             *     var a = a in ...   # refers to outer 'a'. *)
+            let init_val =
+              match init with
+              | Some init -> codegen_expr init
+              (* If not specified, use 0.0. *)
+              | None -> const_float double_type 0.0
+            in
+
+            let alloca = create_entry_block_alloca the_function var_name in
+            ignore(build_store init_val alloca builder);
+
+            (* Remember the old variable binding so that we can restore the binding
+             * when we unrecurse. *)
+
+            begin
+              try
+                let old_value = Hashtbl.find named_values var_name in
+                old_bindings := (var_name, old_value) :: !old_bindings;
+              with Not_found > ()
+            end;
+
+            (* Remember this binding. *)
+            Hashtbl.add named_values var_name alloca;
+          ) var_names;
+
+There are more comments here than code. The basic idea is that we emit
+the initializer, create the alloca, then update the symbol table to
+point to it. Once all the variables are installed in the symbol table,
+we evaluate the body of the var/in expression:
+
+.. code-block:: ocaml
+
+          (* Codegen the body, now that all vars are in scope. *)
+          let body_val = codegen_expr body in
+
+Finally, before returning, we restore the previous variable bindings:
+
+.. code-block:: ocaml
+
+          (* Pop all our variables from scope. *)
+          List.iter (fun (var_name, old_value) ->
+            Hashtbl.add named_values var_name old_value
+          ) !old_bindings;
+
+          (* Return the body computation. *)
+          body_val
+
+The end result of all of this is that we get properly scoped variable
+definitions, and we even (trivially) allow mutation of them :).
+
+With this, we completed what we set out to do. Our nice iterative fib
+example from the intro compiles and runs just fine. The mem2reg pass
+optimizes all of our stack variables into SSA registers, inserting PHI
+nodes where needed, and our front-end remains simple: no "iterated
+dominance frontier" computation anywhere in sight.
+
+Full Code Listing
+=================
+
+Here is the complete code listing for our running example, enhanced with
+mutable variables and var/in support. To build this example, use:
+
+.. code-block:: bash
+
+    # Compile
+    ocamlbuild toy.byte
+    # Run
+    ./toy.byte
+
+Here is the code:
+
+\_tags:
+    ::
+
+        <{lexer,parser}.ml>: use_camlp4, pp(camlp4of)
+        <*.{byte,native}>: g++, use_llvm, use_llvm_analysis
+        <*.{byte,native}>: use_llvm_executionengine, use_llvm_target
+        <*.{byte,native}>: use_llvm_scalar_opts, use_bindings
+
+myocamlbuild.ml:
+    .. code-block:: ocaml
+
+        open Ocamlbuild_plugin;;
+
+        ocaml_lib ~extern:true "llvm";;
+        ocaml_lib ~extern:true "llvm_analysis";;
+        ocaml_lib ~extern:true "llvm_executionengine";;
+        ocaml_lib ~extern:true "llvm_target";;
+        ocaml_lib ~extern:true "llvm_scalar_opts";;
+
+        flag ["link"; "ocaml"; "g++"] (S[A"-cc"; A"g++"; A"-cclib"; A"-rdynamic"]);;
+        dep ["link"; "ocaml"; "use_bindings"] ["bindings.o"];;
+
+token.ml:
+    .. code-block:: ocaml
+
+        (*===----------------------------------------------------------------------===
+         * Lexer Tokens
+         *===----------------------------------------------------------------------===*)
+
+        (* The lexer returns these 'Kwd' if it is an unknown character, otherwise one of
+         * these others for known things. *)
+        type token =
+          (* commands *)
+          | Def | Extern
+
+          (* primary *)
+          | Ident of string | Number of float
+
+          (* unknown *)
+          | Kwd of char
+
+          (* control *)
+          | If | Then | Else
+          | For | In
+
+          (* operators *)
+          | Binary | Unary
+
+          (* var definition *)
+          | Var
+
+lexer.ml:
+    .. code-block:: ocaml
+
+        (*===----------------------------------------------------------------------===
+         * Lexer
+         *===----------------------------------------------------------------------===*)
+
+        let rec lex = parser
+          (* Skip any whitespace. *)
+          | [< ' (' ' | '\n' | '\r' | '\t'); stream >] -> lex stream
+
+          (* identifier: [a-zA-Z][a-zA-Z0-9] *)
+          | [< ' ('A' .. 'Z' | 'a' .. 'z' as c); stream >] ->
+              let buffer = Buffer.create 1 in
+              Buffer.add_char buffer c;
+              lex_ident buffer stream
+
+          (* number: [0-9.]+ *)
+          | [< ' ('0' .. '9' as c); stream >] ->
+              let buffer = Buffer.create 1 in
+              Buffer.add_char buffer c;
+              lex_number buffer stream
+
+          (* Comment until end of line. *)
+          | [< ' ('#'); stream >] ->
+              lex_comment stream
+
+          (* Otherwise, just return the character as its ascii value. *)
+          | [< 'c; stream >] ->
+              [< 'Token.Kwd c; lex stream >]
+
+          (* end of stream. *)
+          | [< >] -> [< >]
+
+        and lex_number buffer = parser
+          | [< ' ('0' .. '9' | '.' as c); stream >] ->
+              Buffer.add_char buffer c;
+              lex_number buffer stream
+          | [< stream=lex >] ->
+              [< 'Token.Number (float_of_string (Buffer.contents buffer)); stream >]
+
+        and lex_ident buffer = parser
+          | [< ' ('A' .. 'Z' | 'a' .. 'z' | '0' .. '9' as c); stream >] ->
+              Buffer.add_char buffer c;
+              lex_ident buffer stream
+          | [< stream=lex >] ->
+              match Buffer.contents buffer with
+              | "def" -> [< 'Token.Def; stream >]
+              | "extern" -> [< 'Token.Extern; stream >]
+              | "if" -> [< 'Token.If; stream >]
+              | "then" -> [< 'Token.Then; stream >]
+              | "else" -> [< 'Token.Else; stream >]
+              | "for" -> [< 'Token.For; stream >]
+              | "in" -> [< 'Token.In; stream >]
+              | "binary" -> [< 'Token.Binary; stream >]
+              | "unary" -> [< 'Token.Unary; stream >]
+              | "var" -> [< 'Token.Var; stream >]
+              | id -> [< 'Token.Ident id; stream >]
+
+        and lex_comment = parser
+          | [< ' ('\n'); stream=lex >] -> stream
+          | [< 'c; e=lex_comment >] -> e
+          | [< >] -> [< >]
+
+ast.ml:
+    .. code-block:: ocaml
+
+        (*===----------------------------------------------------------------------===
+         * Abstract Syntax Tree (aka Parse Tree)
+         *===----------------------------------------------------------------------===*)
+
+        (* expr - Base type for all expression nodes. *)
+        type expr =
+          (* variant for numeric literals like "1.0". *)
+          | Number of float
+
+          (* variant for referencing a variable, like "a". *)
+          | Variable of string
+
+          (* variant for a unary operator. *)
+          | Unary of char * expr
+
+          (* variant for a binary operator. *)
+          | Binary of char * expr * expr
+
+          (* variant for function calls. *)
+          | Call of string * expr array
+
+          (* variant for if/then/else. *)
+          | If of expr * expr * expr
+
+          (* variant for for/in. *)
+          | For of string * expr * expr * expr option * expr
+
+          (* variant for var/in. *)
+          | Var of (string * expr option) array * expr
+
+        (* proto - This type represents the "prototype" for a function, which captures
+         * its name, and its argument names (thus implicitly the number of arguments the
+         * function takes). *)
+        type proto =
+          | Prototype of string * string array
+          | BinOpPrototype of string * string array * int
+
+        (* func - This type represents a function definition itself. *)
+        type func = Function of proto * expr
+
+parser.ml:
+    .. code-block:: ocaml
+
+        (*===---------------------------------------------------------------------===
+         * Parser
+         *===---------------------------------------------------------------------===*)
+
+        (* binop_precedence - This holds the precedence for each binary operator that is
+         * defined *)
+        let binop_precedence:(char, int) Hashtbl.t = Hashtbl.create 10
+
+        (* precedence - Get the precedence of the pending binary operator token. *)
+        let precedence c = try Hashtbl.find binop_precedence c with Not_found -> -1
+
+        (* primary
+         *   ::= identifier
+         *   ::= numberexpr
+         *   ::= parenexpr
+         *   ::= ifexpr
+         *   ::= forexpr
+         *   ::= varexpr *)
+        let rec parse_primary = parser
+          (* numberexpr ::= number *)
+          | [< 'Token.Number n >] -> Ast.Number n
+
+          (* parenexpr ::= '(' expression ')' *)
+          | [< 'Token.Kwd '('; e=parse_expr; 'Token.Kwd ')' ?? "expected ')'" >] -> e
+
+          (* identifierexpr
+           *   ::= identifier
+           *   ::= identifier '(' argumentexpr ')' *)
+          | [< 'Token.Ident id; stream >] ->
+              let rec parse_args accumulator = parser
+                | [< e=parse_expr; stream >] ->
+                    begin parser
+                      | [< 'Token.Kwd ','; e=parse_args (e :: accumulator) >] -> e
+                      | [< >] -> e :: accumulator
+                    end stream
+                | [< >] -> accumulator
+              in
+              let rec parse_ident id = parser
+                (* Call. *)
+                | [< 'Token.Kwd '(';
+                     args=parse_args [];
+                     'Token.Kwd ')' ?? "expected ')'">] ->
+                    Ast.Call (id, Array.of_list (List.rev args))
+
+                (* Simple variable ref. *)
+                | [< >] -> Ast.Variable id
+              in
+              parse_ident id stream
+
+          (* ifexpr ::= 'if' expr 'then' expr 'else' expr *)
+          | [< 'Token.If; c=parse_expr;
+               'Token.Then ?? "expected 'then'"; t=parse_expr;
+               'Token.Else ?? "expected 'else'"; e=parse_expr >] ->
+              Ast.If (c, t, e)
+
+          (* forexpr
+                ::= 'for' identifier '=' expr ',' expr (',' expr)? 'in' expression *)
+          | [< 'Token.For;
+               'Token.Ident id ?? "expected identifier after for";
+               'Token.Kwd '=' ?? "expected '=' after for";
+               stream >] ->
+              begin parser
+                | [<
+                     start=parse_expr;
+                     'Token.Kwd ',' ?? "expected ',' after for";
+                     end_=parse_expr;
+                     stream >] ->
+                    let step =
+                      begin parser
+                      | [< 'Token.Kwd ','; step=parse_expr >] -> Some step
+                      | [< >] -> None
+                      end stream
+                    in
+                    begin parser
+                    | [< 'Token.In; body=parse_expr >] ->
+                        Ast.For (id, start, end_, step, body)
+                    | [< >] ->
+                        raise (Stream.Error "expected 'in' after for")
+                    end stream
+                | [< >] ->
+                    raise (Stream.Error "expected '=' after for")
+              end stream
+
+          (* varexpr
+           *   ::= 'var' identifier ('=' expression?
+           *             (',' identifier ('=' expression)?)* 'in' expression *)
+          | [< 'Token.Var;
+               (* At least one variable name is required. *)
+               'Token.Ident id ?? "expected identifier after var";
+               init=parse_var_init;
+               var_names=parse_var_names [(id, init)];
+               (* At this point, we have to have 'in'. *)
+               'Token.In ?? "expected 'in' keyword after 'var'";
+               body=parse_expr >] ->
+              Ast.Var (Array.of_list (List.rev var_names), body)
+
+          | [< >] -> raise (Stream.Error "unknown token when expecting an expression.")
+
+        (* unary
+         *   ::= primary
+         *   ::= '!' unary *)
+        and parse_unary = parser
+          (* If this is a unary operator, read it. *)
+          | [< 'Token.Kwd op when op != '(' && op != ')'; operand=parse_expr >] ->
+              Ast.Unary (op, operand)
+
+          (* If the current token is not an operator, it must be a primary expr. *)
+          | [< stream >] -> parse_primary stream
+
+        (* binoprhs
+         *   ::= ('+' primary)* *)
+        and parse_bin_rhs expr_prec lhs stream =
+          match Stream.peek stream with
+          (* If this is a binop, find its precedence. *)
+          | Some (Token.Kwd c) when Hashtbl.mem binop_precedence c ->
+              let token_prec = precedence c in
+
+              (* If this is a binop that binds at least as tightly as the current binop,
+               * consume it, otherwise we are done. *)
+              if token_prec < expr_prec then lhs else begin
+                (* Eat the binop. *)
+                Stream.junk stream;
+
+                (* Parse the primary expression after the binary operator. *)
+                let rhs = parse_unary stream in
+
+                (* Okay, we know this is a binop. *)
+                let rhs =
+                  match Stream.peek stream with
+                  | Some (Token.Kwd c2) ->
+                      (* If BinOp binds less tightly with rhs than the operator after
+                       * rhs, let the pending operator take rhs as its lhs. *)
+                      let next_prec = precedence c2 in
+                      if token_prec < next_prec
+                      then parse_bin_rhs (token_prec + 1) rhs stream
+                      else rhs
+                  | _ -> rhs
+                in
+
+                (* Merge lhs/rhs. *)
+                let lhs = Ast.Binary (c, lhs, rhs) in
+                parse_bin_rhs expr_prec lhs stream
+              end
+          | _ -> lhs
+
+        and parse_var_init = parser
+          (* read in the optional initializer. *)
+          | [< 'Token.Kwd '='; e=parse_expr >] -> Some e
+          | [< >] -> None
+
+        and parse_var_names accumulator = parser
+          | [< 'Token.Kwd ',';
+               'Token.Ident id ?? "expected identifier list after var";
+               init=parse_var_init;
+               e=parse_var_names ((id, init) :: accumulator) >] -> e
+          | [< >] -> accumulator
+
+        (* expression
+         *   ::= primary binoprhs *)
+        and parse_expr = parser
+          | [< lhs=parse_unary; stream >] -> parse_bin_rhs 0 lhs stream
+
+        (* prototype
+         *   ::= id '(' id* ')'
+         *   ::= binary LETTER number? (id, id)
+         *   ::= unary LETTER number? (id) *)
+        let parse_prototype =
+          let rec parse_args accumulator = parser
+            | [< 'Token.Ident id; e=parse_args (id::accumulator) >] -> e
+            | [< >] -> accumulator
+          in
+          let parse_operator = parser
+            | [< 'Token.Unary >] -> "unary", 1
+            | [< 'Token.Binary >] -> "binary", 2
+          in
+          let parse_binary_precedence = parser
+            | [< 'Token.Number n >] -> int_of_float n
+            | [< >] -> 30
+          in
+          parser
+          | [< 'Token.Ident id;
+               'Token.Kwd '(' ?? "expected '(' in prototype";
+               args=parse_args [];
+               'Token.Kwd ')' ?? "expected ')' in prototype" >] ->
+              (* success. *)
+              Ast.Prototype (id, Array.of_list (List.rev args))
+          | [< (prefix, kind)=parse_operator;
+               'Token.Kwd op ?? "expected an operator";
+               (* Read the precedence if present. *)
+               binary_precedence=parse_binary_precedence;
+               'Token.Kwd '(' ?? "expected '(' in prototype";
+                args=parse_args [];
+               'Token.Kwd ')' ?? "expected ')' in prototype" >] ->
+              let name = prefix ^ (String.make 1 op) in
+              let args = Array.of_list (List.rev args) in
+
+              (* Verify right number of arguments for operator. *)
+              if Array.length args != kind
+              then raise (Stream.Error "invalid number of operands for operator")
+              else
+                if kind == 1 then
+                  Ast.Prototype (name, args)
+                else
+                  Ast.BinOpPrototype (name, args, binary_precedence)
+          | [< >] ->
+              raise (Stream.Error "expected function name in prototype")
+
+        (* definition ::= 'def' prototype expression *)
+        let parse_definition = parser
+          | [< 'Token.Def; p=parse_prototype; e=parse_expr >] ->
+              Ast.Function (p, e)
+
+        (* toplevelexpr ::= expression *)
+        let parse_toplevel = parser
+          | [< e=parse_expr >] ->
+              (* Make an anonymous proto. *)
+              Ast.Function (Ast.Prototype ("", [||]), e)
+
+        (*  external ::= 'extern' prototype *)
+        let parse_extern = parser
+          | [< 'Token.Extern; e=parse_prototype >] -> e
+
+codegen.ml:
+    .. code-block:: ocaml
+
+        (*===----------------------------------------------------------------------===
+         * Code Generation
+         *===----------------------------------------------------------------------===*)
+
+        open Llvm
+
+        exception Error of string
+
+        let context = global_context ()
+        let the_module = create_module context "my cool jit"
+        let builder = builder context
+        let named_values:(string, llvalue) Hashtbl.t = Hashtbl.create 10
+        let double_type = double_type context
+
+        (* Create an alloca instruction in the entry block of the function. This
+         * is used for mutable variables etc. *)
+        let create_entry_block_alloca the_function var_name =
+          let builder = builder_at context (instr_begin (entry_block the_function)) in
+          build_alloca double_type var_name builder
+
+        let rec codegen_expr = function
+          | Ast.Number n -> const_float double_type n
+          | Ast.Variable name ->
+              let v = try Hashtbl.find named_values name with
+                | Not_found -> raise (Error "unknown variable name")
+              in
+              (* Load the value. *)
+              build_load v name builder
+          | Ast.Unary (op, operand) ->
+              let operand = codegen_expr operand in
+              let callee = "unary" ^ (String.make 1 op) in
+              let callee =
+                match lookup_function callee the_module with
+                | Some callee -> callee
+                | None -> raise (Error "unknown unary operator")
+              in
+              build_call callee [|operand|] "unop" builder
+          | Ast.Binary (op, lhs, rhs) ->
+              begin match op with
+              | '=' ->
+                  (* Special case '=' because we don't want to emit the LHS as an
+                   * expression. *)
+                  let name =
+                    match lhs with
+                    | Ast.Variable name -> name
+                    | _ -> raise (Error "destination of '=' must be a variable")
+                  in
+
+                  (* Codegen the rhs. *)
+                  let val_ = codegen_expr rhs in
+
+                  (* Lookup the name. *)
+                  let variable = try Hashtbl.find named_values name with
+                  | Not_found -> raise (Error "unknown variable name")
+                  in
+                  ignore(build_store val_ variable builder);
+                  val_
+              | _ ->
+                  let lhs_val = codegen_expr lhs in
+                  let rhs_val = codegen_expr rhs in
+                  begin
+                    match op with
+                    | '+' -> build_add lhs_val rhs_val "addtmp" builder
+                    | '-' -> build_sub lhs_val rhs_val "subtmp" builder
+                    | '*' -> build_mul lhs_val rhs_val "multmp" builder
+                    | '<' ->
+                        (* Convert bool 0/1 to double 0.0 or 1.0 *)
+                        let i = build_fcmp Fcmp.Ult lhs_val rhs_val "cmptmp" builder in
+                        build_uitofp i double_type "booltmp" builder
+                    | _ ->
+                        (* If it wasn't a builtin binary operator, it must be a user defined
+                         * one. Emit a call to it. *)
+                        let callee = "binary" ^ (String.make 1 op) in
+                        let callee =
+                          match lookup_function callee the_module with
+                          | Some callee -> callee
+                          | None -> raise (Error "binary operator not found!")
+                        in
+                        build_call callee [|lhs_val; rhs_val|] "binop" builder
+                  end
+              end
+          | Ast.Call (callee, args) ->
+              (* Look up the name in the module table. *)
+              let callee =
+                match lookup_function callee the_module with
+                | Some callee -> callee
+                | None -> raise (Error "unknown function referenced")
+              in
+              let params = params callee in
+
+              (* If argument mismatch error. *)
+              if Array.length params == Array.length args then () else
+                raise (Error "incorrect # arguments passed");
+              let args = Array.map codegen_expr args in
+              build_call callee args "calltmp" builder
+          | Ast.If (cond, then_, else_) ->
+              let cond = codegen_expr cond in
+
+              (* Convert condition to a bool by comparing equal to 0.0 *)
+              let zero = const_float double_type 0.0 in
+              let cond_val = build_fcmp Fcmp.One cond zero "ifcond" builder in
+
+              (* Grab the first block so that we might later add the conditional branch
+               * to it at the end of the function. *)
+              let start_bb = insertion_block builder in
+              let the_function = block_parent start_bb in
+
+              let then_bb = append_block context "then" the_function in
+
+              (* Emit 'then' value. *)
+              position_at_end then_bb builder;
+              let then_val = codegen_expr then_ in
+
+              (* Codegen of 'then' can change the current block, update then_bb for the
+               * phi. We create a new name because one is used for the phi node, and the
+               * other is used for the conditional branch. *)
+              let new_then_bb = insertion_block builder in
+
+              (* Emit 'else' value. *)
+              let else_bb = append_block context "else" the_function in
+              position_at_end else_bb builder;
+              let else_val = codegen_expr else_ in
+
+              (* Codegen of 'else' can change the current block, update else_bb for the
+               * phi. *)
+              let new_else_bb = insertion_block builder in
+
+              (* Emit merge block. *)
+              let merge_bb = append_block context "ifcont" the_function in
+              position_at_end merge_bb builder;
+              let incoming = [(then_val, new_then_bb); (else_val, new_else_bb)] in
+              let phi = build_phi incoming "iftmp" builder in
+
+              (* Return to the start block to add the conditional branch. *)
+              position_at_end start_bb builder;
+              ignore (build_cond_br cond_val then_bb else_bb builder);
+
+              (* Set a unconditional branch at the end of the 'then' block and the
+               * 'else' block to the 'merge' block. *)
+              position_at_end new_then_bb builder; ignore (build_br merge_bb builder);
+              position_at_end new_else_bb builder; ignore (build_br merge_bb builder);
+
+              (* Finally, set the builder to the end of the merge block. *)
+              position_at_end merge_bb builder;
+
+              phi
+          | Ast.For (var_name, start, end_, step, body) ->
+              (* Output this as:
+               *   var = alloca double
+               *   ...
+               *   start = startexpr
+               *   store start -> var
+               *   goto loop
+               * loop:
+               *   ...
+               *   bodyexpr
+               *   ...
+               * loopend:
+               *   step = stepexpr
+               *   endcond = endexpr
+               *
+               *   curvar = load var
+               *   nextvar = curvar + step
+               *   store nextvar -> var
+               *   br endcond, loop, endloop
+               * outloop: *)
+
+              let the_function = block_parent (insertion_block builder) in
+
+              (* Create an alloca for the variable in the entry block. *)
+              let alloca = create_entry_block_alloca the_function var_name in
+
+              (* Emit the start code first, without 'variable' in scope. *)
+              let start_val = codegen_expr start in
+
+              (* Store the value into the alloca. *)
+              ignore(build_store start_val alloca builder);
+
+              (* Make the new basic block for the loop header, inserting after current
+               * block. *)
+              let loop_bb = append_block context "loop" the_function in
+
+              (* Insert an explicit fall through from the current block to the
+               * loop_bb. *)
+              ignore (build_br loop_bb builder);
+
+              (* Start insertion in loop_bb. *)
+              position_at_end loop_bb builder;
+
+              (* Within the loop, the variable is defined equal to the PHI node. If it
+               * shadows an existing variable, we have to restore it, so save it
+               * now. *)
+              let old_val =
+                try Some (Hashtbl.find named_values var_name) with Not_found -> None
+              in
+              Hashtbl.add named_values var_name alloca;
+
+              (* Emit the body of the loop.  This, like any other expr, can change the
+               * current BB.  Note that we ignore the value computed by the body, but
+               * don't allow an error *)
+              ignore (codegen_expr body);
+
+              (* Emit the step value. *)
+              let step_val =
+                match step with
+                | Some step -> codegen_expr step
+                (* If not specified, use 1.0. *)
+                | None -> const_float double_type 1.0
+              in
+
+              (* Compute the end condition. *)
+              let end_cond = codegen_expr end_ in
+
+              (* Reload, increment, and restore the alloca. This handles the case where
+               * the body of the loop mutates the variable. *)
+              let cur_var = build_load alloca var_name builder in
+              let next_var = build_add cur_var step_val "nextvar" builder in
+              ignore(build_store next_var alloca builder);
+
+              (* Convert condition to a bool by comparing equal to 0.0. *)
+              let zero = const_float double_type 0.0 in
+              let end_cond = build_fcmp Fcmp.One end_cond zero "loopcond" builder in
+
+              (* Create the "after loop" block and insert it. *)
+              let after_bb = append_block context "afterloop" the_function in
+
+              (* Insert the conditional branch into the end of loop_end_bb. *)
+              ignore (build_cond_br end_cond loop_bb after_bb builder);
+
+              (* Any new code will be inserted in after_bb. *)
+              position_at_end after_bb builder;
+
+              (* Restore the unshadowed variable. *)
+              begin match old_val with
+              | Some old_val -> Hashtbl.add named_values var_name old_val
+              | None -> ()
+              end;
+
+              (* for expr always returns 0.0. *)
+              const_null double_type
+          | Ast.Var (var_names, body) ->
+              let old_bindings = ref [] in
+
+              let the_function = block_parent (insertion_block builder) in
+
+              (* Register all variables and emit their initializer. *)
+              Array.iter (fun (var_name, init) ->
+                (* Emit the initializer before adding the variable to scope, this
+                 * prevents the initializer from referencing the variable itself, and
+                 * permits stuff like this:
+                 *   var a = 1 in
+                 *     var a = a in ...   # refers to outer 'a'. *)
+                let init_val =
+                  match init with
+                  | Some init -> codegen_expr init
+                  (* If not specified, use 0.0. *)
+                  | None -> const_float double_type 0.0
+                in
+
+                let alloca = create_entry_block_alloca the_function var_name in
+                ignore(build_store init_val alloca builder);
+
+                (* Remember the old variable binding so that we can restore the binding
+                 * when we unrecurse. *)
+                begin
+                  try
+                    let old_value = Hashtbl.find named_values var_name in
+                    old_bindings := (var_name, old_value) :: !old_bindings;
+                  with Not_found -> ()
+                end;
+
+                (* Remember this binding. *)
+                Hashtbl.add named_values var_name alloca;
+              ) var_names;
+
+              (* Codegen the body, now that all vars are in scope. *)
+              let body_val = codegen_expr body in
+
+              (* Pop all our variables from scope. *)
+              List.iter (fun (var_name, old_value) ->
+                Hashtbl.add named_values var_name old_value
+              ) !old_bindings;
+
+              (* Return the body computation. *)
+              body_val
+
+        let codegen_proto = function
+          | Ast.Prototype (name, args) | Ast.BinOpPrototype (name, args, _) ->
+              (* Make the function type: double(double,double) etc. *)
+              let doubles = Array.make (Array.length args) double_type in
+              let ft = function_type double_type doubles in
+              let f =
+                match lookup_function name the_module with
+                | None -> declare_function name ft the_module
+
+                (* If 'f' conflicted, there was already something named 'name'. If it
+                 * has a body, don't allow redefinition or reextern. *)
+                | Some f ->
+                    (* If 'f' already has a body, reject this. *)
+                    if block_begin f <> At_end f then
+                      raise (Error "redefinition of function");
+
+                    (* If 'f' took a different number of arguments, reject. *)
+                    if element_type (type_of f) <> ft then
+                      raise (Error "redefinition of function with different # args");
+                    f
+              in
+
+              (* Set names for all arguments. *)
+              Array.iteri (fun i a ->
+                let n = args.(i) in
+                set_value_name n a;
+                Hashtbl.add named_values n a;
+              ) (params f);
+              f
+
+        (* Create an alloca for each argument and register the argument in the symbol
+         * table so that references to it will succeed. *)
+        let create_argument_allocas the_function proto =
+          let args = match proto with
+            | Ast.Prototype (_, args) | Ast.BinOpPrototype (_, args, _) -> args
+          in
+          Array.iteri (fun i ai ->
+            let var_name = args.(i) in
+            (* Create an alloca for this variable. *)
+            let alloca = create_entry_block_alloca the_function var_name in
+
+            (* Store the initial value into the alloca. *)
+            ignore(build_store ai alloca builder);
+
+            (* Add arguments to variable symbol table. *)
+            Hashtbl.add named_values var_name alloca;
+          ) (params the_function)
+
+        let codegen_func the_fpm = function
+          | Ast.Function (proto, body) ->
+              Hashtbl.clear named_values;
+              let the_function = codegen_proto proto in
+
+              (* If this is an operator, install it. *)
+              begin match proto with
+              | Ast.BinOpPrototype (name, args, prec) ->
+                  let op = name.[String.length name - 1] in
+                  Hashtbl.add Parser.binop_precedence op prec;
+              | _ -> ()
+              end;
+
+              (* Create a new basic block to start insertion into. *)
+              let bb = append_block context "entry" the_function in
+              position_at_end bb builder;
+
+              try
+                (* Add all arguments to the symbol table and create their allocas. *)
+                create_argument_allocas the_function proto;
+
+                let ret_val = codegen_expr body in
+
+                (* Finish off the function. *)
+                let _ = build_ret ret_val builder in
+
+                (* Validate the generated code, checking for consistency. *)
+                Llvm_analysis.assert_valid_function the_function;
+
+                (* Optimize the function. *)
+                let _ = PassManager.run_function the_function the_fpm in
+
+                the_function
+              with e ->
+                delete_function the_function;
+                raise e
+
+toplevel.ml:
+    .. code-block:: ocaml
+
+        (*===----------------------------------------------------------------------===
+         * Top-Level parsing and JIT Driver
+         *===----------------------------------------------------------------------===*)
+
+        open Llvm
+        open Llvm_executionengine
+
+        (* top ::= definition | external | expression | ';' *)
+        let rec main_loop the_fpm the_execution_engine stream =
+          match Stream.peek stream with
+          | None -> ()
+
+          (* ignore top-level semicolons. *)
+          | Some (Token.Kwd ';') ->
+              Stream.junk stream;
+              main_loop the_fpm the_execution_engine stream
+
+          | Some token ->
+              begin
+                try match token with
+                | Token.Def ->
+                    let e = Parser.parse_definition stream in
+                    print_endline "parsed a function definition.";
+                    dump_value (Codegen.codegen_func the_fpm e);
+                | Token.Extern ->
+                    let e = Parser.parse_extern stream in
+                    print_endline "parsed an extern.";
+                    dump_value (Codegen.codegen_proto e);
+                | _ ->
+                    (* Evaluate a top-level expression into an anonymous function. *)
+                    let e = Parser.parse_toplevel stream in
+                    print_endline "parsed a top-level expr";
+                    let the_function = Codegen.codegen_func the_fpm e in
+                    dump_value the_function;
+
+                    (* JIT the function, returning a function pointer. *)
+                    let result = ExecutionEngine.run_function the_function [||]
+                      the_execution_engine in
+
+                    print_string "Evaluated to ";
+                    print_float (GenericValue.as_float Codegen.double_type result);
+                    print_newline ();
+                with Stream.Error s | Codegen.Error s ->
+                  (* Skip token for error recovery. *)
+                  Stream.junk stream;
+                  print_endline s;
+              end;
+              print_string "ready> "; flush stdout;
+              main_loop the_fpm the_execution_engine stream
+
+toy.ml:
+    .. code-block:: ocaml
+
+        (*===----------------------------------------------------------------------===
+         * Main driver code.
+         *===----------------------------------------------------------------------===*)
+
+        open Llvm
+        open Llvm_executionengine
+        open Llvm_target
+        open Llvm_scalar_opts
+
+        let main () =
+          ignore (initialize_native_target ());
+
+          (* Install standard binary operators.
+           * 1 is the lowest precedence. *)
+          Hashtbl.add Parser.binop_precedence '=' 2;
+          Hashtbl.add Parser.binop_precedence '<' 10;
+          Hashtbl.add Parser.binop_precedence '+' 20;
+          Hashtbl.add Parser.binop_precedence '-' 20;
+          Hashtbl.add Parser.binop_precedence '*' 40;    (* highest. *)
+
+          (* Prime the first token. *)
+          print_string "ready> "; flush stdout;
+          let stream = Lexer.lex (Stream.of_channel stdin) in
+
+          (* Create the JIT. *)
+          let the_execution_engine = ExecutionEngine.create Codegen.the_module in
+          let the_fpm = PassManager.create_function Codegen.the_module in
+
+          (* Set up the optimizer pipeline.  Start with registering info about how the
+           * target lays out data structures. *)
+          DataLayout.add (ExecutionEngine.target_data the_execution_engine) the_fpm;
+
+          (* Promote allocas to registers. *)
+          add_memory_to_register_promotion the_fpm;
+
+          (* Do simple "peephole" optimizations and bit-twiddling optzn. *)
+          add_instruction_combination the_fpm;
+
+          (* reassociate expressions. *)
+          add_reassociation the_fpm;
+
+          (* Eliminate Common SubExpressions. *)
+          add_gvn the_fpm;
+
+          (* Simplify the control flow graph (deleting unreachable blocks, etc). *)
+          add_cfg_simplification the_fpm;
+
+          ignore (PassManager.initialize the_fpm);
+
+          (* Run the main "interpreter loop" now. *)
+          Toplevel.main_loop the_fpm the_execution_engine stream;
+
+          (* Print out all the generated code. *)
+          dump_module Codegen.the_module
+        ;;
+
+        main ()
+
+bindings.c
+    .. code-block:: c
+
+        #include <stdio.h>
+
+        /* putchard - putchar that takes a double and returns 0. */
+        extern double putchard(double X) {
+          putchar((char)X);
+          return 0;
+        }
+
+        /* printd - printf that takes a double prints it as "%f\n", returning 0. */
+        extern double printd(double X) {
+          printf("%f\n", X);
+          return 0;
+        }
+
+`Next: Conclusion and other useful LLVM tidbits <OCamlLangImpl8.html>`_
+

Added: www-releases/trunk/3.5.1/docs/_sources/tutorial/OCamlLangImpl8.txt
URL: http://llvm.org/viewvc/llvm-project/www-releases/trunk/3.5.1/docs/_sources/tutorial/OCamlLangImpl8.txt?rev=225843&view=auto
==============================================================================
--- www-releases/trunk/3.5.1/docs/_sources/tutorial/OCamlLangImpl8.txt (added)
+++ www-releases/trunk/3.5.1/docs/_sources/tutorial/OCamlLangImpl8.txt Tue Jan 13 16:55:20 2015
@@ -0,0 +1,267 @@
+======================================================
+Kaleidoscope: Conclusion and other useful LLVM tidbits
+======================================================
+
+.. contents::
+   :local:
+
+Tutorial Conclusion
+===================
+
+Welcome to the final chapter of the "`Implementing a language with
+LLVM <index.html>`_" tutorial. In the course of this tutorial, we have
+grown our little Kaleidoscope language from being a useless toy, to
+being a semi-interesting (but probably still useless) toy. :)
+
+It is interesting to see how far we've come, and how little code it has
+taken. We built the entire lexer, parser, AST, code generator, and an
+interactive run-loop (with a JIT!) by-hand in under 700 lines of
+(non-comment/non-blank) code.
+
+Our little language supports a couple of interesting features: it
+supports user defined binary and unary operators, it uses JIT
+compilation for immediate evaluation, and it supports a few control flow
+constructs with SSA construction.
+
+Part of the idea of this tutorial was to show you how easy and fun it
+can be to define, build, and play with languages. Building a compiler
+need not be a scary or mystical process! Now that you've seen some of
+the basics, I strongly encourage you to take the code and hack on it.
+For example, try adding:
+
+-  **global variables** - While global variables have questional value
+   in modern software engineering, they are often useful when putting
+   together quick little hacks like the Kaleidoscope compiler itself.
+   Fortunately, our current setup makes it very easy to add global
+   variables: just have value lookup check to see if an unresolved
+   variable is in the global variable symbol table before rejecting it.
+   To create a new global variable, make an instance of the LLVM
+   ``GlobalVariable`` class.
+-  **typed variables** - Kaleidoscope currently only supports variables
+   of type double. This gives the language a very nice elegance, because
+   only supporting one type means that you never have to specify types.
+   Different languages have different ways of handling this. The easiest
+   way is to require the user to specify types for every variable
+   definition, and record the type of the variable in the symbol table
+   along with its Value\*.
+-  **arrays, structs, vectors, etc** - Once you add types, you can start
+   extending the type system in all sorts of interesting ways. Simple
+   arrays are very easy and are quite useful for many different
+   applications. Adding them is mostly an exercise in learning how the
+   LLVM `getelementptr <../LangRef.html#i_getelementptr>`_ instruction
+   works: it is so nifty/unconventional, it `has its own
+   FAQ <../GetElementPtr.html>`_! If you add support for recursive types
+   (e.g. linked lists), make sure to read the `section in the LLVM
+   Programmer's Manual <../ProgrammersManual.html#TypeResolve>`_ that
+   describes how to construct them.
+-  **standard runtime** - Our current language allows the user to access
+   arbitrary external functions, and we use it for things like "printd"
+   and "putchard". As you extend the language to add higher-level
+   constructs, often these constructs make the most sense if they are
+   lowered to calls into a language-supplied runtime. For example, if
+   you add hash tables to the language, it would probably make sense to
+   add the routines to a runtime, instead of inlining them all the way.
+-  **memory management** - Currently we can only access the stack in
+   Kaleidoscope. It would also be useful to be able to allocate heap
+   memory, either with calls to the standard libc malloc/free interface
+   or with a garbage collector. If you would like to use garbage
+   collection, note that LLVM fully supports `Accurate Garbage
+   Collection <../GarbageCollection.html>`_ including algorithms that
+   move objects and need to scan/update the stack.
+-  **debugger support** - LLVM supports generation of `DWARF Debug
+   info <../SourceLevelDebugging.html>`_ which is understood by common
+   debuggers like GDB. Adding support for debug info is fairly
+   straightforward. The best way to understand it is to compile some
+   C/C++ code with "``clang -g -O0``" and taking a look at what it
+   produces.
+-  **exception handling support** - LLVM supports generation of `zero
+   cost exceptions <../ExceptionHandling.html>`_ which interoperate with
+   code compiled in other languages. You could also generate code by
+   implicitly making every function return an error value and checking
+   it. You could also make explicit use of setjmp/longjmp. There are
+   many different ways to go here.
+-  **object orientation, generics, database access, complex numbers,
+   geometric programming, ...** - Really, there is no end of crazy
+   features that you can add to the language.
+-  **unusual domains** - We've been talking about applying LLVM to a
+   domain that many people are interested in: building a compiler for a
+   specific language. However, there are many other domains that can use
+   compiler technology that are not typically considered. For example,
+   LLVM has been used to implement OpenGL graphics acceleration,
+   translate C++ code to ActionScript, and many other cute and clever
+   things. Maybe you will be the first to JIT compile a regular
+   expression interpreter into native code with LLVM?
+
+Have fun - try doing something crazy and unusual. Building a language
+like everyone else always has, is much less fun than trying something a
+little crazy or off the wall and seeing how it turns out. If you get
+stuck or want to talk about it, feel free to email the `llvmdev mailing
+list <http://lists.cs.uiuc.edu/mailman/listinfo/llvmdev>`_: it has lots
+of people who are interested in languages and are often willing to help
+out.
+
+Before we end this tutorial, I want to talk about some "tips and tricks"
+for generating LLVM IR. These are some of the more subtle things that
+may not be obvious, but are very useful if you want to take advantage of
+LLVM's capabilities.
+
+Properties of the LLVM IR
+=========================
+
+We have a couple common questions about code in the LLVM IR form - lets
+just get these out of the way right now, shall we?
+
+Target Independence
+-------------------
+
+Kaleidoscope is an example of a "portable language": any program written
+in Kaleidoscope will work the same way on any target that it runs on.
+Many other languages have this property, e.g. lisp, java, haskell,
+javascript, python, etc (note that while these languages are portable,
+not all their libraries are).
+
+One nice aspect of LLVM is that it is often capable of preserving target
+independence in the IR: you can take the LLVM IR for a
+Kaleidoscope-compiled program and run it on any target that LLVM
+supports, even emitting C code and compiling that on targets that LLVM
+doesn't support natively. You can trivially tell that the Kaleidoscope
+compiler generates target-independent code because it never queries for
+any target-specific information when generating code.
+
+The fact that LLVM provides a compact, target-independent,
+representation for code gets a lot of people excited. Unfortunately,
+these people are usually thinking about C or a language from the C
+family when they are asking questions about language portability. I say
+"unfortunately", because there is really no way to make (fully general)
+C code portable, other than shipping the source code around (and of
+course, C source code is not actually portable in general either - ever
+port a really old application from 32- to 64-bits?).
+
+The problem with C (again, in its full generality) is that it is heavily
+laden with target specific assumptions. As one simple example, the
+preprocessor often destructively removes target-independence from the
+code when it processes the input text:
+
+.. code-block:: c
+
+    #ifdef __i386__
+      int X = 1;
+    #else
+      int X = 42;
+    #endif
+
+While it is possible to engineer more and more complex solutions to
+problems like this, it cannot be solved in full generality in a way that
+is better than shipping the actual source code.
+
+That said, there are interesting subsets of C that can be made portable.
+If you are willing to fix primitive types to a fixed size (say int =
+32-bits, and long = 64-bits), don't care about ABI compatibility with
+existing binaries, and are willing to give up some other minor features,
+you can have portable code. This can make sense for specialized domains
+such as an in-kernel language.
+
+Safety Guarantees
+-----------------
+
+Many of the languages above are also "safe" languages: it is impossible
+for a program written in Java to corrupt its address space and crash the
+process (assuming the JVM has no bugs). Safety is an interesting
+property that requires a combination of language design, runtime
+support, and often operating system support.
+
+It is certainly possible to implement a safe language in LLVM, but LLVM
+IR does not itself guarantee safety. The LLVM IR allows unsafe pointer
+casts, use after free bugs, buffer over-runs, and a variety of other
+problems. Safety needs to be implemented as a layer on top of LLVM and,
+conveniently, several groups have investigated this. Ask on the `llvmdev
+mailing list <http://lists.cs.uiuc.edu/mailman/listinfo/llvmdev>`_ if
+you are interested in more details.
+
+Language-Specific Optimizations
+-------------------------------
+
+One thing about LLVM that turns off many people is that it does not
+solve all the world's problems in one system (sorry 'world hunger',
+someone else will have to solve you some other day). One specific
+complaint is that people perceive LLVM as being incapable of performing
+high-level language-specific optimization: LLVM "loses too much
+information".
+
+Unfortunately, this is really not the place to give you a full and
+unified version of "Chris Lattner's theory of compiler design". Instead,
+I'll make a few observations:
+
+First, you're right that LLVM does lose information. For example, as of
+this writing, there is no way to distinguish in the LLVM IR whether an
+SSA-value came from a C "int" or a C "long" on an ILP32 machine (other
+than debug info). Both get compiled down to an 'i32' value and the
+information about what it came from is lost. The more general issue
+here, is that the LLVM type system uses "structural equivalence" instead
+of "name equivalence". Another place this surprises people is if you
+have two types in a high-level language that have the same structure
+(e.g. two different structs that have a single int field): these types
+will compile down into a single LLVM type and it will be impossible to
+tell what it came from.
+
+Second, while LLVM does lose information, LLVM is not a fixed target: we
+continue to enhance and improve it in many different ways. In addition
+to adding new features (LLVM did not always support exceptions or debug
+info), we also extend the IR to capture important information for
+optimization (e.g. whether an argument is sign or zero extended,
+information about pointers aliasing, etc). Many of the enhancements are
+user-driven: people want LLVM to include some specific feature, so they
+go ahead and extend it.
+
+Third, it is *possible and easy* to add language-specific optimizations,
+and you have a number of choices in how to do it. As one trivial
+example, it is easy to add language-specific optimization passes that
+"know" things about code compiled for a language. In the case of the C
+family, there is an optimization pass that "knows" about the standard C
+library functions. If you call "exit(0)" in main(), it knows that it is
+safe to optimize that into "return 0;" because C specifies what the
+'exit' function does.
+
+In addition to simple library knowledge, it is possible to embed a
+variety of other language-specific information into the LLVM IR. If you
+have a specific need and run into a wall, please bring the topic up on
+the llvmdev list. At the very worst, you can always treat LLVM as if it
+were a "dumb code generator" and implement the high-level optimizations
+you desire in your front-end, on the language-specific AST.
+
+Tips and Tricks
+===============
+
+There is a variety of useful tips and tricks that you come to know after
+working on/with LLVM that aren't obvious at first glance. Instead of
+letting everyone rediscover them, this section talks about some of these
+issues.
+
+Implementing portable offsetof/sizeof
+-------------------------------------
+
+One interesting thing that comes up, if you are trying to keep the code
+generated by your compiler "target independent", is that you often need
+to know the size of some LLVM type or the offset of some field in an
+llvm structure. For example, you might need to pass the size of a type
+into a function that allocates memory.
+
+Unfortunately, this can vary widely across targets: for example the
+width of a pointer is trivially target-specific. However, there is a
+`clever way to use the getelementptr
+instruction <http://nondot.org/sabre/LLVMNotes/SizeOf-OffsetOf-VariableSizedStructs.txt>`_
+that allows you to compute this in a portable way.
+
+Garbage Collected Stack Frames
+------------------------------
+
+Some languages want to explicitly manage their stack frames, often so
+that they are garbage collected or to allow easy implementation of
+closures. There are often better ways to implement these features than
+explicit stack frames, but `LLVM does support
+them, <http://nondot.org/sabre/LLVMNotes/ExplicitlyManagedStackFrames.txt>`_
+if you want. It requires your front-end to convert the code into
+`Continuation Passing
+Style <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Continuation-passing_style>`_ and
+the use of tail calls (which LLVM also supports).
+

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+================================
+LLVM Tutorial: Table of Contents
+================================
+
+Kaleidoscope: Implementing a Language with LLVM
+===============================================
+
+.. toctree::
+   :titlesonly:
+   :glob:
+   :numbered:
+
+   LangImpl*
+
+Kaleidoscope: Implementing a Language with LLVM in Objective Caml
+=================================================================
+
+.. toctree::
+   :titlesonly:
+   :glob:
+   :numbered:
+
+   OCamlLangImpl*
+
+External Tutorials
+==================
+
+`Tutorial: Creating an LLVM Backend for the Cpu0 Architecture <http://jonathan2251.github.com/lbd/>`_
+   A step-by-step tutorial for developing an LLVM backend. Under
+   active development at `<https://github.com/Jonathan2251/lbd>`_ (please
+   contribute!).
+
+`Howto: Implementing LLVM Integrated Assembler`_
+   A simple guide for how to implement an LLVM integrated assembler for an
+   architecture.
+
+.. _`Howto: Implementing LLVM Integrated Assembler`: http://www.embecosm.com/appnotes/ean10/ean10-howto-llvmas-1.0.html
+
+Advanced Topics
+===============
+
+#. `Writing an Optimization for LLVM <http://llvm.org/pubs/2004-09-22-LCPCLLVMTutorial.html>`_
+

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@@ -0,0 +1,220 @@
+yaml2obj
+========
+
+yaml2obj takes a YAML description of an object file and converts it to a binary
+file.
+
+    $ yaml2obj input-file
+
+.. program:: yaml2obj
+
+Outputs the binary to stdout.
+
+COFF Syntax
+-----------
+
+Here's a sample COFF file.
+
+.. code-block:: yaml
+
+  header:
+    Machine: IMAGE_FILE_MACHINE_I386 # (0x14C)
+
+  sections:
+    - Name: .text
+      Characteristics: [ IMAGE_SCN_CNT_CODE
+                       , IMAGE_SCN_ALIGN_16BYTES
+                       , IMAGE_SCN_MEM_EXECUTE
+                       , IMAGE_SCN_MEM_READ
+                       ] # 0x60500020
+      SectionData:
+        "\x83\xEC\x0C\xC7\x44\x24\x08\x00\x00\x00\x00\xC7\x04\x24\x00\x00\x00\x00\xE8\x00\x00\x00\x00\xE8\x00\x00\x00\x00\x8B\x44\x24\x08\x83\xC4\x0C\xC3" # |....D$.......$...............D$.....|
+
+  symbols:
+    - Name: .text
+      Value: 0
+      SectionNumber: 1
+      SimpleType: IMAGE_SYM_TYPE_NULL # (0)
+      ComplexType: IMAGE_SYM_DTYPE_NULL # (0)
+      StorageClass: IMAGE_SYM_CLASS_STATIC # (3)
+      NumberOfAuxSymbols: 1
+      AuxiliaryData:
+        "\x24\x00\x00\x00\x03\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x01\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00" # |$.................|
+
+    - Name: _main
+      Value: 0
+      SectionNumber: 1
+      SimpleType: IMAGE_SYM_TYPE_NULL # (0)
+      ComplexType: IMAGE_SYM_DTYPE_NULL # (0)
+      StorageClass: IMAGE_SYM_CLASS_EXTERNAL # (2)
+
+Here's a simplified Kwalify_ schema with an extension to allow alternate types.
+
+.. _Kwalify: http://www.kuwata-lab.com/kwalify/ruby/users-guide.html
+
+.. code-block:: yaml
+
+  type: map
+    mapping:
+      header:
+        type: map
+        mapping:
+          Machine: [ {type: str, enum:
+                                 [ IMAGE_FILE_MACHINE_UNKNOWN
+                                 , IMAGE_FILE_MACHINE_AM33
+                                 , IMAGE_FILE_MACHINE_AMD64
+                                 , IMAGE_FILE_MACHINE_ARM
+                                 , IMAGE_FILE_MACHINE_ARMNT
+                                 , IMAGE_FILE_MACHINE_EBC
+                                 , IMAGE_FILE_MACHINE_I386
+                                 , IMAGE_FILE_MACHINE_IA64
+                                 , IMAGE_FILE_MACHINE_M32R
+                                 , IMAGE_FILE_MACHINE_MIPS16
+                                 , IMAGE_FILE_MACHINE_MIPSFPU
+                                 , IMAGE_FILE_MACHINE_MIPSFPU16
+                                 , IMAGE_FILE_MACHINE_POWERPC
+                                 , IMAGE_FILE_MACHINE_POWERPCFP
+                                 , IMAGE_FILE_MACHINE_R4000
+                                 , IMAGE_FILE_MACHINE_SH3
+                                 , IMAGE_FILE_MACHINE_SH3DSP
+                                 , IMAGE_FILE_MACHINE_SH4
+                                 , IMAGE_FILE_MACHINE_SH5
+                                 , IMAGE_FILE_MACHINE_THUMB
+                                 , IMAGE_FILE_MACHINE_WCEMIPSV2
+                                 ]}
+                   , {type: int}
+                   ]
+          Characteristics:
+            - type: seq
+              sequence:
+                - type: str
+                  enum: [ IMAGE_FILE_RELOCS_STRIPPED
+                        , IMAGE_FILE_EXECUTABLE_IMAGE
+                        , IMAGE_FILE_LINE_NUMS_STRIPPED
+                        , IMAGE_FILE_LOCAL_SYMS_STRIPPED
+                        , IMAGE_FILE_AGGRESSIVE_WS_TRIM
+                        , IMAGE_FILE_LARGE_ADDRESS_AWARE
+                        , IMAGE_FILE_BYTES_REVERSED_LO
+                        , IMAGE_FILE_32BIT_MACHINE
+                        , IMAGE_FILE_DEBUG_STRIPPED
+                        , IMAGE_FILE_REMOVABLE_RUN_FROM_SWAP
+                        , IMAGE_FILE_NET_RUN_FROM_SWAP
+                        , IMAGE_FILE_SYSTEM
+                        , IMAGE_FILE_DLL
+                        , IMAGE_FILE_UP_SYSTEM_ONLY
+                        , IMAGE_FILE_BYTES_REVERSED_HI
+                        ]
+            - type: int
+      sections:
+        type: seq
+        sequence:
+          - type: map
+            mapping:
+              Name: {type: str}
+              Characteristics:
+                - type: seq
+                  sequence:
+                    - type: str
+                      enum: [ IMAGE_SCN_TYPE_NO_PAD
+                            , IMAGE_SCN_CNT_CODE
+                            , IMAGE_SCN_CNT_INITIALIZED_DATA
+                            , IMAGE_SCN_CNT_UNINITIALIZED_DATA
+                            , IMAGE_SCN_LNK_OTHER
+                            , IMAGE_SCN_LNK_INFO
+                            , IMAGE_SCN_LNK_REMOVE
+                            , IMAGE_SCN_LNK_COMDAT
+                            , IMAGE_SCN_GPREL
+                            , IMAGE_SCN_MEM_PURGEABLE
+                            , IMAGE_SCN_MEM_16BIT
+                            , IMAGE_SCN_MEM_LOCKED
+                            , IMAGE_SCN_MEM_PRELOAD
+                            , IMAGE_SCN_ALIGN_1BYTES
+                            , IMAGE_SCN_ALIGN_2BYTES
+                            , IMAGE_SCN_ALIGN_4BYTES
+                            , IMAGE_SCN_ALIGN_8BYTES
+                            , IMAGE_SCN_ALIGN_16BYTES
+                            , IMAGE_SCN_ALIGN_32BYTES
+                            , IMAGE_SCN_ALIGN_64BYTES
+                            , IMAGE_SCN_ALIGN_128BYTES
+                            , IMAGE_SCN_ALIGN_256BYTES
+                            , IMAGE_SCN_ALIGN_512BYTES
+                            , IMAGE_SCN_ALIGN_1024BYTES
+                            , IMAGE_SCN_ALIGN_2048BYTES
+                            , IMAGE_SCN_ALIGN_4096BYTES
+                            , IMAGE_SCN_ALIGN_8192BYTES
+                            , IMAGE_SCN_LNK_NRELOC_OVFL
+                            , IMAGE_SCN_MEM_DISCARDABLE
+                            , IMAGE_SCN_MEM_NOT_CACHED
+                            , IMAGE_SCN_MEM_NOT_PAGED
+                            , IMAGE_SCN_MEM_SHARED
+                            , IMAGE_SCN_MEM_EXECUTE
+                            , IMAGE_SCN_MEM_READ
+                            , IMAGE_SCN_MEM_WRITE
+                            ]
+                - type: int
+              SectionData: {type: str}
+      symbols:
+        type: seq
+        sequence:
+          - type: map
+            mapping:
+              Name: {type: str}
+              Value: {type: int}
+              SectionNumber: {type: int}
+              SimpleType: [ {type: str, enum: [ IMAGE_SYM_TYPE_NULL
+                                              , IMAGE_SYM_TYPE_VOID
+                                              , IMAGE_SYM_TYPE_CHAR
+                                              , IMAGE_SYM_TYPE_SHORT
+                                              , IMAGE_SYM_TYPE_INT
+                                              , IMAGE_SYM_TYPE_LONG
+                                              , IMAGE_SYM_TYPE_FLOAT
+                                              , IMAGE_SYM_TYPE_DOUBLE
+                                              , IMAGE_SYM_TYPE_STRUCT
+                                              , IMAGE_SYM_TYPE_UNION
+                                              , IMAGE_SYM_TYPE_ENUM
+                                              , IMAGE_SYM_TYPE_MOE
+                                              , IMAGE_SYM_TYPE_BYTE
+                                              , IMAGE_SYM_TYPE_WORD
+                                              , IMAGE_SYM_TYPE_UINT
+                                              , IMAGE_SYM_TYPE_DWORD
+                                              ]}
+                          , {type: int}
+                          ]
+              ComplexType: [ {type: str, enum: [ IMAGE_SYM_DTYPE_NULL
+                                               , IMAGE_SYM_DTYPE_POINTER
+                                               , IMAGE_SYM_DTYPE_FUNCTION
+                                               , IMAGE_SYM_DTYPE_ARRAY
+                                               ]}
+                           , {type: int}
+                           ]
+              StorageClass: [ {type: str, enum:
+                                          [ IMAGE_SYM_CLASS_END_OF_FUNCTION
+                                          , IMAGE_SYM_CLASS_NULL
+                                          , IMAGE_SYM_CLASS_AUTOMATIC
+                                          , IMAGE_SYM_CLASS_EXTERNAL
+                                          , IMAGE_SYM_CLASS_STATIC
+                                          , IMAGE_SYM_CLASS_REGISTER
+                                          , IMAGE_SYM_CLASS_EXTERNAL_DEF
+                                          , IMAGE_SYM_CLASS_LABEL
+                                          , IMAGE_SYM_CLASS_UNDEFINED_LABEL
+                                          , IMAGE_SYM_CLASS_MEMBER_OF_STRUCT
+                                          , IMAGE_SYM_CLASS_ARGUMENT
+                                          , IMAGE_SYM_CLASS_STRUCT_TAG
+                                          , IMAGE_SYM_CLASS_MEMBER_OF_UNION
+                                          , IMAGE_SYM_CLASS_UNION_TAG
+                                          , IMAGE_SYM_CLASS_TYPE_DEFINITION
+                                          , IMAGE_SYM_CLASS_UNDEFINED_STATIC
+                                          , IMAGE_SYM_CLASS_ENUM_TAG
+                                          , IMAGE_SYM_CLASS_MEMBER_OF_ENUM
+                                          , IMAGE_SYM_CLASS_REGISTER_PARAM
+                                          , IMAGE_SYM_CLASS_BIT_FIELD
+                                          , IMAGE_SYM_CLASS_BLOCK
+                                          , IMAGE_SYM_CLASS_FUNCTION
+                                          , IMAGE_SYM_CLASS_END_OF_STRUCT
+                                          , IMAGE_SYM_CLASS_FILE
+                                          , IMAGE_SYM_CLASS_SECTION
+                                          , IMAGE_SYM_CLASS_WEAK_EXTERNAL
+                                          , IMAGE_SYM_CLASS_CLR_TOKEN
+                                          ]}
+                            , {type: int}
+                            ]

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@@ -0,0 +1,540 @@
+/*
+ * basic.css
+ * ~~~~~~~~~
+ *
+ * Sphinx stylesheet -- basic theme.
+ *
+ * :copyright: Copyright 2007-2011 by the Sphinx team, see AUTHORS.
+ * :license: BSD, see LICENSE for details.
+ *
+ */
+
+/* -- main layout ----------------------------------------------------------- */
+
+div.clearer {
+    clear: both;
+}
+
+/* -- relbar ---------------------------------------------------------------- */
+
+div.related {
+    width: 100%;
+    font-size: 90%;
+}
+
+div.related h3 {
+    display: none;
+}
+
+div.related ul {
+    margin: 0;
+    padding: 0 0 0 10px;
+    list-style: none;
+}
+
+div.related li {
+    display: inline;
+}
+
+div.related li.right {
+    float: right;
+    margin-right: 5px;
+}
+
+/* -- sidebar --------------------------------------------------------------- */
+
+div.sphinxsidebarwrapper {
+    padding: 10px 5px 0 10px;
+}
+
+div.sphinxsidebar {
+    float: left;
+    width: 230px;
+    margin-left: -100%;
+    font-size: 90%;
+}
+
+div.sphinxsidebar ul {
+    list-style: none;
+}
+
+div.sphinxsidebar ul ul,
+div.sphinxsidebar ul.want-points {
+    margin-left: 20px;
+    list-style: square;
+}
+
+div.sphinxsidebar ul ul {
+    margin-top: 0;
+    margin-bottom: 0;
+}
+
+div.sphinxsidebar form {
+    margin-top: 10px;
+}
+
+div.sphinxsidebar input {
+    border: 1px solid #98dbcc;
+    font-family: sans-serif;
+    font-size: 1em;
+}
+
+div.sphinxsidebar #searchbox input[type="text"] {
+    width: 170px;
+}
+
+div.sphinxsidebar #searchbox input[type="submit"] {
+    width: 30px;
+}
+
+img {
+    border: 0;
+}
+
+/* -- search page ----------------------------------------------------------- */
+
+ul.search {
+    margin: 10px 0 0 20px;
+    padding: 0;
+}
+
+ul.search li {
+    padding: 5px 0 5px 20px;
+    background-image: url(file.png);
+    background-repeat: no-repeat;
+    background-position: 0 7px;
+}
+
+ul.search li a {
+    font-weight: bold;
+}
+
+ul.search li div.context {
+    color: #888;
+    margin: 2px 0 0 30px;
+    text-align: left;
+}
+
+ul.keywordmatches li.goodmatch a {
+    font-weight: bold;
+}
+
+/* -- index page ------------------------------------------------------------ */
+
+table.contentstable {
+    width: 90%;
+}
+
+table.contentstable p.biglink {
+    line-height: 150%;
+}
+
+a.biglink {
+    font-size: 1.3em;
+}
+
+span.linkdescr {
+    font-style: italic;
+    padding-top: 5px;
+    font-size: 90%;
+}
+
+/* -- general index --------------------------------------------------------- */
+
+table.indextable {
+    width: 100%;
+}
+
+table.indextable td {
+    text-align: left;
+    vertical-align: top;
+}
+
+table.indextable dl, table.indextable dd {
+    margin-top: 0;
+    margin-bottom: 0;
+}
+
+table.indextable tr.pcap {
+    height: 10px;
+}
+
+table.indextable tr.cap {
+    margin-top: 10px;
+    background-color: #f2f2f2;
+}
+
+img.toggler {
+    margin-right: 3px;
+    margin-top: 3px;
+    cursor: pointer;
+}
+
+div.modindex-jumpbox {
+    border-top: 1px solid #ddd;
+    border-bottom: 1px solid #ddd;
+    margin: 1em 0 1em 0;
+    padding: 0.4em;
+}
+
+div.genindex-jumpbox {
+    border-top: 1px solid #ddd;
+    border-bottom: 1px solid #ddd;
+    margin: 1em 0 1em 0;
+    padding: 0.4em;
+}
+
+/* -- general body styles --------------------------------------------------- */
+
+a.headerlink {
+    visibility: hidden;
+}
+
+h1:hover > a.headerlink,
+h2:hover > a.headerlink,
+h3:hover > a.headerlink,
+h4:hover > a.headerlink,
+h5:hover > a.headerlink,
+h6:hover > a.headerlink,
+dt:hover > a.headerlink {
+    visibility: visible;
+}
+
+div.body p.caption {
+    text-align: inherit;
+}
+
+div.body td {
+    text-align: left;
+}
+
+.field-list ul {
+    padding-left: 1em;
+}
+
+.first {
+    margin-top: 0 !important;
+}
+
+p.rubric {
+    margin-top: 30px;
+    font-weight: bold;
+}
+
+img.align-left, .figure.align-left, object.align-left {
+    clear: left;
+    float: left;
+    margin-right: 1em;
+}
+
+img.align-right, .figure.align-right, object.align-right {
+    clear: right;
+    float: right;
+    margin-left: 1em;
+}
+
+img.align-center, .figure.align-center, object.align-center {
+  display: block;
+  margin-left: auto;
+  margin-right: auto;
+}
+
+.align-left {
+    text-align: left;
+}
+
+.align-center {
+    text-align: center;
+}
+
+.align-right {
+    text-align: right;
+}
+
+/* -- sidebars -------------------------------------------------------------- */
+
+div.sidebar {
+    margin: 0 0 0.5em 1em;
+    border: 1px solid #ddb;
+    padding: 7px 7px 0 7px;
+    background-color: #ffe;
+    width: 40%;
+    float: right;
+}
+
+p.sidebar-title {
+    font-weight: bold;
+}
+
+/* -- topics ---------------------------------------------------------------- */
+
+div.topic {
+    border: 1px solid #ccc;
+    padding: 7px 7px 0 7px;
+    margin: 10px 0 10px 0;
+}
+
+p.topic-title {
+    font-size: 1.1em;
+    font-weight: bold;
+    margin-top: 10px;
+}
+
+/* -- admonitions ----------------------------------------------------------- */
+
+div.admonition {
+    margin-top: 10px;
+    margin-bottom: 10px;
+    padding: 7px;
+}
+
+div.admonition dt {
+    font-weight: bold;
+}
+
+div.admonition dl {
+    margin-bottom: 0;
+}
+
+p.admonition-title {
+    margin: 0px 10px 5px 0px;
+    font-weight: bold;
+}
+
+div.body p.centered {
+    text-align: center;
+    margin-top: 25px;
+}
+
+/* -- tables ---------------------------------------------------------------- */
+
+table.docutils {
+    border: 0;
+    border-collapse: collapse;
+}
+
+table.docutils td, table.docutils th {
+    padding: 1px 8px 1px 5px;
+    border-top: 0;
+    border-left: 0;
+    border-right: 0;
+    border-bottom: 1px solid #aaa;
+}
+
+table.field-list td, table.field-list th {
+    border: 0 !important;
+}
+
+table.footnote td, table.footnote th {
+    border: 0 !important;
+}
+
+th {
+    text-align: left;
+    padding-right: 5px;
+}
+
+table.citation {
+    border-left: solid 1px gray;
+    margin-left: 1px;
+}
+
+table.citation td {
+    border-bottom: none;
+}
+
+/* -- other body styles ----------------------------------------------------- */
+
+ol.arabic {
+    list-style: decimal;
+}
+
+ol.loweralpha {
+    list-style: lower-alpha;
+}
+
+ol.upperalpha {
+    list-style: upper-alpha;
+}
+
+ol.lowerroman {
+    list-style: lower-roman;
+}
+
+ol.upperroman {
+    list-style: upper-roman;
+}
+
+dl {
+    margin-bottom: 15px;
+}
+
+dd p {
+    margin-top: 0px;
+}
+
+dd ul, dd table {
+    margin-bottom: 10px;
+}
+
+dd {
+    margin-top: 3px;
+    margin-bottom: 10px;
+    margin-left: 30px;
+}
+
+dt:target, .highlighted {
+    background-color: #fbe54e;
+}
+
+dl.glossary dt {
+    font-weight: bold;
+    font-size: 1.1em;
+}
+
+.field-list ul {
+    margin: 0;
+    padding-left: 1em;
+}
+
+.field-list p {
+    margin: 0;
+}
+
+.refcount {
+    color: #060;
+}
+
+.optional {
+    font-size: 1.3em;
+}
+
+.versionmodified {
+    font-style: italic;
+}
+
+.system-message {
+    background-color: #fda;
+    padding: 5px;
+    border: 3px solid red;
+}
+
+.footnote:target  {
+    background-color: #ffa;
+}
+
+.line-block {
+    display: block;
+    margin-top: 1em;
+    margin-bottom: 1em;
+}
+
+.line-block .line-block {
+    margin-top: 0;
+    margin-bottom: 0;
+    margin-left: 1.5em;
+}
+
+.guilabel, .menuselection {
+    font-family: sans-serif;
+}
+
+.accelerator {
+    text-decoration: underline;
+}
+
+.classifier {
+    font-style: oblique;
+}
+
+abbr, acronym {
+    border-bottom: dotted 1px;
+    cursor: help;
+}
+
+/* -- code displays --------------------------------------------------------- */
+
+pre {
+    overflow: auto;
+    overflow-y: hidden;  /* fixes display issues on Chrome browsers */
+}
+
+td.linenos pre {
+    padding: 5px 0px;
+    border: 0;
+    background-color: transparent;
+    color: #aaa;
+}
+
+table.highlighttable {
+    margin-left: 0.5em;
+}
+
+table.highlighttable td {
+    padding: 0 0.5em 0 0.5em;
+}
+
+tt.descname {
+    background-color: transparent;
+    font-weight: bold;
+    font-size: 1.2em;
+}
+
+tt.descclassname {
+    background-color: transparent;
+}
+
+tt.xref, a tt {
+    background-color: transparent;
+    font-weight: bold;
+}
+
+h1 tt, h2 tt, h3 tt, h4 tt, h5 tt, h6 tt {
+    background-color: transparent;
+}
+
+.viewcode-link {
+    float: right;
+}
+
+.viewcode-back {
+    float: right;
+    font-family: sans-serif;
+}
+
+div.viewcode-block:target {
+    margin: -1px -10px;
+    padding: 0 10px;
+}
+
+/* -- math display ---------------------------------------------------------- */
+
+img.math {
+    vertical-align: middle;
+}
+
+div.body div.math p {
+    text-align: center;
+}
+
+span.eqno {
+    float: right;
+}
+
+/* -- printout stylesheet --------------------------------------------------- */
+
+ at media print {
+    div.document,
+    div.documentwrapper,
+    div.bodywrapper {
+        margin: 0 !important;
+        width: 100%;
+    }
+
+    div.sphinxsidebar,
+    div.related,
+    div.footer,
+    #top-link {
+        display: none;
+    }
+}
\ No newline at end of file

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Added: www-releases/trunk/3.5.1/docs/_static/doctools.js
URL: http://llvm.org/viewvc/llvm-project/www-releases/trunk/3.5.1/docs/_static/doctools.js?rev=225843&view=auto
==============================================================================
--- www-releases/trunk/3.5.1/docs/_static/doctools.js (added)
+++ www-releases/trunk/3.5.1/docs/_static/doctools.js Tue Jan 13 16:55:20 2015
@@ -0,0 +1,247 @@
+/*
+ * doctools.js
+ * ~~~~~~~~~~~
+ *
+ * Sphinx JavaScript utilities for all documentation.
+ *
+ * :copyright: Copyright 2007-2011 by the Sphinx team, see AUTHORS.
+ * :license: BSD, see LICENSE for details.
+ *
+ */
+
+/**
+ * select a different prefix for underscore
+ */
+$u = _.noConflict();
+
+/**
+ * make the code below compatible with browsers without
+ * an installed firebug like debugger
+if (!window.console || !console.firebug) {
+  var names = ["log", "debug", "info", "warn", "error", "assert", "dir",
+    "dirxml", "group", "groupEnd", "time", "timeEnd", "count", "trace",
+    "profile", "profileEnd"];
+  window.console = {};
+  for (var i = 0; i < names.length; ++i)
+    window.console[names[i]] = function() {};
+}
+ */
+
+/**
+ * small helper function to urldecode strings
+ */
+jQuery.urldecode = function(x) {
+  return decodeURIComponent(x).replace(/\+/g, ' ');
+}
+
+/**
+ * small helper function to urlencode strings
+ */
+jQuery.urlencode = encodeURIComponent;
+
+/**
+ * This function returns the parsed url parameters of the
+ * current request. Multiple values per key are supported,
+ * it will always return arrays of strings for the value parts.
+ */
+jQuery.getQueryParameters = function(s) {
+  if (typeof s == 'undefined')
+    s = document.location.search;
+  var parts = s.substr(s.indexOf('?') + 1).split('&');
+  var result = {};
+  for (var i = 0; i < parts.length; i++) {
+    var tmp = parts[i].split('=', 2);
+    var key = jQuery.urldecode(tmp[0]);
+    var value = jQuery.urldecode(tmp[1]);
+    if (key in result)
+      result[key].push(value);
+    else
+      result[key] = [value];
+  }
+  return result;
+};
+
+/**
+ * small function to check if an array contains
+ * a given item.
+ */
+jQuery.contains = function(arr, item) {
+  for (var i = 0; i < arr.length; i++) {
+    if (arr[i] == item)
+      return true;
+  }
+  return false;
+};
+
+/**
+ * highlight a given string on a jquery object by wrapping it in
+ * span elements with the given class name.
+ */
+jQuery.fn.highlightText = function(text, className) {
+  function highlight(node) {
+    if (node.nodeType == 3) {
+      var val = node.nodeValue;
+      var pos = val.toLowerCase().indexOf(text);
+      if (pos >= 0 && !jQuery(node.parentNode).hasClass(className)) {
+        var span = document.createElement("span");
+        span.className = className;
+        span.appendChild(document.createTextNode(val.substr(pos, text.length)));
+        node.parentNode.insertBefore(span, node.parentNode.insertBefore(
+          document.createTextNode(val.substr(pos + text.length)),
+          node.nextSibling));
+        node.nodeValue = val.substr(0, pos);
+      }
+    }
+    else if (!jQuery(node).is("button, select, textarea")) {
+      jQuery.each(node.childNodes, function() {
+        highlight(this);
+      });
+    }
+  }
+  return this.each(function() {
+    highlight(this);
+  });
+};
+
+/**
+ * Small JavaScript module for the documentation.
+ */
+var Documentation = {
+
+  init : function() {
+    this.fixFirefoxAnchorBug();
+    this.highlightSearchWords();
+    this.initIndexTable();
+  },
+
+  /**
+   * i18n support
+   */
+  TRANSLATIONS : {},
+  PLURAL_EXPR : function(n) { return n == 1 ? 0 : 1; },
+  LOCALE : 'unknown',
+
+  // gettext and ngettext don't access this so that the functions
+  // can safely bound to a different name (_ = Documentation.gettext)
+  gettext : function(string) {
+    var translated = Documentation.TRANSLATIONS[string];
+    if (typeof translated == 'undefined')
+      return string;
+    return (typeof translated == 'string') ? translated : translated[0];
+  },
+
+  ngettext : function(singular, plural, n) {
+    var translated = Documentation.TRANSLATIONS[singular];
+    if (typeof translated == 'undefined')
+      return (n == 1) ? singular : plural;
+    return translated[Documentation.PLURALEXPR(n)];
+  },
+
+  addTranslations : function(catalog) {
+    for (var key in catalog.messages)
+      this.TRANSLATIONS[key] = catalog.messages[key];
+    this.PLURAL_EXPR = new Function('n', 'return +(' + catalog.plural_expr + ')');
+    this.LOCALE = catalog.locale;
+  },
+
+  /**
+   * add context elements like header anchor links
+   */
+  addContextElements : function() {
+    $('div[id] > :header:first').each(function() {
+      $('<a class="headerlink">\u00B6</a>').
+      attr('href', '#' + this.id).
+      attr('title', _('Permalink to this headline')).
+      appendTo(this);
+    });
+    $('dt[id]').each(function() {
+      $('<a class="headerlink">\u00B6</a>').
+      attr('href', '#' + this.id).
+      attr('title', _('Permalink to this definition')).
+      appendTo(this);
+    });
+  },
+
+  /**
+   * workaround a firefox stupidity
+   */
+  fixFirefoxAnchorBug : function() {
+    if (document.location.hash && $.browser.mozilla)
+      window.setTimeout(function() {
+        document.location.href += '';
+      }, 10);
+  },
+
+  /**
+   * highlight the search words provided in the url in the text
+   */
+  highlightSearchWords : function() {
+    var params = $.getQueryParameters();
+    var terms = (params.highlight) ? params.highlight[0].split(/\s+/) : [];
+    if (terms.length) {
+      var body = $('div.body');
+      window.setTimeout(function() {
+        $.each(terms, function() {
+          body.highlightText(this.toLowerCase(), 'highlighted');
+        });
+      }, 10);
+      $('<p class="highlight-link"><a href="javascript:Documentation.' +
+        'hideSearchWords()">' + _('Hide Search Matches') + '</a></p>')
+          .appendTo($('#searchbox'));
+    }
+  },
+
+  /**
+   * init the domain index toggle buttons
+   */
+  initIndexTable : function() {
+    var togglers = $('img.toggler').click(function() {
+      var src = $(this).attr('src');
+      var idnum = $(this).attr('id').substr(7);
+      $('tr.cg-' + idnum).toggle();
+      if (src.substr(-9) == 'minus.png')
+        $(this).attr('src', src.substr(0, src.length-9) + 'plus.png');
+      else
+        $(this).attr('src', src.substr(0, src.length-8) + 'minus.png');
+    }).css('display', '');
+    if (DOCUMENTATION_OPTIONS.COLLAPSE_INDEX) {
+        togglers.click();
+    }
+  },
+
+  /**
+   * helper function to hide the search marks again
+   */
+  hideSearchWords : function() {
+    $('#searchbox .highlight-link').fadeOut(300);
+    $('span.highlighted').removeClass('highlighted');
+  },
+
+  /**
+   * make the url absolute
+   */
+  makeURL : function(relativeURL) {
+    return DOCUMENTATION_OPTIONS.URL_ROOT + '/' + relativeURL;
+  },
+
+  /**
+   * get the current relative url
+   */
+  getCurrentURL : function() {
+    var path = document.location.pathname;
+    var parts = path.split(/\//);
+    $.each(DOCUMENTATION_OPTIONS.URL_ROOT.split(/\//), function() {
+      if (this == '..')
+        parts.pop();
+    });
+    var url = parts.join('/');
+    return path.substring(url.lastIndexOf('/') + 1, path.length - 1);
+  }
+};
+
+// quick alias for translations
+_ = Documentation.gettext;
+
+$(document).ready(function() {
+  Documentation.init();
+});

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URL: http://llvm.org/viewvc/llvm-project/www-releases/trunk/3.5.1/docs/_static/jquery.js?rev=225843&view=auto
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--- www-releases/trunk/3.5.1/docs/_static/jquery.js (added)
+++ www-releases/trunk/3.5.1/docs/_static/jquery.js Tue Jan 13 16:55:20 2015
@@ -0,0 +1,154 @@
+/*!
+ * jQuery JavaScript Library v1.4.2
+ * http://jquery.com/
+ *
+ * Copyright 2010, John Resig
+ * Dual licensed under the MIT or GPL Version 2 licenses.
+ * http://jquery.org/license
+ *
+ * Includes Sizzle.js
+ * http://sizzlejs.com/
+ * Copyright 2010, The Dojo Foundation
+ * Released under the MIT, BSD, and GPL Licenses.
+ *
+ * Date: Sat Feb 13 22:33:48 2010 -0500
+ */
+(function(A,w){function ma(){if(!c.isReady){try{s.documentElement.doScroll("left")}catch(a){setTimeout(ma,1);return}c.ready()}}function Qa(a,b){b.src?c.ajax({url:b.src,async:false,dataType:"script"}):c.globalEval(b.text||b.textContent||b.innerHTML||"");b.parentNode&&b.parentNode.removeChild(b)}function X(a,b,d,f,e,j){var i=a.length;if(typeof b==="object"){for(var o in b)X(a,o,b[o],f,e,d);return a}if(d!==w){f=!j&&f&&c.isFunction(d);for(o=0;o<i;o++)e(a[o],b,f?d.call(a[o],o,e(a[o],b)):d,j);return a}return i?
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Added: www-releases/trunk/3.5.1/docs/_static/lines.gif
URL: http://llvm.org/viewvc/llvm-project/www-releases/trunk/3.5.1/docs/_static/lines.gif?rev=225843&view=auto
==============================================================================
Binary file - no diff available.

Propchange: www-releases/trunk/3.5.1/docs/_static/lines.gif
------------------------------------------------------------------------------
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Added: www-releases/trunk/3.5.1/docs/_static/llvm-theme.css
URL: http://llvm.org/viewvc/llvm-project/www-releases/trunk/3.5.1/docs/_static/llvm-theme.css?rev=225843&view=auto
==============================================================================
--- www-releases/trunk/3.5.1/docs/_static/llvm-theme.css (added)
+++ www-releases/trunk/3.5.1/docs/_static/llvm-theme.css Tue Jan 13 16:55:20 2015
@@ -0,0 +1,371 @@
+/*
+ * sphinxdoc.css_t
+ * ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
+ *
+ * Sphinx stylesheet -- sphinxdoc theme.  Originally created by
+ * Armin Ronacher for Werkzeug.
+ *
+ * :copyright: Copyright 2007-2010 by the Sphinx team, see AUTHORS.
+ * :license: BSD, see LICENSE for details.
+ *
+ */
+
+ at import url("basic.css");
+
+/* -- page layout ----------------------------------------------------------- */
+
+body {
+    font-family: 'Lucida Grande', 'Lucida Sans Unicode', 'Geneva',
+                 'Verdana', sans-serif;
+    font-size: 14px;
+    line-height: 150%;
+    text-align: center;
+    background-color: #BFD1D4;
+    color: black;
+    padding: 0;
+    border: 1px solid #aaa;
+
+    margin: 0px 80px 0px 80px;
+    min-width: 740px;
+}
+
+div.logo {
+    background-color: white;
+    text-align: left;
+    padding: 10px 10px 15px 15px;
+}
+
+div.document {
+    background-color: white;
+    text-align: left;
+    background-image: url(contents.png);
+    background-repeat: repeat-x;
+}
+
+div.bodywrapper {
+    margin: 0 240px 0 0;
+    border-right: 1px solid #ccc;
+}
+
+div.body {
+    margin: 0;
+    padding: 0.5em 20px 20px 20px;
+}
+
+div.related {
+    font-size: 1em;
+}
+
+div.related ul {
+    background-image: url(navigation.png);
+    height: 2em;
+    border-top: 1px solid #ddd;
+    border-bottom: 1px solid #ddd;
+}
+
+div.related ul li {
+    margin: 0;
+    padding: 0;
+    height: 2em;
+    float: left;
+}
+
+div.related ul li.right {
+    float: right;
+    margin-right: 5px;
+}
+
+div.related ul li a {
+    margin: 0;
+    padding: 0 5px 0 5px;
+    line-height: 1.75em;
+    color: #EE9816;
+}
+
+div.related ul li a:hover {
+    color: #3CA8E7;
+}
+
+div.sphinxsidebarwrapper {
+    padding: 0;
+}
+
+div.sphinxsidebar {
+    margin: 0;
+    padding: 0.5em 15px 15px 0;
+    width: 210px;
+    float: right;
+    font-size: 1em;
+    text-align: left;
+}
+
+div.sphinxsidebar h3, div.sphinxsidebar h4 {
+    margin: 1em 0 0.5em 0;
+    font-size: 1em;
+    padding: 0.1em 0 0.1em 0.5em;
+    color: white;
+    border: 1px solid #86989B;
+    background-color: #AFC1C4;
+}
+
+div.sphinxsidebar h3 a {
+    color: white;
+}
+
+div.sphinxsidebar ul {
+    padding-left: 1.5em;
+    margin-top: 7px;
+    padding: 0;
+    line-height: 130%;
+}
+
+div.sphinxsidebar ul ul {
+    margin-left: 20px;
+}
+
+div.footer {
+    background-color: #E3EFF1;
+    color: #86989B;
+    padding: 3px 8px 3px 0;
+    clear: both;
+    font-size: 0.8em;
+    text-align: right;
+}
+
+div.footer a {
+    color: #86989B;
+    text-decoration: underline;
+}
+
+/* -- body styles ----------------------------------------------------------- */
+
+p {
+    margin: 0.8em 0 0.5em 0;
+}
+
+a {
+    color: #CA7900;
+    text-decoration: none;
+}
+
+a:hover {
+    color: #2491CF;
+}
+
+div.body p a{
+    text-decoration: underline;
+}
+
+h1 {
+    margin: 0;
+    padding: 0.7em 0 0.3em 0;
+    font-size: 1.5em;
+    color: #11557C;
+}
+
+h2 {
+    margin: 1.3em 0 0.2em 0;
+    font-size: 1.35em;
+    padding: 0;
+}
+
+h3 {
+    margin: 1em 0 -0.3em 0;
+    font-size: 1.2em;
+}
+
+h3 a:hover {
+    text-decoration: underline;
+}
+
+div.body h1 a, div.body h2 a, div.body h3 a, div.body h4 a, div.body h5 a, div.body h6 a {
+    color: black!important;
+}
+
+div.body h1,
+div.body h2,
+div.body h3,
+div.body h4,
+div.body h5,
+div.body h6 {
+    background-color: #f2f2f2;
+    font-weight: normal;
+    color: #20435c;
+    border-bottom: 1px solid #ccc;
+    margin: 20px -20px 10px -20px;
+    padding: 3px 0 3px 10px;
+}
+
+div.body h1 { margin-top: 0; font-size: 200%; }
+div.body h2 { font-size: 160%; }
+div.body h3 { font-size: 140%; }
+div.body h4 { font-size: 120%; }
+div.body h5 { font-size: 110%; }
+div.body h6 { font-size: 100%; }
+
+h1 a.anchor, h2 a.anchor, h3 a.anchor, h4 a.anchor, h5 a.anchor, h6 a.anchor {
+    display: none;
+    margin: 0 0 0 0.3em;
+    padding: 0 0.2em 0 0.2em;
+    color: #aaa!important;
+}
+
+h1:hover a.anchor, h2:hover a.anchor, h3:hover a.anchor, h4:hover a.anchor,
+h5:hover a.anchor, h6:hover a.anchor {
+    display: inline;
+}
+
+h1 a.anchor:hover, h2 a.anchor:hover, h3 a.anchor:hover, h4 a.anchor:hover,
+h5 a.anchor:hover, h6 a.anchor:hover {
+    color: #777;
+    background-color: #eee;
+}
+
+a.headerlink {
+    color: #c60f0f!important;
+    font-size: 1em;
+    margin-left: 6px;
+    padding: 0 4px 0 4px;
+    text-decoration: none!important;
+}
+
+a.headerlink:hover {
+    background-color: #ccc;
+    color: white!important;
+}
+
+cite, code, tt {
+    font-family: 'Consolas', 'Deja Vu Sans Mono',
+                 'Bitstream Vera Sans Mono', monospace;
+    font-size: 0.95em;
+}
+
+:not(a.reference) > tt {
+    background-color: #f2f2f2;
+    border-bottom: 1px solid #ddd;
+    color: #333;
+}
+
+tt.descname, tt.descclassname, tt.xref {
+    border: 0;
+}
+
+hr {
+    border: 1px solid #abc;
+    margin: 2em;
+}
+
+p a tt {
+    border: 0;
+    color: #CA7900;
+}
+
+p a tt:hover {
+    color: #2491CF;
+}
+
+a tt {
+    border: none;
+}
+
+pre {
+    font-family: 'Consolas', 'Deja Vu Sans Mono',
+                 'Bitstream Vera Sans Mono', monospace;
+    font-size: 0.95em;
+    line-height: 120%;
+    padding: 0.5em;
+    border: 1px solid #ccc;
+    background-color: #f8f8f8;
+}
+
+pre a {
+    color: inherit;
+    text-decoration: underline;
+}
+
+td.linenos pre {
+    padding: 0.5em 0;
+}
+
+div.quotebar {
+    background-color: #f8f8f8;
+    max-width: 250px;
+    float: right;
+    padding: 2px 7px;
+    border: 1px solid #ccc;
+}
+
+div.topic {
+    background-color: #f8f8f8;
+}
+
+table {
+    border-collapse: collapse;
+    margin: 0 -0.5em 0 -0.5em;
+}
+
+table td, table th {
+    padding: 0.2em 0.5em 0.2em 0.5em;
+}
+
+div.admonition, div.warning {
+    font-size: 0.9em;
+    margin: 1em 0 1em 0;
+    border: 1px solid #86989B;
+    background-color: #f7f7f7;
+    padding: 0;
+}
+
+div.admonition p, div.warning p {
+    margin: 0.5em 1em 0.5em 1em;
+    padding: 0;
+}
+
+div.admonition pre, div.warning pre {
+    margin: 0.4em 1em 0.4em 1em;
+}
+
+div.admonition p.admonition-title,
+div.warning p.admonition-title {
+    margin: 0;
+    padding: 0.1em 0 0.1em 0.5em;
+    color: white;
+    border-bottom: 1px solid #86989B;
+    font-weight: bold;
+    background-color: #AFC1C4;
+}
+
+div.warning {
+    border: 1px solid #940000;
+}
+
+div.warning p.admonition-title {
+    background-color: #CF0000;
+    border-bottom-color: #940000;
+}
+
+div.admonition ul, div.admonition ol,
+div.warning ul, div.warning ol {
+    margin: 0.1em 0.5em 0.5em 3em;
+    padding: 0;
+}
+
+div.versioninfo {
+    margin: 1em 0 0 0;
+    border: 1px solid #ccc;
+    background-color: #DDEAF0;
+    padding: 8px;
+    line-height: 1.3em;
+    font-size: 0.9em;
+}
+
+.viewcode-back {
+    font-family: 'Lucida Grande', 'Lucida Sans Unicode', 'Geneva',
+                 'Verdana', sans-serif;
+}
+
+div.viewcode-block:target {
+    background-color: #f4debf;
+    border-top: 1px solid #ac9;
+    border-bottom: 1px solid #ac9;
+}

Added: www-releases/trunk/3.5.1/docs/_static/llvm.css
URL: http://llvm.org/viewvc/llvm-project/www-releases/trunk/3.5.1/docs/_static/llvm.css?rev=225843&view=auto
==============================================================================
--- www-releases/trunk/3.5.1/docs/_static/llvm.css (added)
+++ www-releases/trunk/3.5.1/docs/_static/llvm.css Tue Jan 13 16:55:20 2015
@@ -0,0 +1,112 @@
+/*
+ * LLVM documentation style sheet
+ */
+
+/* Common styles */
+.body { color: black; background: white; margin: 0 0 0 0 }
+
+/* No borders on image links */
+a:link img, a:visited img { border-style: none }
+
+address img { float: right; width: 88px; height: 31px; }
+address     { clear: right; }
+
+table       { text-align: center; border: 2px solid black;
+              border-collapse: collapse; margin-top: 1em; margin-left: 1em;
+              margin-right: 1em; margin-bottom: 1em; }
+tr, td      { border: 2px solid gray; padding: 4pt 4pt 2pt 2pt; }
+th          { border: 2px solid gray; font-weight: bold; font-size: 105%;
+              background: url("lines.gif");
+              font-family: "Georgia,Palatino,Times,Roman,SanSerif";
+              text-align: center; vertical-align: middle; }
+/*
+ * Documentation
+ */
+/* Common for title and header */
+.doc_title, .doc_section, .doc_subsection, h1, h2, h3 {
+  color: black; background: url("lines.gif");
+  font-family: "Georgia,Palatino,Times,Roman,SanSerif"; font-weight: bold;
+  border-width: 1px;
+  border-style: solid none solid none;
+  text-align: center;
+  vertical-align: middle;
+  padding-left: 8pt;
+  padding-top: 1px;
+  padding-bottom: 2px
+}
+
+h1, .doc_title, .title { text-align: left;   font-size: 25pt }
+
+h2, .doc_section   { text-align: center; font-size: 22pt;
+                     margin: 20pt 0pt 5pt 0pt; }
+
+h3, .doc_subsection { width: 75%;
+                      text-align: left;  font-size: 12pt;
+                      padding: 4pt 4pt 4pt 4pt;
+                      margin: 1.5em 0.5em 0.5em 0.5em }
+
+h4, .doc_subsubsection { margin: 2.0em 0.5em 0.5em 0.5em;
+                         font-weight: bold; font-style: oblique;
+                         border-bottom: 1px solid #999999; font-size: 12pt;
+                         width: 75%; }
+
+.doc_author     { text-align: left; font-weight: bold; padding-left: 20pt }
+.doc_text       { text-align: left; padding-left: 20pt; padding-right: 10pt }
+
+.doc_footer     { text-align: left; padding: 0 0 0 0 }
+
+.doc_hilite     { color: blue; font-weight: bold; }
+
+.doc_table      { text-align: center; width: 90%;
+                  padding: 1px 1px 1px 1px; border: 1px; }
+
+.doc_warning    { color: red; font-weight: bold }
+
+/* <div class="doc_code"> would use this class, and <div> adds more padding */
+.doc_code, .literal-block
+                { border: solid 1px gray; background: #eeeeee;
+                  margin: 0 1em 0 1em;
+                  padding: 0 1em 0 1em;
+                  display: table;
+                }
+
+blockquote pre {
+        padding: 1em 2em 1em 1em;
+        border: solid 1px gray;
+        background: #eeeeee;
+        margin: 0 1em 0 1em;
+        display: table;
+}
+
+h2+div, h2+p {text-align: left; padding-left: 20pt; padding-right: 10pt;}
+h3+div, h3+p {text-align: left; padding-left: 20pt; padding-right: 10pt;}
+h4+div, h4+p {text-align: left; padding-left: 20pt; padding-right: 10pt;}
+
+/* It is preferrable to use <pre class="doc_code"> everywhere instead of the
+ * <div class="doc_code"><pre>...</ptr></div> construct.
+ *
+ * Once all docs use <pre> for code regions, this style can  be merged with the
+ * one above, and we can drop the [pre] qualifier.
+ */
+pre.doc_code, .literal-block { padding: 1em 2em 1em 1em }
+
+.doc_notes      { background: #fafafa; border: 1px solid #cecece;
+                  display: table; padding: 0 1em 0 .1em }
+
+table.layout    { text-align: left; border: none; border-collapse: collapse;
+                  padding: 4px 4px 4px 4px; }
+tr.layout, td.layout, td.left, td.right
+                { border: none; padding: 4pt 4pt 2pt 2pt; vertical-align: top; }
+td.left         { text-align: left }
+td.right        { text-align: right }
+th.layout       { border: none; font-weight: bold; font-size: 105%;
+                  text-align: center; vertical-align: middle; }
+
+/* Left align table cell */
+.td_left        { border: 2px solid gray; text-align: left; }
+
+/* ReST-specific */
+.title { margin-top: 0 }
+.topic-title{ display: none }
+div.contents ul { list-style-type: decimal }
+.toc-backref    { color: black; text-decoration: none; }

Added: www-releases/trunk/3.5.1/docs/_static/logo.png
URL: http://llvm.org/viewvc/llvm-project/www-releases/trunk/3.5.1/docs/_static/logo.png?rev=225843&view=auto
==============================================================================
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Propchange: www-releases/trunk/3.5.1/docs/_static/logo.png
------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    svn:mime-type = image/png

Added: www-releases/trunk/3.5.1/docs/_static/minus.png
URL: http://llvm.org/viewvc/llvm-project/www-releases/trunk/3.5.1/docs/_static/minus.png?rev=225843&view=auto
==============================================================================
Binary file - no diff available.

Propchange: www-releases/trunk/3.5.1/docs/_static/minus.png
------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    svn:mime-type = image/png

Added: www-releases/trunk/3.5.1/docs/_static/navigation.png
URL: http://llvm.org/viewvc/llvm-project/www-releases/trunk/3.5.1/docs/_static/navigation.png?rev=225843&view=auto
==============================================================================
Binary file - no diff available.

Propchange: www-releases/trunk/3.5.1/docs/_static/navigation.png
------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    svn:mime-type = image/png

Added: www-releases/trunk/3.5.1/docs/_static/plus.png
URL: http://llvm.org/viewvc/llvm-project/www-releases/trunk/3.5.1/docs/_static/plus.png?rev=225843&view=auto
==============================================================================
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Propchange: www-releases/trunk/3.5.1/docs/_static/plus.png
------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    svn:mime-type = image/png

Added: www-releases/trunk/3.5.1/docs/_static/pygments.css
URL: http://llvm.org/viewvc/llvm-project/www-releases/trunk/3.5.1/docs/_static/pygments.css?rev=225843&view=auto
==============================================================================
--- www-releases/trunk/3.5.1/docs/_static/pygments.css (added)
+++ www-releases/trunk/3.5.1/docs/_static/pygments.css Tue Jan 13 16:55:20 2015
@@ -0,0 +1,62 @@
+.highlight .hll { background-color: #ffffcc }
+.highlight  { background: #f0f0f0; }
+.highlight .c { color: #60a0b0; font-style: italic } /* Comment */
+.highlight .err { border: 1px solid #FF0000 } /* Error */
+.highlight .k { color: #007020; font-weight: bold } /* Keyword */
+.highlight .o { color: #666666 } /* Operator */
+.highlight .cm { color: #60a0b0; font-style: italic } /* Comment.Multiline */
+.highlight .cp { color: #007020 } /* Comment.Preproc */
+.highlight .c1 { color: #60a0b0; font-style: italic } /* Comment.Single */
+.highlight .cs { color: #60a0b0; background-color: #fff0f0 } /* Comment.Special */
+.highlight .gd { color: #A00000 } /* Generic.Deleted */
+.highlight .ge { font-style: italic } /* Generic.Emph */
+.highlight .gr { color: #FF0000 } /* Generic.Error */
+.highlight .gh { color: #000080; font-weight: bold } /* Generic.Heading */
+.highlight .gi { color: #00A000 } /* Generic.Inserted */
+.highlight .go { color: #888888 } /* Generic.Output */
+.highlight .gp { color: #c65d09; font-weight: bold } /* Generic.Prompt */
+.highlight .gs { font-weight: bold } /* Generic.Strong */
+.highlight .gu { color: #800080; font-weight: bold } /* Generic.Subheading */
+.highlight .gt { color: #0044DD } /* Generic.Traceback */
+.highlight .kc { color: #007020; font-weight: bold } /* Keyword.Constant */
+.highlight .kd { color: #007020; font-weight: bold } /* Keyword.Declaration */
+.highlight .kn { color: #007020; font-weight: bold } /* Keyword.Namespace */
+.highlight .kp { color: #007020 } /* Keyword.Pseudo */
+.highlight .kr { color: #007020; font-weight: bold } /* Keyword.Reserved */
+.highlight .kt { color: #902000 } /* Keyword.Type */
+.highlight .m { color: #40a070 } /* Literal.Number */
+.highlight .s { color: #4070a0 } /* Literal.String */
+.highlight .na { color: #4070a0 } /* Name.Attribute */
+.highlight .nb { color: #007020 } /* Name.Builtin */
+.highlight .nc { color: #0e84b5; font-weight: bold } /* Name.Class */
+.highlight .no { color: #60add5 } /* Name.Constant */
+.highlight .nd { color: #555555; font-weight: bold } /* Name.Decorator */
+.highlight .ni { color: #d55537; font-weight: bold } /* Name.Entity */
+.highlight .ne { color: #007020 } /* Name.Exception */
+.highlight .nf { color: #06287e } /* Name.Function */
+.highlight .nl { color: #002070; font-weight: bold } /* Name.Label */
+.highlight .nn { color: #0e84b5; font-weight: bold } /* Name.Namespace */
+.highlight .nt { color: #062873; font-weight: bold } /* Name.Tag */
+.highlight .nv { color: #bb60d5 } /* Name.Variable */
+.highlight .ow { color: #007020; font-weight: bold } /* Operator.Word */
+.highlight .w { color: #bbbbbb } /* Text.Whitespace */
+.highlight .mf { color: #40a070 } /* Literal.Number.Float */
+.highlight .mh { color: #40a070 } /* Literal.Number.Hex */
+.highlight .mi { color: #40a070 } /* Literal.Number.Integer */
+.highlight .mo { color: #40a070 } /* Literal.Number.Oct */
+.highlight .sb { color: #4070a0 } /* Literal.String.Backtick */
+.highlight .sc { color: #4070a0 } /* Literal.String.Char */
+.highlight .sd { color: #4070a0; font-style: italic } /* Literal.String.Doc */
+.highlight .s2 { color: #4070a0 } /* Literal.String.Double */
+.highlight .se { color: #4070a0; font-weight: bold } /* Literal.String.Escape */
+.highlight .sh { color: #4070a0 } /* Literal.String.Heredoc */
+.highlight .si { color: #70a0d0; font-style: italic } /* Literal.String.Interpol */
+.highlight .sx { color: #c65d09 } /* Literal.String.Other */
+.highlight .sr { color: #235388 } /* Literal.String.Regex */
+.highlight .s1 { color: #4070a0 } /* Literal.String.Single */
+.highlight .ss { color: #517918 } /* Literal.String.Symbol */
+.highlight .bp { color: #007020 } /* Name.Builtin.Pseudo */
+.highlight .vc { color: #bb60d5 } /* Name.Variable.Class */
+.highlight .vg { color: #bb60d5 } /* Name.Variable.Global */
+.highlight .vi { color: #bb60d5 } /* Name.Variable.Instance */
+.highlight .il { color: #40a070 } /* Literal.Number.Integer.Long */
\ No newline at end of file

Added: www-releases/trunk/3.5.1/docs/_static/searchtools.js
URL: http://llvm.org/viewvc/llvm-project/www-releases/trunk/3.5.1/docs/_static/searchtools.js?rev=225843&view=auto
==============================================================================
--- www-releases/trunk/3.5.1/docs/_static/searchtools.js (added)
+++ www-releases/trunk/3.5.1/docs/_static/searchtools.js Tue Jan 13 16:55:20 2015
@@ -0,0 +1,560 @@
+/*
+ * searchtools.js_t
+ * ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
+ *
+ * Sphinx JavaScript utilties for the full-text search.
+ *
+ * :copyright: Copyright 2007-2011 by the Sphinx team, see AUTHORS.
+ * :license: BSD, see LICENSE for details.
+ *
+ */
+
+/**
+ * helper function to return a node containing the
+ * search summary for a given text. keywords is a list
+ * of stemmed words, hlwords is the list of normal, unstemmed
+ * words. the first one is used to find the occurance, the
+ * latter for highlighting it.
+ */
+
+jQuery.makeSearchSummary = function(text, keywords, hlwords) {
+  var textLower = text.toLowerCase();
+  var start = 0;
+  $.each(keywords, function() {
+    var i = textLower.indexOf(this.toLowerCase());
+    if (i > -1)
+      start = i;
+  });
+  start = Math.max(start - 120, 0);
+  var excerpt = ((start > 0) ? '...' : '') +
+  $.trim(text.substr(start, 240)) +
+  ((start + 240 - text.length) ? '...' : '');
+  var rv = $('<div class="context"></div>').text(excerpt);
+  $.each(hlwords, function() {
+    rv = rv.highlightText(this, 'highlighted');
+  });
+  return rv;
+}
+
+
+/**
+ * Porter Stemmer
+ */
+var Stemmer = function() {
+
+  var step2list = {
+    ational: 'ate',
+    tional: 'tion',
+    enci: 'ence',
+    anci: 'ance',
+    izer: 'ize',
+    bli: 'ble',
+    alli: 'al',
+    entli: 'ent',
+    eli: 'e',
+    ousli: 'ous',
+    ization: 'ize',
+    ation: 'ate',
+    ator: 'ate',
+    alism: 'al',
+    iveness: 'ive',
+    fulness: 'ful',
+    ousness: 'ous',
+    aliti: 'al',
+    iviti: 'ive',
+    biliti: 'ble',
+    logi: 'log'
+  };
+
+  var step3list = {
+    icate: 'ic',
+    ative: '',
+    alize: 'al',
+    iciti: 'ic',
+    ical: 'ic',
+    ful: '',
+    ness: ''
+  };
+
+  var c = "[^aeiou]";          // consonant
+  var v = "[aeiouy]";          // vowel
+  var C = c + "[^aeiouy]*";    // consonant sequence
+  var V = v + "[aeiou]*";      // vowel sequence
+
+  var mgr0 = "^(" + C + ")?" + V + C;                      // [C]VC... is m>0
+  var meq1 = "^(" + C + ")?" + V + C + "(" + V + ")?$";    // [C]VC[V] is m=1
+  var mgr1 = "^(" + C + ")?" + V + C + V + C;              // [C]VCVC... is m>1
+  var s_v   = "^(" + C + ")?" + v;                         // vowel in stem
+
+  this.stemWord = function (w) {
+    var stem;
+    var suffix;
+    var firstch;
+    var origword = w;
+
+    if (w.length < 3)
+      return w;
+
+    var re;
+    var re2;
+    var re3;
+    var re4;
+
+    firstch = w.substr(0,1);
+    if (firstch == "y")
+      w = firstch.toUpperCase() + w.substr(1);
+
+    // Step 1a
+    re = /^(.+?)(ss|i)es$/;
+    re2 = /^(.+?)([^s])s$/;
+
+    if (re.test(w))
+      w = w.replace(re,"$1$2");
+    else if (re2.test(w))
+      w = w.replace(re2,"$1$2");
+
+    // Step 1b
+    re = /^(.+?)eed$/;
+    re2 = /^(.+?)(ed|ing)$/;
+    if (re.test(w)) {
+      var fp = re.exec(w);
+      re = new RegExp(mgr0);
+      if (re.test(fp[1])) {
+        re = /.$/;
+        w = w.replace(re,"");
+      }
+    }
+    else if (re2.test(w)) {
+      var fp = re2.exec(w);
+      stem = fp[1];
+      re2 = new RegExp(s_v);
+      if (re2.test(stem)) {
+        w = stem;
+        re2 = /(at|bl|iz)$/;
+        re3 = new RegExp("([^aeiouylsz])\\1$");
+        re4 = new RegExp("^" + C + v + "[^aeiouwxy]$");
+        if (re2.test(w))
+          w = w + "e";
+        else if (re3.test(w)) {
+          re = /.$/;
+          w = w.replace(re,"");
+        }
+        else if (re4.test(w))
+          w = w + "e";
+      }
+    }
+
+    // Step 1c
+    re = /^(.+?)y$/;
+    if (re.test(w)) {
+      var fp = re.exec(w);
+      stem = fp[1];
+      re = new RegExp(s_v);
+      if (re.test(stem))
+        w = stem + "i";
+    }
+
+    // Step 2
+    re = /^(.+?)(ational|tional|enci|anci|izer|bli|alli|entli|eli|ousli|ization|ation|ator|alism|iveness|fulness|ousness|aliti|iviti|biliti|logi)$/;
+    if (re.test(w)) {
+      var fp = re.exec(w);
+      stem = fp[1];
+      suffix = fp[2];
+      re = new RegExp(mgr0);
+      if (re.test(stem))
+        w = stem + step2list[suffix];
+    }
+
+    // Step 3
+    re = /^(.+?)(icate|ative|alize|iciti|ical|ful|ness)$/;
+    if (re.test(w)) {
+      var fp = re.exec(w);
+      stem = fp[1];
+      suffix = fp[2];
+      re = new RegExp(mgr0);
+      if (re.test(stem))
+        w = stem + step3list[suffix];
+    }
+
+    // Step 4
+    re = /^(.+?)(al|ance|ence|er|ic|able|ible|ant|ement|ment|ent|ou|ism|ate|iti|ous|ive|ize)$/;
+    re2 = /^(.+?)(s|t)(ion)$/;
+    if (re.test(w)) {
+      var fp = re.exec(w);
+      stem = fp[1];
+      re = new RegExp(mgr1);
+      if (re.test(stem))
+        w = stem;
+    }
+    else if (re2.test(w)) {
+      var fp = re2.exec(w);
+      stem = fp[1] + fp[2];
+      re2 = new RegExp(mgr1);
+      if (re2.test(stem))
+        w = stem;
+    }
+
+    // Step 5
+    re = /^(.+?)e$/;
+    if (re.test(w)) {
+      var fp = re.exec(w);
+      stem = fp[1];
+      re = new RegExp(mgr1);
+      re2 = new RegExp(meq1);
+      re3 = new RegExp("^" + C + v + "[^aeiouwxy]$");
+      if (re.test(stem) || (re2.test(stem) && !(re3.test(stem))))
+        w = stem;
+    }
+    re = /ll$/;
+    re2 = new RegExp(mgr1);
+    if (re.test(w) && re2.test(w)) {
+      re = /.$/;
+      w = w.replace(re,"");
+    }
+
+    // and turn initial Y back to y
+    if (firstch == "y")
+      w = firstch.toLowerCase() + w.substr(1);
+    return w;
+  }
+}
+
+
+/**
+ * Search Module
+ */
+var Search = {
+
+  _index : null,
+  _queued_query : null,
+  _pulse_status : -1,
+
+  init : function() {
+      var params = $.getQueryParameters();
+      if (params.q) {
+          var query = params.q[0];
+          $('input[name="q"]')[0].value = query;
+          this.performSearch(query);
+      }
+  },
+
+  loadIndex : function(url) {
+    $.ajax({type: "GET", url: url, data: null, success: null,
+            dataType: "script", cache: true});
+  },
+
+  setIndex : function(index) {
+    var q;
+    this._index = index;
+    if ((q = this._queued_query) !== null) {
+      this._queued_query = null;
+      Search.query(q);
+    }
+  },
+
+  hasIndex : function() {
+      return this._index !== null;
+  },
+
+  deferQuery : function(query) {
+      this._queued_query = query;
+  },
+
+  stopPulse : function() {
+      this._pulse_status = 0;
+  },
+
+  startPulse : function() {
+    if (this._pulse_status >= 0)
+        return;
+    function pulse() {
+      Search._pulse_status = (Search._pulse_status + 1) % 4;
+      var dotString = '';
+      for (var i = 0; i < Search._pulse_status; i++)
+        dotString += '.';
+      Search.dots.text(dotString);
+      if (Search._pulse_status > -1)
+        window.setTimeout(pulse, 500);
+    };
+    pulse();
+  },
+
+  /**
+   * perform a search for something
+   */
+  performSearch : function(query) {
+    // create the required interface elements
+    this.out = $('#search-results');
+    this.title = $('<h2>' + _('Searching') + '</h2>').appendTo(this.out);
+    this.dots = $('<span></span>').appendTo(this.title);
+    this.status = $('<p style="display: none"></p>').appendTo(this.out);
+    this.output = $('<ul class="search"/>').appendTo(this.out);
+
+    $('#search-progress').text(_('Preparing search...'));
+    this.startPulse();
+
+    // index already loaded, the browser was quick!
+    if (this.hasIndex())
+      this.query(query);
+    else
+      this.deferQuery(query);
+  },
+
+  query : function(query) {
+    var stopwords = ["and","then","into","it","as","are","in","if","for","no","there","their","was","is","be","to","that","but","they","not","such","with","by","a","on","these","of","will","this","near","the","or","at"];
+
+    // Stem the searchterms and add them to the correct list
+    var stemmer = new Stemmer();
+    var searchterms = [];
+    var excluded = [];
+    var hlterms = [];
+    var tmp = query.split(/\s+/);
+    var objectterms = [];
+    for (var i = 0; i < tmp.length; i++) {
+      if (tmp[i] != "") {
+          objectterms.push(tmp[i].toLowerCase());
+      }
+
+      if ($u.indexOf(stopwords, tmp[i]) != -1 || tmp[i].match(/^\d+$/) ||
+          tmp[i] == "") {
+        // skip this "word"
+        continue;
+      }
+      // stem the word
+      var word = stemmer.stemWord(tmp[i]).toLowerCase();
+      // select the correct list
+      if (word[0] == '-') {
+        var toAppend = excluded;
+        word = word.substr(1);
+      }
+      else {
+        var toAppend = searchterms;
+        hlterms.push(tmp[i].toLowerCase());
+      }
+      // only add if not already in the list
+      if (!$.contains(toAppend, word))
+        toAppend.push(word);
+    };
+    var highlightstring = '?highlight=' + $.urlencode(hlterms.join(" "));
+
+    // console.debug('SEARCH: searching for:');
+    // console.info('required: ', searchterms);
+    // console.info('excluded: ', excluded);
+
+    // prepare search
+    var filenames = this._index.filenames;
+    var titles = this._index.titles;
+    var terms = this._index.terms;
+    var fileMap = {};
+    var files = null;
+    // different result priorities
+    var importantResults = [];
+    var objectResults = [];
+    var regularResults = [];
+    var unimportantResults = [];
+    $('#search-progress').empty();
+
+    // lookup as object
+    for (var i = 0; i < objectterms.length; i++) {
+      var others = [].concat(objectterms.slice(0,i),
+                             objectterms.slice(i+1, objectterms.length))
+      var results = this.performObjectSearch(objectterms[i], others);
+      // Assume first word is most likely to be the object,
+      // other words more likely to be in description.
+      // Therefore put matches for earlier words first.
+      // (Results are eventually used in reverse order).
+      objectResults = results[0].concat(objectResults);
+      importantResults = results[1].concat(importantResults);
+      unimportantResults = results[2].concat(unimportantResults);
+    }
+
+    // perform the search on the required terms
+    for (var i = 0; i < searchterms.length; i++) {
+      var word = searchterms[i];
+      // no match but word was a required one
+      if ((files = terms[word]) == null)
+        break;
+      if (files.length == undefined) {
+        files = [files];
+      }
+      // create the mapping
+      for (var j = 0; j < files.length; j++) {
+        var file = files[j];
+        if (file in fileMap)
+          fileMap[file].push(word);
+        else
+          fileMap[file] = [word];
+      }
+    }
+
+    // now check if the files don't contain excluded terms
+    for (var file in fileMap) {
+      var valid = true;
+
+      // check if all requirements are matched
+      if (fileMap[file].length != searchterms.length)
+        continue;
+
+      // ensure that none of the excluded terms is in the
+      // search result.
+      for (var i = 0; i < excluded.length; i++) {
+        if (terms[excluded[i]] == file ||
+            $.contains(terms[excluded[i]] || [], file)) {
+          valid = false;
+          break;
+        }
+      }
+
+      // if we have still a valid result we can add it
+      // to the result list
+      if (valid)
+        regularResults.push([filenames[file], titles[file], '', null]);
+    }
+
+    // delete unused variables in order to not waste
+    // memory until list is retrieved completely
+    delete filenames, titles, terms;
+
+    // now sort the regular results descending by title
+    regularResults.sort(function(a, b) {
+      var left = a[1].toLowerCase();
+      var right = b[1].toLowerCase();
+      return (left > right) ? -1 : ((left < right) ? 1 : 0);
+    });
+
+    // combine all results
+    var results = unimportantResults.concat(regularResults)
+      .concat(objectResults).concat(importantResults);
+
+    // print the results
+    var resultCount = results.length;
+    function displayNextItem() {
+      // results left, load the summary and display it
+      if (results.length) {
+        var item = results.pop();
+        var listItem = $('<li style="display:none"></li>');
+        if (DOCUMENTATION_OPTIONS.FILE_SUFFIX == '') {
+          // dirhtml builder
+          var dirname = item[0] + '/';
+          if (dirname.match(/\/index\/$/)) {
+            dirname = dirname.substring(0, dirname.length-6);
+          } else if (dirname == 'index/') {
+            dirname = '';
+          }
+          listItem.append($('<a/>').attr('href',
+            DOCUMENTATION_OPTIONS.URL_ROOT + dirname +
+            highlightstring + item[2]).html(item[1]));
+        } else {
+          // normal html builders
+          listItem.append($('<a/>').attr('href',
+            item[0] + DOCUMENTATION_OPTIONS.FILE_SUFFIX +
+            highlightstring + item[2]).html(item[1]));
+        }
+        if (item[3]) {
+          listItem.append($('<span> (' + item[3] + ')</span>'));
+          Search.output.append(listItem);
+          listItem.slideDown(5, function() {
+            displayNextItem();
+          });
+