[www-releases] r208244 - Add source, binaries, and documentation for 3.4.1 release

Tom Stellard thomas.stellard at amd.com
Wed May 7 13:09:36 PDT 2014


Added: www-releases/trunk/3.4.1/docs/WritingAnLLVMBackend.html
URL: http://llvm.org/viewvc/llvm-project/www-releases/trunk/3.4.1/docs/WritingAnLLVMBackend.html?rev=208244&view=auto
==============================================================================
--- www-releases/trunk/3.4.1/docs/WritingAnLLVMBackend.html (added)
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+  <div class="section" id="writing-an-llvm-backend">
+<h1>Writing an LLVM Backend<a class="headerlink" href="#writing-an-llvm-backend" title="Permalink to this headline">¶</a></h1>
+<div class="toctree-wrapper compound">
+</div>
+<div class="contents local topic" id="contents">
+<ul class="simple">
+<li><a class="reference internal" href="#introduction" id="id3">Introduction</a><ul>
+<li><a class="reference internal" href="#audience" id="id4">Audience</a></li>
+<li><a class="reference internal" href="#prerequisite-reading" id="id5">Prerequisite Reading</a></li>
+<li><a class="reference internal" href="#basic-steps" id="id6">Basic Steps</a></li>
+<li><a class="reference internal" href="#preliminaries" id="id7">Preliminaries</a></li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li><a class="reference internal" href="#target-machine" id="id8">Target Machine</a></li>
+<li><a class="reference internal" href="#target-registration" id="id9">Target Registration</a></li>
+<li><a class="reference internal" href="#register-set-and-register-classes" id="id10">Register Set and Register Classes</a><ul>
+<li><a class="reference internal" href="#defining-a-register" id="id11">Defining a Register</a></li>
+<li><a class="reference internal" href="#defining-a-register-class" id="id12">Defining a Register Class</a></li>
+<li><a class="reference internal" href="#implement-a-subclass-of-targetregisterinfo" id="id13">Implement a subclass of <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">TargetRegisterInfo</span></tt></a></li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li><a class="reference internal" href="#instruction-set" id="id14">Instruction Set</a><ul>
+<li><a class="reference internal" href="#instruction-operand-mapping" id="id15">Instruction Operand Mapping</a><ul>
+<li><a class="reference internal" href="#instruction-operand-name-mapping" id="id16">Instruction Operand Name Mapping</a></li>
+<li><a class="reference internal" href="#instruction-operand-types" id="id17">Instruction Operand Types</a></li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li><a class="reference internal" href="#instruction-scheduling" id="id18">Instruction Scheduling</a></li>
+<li><a class="reference internal" href="#instruction-relation-mapping" id="id19">Instruction Relation Mapping</a></li>
+<li><a class="reference internal" href="#implement-a-subclass-of-targetinstrinfo" id="id20">Implement a subclass of <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">TargetInstrInfo</span></tt></a></li>
+<li><a class="reference internal" href="#branch-folding-and-if-conversion" id="id21">Branch Folding and If Conversion</a></li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li><a class="reference internal" href="#instruction-selector" id="id22">Instruction Selector</a><ul>
+<li><a class="reference internal" href="#the-selectiondag-legalize-phase" id="id23">The SelectionDAG Legalize Phase</a><ul>
+<li><a class="reference internal" href="#promote" id="id24">Promote</a></li>
+<li><a class="reference internal" href="#expand" id="id25">Expand</a></li>
+<li><a class="reference internal" href="#custom" id="id26">Custom</a></li>
+<li><a class="reference internal" href="#legal" id="id27">Legal</a></li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li><a class="reference internal" href="#calling-conventions" id="id28">Calling Conventions</a></li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li><a class="reference internal" href="#assembly-printer" id="id29">Assembly Printer</a></li>
+<li><a class="reference internal" href="#subtarget-support" id="id30">Subtarget Support</a></li>
+<li><a class="reference internal" href="#jit-support" id="id31">JIT Support</a><ul>
+<li><a class="reference internal" href="#machine-code-emitter" id="id32">Machine Code Emitter</a></li>
+<li><a class="reference internal" href="#target-jit-info" id="id33">Target JIT Info</a></li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+</ul>
+</div>
+<div class="section" id="introduction">
+<h2><a class="toc-backref" href="#id3">Introduction</a><a class="headerlink" href="#introduction" title="Permalink to this headline">¶</a></h2>
+<p>This document describes techniques for writing compiler backends that convert
+the LLVM Intermediate Representation (IR) to code for a specified machine or
+other languages.  Code intended for a specific machine can take the form of
+either assembly code or binary code (usable for a JIT compiler).</p>
+<p>The backend of LLVM features a target-independent code generator that may
+create output for several types of target CPUs — including X86, PowerPC,
+ARM, and SPARC.  The backend may also be used to generate code targeted at SPUs
+of the Cell processor or GPUs to support the execution of compute kernels.</p>
+<p>The document focuses on existing examples found in subdirectories of
+<tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">llvm/lib/Target</span></tt> in a downloaded LLVM release.  In particular, this document
+focuses on the example of creating a static compiler (one that emits text
+assembly) for a SPARC target, because SPARC has fairly standard
+characteristics, such as a RISC instruction set and straightforward calling
+conventions.</p>
+<div class="section" id="audience">
+<h3><a class="toc-backref" href="#id4">Audience</a><a class="headerlink" href="#audience" title="Permalink to this headline">¶</a></h3>
+<p>The audience for this document is anyone who needs to write an LLVM backend to
+generate code for a specific hardware or software target.</p>
+</div>
+<div class="section" id="prerequisite-reading">
+<h3><a class="toc-backref" href="#id5">Prerequisite Reading</a><a class="headerlink" href="#prerequisite-reading" title="Permalink to this headline">¶</a></h3>
+<p>These essential documents must be read before reading this document:</p>
+<ul class="simple">
+<li><a class="reference external" href="LangRef.html">LLVM Language Reference Manual</a> — a reference manual for
+the LLVM assembly language.</li>
+<li><a class="reference internal" href="CodeGenerator.html"><em>The LLVM Target-Independent Code Generator</em></a> — a guide to the components (classes and code
+generation algorithms) for translating the LLVM internal representation into
+machine code for a specified target.  Pay particular attention to the
+descriptions of code generation stages: Instruction Selection, Scheduling and
+Formation, SSA-based Optimization, Register Allocation, Prolog/Epilog Code
+Insertion, Late Machine Code Optimizations, and Code Emission.</li>
+<li><a class="reference internal" href="TableGenFundamentals.html"><em>TableGen Fundamentals</em></a> — a document that describes the TableGen
+(<tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">tblgen</span></tt>) application that manages domain-specific information to support
+LLVM code generation.  TableGen processes input from a target description
+file (<tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">.td</span></tt> suffix) and generates C++ code that can be used for code
+generation.</li>
+<li><a class="reference internal" href="WritingAnLLVMPass.html"><em>Writing an LLVM Pass</em></a> — The assembly printer is a <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">FunctionPass</span></tt>, as
+are several <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">SelectionDAG</span></tt> processing steps.</li>
+</ul>
+<p>To follow the SPARC examples in this document, have a copy of <a class="reference external" href="http://www.sparc.org/standards/V8.pdf">The SPARC
+Architecture Manual, Version 8</a> for
+reference.  For details about the ARM instruction set, refer to the <a class="reference external" href="http://infocenter.arm.com/">ARM
+Architecture Reference Manual</a>.  For more about
+the GNU Assembler format (<tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">GAS</span></tt>), see <a class="reference external" href="http://sourceware.org/binutils/docs/as/index.html">Using As</a>, especially for the
+assembly printer.  “Using As” contains a list of target machine dependent
+features.</p>
+</div>
+<div class="section" id="basic-steps">
+<h3><a class="toc-backref" href="#id6">Basic Steps</a><a class="headerlink" href="#basic-steps" title="Permalink to this headline">¶</a></h3>
+<p>To write a compiler backend for LLVM that converts the LLVM IR to code for a
+specified target (machine or other language), follow these steps:</p>
+<ul class="simple">
+<li>Create a subclass of the <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">TargetMachine</span></tt> class that describes
+characteristics of your target machine.  Copy existing examples of specific
+<tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">TargetMachine</span></tt> class and header files; for example, start with
+<tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">SparcTargetMachine.cpp</span></tt> and <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">SparcTargetMachine.h</span></tt>, but change the file
+names for your target.  Similarly, change code that references “<tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">Sparc</span></tt>” to
+reference your target.</li>
+<li>Describe the register set of the target.  Use TableGen to generate code for
+register definition, register aliases, and register classes from a
+target-specific <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">RegisterInfo.td</span></tt> input file.  You should also write
+additional code for a subclass of the <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">TargetRegisterInfo</span></tt> class that
+represents the class register file data used for register allocation and also
+describes the interactions between registers.</li>
+<li>Describe the instruction set of the target.  Use TableGen to generate code
+for target-specific instructions from target-specific versions of
+<tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">TargetInstrFormats.td</span></tt> and <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">TargetInstrInfo.td</span></tt>.  You should write
+additional code for a subclass of the <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">TargetInstrInfo</span></tt> class to represent
+machine instructions supported by the target machine.</li>
+<li>Describe the selection and conversion of the LLVM IR from a Directed Acyclic
+Graph (DAG) representation of instructions to native target-specific
+instructions.  Use TableGen to generate code that matches patterns and
+selects instructions based on additional information in a target-specific
+version of <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">TargetInstrInfo.td</span></tt>.  Write code for <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">XXXISelDAGToDAG.cpp</span></tt>,
+where <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">XXX</span></tt> identifies the specific target, to perform pattern matching and
+DAG-to-DAG instruction selection.  Also write code in <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">XXXISelLowering.cpp</span></tt>
+to replace or remove operations and data types that are not supported
+natively in a SelectionDAG.</li>
+<li>Write code for an assembly printer that converts LLVM IR to a GAS format for
+your target machine.  You should add assembly strings to the instructions
+defined in your target-specific version of <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">TargetInstrInfo.td</span></tt>.  You
+should also write code for a subclass of <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">AsmPrinter</span></tt> that performs the
+LLVM-to-assembly conversion and a trivial subclass of <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">TargetAsmInfo</span></tt>.</li>
+<li>Optionally, add support for subtargets (i.e., variants with different
+capabilities).  You should also write code for a subclass of the
+<tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">TargetSubtarget</span></tt> class, which allows you to use the <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">-mcpu=</span></tt> and
+<tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">-mattr=</span></tt> command-line options.</li>
+<li>Optionally, add JIT support and create a machine code emitter (subclass of
+<tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">TargetJITInfo</span></tt>) that is used to emit binary code directly into memory.</li>
+</ul>
+<p>In the <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">.cpp</span></tt> and <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">.h</span></tt>. files, initially stub up these methods and then
+implement them later.  Initially, you may not know which private members that
+the class will need and which components will need to be subclassed.</p>
+</div>
+<div class="section" id="preliminaries">
+<h3><a class="toc-backref" href="#id7">Preliminaries</a><a class="headerlink" href="#preliminaries" title="Permalink to this headline">¶</a></h3>
+<p>To actually create your compiler backend, you need to create and modify a few
+files.  The absolute minimum is discussed here.  But to actually use the LLVM
+target-independent code generator, you must perform the steps described in the
+<a class="reference internal" href="CodeGenerator.html"><em>LLVM Target-Independent Code Generator</em></a> document.</p>
+<p>First, you should create a subdirectory under <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">lib/Target</span></tt> to hold all the
+files related to your target.  If your target is called “Dummy”, create the
+directory <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">lib/Target/Dummy</span></tt>.</p>
+<p>In this new directory, create a <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">Makefile</span></tt>.  It is easiest to copy a
+<tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">Makefile</span></tt> of another target and modify it.  It should at least contain the
+<tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">LEVEL</span></tt>, <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">LIBRARYNAME</span></tt> and <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">TARGET</span></tt> variables, and then include
+<tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">$(LEVEL)/Makefile.common</span></tt>.  The library can be named <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">LLVMDummy</span></tt> (for
+example, see the MIPS target).  Alternatively, you can split the library into
+<tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">LLVMDummyCodeGen</span></tt> and <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">LLVMDummyAsmPrinter</span></tt>, the latter of which should be
+implemented in a subdirectory below <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">lib/Target/Dummy</span></tt> (for example, see the
+PowerPC target).</p>
+<p>Note that these two naming schemes are hardcoded into <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">llvm-config</span></tt>.  Using
+any other naming scheme will confuse <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">llvm-config</span></tt> and produce a lot of
+(seemingly unrelated) linker errors when linking <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">llc</span></tt>.</p>
+<p>To make your target actually do something, you need to implement a subclass of
+<tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">TargetMachine</span></tt>.  This implementation should typically be in the file
+<tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">lib/Target/DummyTargetMachine.cpp</span></tt>, but any file in the <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">lib/Target</span></tt>
+directory will be built and should work.  To use LLVM’s target independent code
+generator, you should do what all current machine backends do: create a
+subclass of <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">LLVMTargetMachine</span></tt>.  (To create a target from scratch, create a
+subclass of <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">TargetMachine</span></tt>.)</p>
+<p>To get LLVM to actually build and link your target, you need to add it to the
+<tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">TARGETS_TO_BUILD</span></tt> variable.  To do this, you modify the configure script to
+know about your target when parsing the <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">--enable-targets</span></tt> option.  Search
+the configure script for <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">TARGETS_TO_BUILD</span></tt>, add your target to the lists
+there (some creativity required), and then reconfigure.  Alternatively, you can
+change <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">autotools/configure.ac</span></tt> and regenerate configure by running
+<tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">./autoconf/AutoRegen.sh</span></tt>.</p>
+</div>
+</div>
+<div class="section" id="target-machine">
+<h2><a class="toc-backref" href="#id8">Target Machine</a><a class="headerlink" href="#target-machine" title="Permalink to this headline">¶</a></h2>
+<p><tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">LLVMTargetMachine</span></tt> is designed as a base class for targets implemented with
+the LLVM target-independent code generator.  The <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">LLVMTargetMachine</span></tt> class
+should be specialized by a concrete target class that implements the various
+virtual methods.  <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">LLVMTargetMachine</span></tt> is defined as a subclass of
+<tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">TargetMachine</span></tt> in <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">include/llvm/Target/TargetMachine.h</span></tt>.  The
+<tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">TargetMachine</span></tt> class implementation (<tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">TargetMachine.cpp</span></tt>) also processes
+numerous command-line options.</p>
+<p>To create a concrete target-specific subclass of <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">LLVMTargetMachine</span></tt>, start
+by copying an existing <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">TargetMachine</span></tt> class and header.  You should name the
+files that you create to reflect your specific target.  For instance, for the
+SPARC target, name the files <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">SparcTargetMachine.h</span></tt> and
+<tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">SparcTargetMachine.cpp</span></tt>.</p>
+<p>For a target machine <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">XXX</span></tt>, the implementation of <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">XXXTargetMachine</span></tt> must
+have access methods to obtain objects that represent target components.  These
+methods are named <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">get*Info</span></tt>, and are intended to obtain the instruction set
+(<tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">getInstrInfo</span></tt>), register set (<tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">getRegisterInfo</span></tt>), stack frame layout
+(<tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">getFrameInfo</span></tt>), and similar information.  <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">XXXTargetMachine</span></tt> must also
+implement the <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">getDataLayout</span></tt> method to access an object with target-specific
+data characteristics, such as data type size and alignment requirements.</p>
+<p>For instance, for the SPARC target, the header file <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">SparcTargetMachine.h</span></tt>
+declares prototypes for several <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">get*Info</span></tt> and <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">getDataLayout</span></tt> methods that
+simply return a class member.</p>
+<div class="highlight-c++"><div class="highlight"><pre><span class="k">namespace</span> <span class="n">llvm</span> <span class="p">{</span>
+
+<span class="k">class</span> <span class="nc">Module</span><span class="p">;</span>
+
+<span class="k">class</span> <span class="nc">SparcTargetMachine</span> <span class="o">:</span> <span class="k">public</span> <span class="n">LLVMTargetMachine</span> <span class="p">{</span>
+  <span class="k">const</span> <span class="n">DataLayout</span> <span class="n">DataLayout</span><span class="p">;</span>       <span class="c1">// Calculates type size & alignment</span>
+  <span class="n">SparcSubtarget</span> <span class="n">Subtarget</span><span class="p">;</span>
+  <span class="n">SparcInstrInfo</span> <span class="n">InstrInfo</span><span class="p">;</span>
+  <span class="n">TargetFrameInfo</span> <span class="n">FrameInfo</span><span class="p">;</span>
+
+<span class="nl">protected:</span>
+  <span class="k">virtual</span> <span class="k">const</span> <span class="n">TargetAsmInfo</span> <span class="o">*</span><span class="n">createTargetAsmInfo</span><span class="p">()</span> <span class="k">const</span><span class="p">;</span>
+
+<span class="nl">public:</span>
+  <span class="n">SparcTargetMachine</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="k">const</span> <span class="n">Module</span> <span class="o">&</span><span class="n">M</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="k">const</span> <span class="n">std</span><span class="o">::</span><span class="n">string</span> <span class="o">&</span><span class="n">FS</span><span class="p">);</span>
+
+  <span class="k">virtual</span> <span class="k">const</span> <span class="n">SparcInstrInfo</span> <span class="o">*</span><span class="n">getInstrInfo</span><span class="p">()</span> <span class="k">const</span> <span class="p">{</span><span class="k">return</span> <span class="o">&</span><span class="n">InstrInfo</span><span class="p">;</span> <span class="p">}</span>
+  <span class="k">virtual</span> <span class="k">const</span> <span class="n">TargetFrameInfo</span> <span class="o">*</span><span class="n">getFrameInfo</span><span class="p">()</span> <span class="k">const</span> <span class="p">{</span><span class="k">return</span> <span class="o">&</span><span class="n">FrameInfo</span><span class="p">;</span> <span class="p">}</span>
+  <span class="k">virtual</span> <span class="k">const</span> <span class="n">TargetSubtarget</span> <span class="o">*</span><span class="n">getSubtargetImpl</span><span class="p">()</span> <span class="k">const</span><span class="p">{</span><span class="k">return</span> <span class="o">&</span><span class="n">Subtarget</span><span class="p">;</span> <span class="p">}</span>
+  <span class="k">virtual</span> <span class="k">const</span> <span class="n">TargetRegisterInfo</span> <span class="o">*</span><span class="n">getRegisterInfo</span><span class="p">()</span> <span class="k">const</span> <span class="p">{</span>
+    <span class="k">return</span> <span class="o">&</span><span class="n">InstrInfo</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="n">getRegisterInfo</span><span class="p">();</span>
+  <span class="p">}</span>
+  <span class="k">virtual</span> <span class="k">const</span> <span class="n">DataLayout</span> <span class="o">*</span><span class="n">getDataLayout</span><span class="p">()</span> <span class="k">const</span> <span class="p">{</span> <span class="k">return</span> <span class="o">&</span><span class="n">DataLayout</span><span class="p">;</span> <span class="p">}</span>
+  <span class="k">static</span> <span class="kt">unsigned</span> <span class="n">getModuleMatchQuality</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="k">const</span> <span class="n">Module</span> <span class="o">&</span><span class="n">M</span><span class="p">);</span>
+
+  <span class="c1">// Pass Pipeline Configuration</span>
+  <span class="k">virtual</span> <span class="kt">bool</span> <span class="nf">addInstSelector</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="n">PassManagerBase</span> <span class="o">&</span><span class="n">PM</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="kt">bool</span> <span class="n">Fast</span><span class="p">);</span>
+  <span class="k">virtual</span> <span class="kt">bool</span> <span class="nf">addPreEmitPass</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="n">PassManagerBase</span> <span class="o">&</span><span class="n">PM</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="kt">bool</span> <span class="n">Fast</span><span class="p">);</span>
+<span class="p">};</span>
+
+<span class="p">}</span> <span class="c1">// end namespace llvm</span>
+</pre></div>
+</div>
+<ul class="simple">
+<li><tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">getInstrInfo()</span></tt></li>
+<li><tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">getRegisterInfo()</span></tt></li>
+<li><tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">getFrameInfo()</span></tt></li>
+<li><tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">getDataLayout()</span></tt></li>
+<li><tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">getSubtargetImpl()</span></tt></li>
+</ul>
+<p>For some targets, you also need to support the following methods:</p>
+<ul class="simple">
+<li><tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">getTargetLowering()</span></tt></li>
+<li><tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">getJITInfo()</span></tt></li>
+</ul>
+<p>In addition, the <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">XXXTargetMachine</span></tt> constructor should specify a
+<tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">TargetDescription</span></tt> string that determines the data layout for the target
+machine, including characteristics such as pointer size, alignment, and
+endianness.  For example, the constructor for <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">SparcTargetMachine</span></tt> contains
+the following:</p>
+<div class="highlight-c++"><div class="highlight"><pre><span class="n">SparcTargetMachine</span><span class="o">::</span><span class="n">SparcTargetMachine</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="k">const</span> <span class="n">Module</span> <span class="o">&</span><span class="n">M</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="k">const</span> <span class="n">std</span><span class="o">::</span><span class="n">string</span> <span class="o">&</span><span class="n">FS</span><span class="p">)</span>
+  <span class="o">:</span> <span class="n">DataLayout</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="s">"E-p:32:32-f128:128:128"</span><span class="p">),</span>
+    <span class="n">Subtarget</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="n">M</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="n">FS</span><span class="p">),</span> <span class="n">InstrInfo</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="n">Subtarget</span><span class="p">),</span>
+    <span class="n">FrameInfo</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="n">TargetFrameInfo</span><span class="o">::</span><span class="n">StackGrowsDown</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="mi">8</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="mi">0</span><span class="p">)</span> <span class="p">{</span>
+<span class="p">}</span>
+</pre></div>
+</div>
+<p>Hyphens separate portions of the <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">TargetDescription</span></tt> string.</p>
+<ul class="simple">
+<li>An upper-case “<tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">E</span></tt>” in the string indicates a big-endian target data model.
+A lower-case “<tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">e</span></tt>” indicates little-endian.</li>
+<li>“<tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">p:</span></tt>” is followed by pointer information: size, ABI alignment, and
+preferred alignment.  If only two figures follow “<tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">p:</span></tt>”, then the first
+value is pointer size, and the second value is both ABI and preferred
+alignment.</li>
+<li>Then a letter for numeric type alignment: “<tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">i</span></tt>”, “<tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">f</span></tt>”, “<tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">v</span></tt>”, or
+“<tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">a</span></tt>” (corresponding to integer, floating point, vector, or aggregate).
+“<tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">i</span></tt>”, “<tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">v</span></tt>”, or “<tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">a</span></tt>” are followed by ABI alignment and preferred
+alignment. “<tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">f</span></tt>” is followed by three values: the first indicates the size
+of a long double, then ABI alignment, and then ABI preferred alignment.</li>
+</ul>
+</div>
+<div class="section" id="target-registration">
+<h2><a class="toc-backref" href="#id9">Target Registration</a><a class="headerlink" href="#target-registration" title="Permalink to this headline">¶</a></h2>
+<p>You must also register your target with the <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">TargetRegistry</span></tt>, which is what
+other LLVM tools use to be able to lookup and use your target at runtime.  The
+<tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">TargetRegistry</span></tt> can be used directly, but for most targets there are helper
+templates which should take care of the work for you.</p>
+<p>All targets should declare a global <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">Target</span></tt> object which is used to
+represent the target during registration.  Then, in the target’s <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">TargetInfo</span></tt>
+library, the target should define that object and use the <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">RegisterTarget</span></tt>
+template to register the target.  For example, the Sparc registration code
+looks like this:</p>
+<div class="highlight-c++"><div class="highlight"><pre><span class="n">Target</span> <span class="n">llvm</span><span class="o">::</span><span class="n">TheSparcTarget</span><span class="p">;</span>
+
+<span class="k">extern</span> <span class="s">"C"</span> <span class="kt">void</span> <span class="n">LLVMInitializeSparcTargetInfo</span><span class="p">()</span> <span class="p">{</span>
+  <span class="n">RegisterTarget</span><span class="o"><</span><span class="n">Triple</span><span class="o">::</span><span class="n">sparc</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="cm">/*HasJIT=*/</span><span class="nb">false</span><span class="o">></span>
+    <span class="n">X</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="n">TheSparcTarget</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="s">"sparc"</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="s">"Sparc"</span><span class="p">);</span>
+<span class="p">}</span>
+</pre></div>
+</div>
+<p>This allows the <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">TargetRegistry</span></tt> to look up the target by name or by target
+triple.  In addition, most targets will also register additional features which
+are available in separate libraries.  These registration steps are separate,
+because some clients may wish to only link in some parts of the target — the
+JIT code generator does not require the use of the assembler printer, for
+example.  Here is an example of registering the Sparc assembly printer:</p>
+<div class="highlight-c++"><div class="highlight"><pre><span class="k">extern</span> <span class="s">"C"</span> <span class="kt">void</span> <span class="n">LLVMInitializeSparcAsmPrinter</span><span class="p">()</span> <span class="p">{</span>
+  <span class="n">RegisterAsmPrinter</span><span class="o"><</span><span class="n">SparcAsmPrinter</span><span class="o">></span> <span class="n">X</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="n">TheSparcTarget</span><span class="p">);</span>
+<span class="p">}</span>
+</pre></div>
+</div>
+<p>For more information, see “<a class="reference external" href="/doxygen/TargetRegistry_8h-source.html">llvm/Target/TargetRegistry.h</a>”.</p>
+</div>
+<div class="section" id="register-set-and-register-classes">
+<h2><a class="toc-backref" href="#id10">Register Set and Register Classes</a><a class="headerlink" href="#register-set-and-register-classes" title="Permalink to this headline">¶</a></h2>
+<p>You should describe a concrete target-specific class that represents the
+register file of a target machine.  This class is called <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">XXXRegisterInfo</span></tt>
+(where <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">XXX</span></tt> identifies the target) and represents the class register file
+data that is used for register allocation.  It also describes the interactions
+between registers.</p>
+<p>You also need to define register classes to categorize related registers.  A
+register class should be added for groups of registers that are all treated the
+same way for some instruction.  Typical examples are register classes for
+integer, floating-point, or vector registers.  A register allocator allows an
+instruction to use any register in a specified register class to perform the
+instruction in a similar manner.  Register classes allocate virtual registers
+to instructions from these sets, and register classes let the
+target-independent register allocator automatically choose the actual
+registers.</p>
+<p>Much of the code for registers, including register definition, register
+aliases, and register classes, is generated by TableGen from
+<tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">XXXRegisterInfo.td</span></tt> input files and placed in <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">XXXGenRegisterInfo.h.inc</span></tt>
+and <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">XXXGenRegisterInfo.inc</span></tt> output files.  Some of the code in the
+implementation of <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">XXXRegisterInfo</span></tt> requires hand-coding.</p>
+<div class="section" id="defining-a-register">
+<h3><a class="toc-backref" href="#id11">Defining a Register</a><a class="headerlink" href="#defining-a-register" title="Permalink to this headline">¶</a></h3>
+<p>The <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">XXXRegisterInfo.td</span></tt> file typically starts with register definitions for
+a target machine.  The <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">Register</span></tt> class (specified in <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">Target.td</span></tt>) is used
+to define an object for each register.  The specified string <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">n</span></tt> becomes the
+<tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">Name</span></tt> of the register.  The basic <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">Register</span></tt> object does not have any
+subregisters and does not specify any aliases.</p>
+<div class="highlight-llvm"><pre>class Register<string n> {
+  string Namespace = "";
+  string AsmName = n;
+  string Name = n;
+  int SpillSize = 0;
+  int SpillAlignment = 0;
+  list<Register> Aliases = [];
+  list<Register> SubRegs = [];
+  list<int> DwarfNumbers = [];
+}</pre>
+</div>
+<p>For example, in the <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">X86RegisterInfo.td</span></tt> file, there are register definitions
+that utilize the <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">Register</span></tt> class, such as:</p>
+<div class="highlight-llvm"><pre>def AL : Register<"AL">, DwarfRegNum<[0, 0, 0]>;</pre>
+</div>
+<p>This defines the register <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">AL</span></tt> and assigns it values (with <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">DwarfRegNum</span></tt>)
+that are used by <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">gcc</span></tt>, <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">gdb</span></tt>, or a debug information writer to identify a
+register.  For register <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">AL</span></tt>, <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">DwarfRegNum</span></tt> takes an array of 3 values
+representing 3 different modes: the first element is for X86-64, the second for
+exception handling (EH) on X86-32, and the third is generic. -1 is a special
+Dwarf number that indicates the gcc number is undefined, and -2 indicates the
+register number is invalid for this mode.</p>
+<p>From the previously described line in the <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">X86RegisterInfo.td</span></tt> file, TableGen
+generates this code in the <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">X86GenRegisterInfo.inc</span></tt> file:</p>
+<div class="highlight-c++"><div class="highlight"><pre><span class="k">static</span> <span class="k">const</span> <span class="kt">unsigned</span> <span class="n">GR8</span><span class="p">[]</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="p">{</span> <span class="n">X86</span><span class="o">::</span><span class="n">AL</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="p">...</span> <span class="p">};</span>
+
+<span class="k">const</span> <span class="kt">unsigned</span> <span class="n">AL_AliasSet</span><span class="p">[]</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="p">{</span> <span class="n">X86</span><span class="o">::</span><span class="n">AX</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="n">X86</span><span class="o">::</span><span class="n">EAX</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="n">X86</span><span class="o">::</span><span class="n">RAX</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="mi">0</span> <span class="p">};</span>
+
+<span class="k">const</span> <span class="n">TargetRegisterDesc</span> <span class="n">RegisterDescriptors</span><span class="p">[]</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="p">{</span>
+  <span class="p">...</span>
+<span class="p">{</span> <span class="s">"AL"</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="s">"AL"</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="n">AL_AliasSet</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="n">Empty_SubRegsSet</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="n">Empty_SubRegsSet</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="n">AL_SuperRegsSet</span> <span class="p">},</span> <span class="p">...</span>
+</pre></div>
+</div>
+<p>From the register info file, TableGen generates a <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">TargetRegisterDesc</span></tt> object
+for each register.  <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">TargetRegisterDesc</span></tt> is defined in
+<tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">include/llvm/Target/TargetRegisterInfo.h</span></tt> with the following fields:</p>
+<div class="highlight-c++"><div class="highlight"><pre><span class="k">struct</span> <span class="n">TargetRegisterDesc</span> <span class="p">{</span>
+  <span class="k">const</span> <span class="kt">char</span>     <span class="o">*</span><span class="n">AsmName</span><span class="p">;</span>      <span class="c1">// Assembly language name for the register</span>
+  <span class="k">const</span> <span class="kt">char</span>     <span class="o">*</span><span class="n">Name</span><span class="p">;</span>         <span class="c1">// Printable name for the reg (for debugging)</span>
+  <span class="k">const</span> <span class="kt">unsigned</span> <span class="o">*</span><span class="n">AliasSet</span><span class="p">;</span>     <span class="c1">// Register Alias Set</span>
+  <span class="k">const</span> <span class="kt">unsigned</span> <span class="o">*</span><span class="n">SubRegs</span><span class="p">;</span>      <span class="c1">// Sub-register set</span>
+  <span class="k">const</span> <span class="kt">unsigned</span> <span class="o">*</span><span class="n">ImmSubRegs</span><span class="p">;</span>   <span class="c1">// Immediate sub-register set</span>
+  <span class="k">const</span> <span class="kt">unsigned</span> <span class="o">*</span><span class="n">SuperRegs</span><span class="p">;</span>    <span class="c1">// Super-register set</span>
+<span class="p">};</span>
+</pre></div>
+</div>
+<p>TableGen uses the entire target description file (<tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">.td</span></tt>) to determine text
+names for the register (in the <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">AsmName</span></tt> and <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">Name</span></tt> fields of
+<tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">TargetRegisterDesc</span></tt>) and the relationships of other registers to the defined
+register (in the other <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">TargetRegisterDesc</span></tt> fields).  In this example, other
+definitions establish the registers “<tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">AX</span></tt>”, “<tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">EAX</span></tt>”, and “<tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">RAX</span></tt>” as
+aliases for one another, so TableGen generates a null-terminated array
+(<tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">AL_AliasSet</span></tt>) for this register alias set.</p>
+<p>The <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">Register</span></tt> class is commonly used as a base class for more complex
+classes.  In <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">Target.td</span></tt>, the <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">Register</span></tt> class is the base for the
+<tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">RegisterWithSubRegs</span></tt> class that is used to define registers that need to
+specify subregisters in the <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">SubRegs</span></tt> list, as shown here:</p>
+<div class="highlight-llvm"><pre>class RegisterWithSubRegs<string n, list<Register> subregs> : Register<n> {
+  let SubRegs = subregs;
+}</pre>
+</div>
+<p>In <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">SparcRegisterInfo.td</span></tt>, additional register classes are defined for SPARC:
+a <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">Register</span></tt> subclass, <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">SparcReg</span></tt>, and further subclasses: <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">Ri</span></tt>, <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">Rf</span></tt>,
+and <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">Rd</span></tt>.  SPARC registers are identified by 5-bit ID numbers, which is a
+feature common to these subclasses.  Note the use of “<tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">let</span></tt>” expressions to
+override values that are initially defined in a superclass (such as <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">SubRegs</span></tt>
+field in the <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">Rd</span></tt> class).</p>
+<div class="highlight-llvm"><pre>class SparcReg<string n> : Register<n> {
+  field bits<5> Num;
+  let Namespace = "SP";
+}
+// Ri - 32-bit integer registers
+class Ri<bits<5> num, string n> :
+SparcReg<n> {
+  let Num = num;
+}
+// Rf - 32-bit floating-point registers
+class Rf<bits<5> num, string n> :
+SparcReg<n> {
+  let Num = num;
+}
+// Rd - Slots in the FP register file for 64-bit floating-point values.
+class Rd<bits<5> num, string n, list<Register> subregs> : SparcReg<n> {
+  let Num = num;
+  let SubRegs = subregs;
+}</pre>
+</div>
+<p>In the <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">SparcRegisterInfo.td</span></tt> file, there are register definitions that
+utilize these subclasses of <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">Register</span></tt>, such as:</p>
+<div class="highlight-llvm"><pre>def G0 : Ri< 0, "G0">, DwarfRegNum<[0]>;
+def G1 : Ri< 1, "G1">, DwarfRegNum<[1]>;
+...
+def F0 : Rf< 0, "F0">, DwarfRegNum<[32]>;
+def F1 : Rf< 1, "F1">, DwarfRegNum<[33]>;
+...
+def D0 : Rd< 0, "F0", [F0, F1]>, DwarfRegNum<[32]>;
+def D1 : Rd< 2, "F2", [F2, F3]>, DwarfRegNum<[34]>;</pre>
+</div>
+<p>The last two registers shown above (<tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">D0</span></tt> and <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">D1</span></tt>) are double-precision
+floating-point registers that are aliases for pairs of single-precision
+floating-point sub-registers.  In addition to aliases, the sub-register and
+super-register relationships of the defined register are in fields of a
+register’s <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">TargetRegisterDesc</span></tt>.</p>
+</div>
+<div class="section" id="defining-a-register-class">
+<h3><a class="toc-backref" href="#id12">Defining a Register Class</a><a class="headerlink" href="#defining-a-register-class" title="Permalink to this headline">¶</a></h3>
+<p>The <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">RegisterClass</span></tt> class (specified in <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">Target.td</span></tt>) is used to define an
+object that represents a group of related registers and also defines the
+default allocation order of the registers.  A target description file
+<tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">XXXRegisterInfo.td</span></tt> that uses <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">Target.td</span></tt> can construct register classes
+using the following class:</p>
+<div class="highlight-llvm"><pre>class RegisterClass<string namespace,
+list<ValueType> regTypes, int alignment, dag regList> {
+  string Namespace = namespace;
+  list<ValueType> RegTypes = regTypes;
+  int Size = 0;  // spill size, in bits; zero lets tblgen pick the size
+  int Alignment = alignment;
+
+  // CopyCost is the cost of copying a value between two registers
+  // default value 1 means a single instruction
+  // A negative value means copying is extremely expensive or impossible
+  int CopyCost = 1;
+  dag MemberList = regList;
+
+  // for register classes that are subregisters of this class
+  list<RegisterClass> SubRegClassList = [];
+
+  code MethodProtos = [{}];  // to insert arbitrary code
+  code MethodBodies = [{}];
+}</pre>
+</div>
+<p>To define a <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">RegisterClass</span></tt>, use the following 4 arguments:</p>
+<ul class="simple">
+<li>The first argument of the definition is the name of the namespace.</li>
+<li>The second argument is a list of <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">ValueType</span></tt> register type values that are
+defined in <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">include/llvm/CodeGen/ValueTypes.td</span></tt>.  Defined values include
+integer types (such as <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">i16</span></tt>, <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">i32</span></tt>, and <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">i1</span></tt> for Boolean),
+floating-point types (<tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">f32</span></tt>, <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">f64</span></tt>), and vector types (for example,
+<tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">v8i16</span></tt> for an <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">8</span> <span class="pre">x</span> <span class="pre">i16</span></tt> vector).  All registers in a <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">RegisterClass</span></tt>
+must have the same <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">ValueType</span></tt>, but some registers may store vector data in
+different configurations.  For example a register that can process a 128-bit
+vector may be able to handle 16 8-bit integer elements, 8 16-bit integers, 4
+32-bit integers, and so on.</li>
+<li>The third argument of the <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">RegisterClass</span></tt> definition specifies the
+alignment required of the registers when they are stored or loaded to
+memory.</li>
+<li>The final argument, <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">regList</span></tt>, specifies which registers are in this class.
+If an alternative allocation order method is not specified, then <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">regList</span></tt>
+also defines the order of allocation used by the register allocator.  Besides
+simply listing registers with <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">(add</span> <span class="pre">R0,</span> <span class="pre">R1,</span> <span class="pre">...)</span></tt>, more advanced set
+operators are available.  See <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">include/llvm/Target/Target.td</span></tt> for more
+information.</li>
+</ul>
+<p>In <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">SparcRegisterInfo.td</span></tt>, three <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">RegisterClass</span></tt> objects are defined:
+<tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">FPRegs</span></tt>, <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">DFPRegs</span></tt>, and <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">IntRegs</span></tt>.  For all three register classes, the
+first argument defines the namespace with the string “<tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">SP</span></tt>”.  <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">FPRegs</span></tt>
+defines a group of 32 single-precision floating-point registers (<tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">F0</span></tt> to
+<tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">F31</span></tt>); <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">DFPRegs</span></tt> defines a group of 16 double-precision registers
+(<tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">D0-D15</span></tt>).</p>
+<div class="highlight-llvm"><pre>// F0, F1, F2, ..., F31
+def FPRegs : RegisterClass<"SP", [f32], 32, (sequence "F%u", 0, 31)>;
+
+def DFPRegs : RegisterClass<"SP", [f64], 64,
+                            (add D0, D1, D2, D3, D4, D5, D6, D7, D8,
+                                 D9, D10, D11, D12, D13, D14, D15)>;
+
+def IntRegs : RegisterClass<"SP", [i32], 32,
+    (add L0, L1, L2, L3, L4, L5, L6, L7,
+         I0, I1, I2, I3, I4, I5,
+         O0, O1, O2, O3, O4, O5, O7,
+         G1,
+         // Non-allocatable regs:
+         G2, G3, G4,
+         O6,        // stack ptr
+         I6,        // frame ptr
+         I7,        // return address
+         G0,        // constant zero
+         G5, G6, G7 // reserved for kernel
+    )>;</pre>
+</div>
+<p>Using <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">SparcRegisterInfo.td</span></tt> with TableGen generates several output files
+that are intended for inclusion in other source code that you write.
+<tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">SparcRegisterInfo.td</span></tt> generates <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">SparcGenRegisterInfo.h.inc</span></tt>, which should
+be included in the header file for the implementation of the SPARC register
+implementation that you write (<tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">SparcRegisterInfo.h</span></tt>).  In
+<tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">SparcGenRegisterInfo.h.inc</span></tt> a new structure is defined called
+<tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">SparcGenRegisterInfo</span></tt> that uses <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">TargetRegisterInfo</span></tt> as its base.  It also
+specifies types, based upon the defined register classes: <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">DFPRegsClass</span></tt>,
+<tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">FPRegsClass</span></tt>, and <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">IntRegsClass</span></tt>.</p>
+<p><tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">SparcRegisterInfo.td</span></tt> also generates <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">SparcGenRegisterInfo.inc</span></tt>, which is
+included at the bottom of <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">SparcRegisterInfo.cpp</span></tt>, the SPARC register
+implementation.  The code below shows only the generated integer registers and
+associated register classes.  The order of registers in <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">IntRegs</span></tt> reflects
+the order in the definition of <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">IntRegs</span></tt> in the target description file.</p>
+<div class="highlight-c++"><div class="highlight"><pre><span class="c1">// IntRegs Register Class...</span>
+<span class="k">static</span> <span class="k">const</span> <span class="kt">unsigned</span> <span class="n">IntRegs</span><span class="p">[]</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="p">{</span>
+  <span class="n">SP</span><span class="o">::</span><span class="n">L0</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="n">SP</span><span class="o">::</span><span class="n">L1</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="n">SP</span><span class="o">::</span><span class="n">L2</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="n">SP</span><span class="o">::</span><span class="n">L3</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="n">SP</span><span class="o">::</span><span class="n">L4</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="n">SP</span><span class="o">::</span><span class="n">L5</span><span class="p">,</span>
+  <span class="n">SP</span><span class="o">::</span><span class="n">L6</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="n">SP</span><span class="o">::</span><span class="n">L7</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="n">SP</span><span class="o">::</span><span class="n">I0</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="n">SP</span><span class="o">::</span><span class="n">I1</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="n">SP</span><span class="o">::</span><span class="n">I2</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="n">SP</span><span class="o">::</span><span class="n">I3</span><span class="p">,</span>
+  <span class="n">SP</span><span class="o">::</span><span class="n">I4</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="n">SP</span><span class="o">::</span><span class="n">I5</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="n">SP</span><span class="o">::</span><span class="n">O0</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="n">SP</span><span class="o">::</span><span class="n">O1</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="n">SP</span><span class="o">::</span><span class="n">O2</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="n">SP</span><span class="o">::</span><span class="n">O3</span><span class="p">,</span>
+  <span class="n">SP</span><span class="o">::</span><span class="n">O4</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="n">SP</span><span class="o">::</span><span class="n">O5</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="n">SP</span><span class="o">::</span><span class="n">O7</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="n">SP</span><span class="o">::</span><span class="n">G1</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="n">SP</span><span class="o">::</span><span class="n">G2</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="n">SP</span><span class="o">::</span><span class="n">G3</span><span class="p">,</span>
+  <span class="n">SP</span><span class="o">::</span><span class="n">G4</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="n">SP</span><span class="o">::</span><span class="n">O6</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="n">SP</span><span class="o">::</span><span class="n">I6</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="n">SP</span><span class="o">::</span><span class="n">I7</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="n">SP</span><span class="o">::</span><span class="n">G0</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="n">SP</span><span class="o">::</span><span class="n">G5</span><span class="p">,</span>
+  <span class="n">SP</span><span class="o">::</span><span class="n">G6</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="n">SP</span><span class="o">::</span><span class="n">G7</span><span class="p">,</span>
+<span class="p">};</span>
+
+<span class="c1">// IntRegsVTs Register Class Value Types...</span>
+<span class="k">static</span> <span class="k">const</span> <span class="n">MVT</span><span class="o">::</span><span class="n">ValueType</span> <span class="n">IntRegsVTs</span><span class="p">[]</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="p">{</span>
+  <span class="n">MVT</span><span class="o">::</span><span class="n">i32</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="n">MVT</span><span class="o">::</span><span class="n">Other</span>
+<span class="p">};</span>
+
+<span class="k">namespace</span> <span class="n">SP</span> <span class="p">{</span>   <span class="c1">// Register class instances</span>
+  <span class="n">DFPRegsClass</span>    <span class="n">DFPRegsRegClass</span><span class="p">;</span>
+  <span class="n">FPRegsClass</span>     <span class="n">FPRegsRegClass</span><span class="p">;</span>
+  <span class="n">IntRegsClass</span>    <span class="n">IntRegsRegClass</span><span class="p">;</span>
+<span class="p">...</span>
+  <span class="c1">// IntRegs Sub-register Classess...</span>
+  <span class="k">static</span> <span class="k">const</span> <span class="n">TargetRegisterClass</span><span class="o">*</span> <span class="k">const</span> <span class="n">IntRegsSubRegClasses</span> <span class="p">[]</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="p">{</span>
+    <span class="nb">NULL</span>
+  <span class="p">};</span>
+<span class="p">...</span>
+  <span class="c1">// IntRegs Super-register Classess...</span>
+  <span class="k">static</span> <span class="k">const</span> <span class="n">TargetRegisterClass</span><span class="o">*</span> <span class="k">const</span> <span class="n">IntRegsSuperRegClasses</span> <span class="p">[]</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="p">{</span>
+    <span class="nb">NULL</span>
+  <span class="p">};</span>
+<span class="p">...</span>
+  <span class="c1">// IntRegs Register Class sub-classes...</span>
+  <span class="k">static</span> <span class="k">const</span> <span class="n">TargetRegisterClass</span><span class="o">*</span> <span class="k">const</span> <span class="n">IntRegsSubclasses</span> <span class="p">[]</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="p">{</span>
+    <span class="nb">NULL</span>
+  <span class="p">};</span>
+<span class="p">...</span>
+  <span class="c1">// IntRegs Register Class super-classes...</span>
+  <span class="k">static</span> <span class="k">const</span> <span class="n">TargetRegisterClass</span><span class="o">*</span> <span class="k">const</span> <span class="n">IntRegsSuperclasses</span> <span class="p">[]</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="p">{</span>
+    <span class="nb">NULL</span>
+  <span class="p">};</span>
+
+  <span class="n">IntRegsClass</span><span class="o">::</span><span class="n">IntRegsClass</span><span class="p">()</span> <span class="o">:</span> <span class="n">TargetRegisterClass</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="n">IntRegsRegClassID</span><span class="p">,</span>
+    <span class="n">IntRegsVTs</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="n">IntRegsSubclasses</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="n">IntRegsSuperclasses</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="n">IntRegsSubRegClasses</span><span class="p">,</span>
+    <span class="n">IntRegsSuperRegClasses</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="mi">4</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="mi">4</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="mi">1</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="n">IntRegs</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="n">IntRegs</span> <span class="o">+</span> <span class="mi">32</span><span class="p">)</span> <span class="p">{}</span>
+<span class="p">}</span>
+</pre></div>
+</div>
+<p>The register allocators will avoid using reserved registers, and callee saved
+registers are not used until all the volatile registers have been used.  That
+is usually good enough, but in some cases it may be necessary to provide custom
+allocation orders.</p>
+</div>
+<div class="section" id="implement-a-subclass-of-targetregisterinfo">
+<h3><a class="toc-backref" href="#id13">Implement a subclass of <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">TargetRegisterInfo</span></tt></a><a class="headerlink" href="#implement-a-subclass-of-targetregisterinfo" title="Permalink to this headline">¶</a></h3>
+<p>The final step is to hand code portions of <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">XXXRegisterInfo</span></tt>, which
+implements the interface described in <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">TargetRegisterInfo.h</span></tt> (see
+<a class="reference internal" href="CodeGenerator.html#targetregisterinfo"><em>The TargetRegisterInfo class</em></a>).  These functions return <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">0</span></tt>, <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">NULL</span></tt>, or
+<tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">false</span></tt>, unless overridden.  Here is a list of functions that are overridden
+for the SPARC implementation in <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">SparcRegisterInfo.cpp</span></tt>:</p>
+<ul class="simple">
+<li><tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">getCalleeSavedRegs</span></tt> — Returns a list of callee-saved registers in the
+order of the desired callee-save stack frame offset.</li>
+<li><tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">getReservedRegs</span></tt> — Returns a bitset indexed by physical register
+numbers, indicating if a particular register is unavailable.</li>
+<li><tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">hasFP</span></tt> — Return a Boolean indicating if a function should have a
+dedicated frame pointer register.</li>
+<li><tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">eliminateCallFramePseudoInstr</span></tt> — If call frame setup or destroy pseudo
+instructions are used, this can be called to eliminate them.</li>
+<li><tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">eliminateFrameIndex</span></tt> — Eliminate abstract frame indices from
+instructions that may use them.</li>
+<li><tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">emitPrologue</span></tt> — Insert prologue code into the function.</li>
+<li><tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">emitEpilogue</span></tt> — Insert epilogue code into the function.</li>
+</ul>
+</div>
+</div>
+<div class="section" id="instruction-set">
+<span id="id1"></span><h2><a class="toc-backref" href="#id14">Instruction Set</a><a class="headerlink" href="#instruction-set" title="Permalink to this headline">¶</a></h2>
+<p>During the early stages of code generation, the LLVM IR code is converted to a
+<tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">SelectionDAG</span></tt> with nodes that are instances of the <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">SDNode</span></tt> class
+containing target instructions.  An <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">SDNode</span></tt> has an opcode, operands, type
+requirements, and operation properties.  For example, is an operation
+commutative, does an operation load from memory.  The various operation node
+types are described in the <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">include/llvm/CodeGen/SelectionDAGNodes.h</span></tt> file
+(values of the <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">NodeType</span></tt> enum in the <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">ISD</span></tt> namespace).</p>
+<p>TableGen uses the following target description (<tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">.td</span></tt>) input files to
+generate much of the code for instruction definition:</p>
+<ul class="simple">
+<li><tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">Target.td</span></tt> — Where the <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">Instruction</span></tt>, <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">Operand</span></tt>, <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">InstrInfo</span></tt>, and
+other fundamental classes are defined.</li>
+<li><tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">TargetSelectionDAG.td</span></tt> — Used by <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">SelectionDAG</span></tt> instruction selection
+generators, contains <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">SDTC*</span></tt> classes (selection DAG type constraint),
+definitions of <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">SelectionDAG</span></tt> nodes (such as <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">imm</span></tt>, <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">cond</span></tt>, <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">bb</span></tt>,
+<tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">add</span></tt>, <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">fadd</span></tt>, <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">sub</span></tt>), and pattern support (<tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">Pattern</span></tt>, <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">Pat</span></tt>,
+<tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">PatFrag</span></tt>, <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">PatLeaf</span></tt>, <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">ComplexPattern</span></tt>.</li>
+<li><tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">XXXInstrFormats.td</span></tt> — Patterns for definitions of target-specific
+instructions.</li>
+<li><tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">XXXInstrInfo.td</span></tt> — Target-specific definitions of instruction templates,
+condition codes, and instructions of an instruction set.  For architecture
+modifications, a different file name may be used.  For example, for Pentium
+with SSE instruction, this file is <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">X86InstrSSE.td</span></tt>, and for Pentium with
+MMX, this file is <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">X86InstrMMX.td</span></tt>.</li>
+</ul>
+<p>There is also a target-specific <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">XXX.td</span></tt> file, where <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">XXX</span></tt> is the name of
+the target.  The <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">XXX.td</span></tt> file includes the other <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">.td</span></tt> input files, but
+its contents are only directly important for subtargets.</p>
+<p>You should describe a concrete target-specific class <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">XXXInstrInfo</span></tt> that
+represents machine instructions supported by a target machine.
+<tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">XXXInstrInfo</span></tt> contains an array of <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">XXXInstrDescriptor</span></tt> objects, each of
+which describes one instruction.  An instruction descriptor defines:</p>
+<ul class="simple">
+<li>Opcode mnemonic</li>
+<li>Number of operands</li>
+<li>List of implicit register definitions and uses</li>
+<li>Target-independent properties (such as memory access, is commutable)</li>
+<li>Target-specific flags</li>
+</ul>
+<p>The Instruction class (defined in <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">Target.td</span></tt>) is mostly used as a base for
+more complex instruction classes.</p>
+<div class="highlight-llvm"><pre>class Instruction {
+  string Namespace = "";
+  dag OutOperandList;    // A dag containing the MI def operand list.
+  dag InOperandList;     // A dag containing the MI use operand list.
+  string AsmString = ""; // The .s format to print the instruction with.
+  list<dag> Pattern;     // Set to the DAG pattern for this instruction.
+  list<Register> Uses = [];
+  list<Register> Defs = [];
+  list<Predicate> Predicates = [];  // predicates turned into isel match code
+  ... remainder not shown for space ...
+}</pre>
+</div>
+<p>A <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">SelectionDAG</span></tt> node (<tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">SDNode</span></tt>) should contain an object representing a
+target-specific instruction that is defined in <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">XXXInstrInfo.td</span></tt>.  The
+instruction objects should represent instructions from the architecture manual
+of the target machine (such as the SPARC Architecture Manual for the SPARC
+target).</p>
+<p>A single instruction from the architecture manual is often modeled as multiple
+target instructions, depending upon its operands.  For example, a manual might
+describe an add instruction that takes a register or an immediate operand.  An
+LLVM target could model this with two instructions named <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">ADDri</span></tt> and
+<tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">ADDrr</span></tt>.</p>
+<p>You should define a class for each instruction category and define each opcode
+as a subclass of the category with appropriate parameters such as the fixed
+binary encoding of opcodes and extended opcodes.  You should map the register
+bits to the bits of the instruction in which they are encoded (for the JIT).
+Also you should specify how the instruction should be printed when the
+automatic assembly printer is used.</p>
+<p>As is described in the SPARC Architecture Manual, Version 8, there are three
+major 32-bit formats for instructions.  Format 1 is only for the <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">CALL</span></tt>
+instruction.  Format 2 is for branch on condition codes and <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">SETHI</span></tt> (set high
+bits of a register) instructions.  Format 3 is for other instructions.</p>
+<p>Each of these formats has corresponding classes in <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">SparcInstrFormat.td</span></tt>.
+<tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">InstSP</span></tt> is a base class for other instruction classes.  Additional base
+classes are specified for more precise formats: for example in
+<tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">SparcInstrFormat.td</span></tt>, <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">F2_1</span></tt> is for <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">SETHI</span></tt>, and <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">F2_2</span></tt> is for
+branches.  There are three other base classes: <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">F3_1</span></tt> for register/register
+operations, <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">F3_2</span></tt> for register/immediate operations, and <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">F3_3</span></tt> for
+floating-point operations.  <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">SparcInstrInfo.td</span></tt> also adds the base class
+<tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">Pseudo</span></tt> for synthetic SPARC instructions.</p>
+<p><tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">SparcInstrInfo.td</span></tt> largely consists of operand and instruction definitions
+for the SPARC target.  In <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">SparcInstrInfo.td</span></tt>, the following target
+description file entry, <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">LDrr</span></tt>, defines the Load Integer instruction for a
+Word (the <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">LD</span></tt> SPARC opcode) from a memory address to a register.  The first
+parameter, the value 3 (<tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">11</span></tt><sub>2</sub>), is the operation value for this
+category of operation.  The second parameter (<tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">000000</span></tt><sub>2</sub>) is the
+specific operation value for <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">LD</span></tt>/Load Word.  The third parameter is the
+output destination, which is a register operand and defined in the <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">Register</span></tt>
+target description file (<tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">IntRegs</span></tt>).</p>
+<div class="highlight-llvm"><pre>def LDrr : F3_1 <3, 0b000000, (outs IntRegs:$dst), (ins MEMrr:$addr),
+                 "ld [$addr], $dst",
+                 [(set i32:$dst, (load ADDRrr:$addr))]>;</pre>
+</div>
+<p>The fourth parameter is the input source, which uses the address operand
+<tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">MEMrr</span></tt> that is defined earlier in <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">SparcInstrInfo.td</span></tt>:</p>
+<div class="highlight-llvm"><pre>def MEMrr : Operand<i32> {
+  let PrintMethod = "printMemOperand";
+  let MIOperandInfo = (ops IntRegs, IntRegs);
+}</pre>
+</div>
+<p>The fifth parameter is a string that is used by the assembly printer and can be
+left as an empty string until the assembly printer interface is implemented.
+The sixth and final parameter is the pattern used to match the instruction
+during the SelectionDAG Select Phase described in <a class="reference internal" href="CodeGenerator.html"><em>The LLVM Target-Independent Code Generator</em></a>.
+This parameter is detailed in the next section, <a class="reference internal" href="#instruction-selector"><em>Instruction Selector</em></a>.</p>
+<p>Instruction class definitions are not overloaded for different operand types,
+so separate versions of instructions are needed for register, memory, or
+immediate value operands.  For example, to perform a Load Integer instruction
+for a Word from an immediate operand to a register, the following instruction
+class is defined:</p>
+<div class="highlight-llvm"><pre>def LDri : F3_2 <3, 0b000000, (outs IntRegs:$dst), (ins MEMri:$addr),
+                 "ld [$addr], $dst",
+                 [(set i32:$dst, (load ADDRri:$addr))]>;</pre>
+</div>
+<p>Writing these definitions for so many similar instructions can involve a lot of
+cut and paste.  In <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">.td</span></tt> files, the <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">multiclass</span></tt> directive enables the
+creation of templates to define several instruction classes at once (using the
+<tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">defm</span></tt> directive).  For example in <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">SparcInstrInfo.td</span></tt>, the <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">multiclass</span></tt>
+pattern <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">F3_12</span></tt> is defined to create 2 instruction classes each time
+<tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">F3_12</span></tt> is invoked:</p>
+<div class="highlight-llvm"><pre>multiclass F3_12 <string OpcStr, bits<6> Op3Val, SDNode OpNode> {
+  def rr  : F3_1 <2, Op3Val,
+                 (outs IntRegs:$dst), (ins IntRegs:$b, IntRegs:$c),
+                 !strconcat(OpcStr, " $b, $c, $dst"),
+                 [(set i32:$dst, (OpNode i32:$b, i32:$c))]>;
+  def ri  : F3_2 <2, Op3Val,
+                 (outs IntRegs:$dst), (ins IntRegs:$b, i32imm:$c),
+                 !strconcat(OpcStr, " $b, $c, $dst"),
+                 [(set i32:$dst, (OpNode i32:$b, simm13:$c))]>;
+}</pre>
+</div>
+<p>So when the <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">defm</span></tt> directive is used for the <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">XOR</span></tt> and <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">ADD</span></tt>
+instructions, as seen below, it creates four instruction objects: <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">XORrr</span></tt>,
+<tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">XORri</span></tt>, <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">ADDrr</span></tt>, and <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">ADDri</span></tt>.</p>
+<div class="highlight-llvm"><pre>defm XOR   : F3_12<"xor", 0b000011, xor>;
+defm ADD   : F3_12<"add", 0b000000, add>;</pre>
+</div>
+<p><tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">SparcInstrInfo.td</span></tt> also includes definitions for condition codes that are
+referenced by branch instructions.  The following definitions in
+<tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">SparcInstrInfo.td</span></tt> indicate the bit location of the SPARC condition code.
+For example, the 10<sup>th</sup> bit represents the “greater than” condition for
+integers, and the 22<sup>nd</sup> bit represents the “greater than” condition for
+floats.</p>
+<div class="highlight-llvm"><pre>def ICC_NE  : ICC_VAL< 9>;  // Not Equal
+def ICC_E   : ICC_VAL< 1>;  // Equal
+def ICC_G   : ICC_VAL<10>;  // Greater
+...
+def FCC_U   : FCC_VAL<23>;  // Unordered
+def FCC_G   : FCC_VAL<22>;  // Greater
+def FCC_UG  : FCC_VAL<21>;  // Unordered or Greater
+...</pre>
+</div>
+<p>(Note that <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">Sparc.h</span></tt> also defines enums that correspond to the same SPARC
+condition codes.  Care must be taken to ensure the values in <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">Sparc.h</span></tt>
+correspond to the values in <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">SparcInstrInfo.td</span></tt>.  I.e., <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">SPCC::ICC_NE</span> <span class="pre">=</span> <span class="pre">9</span></tt>,
+<tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">SPCC::FCC_U</span> <span class="pre">=</span> <span class="pre">23</span></tt> and so on.)</p>
+<div class="section" id="instruction-operand-mapping">
+<h3><a class="toc-backref" href="#id15">Instruction Operand Mapping</a><a class="headerlink" href="#instruction-operand-mapping" title="Permalink to this headline">¶</a></h3>
+<p>The code generator backend maps instruction operands to fields in the
+instruction.  Operands are assigned to unbound fields in the instruction in the
+order they are defined.  Fields are bound when they are assigned a value.  For
+example, the Sparc target defines the <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">XNORrr</span></tt> instruction as a <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">F3_1</span></tt>
+format instruction having three operands.</p>
+<div class="highlight-llvm"><pre>def XNORrr  : F3_1<2, 0b000111,
+                   (outs IntRegs:$dst), (ins IntRegs:$b, IntRegs:$c),
+                   "xnor $b, $c, $dst",
+                   [(set i32:$dst, (not (xor i32:$b, i32:$c)))]>;</pre>
+</div>
+<p>The instruction templates in <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">SparcInstrFormats.td</span></tt> show the base class for
+<tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">F3_1</span></tt> is <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">InstSP</span></tt>.</p>
+<div class="highlight-llvm"><pre>class InstSP<dag outs, dag ins, string asmstr, list<dag> pattern> : Instruction {
+  field bits<32> Inst;
+  let Namespace = "SP";
+  bits<2> op;
+  let Inst{31-30} = op;
+  dag OutOperandList = outs;
+  dag InOperandList = ins;
+  let AsmString   = asmstr;
+  let Pattern = pattern;
+}</pre>
+</div>
+<p><tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">InstSP</span></tt> leaves the <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">op</span></tt> field unbound.</p>
+<div class="highlight-llvm"><pre>class F3<dag outs, dag ins, string asmstr, list<dag> pattern>
+    : InstSP<outs, ins, asmstr, pattern> {
+  bits<5> rd;
+  bits<6> op3;
+  bits<5> rs1;
+  let op{1} = 1;   // Op = 2 or 3
+  let Inst{29-25} = rd;
+  let Inst{24-19} = op3;
+  let Inst{18-14} = rs1;
+}</pre>
+</div>
+<p><tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">F3</span></tt> binds the <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">op</span></tt> field and defines the <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">rd</span></tt>, <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">op3</span></tt>, and <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">rs1</span></tt>
+fields.  <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">F3</span></tt> format instructions will bind the operands <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">rd</span></tt>, <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">op3</span></tt>, and
+<tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">rs1</span></tt> fields.</p>
+<div class="highlight-llvm"><pre>class F3_1<bits<2> opVal, bits<6> op3val, dag outs, dag ins,
+           string asmstr, list<dag> pattern> : F3<outs, ins, asmstr, pattern> {
+  bits<8> asi = 0; // asi not currently used
+  bits<5> rs2;
+  let op         = opVal;
+  let op3        = op3val;
+  let Inst{13}   = 0;     // i field = 0
+  let Inst{12-5} = asi;   // address space identifier
+  let Inst{4-0}  = rs2;
+}</pre>
+</div>
+<p><tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">F3_1</span></tt> binds the <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">op3</span></tt> field and defines the <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">rs2</span></tt> fields.  <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">F3_1</span></tt>
+format instructions will bind the operands to the <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">rd</span></tt>, <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">rs1</span></tt>, and <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">rs2</span></tt>
+fields.  This results in the <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">XNORrr</span></tt> instruction binding <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">$dst</span></tt>, <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">$b</span></tt>,
+and <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">$c</span></tt> operands to the <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">rd</span></tt>, <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">rs1</span></tt>, and <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">rs2</span></tt> fields respectively.</p>
+<div class="section" id="instruction-operand-name-mapping">
+<h4><a class="toc-backref" href="#id16">Instruction Operand Name Mapping</a><a class="headerlink" href="#instruction-operand-name-mapping" title="Permalink to this headline">¶</a></h4>
+<p>TableGen will also generate a function called getNamedOperandIdx() which
+can be used to look up an operand’s index in a MachineInstr based on its
+TableGen name.  Setting the UseNamedOperandTable bit in an instruction’s
+TableGen definition will add all of its operands to an enumeration in the
+llvm::XXX:OpName namespace and also add an entry for it into the OperandMap
+table, which can be queried using getNamedOperandIdx()</p>
+<div class="highlight-llvm"><pre>int DstIndex = SP::getNamedOperandIdx(SP::XNORrr, SP::OpName::dst); // => 0
+int BIndex = SP::getNamedOperandIdx(SP::XNORrr, SP::OpName::b);     // => 1
+int CIndex = SP::getNamedOperandIdx(SP::XNORrr, SP::OpName::c);     // => 2
+int DIndex = SP::getNamedOperandIdx(SP::XNORrr, SP::OpName::d);     // => -1
+
+...</pre>
+</div>
+<p>The entries in the OpName enum are taken verbatim from the TableGen definitions,
+so operands with lowercase names will have lower case entries in the enum.</p>
+<p>To include the getNamedOperandIdx() function in your backend, you will need
+to define a few preprocessor macros in XXXInstrInfo.cpp and XXXInstrInfo.h.
+For example:</p>
+<p>XXXInstrInfo.cpp:</p>
+<div class="highlight-c++"><div class="highlight"><pre><span class="cp">#define GET_INSTRINFO_NAMED_OPS </span><span class="c1">// For getNamedOperandIdx() function</span>
+<span class="cp">#include "XXXGenInstrInfo.inc"</span>
+</pre></div>
+</div>
+<p>XXXInstrInfo.h:</p>
+<div class="highlight-c++"><div class="highlight"><pre><span class="cp">#define GET_INSTRINFO_OPERAND_ENUM </span><span class="c1">// For OpName enum</span>
+<span class="cp">#include "XXXGenInstrInfo.inc"</span>
+
+<span class="k">namespace</span> <span class="n">XXX</span> <span class="p">{</span>
+  <span class="kt">int16_t</span> <span class="n">getNamedOperandIdx</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="kt">uint16_t</span> <span class="n">Opcode</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="kt">uint16_t</span> <span class="n">NamedIndex</span><span class="p">);</span>
+<span class="p">}</span> <span class="c1">// End namespace XXX</span>
+</pre></div>
+</div>
+</div>
+<div class="section" id="instruction-operand-types">
+<h4><a class="toc-backref" href="#id17">Instruction Operand Types</a><a class="headerlink" href="#instruction-operand-types" title="Permalink to this headline">¶</a></h4>
+<p>TableGen will also generate an enumeration consisting of all named Operand
+types defined in the backend, in the llvm::XXX::OpTypes namespace.
+Some common immediate Operand types (for instance i8, i32, i64, f32, f64)
+are defined for all targets in <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">include/llvm/Target/Target.td</span></tt>, and are
+available in each Target’s OpTypes enum.  Also, only named Operand types appear
+in the enumeration: anonymous types are ignored.
+For example, the X86 backend defines <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">brtarget</span></tt> and <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">brtarget8</span></tt>, both
+instances of the TableGen <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">Operand</span></tt> class, which represent branch target
+operands:</p>
+<div class="highlight-llvm"><pre>def brtarget : Operand<OtherVT>;
+def brtarget8 : Operand<OtherVT>;</pre>
+</div>
+<p>This results in:</p>
+<div class="highlight-c++"><div class="highlight"><pre><span class="k">namespace</span> <span class="n">X86</span> <span class="p">{</span>
+<span class="k">namespace</span> <span class="n">OpTypes</span> <span class="p">{</span>
+<span class="k">enum</span> <span class="n">OperandType</span> <span class="p">{</span>
+  <span class="p">...</span>
+  <span class="n">brtarget</span><span class="p">,</span>
+  <span class="n">brtarget8</span><span class="p">,</span>
+  <span class="p">...</span>
+  <span class="n">i32imm</span><span class="p">,</span>
+  <span class="n">i64imm</span><span class="p">,</span>
+  <span class="p">...</span>
+  <span class="n">OPERAND_TYPE_LIST_END</span>
+<span class="p">}</span> <span class="c1">// End namespace OpTypes</span>
+<span class="p">}</span> <span class="c1">// End namespace X86</span>
+</pre></div>
+</div>
+<p>In typical TableGen fashion, to use the enum, you will need to define a
+preprocessor macro:</p>
+<div class="highlight-c++"><div class="highlight"><pre><span class="cp">#define GET_INSTRINFO_OPERAND_TYPES_ENUM </span><span class="c1">// For OpTypes enum</span>
+<span class="cp">#include "XXXGenInstrInfo.inc"</span>
+</pre></div>
+</div>
+</div>
+</div>
+<div class="section" id="instruction-scheduling">
+<h3><a class="toc-backref" href="#id18">Instruction Scheduling</a><a class="headerlink" href="#instruction-scheduling" title="Permalink to this headline">¶</a></h3>
+<p>Instruction itineraries can be queried using MCDesc::getSchedClass(). The
+value can be named by an enumemation in llvm::XXX::Sched namespace generated
+by TableGen in XXXGenInstrInfo.inc. The name of the schedule classes are
+the same as provided in XXXSchedule.td plus a default NoItinerary class.</p>
+</div>
+<div class="section" id="instruction-relation-mapping">
+<h3><a class="toc-backref" href="#id19">Instruction Relation Mapping</a><a class="headerlink" href="#instruction-relation-mapping" title="Permalink to this headline">¶</a></h3>
+<p>This TableGen feature is used to relate instructions with each other.  It is
+particularly useful when you have multiple instruction formats and need to
+switch between them after instruction selection.  This entire feature is driven
+by relation models which can be defined in <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">XXXInstrInfo.td</span></tt> files
+according to the target-specific instruction set.  Relation models are defined
+using <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">InstrMapping</span></tt> class as a base.  TableGen parses all the models
+and generates instruction relation maps using the specified information.
+Relation maps are emitted as tables in the <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">XXXGenInstrInfo.inc</span></tt> file
+along with the functions to query them.  For the detailed information on how to
+use this feature, please refer to <a class="reference internal" href="HowToUseInstrMappings.html"><em>How To Use Instruction Mappings</em></a>.</p>
+</div>
+<div class="section" id="implement-a-subclass-of-targetinstrinfo">
+<h3><a class="toc-backref" href="#id20">Implement a subclass of <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">TargetInstrInfo</span></tt></a><a class="headerlink" href="#implement-a-subclass-of-targetinstrinfo" title="Permalink to this headline">¶</a></h3>
+<p>The final step is to hand code portions of <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">XXXInstrInfo</span></tt>, which implements
+the interface described in <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">TargetInstrInfo.h</span></tt> (see <a class="reference internal" href="CodeGenerator.html#targetinstrinfo"><em>The TargetInstrInfo class</em></a>).
+These functions return <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">0</span></tt> or a Boolean or they assert, unless overridden.
+Here’s a list of functions that are overridden for the SPARC implementation in
+<tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">SparcInstrInfo.cpp</span></tt>:</p>
+<ul class="simple">
+<li><tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">isLoadFromStackSlot</span></tt> — If the specified machine instruction is a direct
+load from a stack slot, return the register number of the destination and the
+<tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">FrameIndex</span></tt> of the stack slot.</li>
+<li><tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">isStoreToStackSlot</span></tt> — If the specified machine instruction is a direct
+store to a stack slot, return the register number of the destination and the
+<tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">FrameIndex</span></tt> of the stack slot.</li>
+<li><tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">copyPhysReg</span></tt> — Copy values between a pair of physical registers.</li>
+<li><tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">storeRegToStackSlot</span></tt> — Store a register value to a stack slot.</li>
+<li><tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">loadRegFromStackSlot</span></tt> — Load a register value from a stack slot.</li>
+<li><tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">storeRegToAddr</span></tt> — Store a register value to memory.</li>
+<li><tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">loadRegFromAddr</span></tt> — Load a register value from memory.</li>
+<li><tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">foldMemoryOperand</span></tt> — Attempt to combine instructions of any load or
+store instruction for the specified operand(s).</li>
+</ul>
+</div>
+<div class="section" id="branch-folding-and-if-conversion">
+<h3><a class="toc-backref" href="#id21">Branch Folding and If Conversion</a><a class="headerlink" href="#branch-folding-and-if-conversion" title="Permalink to this headline">¶</a></h3>
+<p>Performance can be improved by combining instructions or by eliminating
+instructions that are never reached.  The <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">AnalyzeBranch</span></tt> method in
+<tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">XXXInstrInfo</span></tt> may be implemented to examine conditional instructions and
+remove unnecessary instructions.  <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">AnalyzeBranch</span></tt> looks at the end of a
+machine basic block (MBB) for opportunities for improvement, such as branch
+folding and if conversion.  The <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">BranchFolder</span></tt> and <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">IfConverter</span></tt> machine
+function passes (see the source files <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">BranchFolding.cpp</span></tt> and
+<tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">IfConversion.cpp</span></tt> in the <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">lib/CodeGen</span></tt> directory) call <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">AnalyzeBranch</span></tt>
+to improve the control flow graph that represents the instructions.</p>
+<p>Several implementations of <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">AnalyzeBranch</span></tt> (for ARM, Alpha, and X86) can be
+examined as models for your own <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">AnalyzeBranch</span></tt> implementation.  Since SPARC
+does not implement a useful <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">AnalyzeBranch</span></tt>, the ARM target implementation is
+shown below.</p>
+<p><tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">AnalyzeBranch</span></tt> returns a Boolean value and takes four parameters:</p>
+<ul class="simple">
+<li><tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">MachineBasicBlock</span> <span class="pre">&MBB</span></tt> — The incoming block to be examined.</li>
+<li><tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">MachineBasicBlock</span> <span class="pre">*&TBB</span></tt> — A destination block that is returned.  For a
+conditional branch that evaluates to true, <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">TBB</span></tt> is the destination.</li>
+<li><tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">MachineBasicBlock</span> <span class="pre">*&FBB</span></tt> — For a conditional branch that evaluates to
+false, <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">FBB</span></tt> is returned as the destination.</li>
+<li><tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">std::vector<MachineOperand></span> <span class="pre">&Cond</span></tt> — List of operands to evaluate a
+condition for a conditional branch.</li>
+</ul>
+<p>In the simplest case, if a block ends without a branch, then it falls through
+to the successor block.  No destination blocks are specified for either <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">TBB</span></tt>
+or <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">FBB</span></tt>, so both parameters return <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">NULL</span></tt>.  The start of the
+<tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">AnalyzeBranch</span></tt> (see code below for the ARM target) shows the function
+parameters and the code for the simplest case.</p>
+<div class="highlight-c++"><div class="highlight"><pre><span class="kt">bool</span> <span class="n">ARMInstrInfo</span><span class="o">::</span><span class="n">AnalyzeBranch</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="n">MachineBasicBlock</span> <span class="o">&</span><span class="n">MBB</span><span class="p">,</span>
+                                 <span class="n">MachineBasicBlock</span> <span class="o">*&</span><span class="n">TBB</span><span class="p">,</span>
+                                 <span class="n">MachineBasicBlock</span> <span class="o">*&</span><span class="n">FBB</span><span class="p">,</span>
+                                 <span class="n">std</span><span class="o">::</span><span class="n">vector</span><span class="o"><</span><span class="n">MachineOperand</span><span class="o">></span> <span class="o">&</span><span class="n">Cond</span><span class="p">)</span> <span class="k">const</span>
+<span class="p">{</span>
+  <span class="n">MachineBasicBlock</span><span class="o">::</span><span class="n">iterator</span> <span class="n">I</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="n">MBB</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="n">end</span><span class="p">();</span>
+  <span class="k">if</span> <span class="p">(</span><span class="n">I</span> <span class="o">==</span> <span class="n">MBB</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="n">begin</span><span class="p">()</span> <span class="o">||</span> <span class="o">!</span><span class="n">isUnpredicatedTerminator</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="o">--</span><span class="n">I</span><span class="p">))</span>
+    <span class="k">return</span> <span class="nb">false</span><span class="p">;</span>
+</pre></div>
+</div>
+<p>If a block ends with a single unconditional branch instruction, then
+<tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">AnalyzeBranch</span></tt> (shown below) should return the destination of that branch in
+the <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">TBB</span></tt> parameter.</p>
+<div class="highlight-c++"><div class="highlight"><pre><span class="k">if</span> <span class="p">(</span><span class="n">LastOpc</span> <span class="o">==</span> <span class="n">ARM</span><span class="o">::</span><span class="n">B</span> <span class="o">||</span> <span class="n">LastOpc</span> <span class="o">==</span> <span class="n">ARM</span><span class="o">::</span><span class="n">tB</span><span class="p">)</span> <span class="p">{</span>
+  <span class="n">TBB</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="n">LastInst</span><span class="o">-></span><span class="n">getOperand</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="mi">0</span><span class="p">).</span><span class="n">getMBB</span><span class="p">();</span>
+  <span class="k">return</span> <span class="nb">false</span><span class="p">;</span>
+<span class="p">}</span>
+</pre></div>
+</div>
+<p>If a block ends with two unconditional branches, then the second branch is
+never reached.  In that situation, as shown below, remove the last branch
+instruction and return the penultimate branch in the <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">TBB</span></tt> parameter.</p>
+<div class="highlight-c++"><div class="highlight"><pre><span class="k">if</span> <span class="p">((</span><span class="n">SecondLastOpc</span> <span class="o">==</span> <span class="n">ARM</span><span class="o">::</span><span class="n">B</span> <span class="o">||</span> <span class="n">SecondLastOpc</span> <span class="o">==</span> <span class="n">ARM</span><span class="o">::</span><span class="n">tB</span><span class="p">)</span> <span class="o">&&</span>
+    <span class="p">(</span><span class="n">LastOpc</span> <span class="o">==</span> <span class="n">ARM</span><span class="o">::</span><span class="n">B</span> <span class="o">||</span> <span class="n">LastOpc</span> <span class="o">==</span> <span class="n">ARM</span><span class="o">::</span><span class="n">tB</span><span class="p">))</span> <span class="p">{</span>
+  <span class="n">TBB</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="n">SecondLastInst</span><span class="o">-></span><span class="n">getOperand</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="mi">0</span><span class="p">).</span><span class="n">getMBB</span><span class="p">();</span>
+  <span class="n">I</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="n">LastInst</span><span class="p">;</span>
+  <span class="n">I</span><span class="o">-></span><span class="n">eraseFromParent</span><span class="p">();</span>
+  <span class="k">return</span> <span class="nb">false</span><span class="p">;</span>
+<span class="p">}</span>
+</pre></div>
+</div>
+<p>A block may end with a single conditional branch instruction that falls through
+to successor block if the condition evaluates to false.  In that case,
+<tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">AnalyzeBranch</span></tt> (shown below) should return the destination of that
+conditional branch in the <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">TBB</span></tt> parameter and a list of operands in the
+<tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">Cond</span></tt> parameter to evaluate the condition.</p>
+<div class="highlight-c++"><div class="highlight"><pre><span class="k">if</span> <span class="p">(</span><span class="n">LastOpc</span> <span class="o">==</span> <span class="n">ARM</span><span class="o">::</span><span class="n">Bcc</span> <span class="o">||</span> <span class="n">LastOpc</span> <span class="o">==</span> <span class="n">ARM</span><span class="o">::</span><span class="n">tBcc</span><span class="p">)</span> <span class="p">{</span>
+  <span class="c1">// Block ends with fall-through condbranch.</span>
+  <span class="n">TBB</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="n">LastInst</span><span class="o">-></span><span class="n">getOperand</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="mi">0</span><span class="p">).</span><span class="n">getMBB</span><span class="p">();</span>
+  <span class="n">Cond</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="n">push_back</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="n">LastInst</span><span class="o">-></span><span class="n">getOperand</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="mi">1</span><span class="p">));</span>
+  <span class="n">Cond</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="n">push_back</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="n">LastInst</span><span class="o">-></span><span class="n">getOperand</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="mi">2</span><span class="p">));</span>
+  <span class="k">return</span> <span class="nb">false</span><span class="p">;</span>
+<span class="p">}</span>
+</pre></div>
+</div>
+<p>If a block ends with both a conditional branch and an ensuing unconditional
+branch, then <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">AnalyzeBranch</span></tt> (shown below) should return the conditional
+branch destination (assuming it corresponds to a conditional evaluation of
+“<tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">true</span></tt>”) in the <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">TBB</span></tt> parameter and the unconditional branch destination
+in the <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">FBB</span></tt> (corresponding to a conditional evaluation of “<tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">false</span></tt>”).  A
+list of operands to evaluate the condition should be returned in the <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">Cond</span></tt>
+parameter.</p>
+<div class="highlight-c++"><div class="highlight"><pre><span class="kt">unsigned</span> <span class="n">SecondLastOpc</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="n">SecondLastInst</span><span class="o">-></span><span class="n">getOpcode</span><span class="p">();</span>
+
+<span class="k">if</span> <span class="p">((</span><span class="n">SecondLastOpc</span> <span class="o">==</span> <span class="n">ARM</span><span class="o">::</span><span class="n">Bcc</span> <span class="o">&&</span> <span class="n">LastOpc</span> <span class="o">==</span> <span class="n">ARM</span><span class="o">::</span><span class="n">B</span><span class="p">)</span> <span class="o">||</span>
+    <span class="p">(</span><span class="n">SecondLastOpc</span> <span class="o">==</span> <span class="n">ARM</span><span class="o">::</span><span class="n">tBcc</span> <span class="o">&&</span> <span class="n">LastOpc</span> <span class="o">==</span> <span class="n">ARM</span><span class="o">::</span><span class="n">tB</span><span class="p">))</span> <span class="p">{</span>
+  <span class="n">TBB</span> <span class="o">=</span>  <span class="n">SecondLastInst</span><span class="o">-></span><span class="n">getOperand</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="mi">0</span><span class="p">).</span><span class="n">getMBB</span><span class="p">();</span>
+  <span class="n">Cond</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="n">push_back</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="n">SecondLastInst</span><span class="o">-></span><span class="n">getOperand</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="mi">1</span><span class="p">));</span>
+  <span class="n">Cond</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="n">push_back</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="n">SecondLastInst</span><span class="o">-></span><span class="n">getOperand</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="mi">2</span><span class="p">));</span>
+  <span class="n">FBB</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="n">LastInst</span><span class="o">-></span><span class="n">getOperand</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="mi">0</span><span class="p">).</span><span class="n">getMBB</span><span class="p">();</span>
+  <span class="k">return</span> <span class="nb">false</span><span class="p">;</span>
+<span class="p">}</span>
+</pre></div>
+</div>
+<p>For the last two cases (ending with a single conditional branch or ending with
+one conditional and one unconditional branch), the operands returned in the
+<tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">Cond</span></tt> parameter can be passed to methods of other instructions to create new
+branches or perform other operations.  An implementation of <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">AnalyzeBranch</span></tt>
+requires the helper methods <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">RemoveBranch</span></tt> and <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">InsertBranch</span></tt> to manage
+subsequent operations.</p>
+<p><tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">AnalyzeBranch</span></tt> should return false indicating success in most circumstances.
+<tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">AnalyzeBranch</span></tt> should only return true when the method is stumped about what
+to do, for example, if a block has three terminating branches.
+<tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">AnalyzeBranch</span></tt> may return true if it encounters a terminator it cannot
+handle, such as an indirect branch.</p>
+</div>
+</div>
+<div class="section" id="instruction-selector">
+<span id="id2"></span><h2><a class="toc-backref" href="#id22">Instruction Selector</a><a class="headerlink" href="#instruction-selector" title="Permalink to this headline">¶</a></h2>
+<p>LLVM uses a <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">SelectionDAG</span></tt> to represent LLVM IR instructions, and nodes of
+the <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">SelectionDAG</span></tt> ideally represent native target instructions.  During code
+generation, instruction selection passes are performed to convert non-native
+DAG instructions into native target-specific instructions.  The pass described
+in <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">XXXISelDAGToDAG.cpp</span></tt> is used to match patterns and perform DAG-to-DAG
+instruction selection.  Optionally, a pass may be defined (in
+<tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">XXXBranchSelector.cpp</span></tt>) to perform similar DAG-to-DAG operations for branch
+instructions.  Later, the code in <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">XXXISelLowering.cpp</span></tt> replaces or removes
+operations and data types not supported natively (legalizes) in a
+<tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">SelectionDAG</span></tt>.</p>
+<p>TableGen generates code for instruction selection using the following target
+description input files:</p>
+<ul class="simple">
+<li><tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">XXXInstrInfo.td</span></tt> — Contains definitions of instructions in a
+target-specific instruction set, generates <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">XXXGenDAGISel.inc</span></tt>, which is
+included in <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">XXXISelDAGToDAG.cpp</span></tt>.</li>
+<li><tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">XXXCallingConv.td</span></tt> — Contains the calling and return value conventions
+for the target architecture, and it generates <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">XXXGenCallingConv.inc</span></tt>,
+which is included in <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">XXXISelLowering.cpp</span></tt>.</li>
+</ul>
+<p>The implementation of an instruction selection pass must include a header that
+declares the <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">FunctionPass</span></tt> class or a subclass of <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">FunctionPass</span></tt>.  In
+<tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">XXXTargetMachine.cpp</span></tt>, a Pass Manager (PM) should add each instruction
+selection pass into the queue of passes to run.</p>
+<p>The LLVM static compiler (<tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">llc</span></tt>) is an excellent tool for visualizing the
+contents of DAGs.  To display the <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">SelectionDAG</span></tt> before or after specific
+processing phases, use the command line options for <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">llc</span></tt>, described at
+<a class="reference internal" href="CodeGenerator.html#selectiondag-process"><em>SelectionDAG Instruction Selection Process</em></a>.</p>
+<p>To describe instruction selector behavior, you should add patterns for lowering
+LLVM code into a <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">SelectionDAG</span></tt> as the last parameter of the instruction
+definitions in <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">XXXInstrInfo.td</span></tt>.  For example, in <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">SparcInstrInfo.td</span></tt>,
+this entry defines a register store operation, and the last parameter describes
+a pattern with the store DAG operator.</p>
+<div class="highlight-llvm"><pre>def STrr  : F3_1< 3, 0b000100, (outs), (ins MEMrr:$addr, IntRegs:$src),
+                 "st $src, [$addr]", [(store i32:$src, ADDRrr:$addr)]>;</pre>
+</div>
+<p><tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">ADDRrr</span></tt> is a memory mode that is also defined in <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">SparcInstrInfo.td</span></tt>:</p>
+<div class="highlight-llvm"><pre>def ADDRrr : ComplexPattern<i32, 2, "SelectADDRrr", [], []>;</pre>
+</div>
+<p>The definition of <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">ADDRrr</span></tt> refers to <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">SelectADDRrr</span></tt>, which is a function
+defined in an implementation of the Instructor Selector (such as
+<tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">SparcISelDAGToDAG.cpp</span></tt>).</p>
+<p>In <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">lib/Target/TargetSelectionDAG.td</span></tt>, the DAG operator for store is defined
+below:</p>
+<div class="highlight-llvm"><pre>def store : PatFrag<(ops node:$val, node:$ptr),
+                    (st node:$val, node:$ptr), [{
+  if (StoreSDNode *ST = dyn_cast<StoreSDNode>(N))
+    return !ST->isTruncatingStore() &&
+           ST->getAddressingMode() == ISD::UNINDEXED;
+  return false;
+}]>;</pre>
+</div>
+<p><tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">XXXInstrInfo.td</span></tt> also generates (in <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">XXXGenDAGISel.inc</span></tt>) the
+<tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">SelectCode</span></tt> method that is used to call the appropriate processing method
+for an instruction.  In this example, <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">SelectCode</span></tt> calls <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">Select_ISD_STORE</span></tt>
+for the <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">ISD::STORE</span></tt> opcode.</p>
+<div class="highlight-c++"><div class="highlight"><pre><span class="n">SDNode</span> <span class="o">*</span><span class="nf">SelectCode</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="n">SDValue</span> <span class="n">N</span><span class="p">)</span> <span class="p">{</span>
+  <span class="p">...</span>
+  <span class="n">MVT</span><span class="o">::</span><span class="n">ValueType</span> <span class="n">NVT</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="n">N</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="n">getNode</span><span class="p">()</span><span class="o">-></span><span class="n">getValueType</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="mi">0</span><span class="p">);</span>
+  <span class="k">switch</span> <span class="p">(</span><span class="n">N</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="n">getOpcode</span><span class="p">())</span> <span class="p">{</span>
+  <span class="k">case</span> <span class="n">ISD</span>:<span class="o">:</span><span class="n">STORE</span><span class="o">:</span> <span class="p">{</span>
+    <span class="k">switch</span> <span class="p">(</span><span class="n">NVT</span><span class="p">)</span> <span class="p">{</span>
+    <span class="nl">default:</span>
+      <span class="k">return</span> <span class="n">Select_ISD_STORE</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="n">N</span><span class="p">);</span>
+      <span class="k">break</span><span class="p">;</span>
+    <span class="p">}</span>
+    <span class="k">break</span><span class="p">;</span>
+  <span class="p">}</span>
+  <span class="p">...</span>
+</pre></div>
+</div>
+<p>The pattern for <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">STrr</span></tt> is matched, so elsewhere in <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">XXXGenDAGISel.inc</span></tt>,
+code for <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">STrr</span></tt> is created for <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">Select_ISD_STORE</span></tt>.  The <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">Emit_22</span></tt> method
+is also generated in <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">XXXGenDAGISel.inc</span></tt> to complete the processing of this
+instruction.</p>
+<div class="highlight-c++"><div class="highlight"><pre><span class="n">SDNode</span> <span class="o">*</span><span class="nf">Select_ISD_STORE</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="k">const</span> <span class="n">SDValue</span> <span class="o">&</span><span class="n">N</span><span class="p">)</span> <span class="p">{</span>
+  <span class="n">SDValue</span> <span class="n">Chain</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="n">N</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="n">getOperand</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="mi">0</span><span class="p">);</span>
+  <span class="k">if</span> <span class="p">(</span><span class="n">Predicate_store</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="n">N</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="n">getNode</span><span class="p">()))</span> <span class="p">{</span>
+    <span class="n">SDValue</span> <span class="n">N1</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="n">N</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="n">getOperand</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="mi">1</span><span class="p">);</span>
+    <span class="n">SDValue</span> <span class="n">N2</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="n">N</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="n">getOperand</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="mi">2</span><span class="p">);</span>
+    <span class="n">SDValue</span> <span class="n">CPTmp0</span><span class="p">;</span>
+    <span class="n">SDValue</span> <span class="n">CPTmp1</span><span class="p">;</span>
+
+    <span class="c1">// Pattern: (st:void i32:i32:$src,</span>
+    <span class="c1">//           ADDRrr:i32:$addr)<<P:Predicate_store>></span>
+    <span class="c1">// Emits: (STrr:void ADDRrr:i32:$addr, IntRegs:i32:$src)</span>
+    <span class="c1">// Pattern complexity = 13  cost = 1  size = 0</span>
+    <span class="k">if</span> <span class="p">(</span><span class="n">SelectADDRrr</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="n">N</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="n">N2</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="n">CPTmp0</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="n">CPTmp1</span><span class="p">)</span> <span class="o">&&</span>
+        <span class="n">N1</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="n">getNode</span><span class="p">()</span><span class="o">-></span><span class="n">getValueType</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="mi">0</span><span class="p">)</span> <span class="o">==</span> <span class="n">MVT</span><span class="o">::</span><span class="n">i32</span> <span class="o">&&</span>
+        <span class="n">N2</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="n">getNode</span><span class="p">()</span><span class="o">-></span><span class="n">getValueType</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="mi">0</span><span class="p">)</span> <span class="o">==</span> <span class="n">MVT</span><span class="o">::</span><span class="n">i32</span><span class="p">)</span> <span class="p">{</span>
+      <span class="k">return</span> <span class="n">Emit_22</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="n">N</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="n">SP</span><span class="o">::</span><span class="n">STrr</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="n">CPTmp0</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="n">CPTmp1</span><span class="p">);</span>
+    <span class="p">}</span>
+<span class="p">...</span>
+</pre></div>
+</div>
+<div class="section" id="the-selectiondag-legalize-phase">
+<h3><a class="toc-backref" href="#id23">The SelectionDAG Legalize Phase</a><a class="headerlink" href="#the-selectiondag-legalize-phase" title="Permalink to this headline">¶</a></h3>
+<p>The Legalize phase converts a DAG to use types and operations that are natively
+supported by the target.  For natively unsupported types and operations, you
+need to add code to the target-specific <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">XXXTargetLowering</span></tt> implementation to
+convert unsupported types and operations to supported ones.</p>
+<p>In the constructor for the <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">XXXTargetLowering</span></tt> class, first use the
+<tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">addRegisterClass</span></tt> method to specify which types are supported and which
+register classes are associated with them.  The code for the register classes
+are generated by TableGen from <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">XXXRegisterInfo.td</span></tt> and placed in
+<tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">XXXGenRegisterInfo.h.inc</span></tt>.  For example, the implementation of the
+constructor for the SparcTargetLowering class (in <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">SparcISelLowering.cpp</span></tt>)
+starts with the following code:</p>
+<div class="highlight-c++"><div class="highlight"><pre><span class="n">addRegisterClass</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="n">MVT</span><span class="o">::</span><span class="n">i32</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="n">SP</span><span class="o">::</span><span class="n">IntRegsRegisterClass</span><span class="p">);</span>
+<span class="n">addRegisterClass</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="n">MVT</span><span class="o">::</span><span class="n">f32</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="n">SP</span><span class="o">::</span><span class="n">FPRegsRegisterClass</span><span class="p">);</span>
+<span class="n">addRegisterClass</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="n">MVT</span><span class="o">::</span><span class="n">f64</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="n">SP</span><span class="o">::</span><span class="n">DFPRegsRegisterClass</span><span class="p">);</span>
+</pre></div>
+</div>
+<p>You should examine the node types in the <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">ISD</span></tt> namespace
+(<tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">include/llvm/CodeGen/SelectionDAGNodes.h</span></tt>) and determine which operations
+the target natively supports.  For operations that do <strong>not</strong> have native
+support, add a callback to the constructor for the <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">XXXTargetLowering</span></tt> class,
+so the instruction selection process knows what to do.  The <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">TargetLowering</span></tt>
+class callback methods (declared in <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">llvm/Target/TargetLowering.h</span></tt>) are:</p>
+<ul class="simple">
+<li><tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">setOperationAction</span></tt> — General operation.</li>
+<li><tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">setLoadExtAction</span></tt> — Load with extension.</li>
+<li><tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">setTruncStoreAction</span></tt> — Truncating store.</li>
+<li><tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">setIndexedLoadAction</span></tt> — Indexed load.</li>
+<li><tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">setIndexedStoreAction</span></tt> — Indexed store.</li>
+<li><tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">setConvertAction</span></tt> — Type conversion.</li>
+<li><tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">setCondCodeAction</span></tt> — Support for a given condition code.</li>
+</ul>
+<p>Note: on older releases, <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">setLoadXAction</span></tt> is used instead of
+<tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">setLoadExtAction</span></tt>.  Also, on older releases, <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">setCondCodeAction</span></tt> may not
+be supported.  Examine your release to see what methods are specifically
+supported.</p>
+<p>These callbacks are used to determine that an operation does or does not work
+with a specified type (or types).  And in all cases, the third parameter is a
+<tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">LegalAction</span></tt> type enum value: <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">Promote</span></tt>, <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">Expand</span></tt>, <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">Custom</span></tt>, or
+<tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">Legal</span></tt>.  <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">SparcISelLowering.cpp</span></tt> contains examples of all four
+<tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">LegalAction</span></tt> values.</p>
+<div class="section" id="promote">
+<h4><a class="toc-backref" href="#id24">Promote</a><a class="headerlink" href="#promote" title="Permalink to this headline">¶</a></h4>
+<p>For an operation without native support for a given type, the specified type
+may be promoted to a larger type that is supported.  For example, SPARC does
+not support a sign-extending load for Boolean values (<tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">i1</span></tt> type), so in
+<tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">SparcISelLowering.cpp</span></tt> the third parameter below, <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">Promote</span></tt>, changes
+<tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">i1</span></tt> type values to a large type before loading.</p>
+<div class="highlight-c++"><div class="highlight"><pre><span class="n">setLoadExtAction</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="n">ISD</span><span class="o">::</span><span class="n">SEXTLOAD</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="n">MVT</span><span class="o">::</span><span class="n">i1</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="n">Promote</span><span class="p">);</span>
+</pre></div>
+</div>
+</div>
+<div class="section" id="expand">
+<h4><a class="toc-backref" href="#id25">Expand</a><a class="headerlink" href="#expand" title="Permalink to this headline">¶</a></h4>
+<p>For a type without native support, a value may need to be broken down further,
+rather than promoted.  For an operation without native support, a combination
+of other operations may be used to similar effect.  In SPARC, the
+floating-point sine and cosine trig operations are supported by expansion to
+other operations, as indicated by the third parameter, <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">Expand</span></tt>, to
+<tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">setOperationAction</span></tt>:</p>
+<div class="highlight-c++"><div class="highlight"><pre><span class="n">setOperationAction</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="n">ISD</span><span class="o">::</span><span class="n">FSIN</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="n">MVT</span><span class="o">::</span><span class="n">f32</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="n">Expand</span><span class="p">);</span>
+<span class="n">setOperationAction</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="n">ISD</span><span class="o">::</span><span class="n">FCOS</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="n">MVT</span><span class="o">::</span><span class="n">f32</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="n">Expand</span><span class="p">);</span>
+</pre></div>
+</div>
+</div>
+<div class="section" id="custom">
+<h4><a class="toc-backref" href="#id26">Custom</a><a class="headerlink" href="#custom" title="Permalink to this headline">¶</a></h4>
+<p>For some operations, simple type promotion or operation expansion may be
+insufficient.  In some cases, a special intrinsic function must be implemented.</p>
+<p>For example, a constant value may require special treatment, or an operation
+may require spilling and restoring registers in the stack and working with
+register allocators.</p>
+<p>As seen in <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">SparcISelLowering.cpp</span></tt> code below, to perform a type conversion
+from a floating point value to a signed integer, first the
+<tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">setOperationAction</span></tt> should be called with <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">Custom</span></tt> as the third parameter:</p>
+<div class="highlight-c++"><div class="highlight"><pre><span class="n">setOperationAction</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="n">ISD</span><span class="o">::</span><span class="n">FP_TO_SINT</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="n">MVT</span><span class="o">::</span><span class="n">i32</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="n">Custom</span><span class="p">);</span>
+</pre></div>
+</div>
+<p>In the <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">LowerOperation</span></tt> method, for each <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">Custom</span></tt> operation, a case
+statement should be added to indicate what function to call.  In the following
+code, an <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">FP_TO_SINT</span></tt> opcode will call the <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">LowerFP_TO_SINT</span></tt> method:</p>
+<div class="highlight-c++"><div class="highlight"><pre><span class="n">SDValue</span> <span class="n">SparcTargetLowering</span><span class="o">::</span><span class="n">LowerOperation</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="n">SDValue</span> <span class="n">Op</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="n">SelectionDAG</span> <span class="o">&</span><span class="n">DAG</span><span class="p">)</span> <span class="p">{</span>
+  <span class="k">switch</span> <span class="p">(</span><span class="n">Op</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="n">getOpcode</span><span class="p">())</span> <span class="p">{</span>
+  <span class="k">case</span> <span class="n">ISD</span>:<span class="o">:</span><span class="n">FP_TO_SINT</span><span class="o">:</span> <span class="k">return</span> <span class="n">LowerFP_TO_SINT</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="n">Op</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="n">DAG</span><span class="p">);</span>
+  <span class="p">...</span>
+  <span class="p">}</span>
+<span class="p">}</span>
+</pre></div>
+</div>
+<p>Finally, the <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">LowerFP_TO_SINT</span></tt> method is implemented, using an FP register to
+convert the floating-point value to an integer.</p>
+<div class="highlight-c++"><div class="highlight"><pre><span class="k">static</span> <span class="n">SDValue</span> <span class="nf">LowerFP_TO_SINT</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="n">SDValue</span> <span class="n">Op</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="n">SelectionDAG</span> <span class="o">&</span><span class="n">DAG</span><span class="p">)</span> <span class="p">{</span>
+  <span class="n">assert</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="n">Op</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="n">getValueType</span><span class="p">()</span> <span class="o">==</span> <span class="n">MVT</span><span class="o">::</span><span class="n">i32</span><span class="p">);</span>
+  <span class="n">Op</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="n">DAG</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="n">getNode</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="n">SPISD</span><span class="o">::</span><span class="n">FTOI</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="n">MVT</span><span class="o">::</span><span class="n">f32</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="n">Op</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="n">getOperand</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="mi">0</span><span class="p">));</span>
+  <span class="k">return</span> <span class="n">DAG</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="n">getNode</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="n">ISD</span><span class="o">::</span><span class="n">BITCAST</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="n">MVT</span><span class="o">::</span><span class="n">i32</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="n">Op</span><span class="p">);</span>
+<span class="p">}</span>
+</pre></div>
+</div>
+</div>
+<div class="section" id="legal">
+<h4><a class="toc-backref" href="#id27">Legal</a><a class="headerlink" href="#legal" title="Permalink to this headline">¶</a></h4>
+<p>The <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">Legal</span></tt> <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">LegalizeAction</span></tt> enum value simply indicates that an operation
+<strong>is</strong> natively supported.  <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">Legal</span></tt> represents the default condition, so it
+is rarely used.  In <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">SparcISelLowering.cpp</span></tt>, the action for <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">CTPOP</span></tt> (an
+operation to count the bits set in an integer) is natively supported only for
+SPARC v9.  The following code enables the <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">Expand</span></tt> conversion technique for
+non-v9 SPARC implementations.</p>
+<div class="highlight-c++"><div class="highlight"><pre><span class="n">setOperationAction</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="n">ISD</span><span class="o">::</span><span class="n">CTPOP</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="n">MVT</span><span class="o">::</span><span class="n">i32</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="n">Expand</span><span class="p">);</span>
+<span class="p">...</span>
+<span class="k">if</span> <span class="p">(</span><span class="n">TM</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="n">getSubtarget</span><span class="o"><</span><span class="n">SparcSubtarget</span><span class="o">></span><span class="p">().</span><span class="n">isV9</span><span class="p">())</span>
+  <span class="n">setOperationAction</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="n">ISD</span><span class="o">::</span><span class="n">CTPOP</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="n">MVT</span><span class="o">::</span><span class="n">i32</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="n">Legal</span><span class="p">);</span>
+</pre></div>
+</div>
+</div>
+</div>
+<div class="section" id="calling-conventions">
+<h3><a class="toc-backref" href="#id28">Calling Conventions</a><a class="headerlink" href="#calling-conventions" title="Permalink to this headline">¶</a></h3>
+<p>To support target-specific calling conventions, <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">XXXGenCallingConv.td</span></tt> uses
+interfaces (such as <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">CCIfType</span></tt> and <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">CCAssignToReg</span></tt>) that are defined in
+<tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">lib/Target/TargetCallingConv.td</span></tt>.  TableGen can take the target descriptor
+file <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">XXXGenCallingConv.td</span></tt> and generate the header file
+<tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">XXXGenCallingConv.inc</span></tt>, which is typically included in
+<tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">XXXISelLowering.cpp</span></tt>.  You can use the interfaces in
+<tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">TargetCallingConv.td</span></tt> to specify:</p>
+<ul class="simple">
+<li>The order of parameter allocation.</li>
+<li>Where parameters and return values are placed (that is, on the stack or in
+registers).</li>
+<li>Which registers may be used.</li>
+<li>Whether the caller or callee unwinds the stack.</li>
+</ul>
+<p>The following example demonstrates the use of the <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">CCIfType</span></tt> and
+<tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">CCAssignToReg</span></tt> interfaces.  If the <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">CCIfType</span></tt> predicate is true (that is,
+if the current argument is of type <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">f32</span></tt> or <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">f64</span></tt>), then the action is
+performed.  In this case, the <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">CCAssignToReg</span></tt> action assigns the argument
+value to the first available register: either <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">R0</span></tt> or <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">R1</span></tt>.</p>
+<div class="highlight-llvm"><pre>CCIfType<[f32,f64], CCAssignToReg<[R0, R1]>></pre>
+</div>
+<p><tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">SparcCallingConv.td</span></tt> contains definitions for a target-specific return-value
+calling convention (<tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">RetCC_Sparc32</span></tt>) and a basic 32-bit C calling convention
+(<tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">CC_Sparc32</span></tt>).  The definition of <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">RetCC_Sparc32</span></tt> (shown below) indicates
+which registers are used for specified scalar return types.  A single-precision
+float is returned to register <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">F0</span></tt>, and a double-precision float goes to
+register <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">D0</span></tt>.  A 32-bit integer is returned in register <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">I0</span></tt> or <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">I1</span></tt>.</p>
+<div class="highlight-llvm"><pre>def RetCC_Sparc32 : CallingConv<[
+  CCIfType<[i32], CCAssignToReg<[I0, I1]>>,
+  CCIfType<[f32], CCAssignToReg<[F0]>>,
+  CCIfType<[f64], CCAssignToReg<[D0]>>
+]>;</pre>
+</div>
+<p>The definition of <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">CC_Sparc32</span></tt> in <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">SparcCallingConv.td</span></tt> introduces
+<tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">CCAssignToStack</span></tt>, which assigns the value to a stack slot with the specified
+size and alignment.  In the example below, the first parameter, 4, indicates
+the size of the slot, and the second parameter, also 4, indicates the stack
+alignment along 4-byte units.  (Special cases: if size is zero, then the ABI
+size is used; if alignment is zero, then the ABI alignment is used.)</p>
+<div class="highlight-llvm"><pre>def CC_Sparc32 : CallingConv<[
+  // All arguments get passed in integer registers if there is space.
+  CCIfType<[i32, f32, f64], CCAssignToReg<[I0, I1, I2, I3, I4, I5]>>,
+  CCAssignToStack<4, 4>
+]>;</pre>
+</div>
+<p><tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">CCDelegateTo</span></tt> is another commonly used interface, which tries to find a
+specified sub-calling convention, and, if a match is found, it is invoked.  In
+the following example (in <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">X86CallingConv.td</span></tt>), the definition of
+<tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">RetCC_X86_32_C</span></tt> ends with <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">CCDelegateTo</span></tt>.  After the current value is
+assigned to the register <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">ST0</span></tt> or <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">ST1</span></tt>, the <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">RetCC_X86Common</span></tt> is
+invoked.</p>
+<div class="highlight-llvm"><pre>def RetCC_X86_32_C : CallingConv<[
+  CCIfType<[f32], CCAssignToReg<[ST0, ST1]>>,
+  CCIfType<[f64], CCAssignToReg<[ST0, ST1]>>,
+  CCDelegateTo<RetCC_X86Common>
+]>;</pre>
+</div>
+<p><tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">CCIfCC</span></tt> is an interface that attempts to match the given name to the current
+calling convention.  If the name identifies the current calling convention,
+then a specified action is invoked.  In the following example (in
+<tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">X86CallingConv.td</span></tt>), if the <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">Fast</span></tt> calling convention is in use, then
+<tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">RetCC_X86_32_Fast</span></tt> is invoked.  If the <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">SSECall</span></tt> calling convention is in
+use, then <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">RetCC_X86_32_SSE</span></tt> is invoked.</p>
+<div class="highlight-llvm"><pre>def RetCC_X86_32 : CallingConv<[
+  CCIfCC<"CallingConv::Fast", CCDelegateTo<RetCC_X86_32_Fast>>,
+  CCIfCC<"CallingConv::X86_SSECall", CCDelegateTo<RetCC_X86_32_SSE>>,
+  CCDelegateTo<RetCC_X86_32_C>
+]>;</pre>
+</div>
+<p>Other calling convention interfaces include:</p>
+<ul class="simple">
+<li><tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">CCIf</span> <span class="pre"><predicate,</span> <span class="pre">action></span></tt> — If the predicate matches, apply the action.</li>
+<li><tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">CCIfInReg</span> <span class="pre"><action></span></tt> — If the argument is marked with the “<tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">inreg</span></tt>”
+attribute, then apply the action.</li>
+<li><tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">CCIfNest</span> <span class="pre"><action></span></tt> — If the argument is marked with the “<tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">nest</span></tt>”
+attribute, then apply the action.</li>
+<li><tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">CCIfNotVarArg</span> <span class="pre"><action></span></tt> — If the current function does not take a
+variable number of arguments, apply the action.</li>
+<li><tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">CCAssignToRegWithShadow</span> <span class="pre"><registerList,</span> <span class="pre">shadowList></span></tt> — similar to
+<tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">CCAssignToReg</span></tt>, but with a shadow list of registers.</li>
+<li><tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">CCPassByVal</span> <span class="pre"><size,</span> <span class="pre">align></span></tt> — Assign value to a stack slot with the
+minimum specified size and alignment.</li>
+<li><tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">CCPromoteToType</span> <span class="pre"><type></span></tt> — Promote the current value to the specified
+type.</li>
+<li><tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">CallingConv</span> <span class="pre"><[actions]></span></tt> — Define each calling convention that is
+supported.</li>
+</ul>
+</div>
+</div>
+<div class="section" id="assembly-printer">
+<h2><a class="toc-backref" href="#id29">Assembly Printer</a><a class="headerlink" href="#assembly-printer" title="Permalink to this headline">¶</a></h2>
+<p>During the code emission stage, the code generator may utilize an LLVM pass to
+produce assembly output.  To do this, you want to implement the code for a
+printer that converts LLVM IR to a GAS-format assembly language for your target
+machine, using the following steps:</p>
+<ul class="simple">
+<li>Define all the assembly strings for your target, adding them to the
+instructions defined in the <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">XXXInstrInfo.td</span></tt> file.  (See
+<a class="reference internal" href="#instruction-set"><em>Instruction Set</em></a>.)  TableGen will produce an output file
+(<tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">XXXGenAsmWriter.inc</span></tt>) with an implementation of the <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">printInstruction</span></tt>
+method for the <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">XXXAsmPrinter</span></tt> class.</li>
+<li>Write <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">XXXTargetAsmInfo.h</span></tt>, which contains the bare-bones declaration of
+the <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">XXXTargetAsmInfo</span></tt> class (a subclass of <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">TargetAsmInfo</span></tt>).</li>
+<li>Write <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">XXXTargetAsmInfo.cpp</span></tt>, which contains target-specific values for
+<tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">TargetAsmInfo</span></tt> properties and sometimes new implementations for methods.</li>
+<li>Write <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">XXXAsmPrinter.cpp</span></tt>, which implements the <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">AsmPrinter</span></tt> class that
+performs the LLVM-to-assembly conversion.</li>
+</ul>
+<p>The code in <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">XXXTargetAsmInfo.h</span></tt> is usually a trivial declaration of the
+<tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">XXXTargetAsmInfo</span></tt> class for use in <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">XXXTargetAsmInfo.cpp</span></tt>.  Similarly,
+<tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">XXXTargetAsmInfo.cpp</span></tt> usually has a few declarations of <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">XXXTargetAsmInfo</span></tt>
+replacement values that override the default values in <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">TargetAsmInfo.cpp</span></tt>.
+For example in <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">SparcTargetAsmInfo.cpp</span></tt>:</p>
+<div class="highlight-c++"><div class="highlight"><pre><span class="n">SparcTargetAsmInfo</span><span class="o">::</span><span class="n">SparcTargetAsmInfo</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="k">const</span> <span class="n">SparcTargetMachine</span> <span class="o">&</span><span class="n">TM</span><span class="p">)</span> <span class="p">{</span>
+  <span class="n">Data16bitsDirective</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="s">"</span><span class="se">\t</span><span class="s">.half</span><span class="se">\t</span><span class="s">"</span><span class="p">;</span>
+  <span class="n">Data32bitsDirective</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="s">"</span><span class="se">\t</span><span class="s">.word</span><span class="se">\t</span><span class="s">"</span><span class="p">;</span>
+  <span class="n">Data64bitsDirective</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="mi">0</span><span class="p">;</span>  <span class="c1">// .xword is only supported by V9.</span>
+  <span class="n">ZeroDirective</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="s">"</span><span class="se">\t</span><span class="s">.skip</span><span class="se">\t</span><span class="s">"</span><span class="p">;</span>
+  <span class="n">CommentString</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="s">"!"</span><span class="p">;</span>
+  <span class="n">ConstantPoolSection</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="s">"</span><span class="se">\t</span><span class="s">.section </span><span class="se">\"</span><span class="s">.rodata</span><span class="se">\"</span><span class="s">,#alloc</span><span class="se">\n</span><span class="s">"</span><span class="p">;</span>
+<span class="p">}</span>
+</pre></div>
+</div>
+<p>The X86 assembly printer implementation (<tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">X86TargetAsmInfo</span></tt>) is an example
+where the target specific <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">TargetAsmInfo</span></tt> class uses an overridden methods:
+<tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">ExpandInlineAsm</span></tt>.</p>
+<p>A target-specific implementation of <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">AsmPrinter</span></tt> is written in
+<tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">XXXAsmPrinter.cpp</span></tt>, which implements the <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">AsmPrinter</span></tt> class that converts
+the LLVM to printable assembly.  The implementation must include the following
+headers that have declarations for the <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">AsmPrinter</span></tt> and
+<tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">MachineFunctionPass</span></tt> classes.  The <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">MachineFunctionPass</span></tt> is a subclass of
+<tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">FunctionPass</span></tt>.</p>
+<div class="highlight-c++"><div class="highlight"><pre><span class="cp">#include "llvm/CodeGen/AsmPrinter.h"</span>
+<span class="cp">#include "llvm/CodeGen/MachineFunctionPass.h"</span>
+</pre></div>
+</div>
+<p>As a <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">FunctionPass</span></tt>, <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">AsmPrinter</span></tt> first calls <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">doInitialization</span></tt> to set
+up the <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">AsmPrinter</span></tt>.  In <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">SparcAsmPrinter</span></tt>, a <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">Mangler</span></tt> object is
+instantiated to process variable names.</p>
+<p>In <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">XXXAsmPrinter.cpp</span></tt>, the <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">runOnMachineFunction</span></tt> method (declared in
+<tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">MachineFunctionPass</span></tt>) must be implemented for <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">XXXAsmPrinter</span></tt>.  In
+<tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">MachineFunctionPass</span></tt>, the <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">runOnFunction</span></tt> method invokes
+<tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">runOnMachineFunction</span></tt>.  Target-specific implementations of
+<tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">runOnMachineFunction</span></tt> differ, but generally do the following to process each
+machine function:</p>
+<ul class="simple">
+<li>Call <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">SetupMachineFunction</span></tt> to perform initialization.</li>
+<li>Call <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">EmitConstantPool</span></tt> to print out (to the output stream) constants which
+have been spilled to memory.</li>
+<li>Call <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">EmitJumpTableInfo</span></tt> to print out jump tables used by the current
+function.</li>
+<li>Print out the label for the current function.</li>
+<li>Print out the code for the function, including basic block labels and the
+assembly for the instruction (using <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">printInstruction</span></tt>)</li>
+</ul>
+<p>The <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">XXXAsmPrinter</span></tt> implementation must also include the code generated by
+TableGen that is output in the <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">XXXGenAsmWriter.inc</span></tt> file.  The code in
+<tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">XXXGenAsmWriter.inc</span></tt> contains an implementation of the <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">printInstruction</span></tt>
+method that may call these methods:</p>
+<ul class="simple">
+<li><tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">printOperand</span></tt></li>
+<li><tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">printMemOperand</span></tt></li>
+<li><tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">printCCOperand</span></tt> (for conditional statements)</li>
+<li><tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">printDataDirective</span></tt></li>
+<li><tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">printDeclare</span></tt></li>
+<li><tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">printImplicitDef</span></tt></li>
+<li><tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">printInlineAsm</span></tt></li>
+</ul>
+<p>The implementations of <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">printDeclare</span></tt>, <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">printImplicitDef</span></tt>,
+<tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">printInlineAsm</span></tt>, and <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">printLabel</span></tt> in <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">AsmPrinter.cpp</span></tt> are generally
+adequate for printing assembly and do not need to be overridden.</p>
+<p>The <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">printOperand</span></tt> method is implemented with a long <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">switch</span></tt>/<tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">case</span></tt>
+statement for the type of operand: register, immediate, basic block, external
+symbol, global address, constant pool index, or jump table index.  For an
+instruction with a memory address operand, the <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">printMemOperand</span></tt> method
+should be implemented to generate the proper output.  Similarly,
+<tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">printCCOperand</span></tt> should be used to print a conditional operand.</p>
+<p><tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">doFinalization</span></tt> should be overridden in <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">XXXAsmPrinter</span></tt>, and it should be
+called to shut down the assembly printer.  During <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">doFinalization</span></tt>, global
+variables and constants are printed to output.</p>
+</div>
+<div class="section" id="subtarget-support">
+<h2><a class="toc-backref" href="#id30">Subtarget Support</a><a class="headerlink" href="#subtarget-support" title="Permalink to this headline">¶</a></h2>
+<p>Subtarget support is used to inform the code generation process of instruction
+set variations for a given chip set.  For example, the LLVM SPARC
+implementation provided covers three major versions of the SPARC microprocessor
+architecture: Version 8 (V8, which is a 32-bit architecture), Version 9 (V9, a
+64-bit architecture), and the UltraSPARC architecture.  V8 has 16
+double-precision floating-point registers that are also usable as either 32
+single-precision or 8 quad-precision registers.  V8 is also purely big-endian.
+V9 has 32 double-precision floating-point registers that are also usable as 16
+quad-precision registers, but cannot be used as single-precision registers.
+The UltraSPARC architecture combines V9 with UltraSPARC Visual Instruction Set
+extensions.</p>
+<p>If subtarget support is needed, you should implement a target-specific
+<tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">XXXSubtarget</span></tt> class for your architecture.  This class should process the
+command-line options <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">-mcpu=</span></tt> and <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">-mattr=</span></tt>.</p>
+<p>TableGen uses definitions in the <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">Target.td</span></tt> and <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">Sparc.td</span></tt> files to
+generate code in <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">SparcGenSubtarget.inc</span></tt>.  In <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">Target.td</span></tt>, shown below, the
+<tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">SubtargetFeature</span></tt> interface is defined.  The first 4 string parameters of
+the <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">SubtargetFeature</span></tt> interface are a feature name, an attribute set by the
+feature, the value of the attribute, and a description of the feature.  (The
+fifth parameter is a list of features whose presence is implied, and its
+default value is an empty array.)</p>
+<div class="highlight-llvm"><pre>class SubtargetFeature<string n, string a, string v, string d,
+                       list<SubtargetFeature> i = []> {
+  string Name = n;
+  string Attribute = a;
+  string Value = v;
+  string Desc = d;
+  list<SubtargetFeature> Implies = i;
+}</pre>
+</div>
+<p>In the <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">Sparc.td</span></tt> file, the <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">SubtargetFeature</span></tt> is used to define the
+following features.</p>
+<div class="highlight-llvm"><pre>def FeatureV9 : SubtargetFeature<"v9", "IsV9", "true",
+                     "Enable SPARC-V9 instructions">;
+def FeatureV8Deprecated : SubtargetFeature<"deprecated-v8",
+                     "V8DeprecatedInsts", "true",
+                     "Enable deprecated V8 instructions in V9 mode">;
+def FeatureVIS : SubtargetFeature<"vis", "IsVIS", "true",
+                     "Enable UltraSPARC Visual Instruction Set extensions">;</pre>
+</div>
+<p>Elsewhere in <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">Sparc.td</span></tt>, the <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">Proc</span></tt> class is defined and then is used to
+define particular SPARC processor subtypes that may have the previously
+described features.</p>
+<div class="highlight-llvm"><pre>class Proc<string Name, list<SubtargetFeature> Features>
+  : Processor<Name, NoItineraries, Features>;
+
+def : Proc<"generic",         []>;
+def : Proc<"v8",              []>;
+def : Proc<"supersparc",      []>;
+def : Proc<"sparclite",       []>;
+def : Proc<"f934",            []>;
+def : Proc<"hypersparc",      []>;
+def : Proc<"sparclite86x",    []>;
+def : Proc<"sparclet",        []>;
+def : Proc<"tsc701",          []>;
+def : Proc<"v9",              [FeatureV9]>;
+def : Proc<"ultrasparc",      [FeatureV9, FeatureV8Deprecated]>;
+def : Proc<"ultrasparc3",     [FeatureV9, FeatureV8Deprecated]>;
+def : Proc<"ultrasparc3-vis", [FeatureV9, FeatureV8Deprecated, FeatureVIS]>;</pre>
+</div>
+<p>From <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">Target.td</span></tt> and <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">Sparc.td</span></tt> files, the resulting
+<tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">SparcGenSubtarget.inc</span></tt> specifies enum values to identify the features,
+arrays of constants to represent the CPU features and CPU subtypes, and the
+<tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">ParseSubtargetFeatures</span></tt> method that parses the features string that sets
+specified subtarget options.  The generated <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">SparcGenSubtarget.inc</span></tt> file
+should be included in the <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">SparcSubtarget.cpp</span></tt>.  The target-specific
+implementation of the <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">XXXSubtarget</span></tt> method should follow this pseudocode:</p>
+<div class="highlight-c++"><div class="highlight"><pre><span class="n">XXXSubtarget</span><span class="o">::</span><span class="n">XXXSubtarget</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="k">const</span> <span class="n">Module</span> <span class="o">&</span><span class="n">M</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="k">const</span> <span class="n">std</span><span class="o">::</span><span class="n">string</span> <span class="o">&</span><span class="n">FS</span><span class="p">)</span> <span class="p">{</span>
+  <span class="c1">// Set the default features</span>
+  <span class="c1">// Determine default and user specified characteristics of the CPU</span>
+  <span class="c1">// Call ParseSubtargetFeatures(FS, CPU) to parse the features string</span>
+  <span class="c1">// Perform any additional operations</span>
+<span class="p">}</span>
+</pre></div>
+</div>
+</div>
+<div class="section" id="jit-support">
+<h2><a class="toc-backref" href="#id31">JIT Support</a><a class="headerlink" href="#jit-support" title="Permalink to this headline">¶</a></h2>
+<p>The implementation of a target machine optionally includes a Just-In-Time (JIT)
+code generator that emits machine code and auxiliary structures as binary
+output that can be written directly to memory.  To do this, implement JIT code
+generation by performing the following steps:</p>
+<ul class="simple">
+<li>Write an <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">XXXCodeEmitter.cpp</span></tt> file that contains a machine function pass
+that transforms target-machine instructions into relocatable machine
+code.</li>
+<li>Write an <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">XXXJITInfo.cpp</span></tt> file that implements the JIT interfaces for
+target-specific code-generation activities, such as emitting machine code and
+stubs.</li>
+<li>Modify <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">XXXTargetMachine</span></tt> so that it provides a <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">TargetJITInfo</span></tt> object
+through its <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">getJITInfo</span></tt> method.</li>
+</ul>
+<p>There are several different approaches to writing the JIT support code.  For
+instance, TableGen and target descriptor files may be used for creating a JIT
+code generator, but are not mandatory.  For the Alpha and PowerPC target
+machines, TableGen is used to generate <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">XXXGenCodeEmitter.inc</span></tt>, which
+contains the binary coding of machine instructions and the
+<tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">getBinaryCodeForInstr</span></tt> method to access those codes.  Other JIT
+implementations do not.</p>
+<p>Both <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">XXXJITInfo.cpp</span></tt> and <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">XXXCodeEmitter.cpp</span></tt> must include the
+<tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">llvm/CodeGen/MachineCodeEmitter.h</span></tt> header file that defines the
+<tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">MachineCodeEmitter</span></tt> class containing code for several callback functions
+that write data (in bytes, words, strings, etc.) to the output stream.</p>
+<div class="section" id="machine-code-emitter">
+<h3><a class="toc-backref" href="#id32">Machine Code Emitter</a><a class="headerlink" href="#machine-code-emitter" title="Permalink to this headline">¶</a></h3>
+<p>In <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">XXXCodeEmitter.cpp</span></tt>, a target-specific of the <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">Emitter</span></tt> class is
+implemented as a function pass (subclass of <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">MachineFunctionPass</span></tt>).  The
+target-specific implementation of <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">runOnMachineFunction</span></tt> (invoked by
+<tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">runOnFunction</span></tt> in <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">MachineFunctionPass</span></tt>) iterates through the
+<tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">MachineBasicBlock</span></tt> calls <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">emitInstruction</span></tt> to process each instruction and
+emit binary code.  <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">emitInstruction</span></tt> is largely implemented with case
+statements on the instruction types defined in <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">XXXInstrInfo.h</span></tt>.  For
+example, in <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">X86CodeEmitter.cpp</span></tt>, the <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">emitInstruction</span></tt> method is built
+around the following <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">switch</span></tt>/<tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">case</span></tt> statements:</p>
+<div class="highlight-c++"><div class="highlight"><pre><span class="k">switch</span> <span class="p">(</span><span class="n">Desc</span><span class="o">-></span><span class="n">TSFlags</span> <span class="o">&</span> <span class="n">X86</span><span class="o">::</span><span class="n">FormMask</span><span class="p">)</span> <span class="p">{</span>
+<span class="k">case</span> <span class="n">X86II</span>:<span class="o">:</span><span class="n">Pseudo</span><span class="o">:</span>  <span class="c1">// for not yet implemented instructions</span>
+   <span class="p">...</span>               <span class="c1">// or pseudo-instructions</span>
+   <span class="k">break</span><span class="p">;</span>
+<span class="k">case</span> <span class="n">X86II</span>:<span class="o">:</span><span class="n">RawFrm</span><span class="o">:</span>  <span class="c1">// for instructions with a fixed opcode value</span>
+   <span class="p">...</span>
+   <span class="k">break</span><span class="p">;</span>
+<span class="k">case</span> <span class="n">X86II</span>:<span class="o">:</span><span class="n">AddRegFrm</span><span class="o">:</span> <span class="c1">// for instructions that have one register operand</span>
+   <span class="p">...</span>                 <span class="c1">// added to their opcode</span>
+   <span class="k">break</span><span class="p">;</span>
+<span class="k">case</span> <span class="n">X86II</span>:<span class="o">:</span><span class="n">MRMDestReg</span><span class="o">:</span><span class="c1">// for instructions that use the Mod/RM byte</span>
+   <span class="p">...</span>                 <span class="c1">// to specify a destination (register)</span>
+   <span class="k">break</span><span class="p">;</span>
+<span class="k">case</span> <span class="n">X86II</span>:<span class="o">:</span><span class="n">MRMDestMem</span><span class="o">:</span><span class="c1">// for instructions that use the Mod/RM byte</span>
+   <span class="p">...</span>                 <span class="c1">// to specify a destination (memory)</span>
+   <span class="k">break</span><span class="p">;</span>
+<span class="k">case</span> <span class="n">X86II</span>:<span class="o">:</span><span class="n">MRMSrcReg</span><span class="o">:</span> <span class="c1">// for instructions that use the Mod/RM byte</span>
+   <span class="p">...</span>                 <span class="c1">// to specify a source (register)</span>
+   <span class="k">break</span><span class="p">;</span>
+<span class="k">case</span> <span class="n">X86II</span>:<span class="o">:</span><span class="n">MRMSrcMem</span><span class="o">:</span> <span class="c1">// for instructions that use the Mod/RM byte</span>
+   <span class="p">...</span>                 <span class="c1">// to specify a source (memory)</span>
+   <span class="k">break</span><span class="p">;</span>
+<span class="k">case</span> <span class="n">X86II</span>:<span class="o">:</span><span class="n">MRM0r</span><span class="o">:</span> <span class="k">case</span> <span class="n">X86II</span>:<span class="o">:</span><span class="n">MRM1r</span><span class="o">:</span>  <span class="c1">// for instructions that operate on</span>
+<span class="k">case</span> <span class="n">X86II</span>:<span class="o">:</span><span class="n">MRM2r</span><span class="o">:</span> <span class="k">case</span> <span class="n">X86II</span>:<span class="o">:</span><span class="n">MRM3r</span><span class="o">:</span>  <span class="c1">// a REGISTER r/m operand and</span>
+<span class="k">case</span> <span class="n">X86II</span>:<span class="o">:</span><span class="n">MRM4r</span><span class="o">:</span> <span class="k">case</span> <span class="n">X86II</span>:<span class="o">:</span><span class="n">MRM5r</span><span class="o">:</span>  <span class="c1">// use the Mod/RM byte and a field</span>
+<span class="k">case</span> <span class="n">X86II</span>:<span class="o">:</span><span class="n">MRM6r</span><span class="o">:</span> <span class="k">case</span> <span class="n">X86II</span>:<span class="o">:</span><span class="n">MRM7r</span><span class="o">:</span>  <span class="c1">// to hold extended opcode data</span>
+   <span class="p">...</span>
+   <span class="k">break</span><span class="p">;</span>
+<span class="k">case</span> <span class="n">X86II</span>:<span class="o">:</span><span class="n">MRM0m</span><span class="o">:</span> <span class="k">case</span> <span class="n">X86II</span>:<span class="o">:</span><span class="n">MRM1m</span><span class="o">:</span>  <span class="c1">// for instructions that operate on</span>
+<span class="k">case</span> <span class="n">X86II</span>:<span class="o">:</span><span class="n">MRM2m</span><span class="o">:</span> <span class="k">case</span> <span class="n">X86II</span>:<span class="o">:</span><span class="n">MRM3m</span><span class="o">:</span>  <span class="c1">// a MEMORY r/m operand and</span>
+<span class="k">case</span> <span class="n">X86II</span>:<span class="o">:</span><span class="n">MRM4m</span><span class="o">:</span> <span class="k">case</span> <span class="n">X86II</span>:<span class="o">:</span><span class="n">MRM5m</span><span class="o">:</span>  <span class="c1">// use the Mod/RM byte and a field</span>
+<span class="k">case</span> <span class="n">X86II</span>:<span class="o">:</span><span class="n">MRM6m</span><span class="o">:</span> <span class="k">case</span> <span class="n">X86II</span>:<span class="o">:</span><span class="n">MRM7m</span><span class="o">:</span>  <span class="c1">// to hold extended opcode data</span>
+   <span class="p">...</span>
+   <span class="k">break</span><span class="p">;</span>
+<span class="k">case</span> <span class="n">X86II</span>:<span class="o">:</span><span class="n">MRMInitReg</span><span class="o">:</span> <span class="c1">// for instructions whose source and</span>
+   <span class="p">...</span>                  <span class="c1">// destination are the same register</span>
+   <span class="k">break</span><span class="p">;</span>
+<span class="p">}</span>
+</pre></div>
+</div>
+<p>The implementations of these case statements often first emit the opcode and
+then get the operand(s).  Then depending upon the operand, helper methods may
+be called to process the operand(s).  For example, in <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">X86CodeEmitter.cpp</span></tt>,
+for the <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">X86II::AddRegFrm</span></tt> case, the first data emitted (by <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">emitByte</span></tt>) is
+the opcode added to the register operand.  Then an object representing the
+machine operand, <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">MO1</span></tt>, is extracted.  The helper methods such as
+<tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">isImmediate</span></tt>, <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">isGlobalAddress</span></tt>, <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">isExternalSymbol</span></tt>,
+<tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">isConstantPoolIndex</span></tt>, and <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">isJumpTableIndex</span></tt> determine the operand type.
+(<tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">X86CodeEmitter.cpp</span></tt> also has private methods such as <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">emitConstant</span></tt>,
+<tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">emitGlobalAddress</span></tt>, <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">emitExternalSymbolAddress</span></tt>, <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">emitConstPoolAddress</span></tt>,
+and <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">emitJumpTableAddress</span></tt> that emit the data into the output stream.)</p>
+<div class="highlight-c++"><div class="highlight"><pre><span class="k">case</span> <span class="n">X86II</span>:<span class="o">:</span><span class="n">AddRegFrm</span><span class="o">:</span>
+  <span class="n">MCE</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="n">emitByte</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="n">BaseOpcode</span> <span class="o">+</span> <span class="n">getX86RegNum</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="n">MI</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="n">getOperand</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="n">CurOp</span><span class="o">++</span><span class="p">).</span><span class="n">getReg</span><span class="p">()));</span>
+
+  <span class="k">if</span> <span class="p">(</span><span class="n">CurOp</span> <span class="o">!=</span> <span class="n">NumOps</span><span class="p">)</span> <span class="p">{</span>
+    <span class="k">const</span> <span class="n">MachineOperand</span> <span class="o">&</span><span class="n">MO1</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="n">MI</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="n">getOperand</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="n">CurOp</span><span class="o">++</span><span class="p">);</span>
+    <span class="kt">unsigned</span> <span class="n">Size</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="n">X86InstrInfo</span><span class="o">::</span><span class="n">sizeOfImm</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="n">Desc</span><span class="p">);</span>
+    <span class="k">if</span> <span class="p">(</span><span class="n">MO1</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="n">isImmediate</span><span class="p">())</span>
+      <span class="n">emitConstant</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="n">MO1</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="n">getImm</span><span class="p">(),</span> <span class="n">Size</span><span class="p">);</span>
+    <span class="k">else</span> <span class="p">{</span>
+      <span class="kt">unsigned</span> <span class="n">rt</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="n">Is64BitMode</span> <span class="o">?</span> <span class="n">X86</span><span class="o">::</span><span class="n">reloc_pcrel_word</span>
+        <span class="o">:</span> <span class="p">(</span><span class="n">IsPIC</span> <span class="o">?</span> <span class="n">X86</span><span class="o">::</span><span class="n">reloc_picrel_word</span> <span class="o">:</span> <span class="n">X86</span><span class="o">::</span><span class="n">reloc_absolute_word</span><span class="p">);</span>
+      <span class="k">if</span> <span class="p">(</span><span class="n">Opcode</span> <span class="o">==</span> <span class="n">X86</span><span class="o">::</span><span class="n">MOV64ri</span><span class="p">)</span>
+        <span class="n">rt</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="n">X86</span><span class="o">::</span><span class="n">reloc_absolute_dword</span><span class="p">;</span>  <span class="c1">// FIXME: add X86II flag?</span>
+      <span class="k">if</span> <span class="p">(</span><span class="n">MO1</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="n">isGlobalAddress</span><span class="p">())</span> <span class="p">{</span>
+        <span class="kt">bool</span> <span class="n">NeedStub</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="n">isa</span><span class="o"><</span><span class="n">Function</span><span class="o">></span><span class="p">(</span><span class="n">MO1</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="n">getGlobal</span><span class="p">());</span>
+        <span class="kt">bool</span> <span class="n">isLazy</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="n">gvNeedsLazyPtr</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="n">MO1</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="n">getGlobal</span><span class="p">());</span>
+        <span class="n">emitGlobalAddress</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="n">MO1</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="n">getGlobal</span><span class="p">(),</span> <span class="n">rt</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="n">MO1</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="n">getOffset</span><span class="p">(),</span> <span class="mi">0</span><span class="p">,</span>
+                          <span class="n">NeedStub</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="n">isLazy</span><span class="p">);</span>
+      <span class="p">}</span> <span class="k">else</span> <span class="k">if</span> <span class="p">(</span><span class="n">MO1</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="n">isExternalSymbol</span><span class="p">())</span>
+        <span class="n">emitExternalSymbolAddress</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="n">MO1</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="n">getSymbolName</span><span class="p">(),</span> <span class="n">rt</span><span class="p">);</span>
+      <span class="k">else</span> <span class="nf">if</span> <span class="p">(</span><span class="n">MO1</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="n">isConstantPoolIndex</span><span class="p">())</span>
+        <span class="n">emitConstPoolAddress</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="n">MO1</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="n">getIndex</span><span class="p">(),</span> <span class="n">rt</span><span class="p">);</span>
+      <span class="k">else</span> <span class="nf">if</span> <span class="p">(</span><span class="n">MO1</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="n">isJumpTableIndex</span><span class="p">())</span>
+        <span class="n">emitJumpTableAddress</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="n">MO1</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="n">getIndex</span><span class="p">(),</span> <span class="n">rt</span><span class="p">);</span>
+    <span class="p">}</span>
+  <span class="p">}</span>
+  <span class="k">break</span><span class="p">;</span>
+</pre></div>
+</div>
+<p>In the previous example, <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">XXXCodeEmitter.cpp</span></tt> uses the variable <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">rt</span></tt>, which
+is a <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">RelocationType</span></tt> enum that may be used to relocate addresses (for
+example, a global address with a PIC base offset).  The <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">RelocationType</span></tt> enum
+for that target is defined in the short target-specific <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">XXXRelocations.h</span></tt>
+file.  The <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">RelocationType</span></tt> is used by the <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">relocate</span></tt> method defined in
+<tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">XXXJITInfo.cpp</span></tt> to rewrite addresses for referenced global symbols.</p>
+<p>For example, <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">X86Relocations.h</span></tt> specifies the following relocation types for
+the X86 addresses.  In all four cases, the relocated value is added to the
+value already in memory.  For <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">reloc_pcrel_word</span></tt> and <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">reloc_picrel_word</span></tt>,
+there is an additional initial adjustment.</p>
+<div class="highlight-c++"><div class="highlight"><pre><span class="k">enum</span> <span class="n">RelocationType</span> <span class="p">{</span>
+  <span class="n">reloc_pcrel_word</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="mi">0</span><span class="p">,</span>    <span class="c1">// add reloc value after adjusting for the PC loc</span>
+  <span class="n">reloc_picrel_word</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="mi">1</span><span class="p">,</span>   <span class="c1">// add reloc value after adjusting for the PIC base</span>
+  <span class="n">reloc_absolute_word</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="mi">2</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="c1">// absolute relocation; no additional adjustment</span>
+  <span class="n">reloc_absolute_dword</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="mi">3</span> <span class="c1">// absolute relocation; no additional adjustment</span>
+<span class="p">};</span>
+</pre></div>
+</div>
+</div>
+<div class="section" id="target-jit-info">
+<h3><a class="toc-backref" href="#id33">Target JIT Info</a><a class="headerlink" href="#target-jit-info" title="Permalink to this headline">¶</a></h3>
+<p><tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">XXXJITInfo.cpp</span></tt> implements the JIT interfaces for target-specific
+code-generation activities, such as emitting machine code and stubs.  At
+minimum, a target-specific version of <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">XXXJITInfo</span></tt> implements the following:</p>
+<ul class="simple">
+<li><tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">getLazyResolverFunction</span></tt> — Initializes the JIT, gives the target a
+function that is used for compilation.</li>
+<li><tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">emitFunctionStub</span></tt> — Returns a native function with a specified address
+for a callback function.</li>
+<li><tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">relocate</span></tt> — Changes the addresses of referenced globals, based on
+relocation types.</li>
+<li>Callback function that are wrappers to a function stub that is used when the
+real target is not initially known.</li>
+</ul>
+<p><tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">getLazyResolverFunction</span></tt> is generally trivial to implement.  It makes the
+incoming parameter as the global <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">JITCompilerFunction</span></tt> and returns the
+callback function that will be used a function wrapper.  For the Alpha target
+(in <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">AlphaJITInfo.cpp</span></tt>), the <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">getLazyResolverFunction</span></tt> implementation is
+simply:</p>
+<div class="highlight-c++"><div class="highlight"><pre><span class="n">TargetJITInfo</span><span class="o">::</span><span class="n">LazyResolverFn</span> <span class="n">AlphaJITInfo</span><span class="o">::</span><span class="n">getLazyResolverFunction</span><span class="p">(</span>
+                                            <span class="n">JITCompilerFn</span> <span class="n">F</span><span class="p">)</span> <span class="p">{</span>
+  <span class="n">JITCompilerFunction</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="n">F</span><span class="p">;</span>
+  <span class="k">return</span> <span class="n">AlphaCompilationCallback</span><span class="p">;</span>
+<span class="p">}</span>
+</pre></div>
+</div>
+<p>For the X86 target, the <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">getLazyResolverFunction</span></tt> implementation is a little
+more complicated, because it returns a different callback function for
+processors with SSE instructions and XMM registers.</p>
+<p>The callback function initially saves and later restores the callee register
+values, incoming arguments, and frame and return address.  The callback
+function needs low-level access to the registers or stack, so it is typically
+implemented with assembler.</p>
+</div>
+</div>
+</div>
+
+
+          </div>
+      </div>
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+            
+  <div class="section" id="writing-an-llvm-pass">
+<h1>Writing an LLVM Pass<a class="headerlink" href="#writing-an-llvm-pass" title="Permalink to this headline">¶</a></h1>
+<div class="contents local topic" id="contents">
+<ul class="simple">
+<li><a class="reference internal" href="#introduction-what-is-a-pass" id="id5">Introduction — What is a pass?</a></li>
+<li><a class="reference internal" href="#quick-start-writing-hello-world" id="id6">Quick Start — Writing hello world</a><ul>
+<li><a class="reference internal" href="#setting-up-the-build-environment" id="id7">Setting up the build environment</a></li>
+<li><a class="reference internal" href="#basic-code-required" id="id8">Basic code required</a></li>
+<li><a class="reference internal" href="#running-a-pass-with-opt" id="id9">Running a pass with <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">opt</span></tt></a></li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li><a class="reference internal" href="#pass-classes-and-requirements" id="id10">Pass classes and requirements</a><ul>
+<li><a class="reference internal" href="#the-immutablepass-class" id="id11">The <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">ImmutablePass</span></tt> class</a></li>
+<li><a class="reference internal" href="#the-modulepass-class" id="id12">The <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">ModulePass</span></tt> class</a><ul>
+<li><a class="reference internal" href="#the-runonmodule-method" id="id13">The <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">runOnModule</span></tt> method</a></li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li><a class="reference internal" href="#the-callgraphsccpass-class" id="id14">The <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">CallGraphSCCPass</span></tt> class</a><ul>
+<li><a class="reference internal" href="#the-doinitialization-callgraph-method" id="id15">The <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">doInitialization(CallGraph</span> <span class="pre">&)</span></tt> method</a></li>
+<li><a class="reference internal" href="#the-runonscc-method" id="id16">The <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">runOnSCC</span></tt> method</a></li>
+<li><a class="reference internal" href="#the-dofinalization-callgraph-method" id="id17">The <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">doFinalization(CallGraph</span> <span class="pre">&)</span></tt> method</a></li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li><a class="reference internal" href="#the-functionpass-class" id="id18">The <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">FunctionPass</span></tt> class</a><ul>
+<li><a class="reference internal" href="#the-doinitialization-module-method" id="id19">The <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">doInitialization(Module</span> <span class="pre">&)</span></tt> method</a></li>
+<li><a class="reference internal" href="#the-runonfunction-method" id="id20">The <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">runOnFunction</span></tt> method</a></li>
+<li><a class="reference internal" href="#the-dofinalization-module-method" id="id21">The <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">doFinalization(Module</span> <span class="pre">&)</span></tt> method</a></li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li><a class="reference internal" href="#the-looppass-class" id="id22">The <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">LoopPass</span></tt> class</a><ul>
+<li><a class="reference internal" href="#the-doinitialization-loop-lppassmanager-method" id="id23">The <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">doInitialization(Loop</span> <span class="pre">*,</span> <span class="pre">LPPassManager</span> <span class="pre">&)</span></tt> method</a></li>
+<li><a class="reference internal" href="#the-runonloop-method" id="id24">The <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">runOnLoop</span></tt> method</a></li>
+<li><a class="reference internal" href="#the-dofinalization-method" id="id25">The <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">doFinalization()</span></tt> method</a></li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li><a class="reference internal" href="#the-regionpass-class" id="id26">The <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">RegionPass</span></tt> class</a><ul>
+<li><a class="reference internal" href="#the-doinitialization-region-rgpassmanager-method" id="id27">The <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">doInitialization(Region</span> <span class="pre">*,</span> <span class="pre">RGPassManager</span> <span class="pre">&)</span></tt> method</a></li>
+<li><a class="reference internal" href="#the-runonregion-method" id="id28">The <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">runOnRegion</span></tt> method</a></li>
+<li><a class="reference internal" href="#id2" id="id29">The <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">doFinalization()</span></tt> method</a></li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li><a class="reference internal" href="#the-basicblockpass-class" id="id30">The <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">BasicBlockPass</span></tt> class</a><ul>
+<li><a class="reference internal" href="#the-doinitialization-function-method" id="id31">The <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">doInitialization(Function</span> <span class="pre">&)</span></tt> method</a></li>
+<li><a class="reference internal" href="#the-runonbasicblock-method" id="id32">The <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">runOnBasicBlock</span></tt> method</a></li>
+<li><a class="reference internal" href="#the-dofinalization-function-method" id="id33">The <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">doFinalization(Function</span> <span class="pre">&)</span></tt> method</a></li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li><a class="reference internal" href="#the-machinefunctionpass-class" id="id34">The <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">MachineFunctionPass</span></tt> class</a><ul>
+<li><a class="reference internal" href="#the-runonmachinefunction-machinefunction-mf-method" id="id35">The <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">runOnMachineFunction(MachineFunction</span> <span class="pre">&MF)</span></tt> method</a></li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li><a class="reference internal" href="#pass-registration" id="id36">Pass registration</a><ul>
+<li><a class="reference internal" href="#the-print-method" id="id37">The <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">print</span></tt> method</a></li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li><a class="reference internal" href="#specifying-interactions-between-passes" id="id38">Specifying interactions between passes</a><ul>
+<li><a class="reference internal" href="#the-getanalysisusage-method" id="id39">The <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">getAnalysisUsage</span></tt> method</a></li>
+<li><a class="reference internal" href="#the-analysisusage-addrequired-and-analysisusage-addrequiredtransitive-methods" id="id40">The <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">AnalysisUsage::addRequired<></span></tt> and <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">AnalysisUsage::addRequiredTransitive<></span></tt> methods</a></li>
+<li><a class="reference internal" href="#the-analysisusage-addpreserved-method" id="id41">The <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">AnalysisUsage::addPreserved<></span></tt> method</a></li>
+<li><a class="reference internal" href="#example-implementations-of-getanalysisusage" id="id42">Example implementations of <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">getAnalysisUsage</span></tt></a></li>
+<li><a class="reference internal" href="#the-getanalysis-and-getanalysisifavailable-methods" id="id43">The <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">getAnalysis<></span></tt> and <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">getAnalysisIfAvailable<></span></tt> methods</a></li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li><a class="reference internal" href="#implementing-analysis-groups" id="id44">Implementing Analysis Groups</a><ul>
+<li><a class="reference internal" href="#analysis-group-concepts" id="id45">Analysis Group Concepts</a></li>
+<li><a class="reference internal" href="#using-registeranalysisgroup" id="id46">Using <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">RegisterAnalysisGroup</span></tt></a></li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li><a class="reference internal" href="#pass-statistics" id="id47">Pass Statistics</a><ul>
+<li><a class="reference internal" href="#what-passmanager-does" id="id48">What PassManager does</a><ul>
+<li><a class="reference internal" href="#the-releasememory-method" id="id49">The <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">releaseMemory</span></tt> method</a></li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li><a class="reference internal" href="#registering-dynamically-loaded-passes" id="id50">Registering dynamically loaded passes</a><ul>
+<li><a class="reference internal" href="#using-existing-registries" id="id51">Using existing registries</a></li>
+<li><a class="reference internal" href="#creating-new-registries" id="id52">Creating new registries</a></li>
+<li><a class="reference internal" href="#using-gdb-with-dynamically-loaded-passes" id="id53">Using GDB with dynamically loaded passes</a><ul>
+<li><a class="reference internal" href="#setting-a-breakpoint-in-your-pass" id="id54">Setting a breakpoint in your pass</a></li>
+<li><a class="reference internal" href="#miscellaneous-problems" id="id55">Miscellaneous Problems</a></li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li><a class="reference internal" href="#future-extensions-planned" id="id56">Future extensions planned</a><ul>
+<li><a class="reference internal" href="#multithreaded-llvm" id="id57">Multithreaded LLVM</a></li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+</ul>
+</div>
+<div class="section" id="introduction-what-is-a-pass">
+<h2><a class="toc-backref" href="#id5">Introduction — What is a pass?</a><a class="headerlink" href="#introduction-what-is-a-pass" title="Permalink to this headline">¶</a></h2>
+<p>The LLVM Pass Framework is an important part of the LLVM system, because LLVM
+passes are where most of the interesting parts of the compiler exist.  Passes
+perform the transformations and optimizations that make up the compiler, they
+build the analysis results that are used by these transformations, and they
+are, above all, a structuring technique for compiler code.</p>
+<p>All LLVM passes are subclasses of the <a class="reference external" href="http://llvm.org/doxygen/classllvm_1_1Pass.html">Pass</a> class, which implement
+functionality by overriding virtual methods inherited from <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">Pass</span></tt>.  Depending
+on how your pass works, you should inherit from the <a class="reference internal" href="#writing-an-llvm-pass-modulepass"><em>ModulePass</em></a> , <a class="reference internal" href="#writing-an-llvm-pass-callgraphsccpass"><em>CallGraphSCCPass</em></a>, <a class="reference internal" href="#writing-an-llvm-pass-functionpass"><em>FunctionPass</em></a> , or <a class="reference internal" href="#writing-an-llvm-pass-looppass"><em>LoopPass</em></a>, or <a class="reference internal" href="#writing-an-llvm-pass-regionpass"><em>RegionPass</em></a>, or <a class="reference internal" href="#writing-an-llvm-pass-basicblockpass"><em>BasicBlockPass</em></a> classes, which gives the system more
+information about what your pass does, and how it can be combined with other
+passes.  One of the main features of the LLVM Pass Framework is that it
+schedules passes to run in an efficient way based on the constraints that your
+pass meets (which are indicated by which class they derive from).</p>
+<p>We start by showing you how to construct a pass, everything from setting up the
+code, to compiling, loading, and executing it.  After the basics are down, more
+advanced features are discussed.</p>
+</div>
+<div class="section" id="quick-start-writing-hello-world">
+<h2><a class="toc-backref" href="#id6">Quick Start — Writing hello world</a><a class="headerlink" href="#quick-start-writing-hello-world" title="Permalink to this headline">¶</a></h2>
+<p>Here we describe how to write the “hello world” of passes.  The “Hello” pass is
+designed to simply print out the name of non-external functions that exist in
+the program being compiled.  It does not modify the program at all, it just
+inspects it.  The source code and files for this pass are available in the LLVM
+source tree in the <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">lib/Transforms/Hello</span></tt> directory.</p>
+<div class="section" id="setting-up-the-build-environment">
+<span id="writing-an-llvm-pass-makefile"></span><h3><a class="toc-backref" href="#id7">Setting up the build environment</a><a class="headerlink" href="#setting-up-the-build-environment" title="Permalink to this headline">¶</a></h3>
+<p>First, configure and build LLVM.  This needs to be done directly inside the
+LLVM source tree rather than in a separate objects directory.  Next, you need
+to create a new directory somewhere in the LLVM source base.  For this example,
+we’ll assume that you made <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">lib/Transforms/Hello</span></tt>.  Finally, you must set up
+a build script (<tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">Makefile</span></tt>) that will compile the source code for the new
+pass.  To do this, copy the following into <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">Makefile</span></tt>:</p>
+<div class="highlight-make"><div class="highlight"><pre><span class="c"># Makefile for hello pass</span>
+
+<span class="c"># Path to top level of LLVM hierarchy</span>
+<span class="nv">LEVEL</span> <span class="o">=</span> ../../..
+
+<span class="c"># Name of the library to build</span>
+<span class="nv">LIBRARYNAME</span> <span class="o">=</span> Hello
+
+<span class="c"># Make the shared library become a loadable module so the tools can</span>
+<span class="c"># dlopen/dlsym on the resulting library.</span>
+<span class="nv">LOADABLE_MODULE</span> <span class="o">=</span> 1
+
+<span class="c"># Include the makefile implementation stuff</span>
+<span class="cp">include $(LEVEL)/Makefile.common</span>
+</pre></div>
+</div>
+<p>This makefile specifies that all of the <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">.cpp</span></tt> files in the current directory
+are to be compiled and linked together into a shared object
+<tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">$(LEVEL)/Debug+Asserts/lib/Hello.so</span></tt> that can be dynamically loaded by the
+<strong class="program">opt</strong> or <strong class="program">bugpoint</strong> tools via their <a class="reference internal" href="CommandGuide/opt.html#cmdoption-load"><em class="xref std std-option">-load</em></a> options.
+If your operating system uses a suffix other than <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">.so</span></tt> (such as Windows or Mac
+OS X), the appropriate extension will be used.</p>
+<p>If you are used CMake to build LLVM, see <a class="reference internal" href="CMake.html#cmake-out-of-source-pass"><em>Developing LLVM pass out of source</em></a>.</p>
+<p>Now that we have the build scripts set up, we just need to write the code for
+the pass itself.</p>
+</div>
+<div class="section" id="basic-code-required">
+<span id="writing-an-llvm-pass-basiccode"></span><h3><a class="toc-backref" href="#id8">Basic code required</a><a class="headerlink" href="#basic-code-required" title="Permalink to this headline">¶</a></h3>
+<p>Now that we have a way to compile our new pass, we just have to write it.
+Start out with:</p>
+<div class="highlight-c++"><div class="highlight"><pre><span class="cp">#include "llvm/Pass.h"</span>
+<span class="cp">#include "llvm/IR/Function.h"</span>
+<span class="cp">#include "llvm/Support/raw_ostream.h"</span>
+</pre></div>
+</div>
+<p>Which are needed because we are writing a <a class="reference external" href="http://llvm.org/doxygen/classllvm_1_1Pass.html">Pass</a>, we are operating on
+<a class="reference external" href="http://llvm.org/doxygen/classllvm_1_1Function.html">Function</a>s, and we will
+be doing some printing.</p>
+<p>Next we have:</p>
+<div class="highlight-c++"><div class="highlight"><pre><span class="k">using</span> <span class="k">namespace</span> <span class="n">llvm</span><span class="p">;</span>
+</pre></div>
+</div>
+<p>... which is required because the functions from the include files live in the
+llvm namespace.</p>
+<p>Next we have:</p>
+<div class="highlight-c++"><div class="highlight"><pre><span class="k">namespace</span> <span class="p">{</span>
+</pre></div>
+</div>
+<p>... which starts out an anonymous namespace.  Anonymous namespaces are to C++
+what the “<tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">static</span></tt>” keyword is to C (at global scope).  It makes the things
+declared inside of the anonymous namespace visible only to the current file.
+If you’re not familiar with them, consult a decent C++ book for more
+information.</p>
+<p>Next, we declare our pass itself:</p>
+<div class="highlight-c++"><div class="highlight"><pre><span class="k">struct</span> <span class="n">Hello</span> <span class="o">:</span> <span class="k">public</span> <span class="n">FunctionPass</span> <span class="p">{</span>
+</pre></div>
+</div>
+<p>This declares a “<tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">Hello</span></tt>” class that is a subclass of <a class="reference internal" href="#writing-an-llvm-pass-functionpass"><em>FunctionPass</em></a>.  The different builtin pass subclasses
+are described in detail <a class="reference internal" href="#writing-an-llvm-pass-pass-classes"><em>later</em></a>, but
+for now, know that <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">FunctionPass</span></tt> operates on a function at a time.</p>
+<div class="highlight-c++"><div class="highlight"><pre><span class="k">static</span> <span class="kt">char</span> <span class="n">ID</span><span class="p">;</span>
+<span class="n">Hello</span><span class="p">()</span> <span class="o">:</span> <span class="n">FunctionPass</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="n">ID</span><span class="p">)</span> <span class="p">{}</span>
+</pre></div>
+</div>
+<p>This declares pass identifier used by LLVM to identify pass.  This allows LLVM
+to avoid using expensive C++ runtime information.</p>
+<div class="highlight-c++"><div class="highlight"><pre>    <span class="k">virtual</span> <span class="kt">bool</span> <span class="nf">runOnFunction</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="n">Function</span> <span class="o">&</span><span class="n">F</span><span class="p">)</span> <span class="p">{</span>
+      <span class="n">errs</span><span class="p">()</span> <span class="o"><<</span> <span class="s">"Hello: "</span><span class="p">;</span>
+      <span class="n">errs</span><span class="p">().</span><span class="n">write_escaped</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="n">F</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="n">getName</span><span class="p">())</span> <span class="o"><<</span> <span class="s">"</span><span class="se">\n</span><span class="s">"</span><span class="p">;</span>
+      <span class="k">return</span> <span class="nb">false</span><span class="p">;</span>
+    <span class="p">}</span>
+  <span class="p">};</span> <span class="c1">// end of struct Hello</span>
+<span class="p">}</span>  <span class="c1">// end of anonymous namespace</span>
+</pre></div>
+</div>
+<p>We declare a <a class="reference internal" href="#writing-an-llvm-pass-runonfunction"><em>runOnFunction</em></a> method,
+which overrides an abstract virtual method inherited from <a class="reference internal" href="#writing-an-llvm-pass-functionpass"><em>FunctionPass</em></a>.  This is where we are supposed to do our
+thing, so we just print out our message with the name of each function.</p>
+<div class="highlight-c++"><div class="highlight"><pre><span class="kt">char</span> <span class="n">Hello</span><span class="o">::</span><span class="n">ID</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="mi">0</span><span class="p">;</span>
+</pre></div>
+</div>
+<p>We initialize pass ID here.  LLVM uses ID’s address to identify a pass, so
+initialization value is not important.</p>
+<div class="highlight-c++"><div class="highlight"><pre><span class="k">static</span> <span class="n">RegisterPass</span><span class="o"><</span><span class="n">Hello</span><span class="o">></span> <span class="n">X</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="s">"hello"</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="s">"Hello World Pass"</span><span class="p">,</span>
+                             <span class="nb">false</span> <span class="cm">/* Only looks at CFG */</span><span class="p">,</span>
+                             <span class="nb">false</span> <span class="cm">/* Analysis Pass */</span><span class="p">);</span>
+</pre></div>
+</div>
+<p>Lastly, we <a class="reference internal" href="#writing-an-llvm-pass-registration"><em>register our class</em></a>
+<tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">Hello</span></tt>, giving it a command line argument “<tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">hello</span></tt>”, and a name “Hello
+World Pass”.  The last two arguments describe its behavior: if a pass walks CFG
+without modifying it then the third argument is set to <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">true</span></tt>; if a pass is
+an analysis pass, for example dominator tree pass, then <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">true</span></tt> is supplied as
+the fourth argument.</p>
+<p>As a whole, the <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">.cpp</span></tt> file looks like:</p>
+<div class="highlight-c++"><div class="highlight"><pre><span class="cp">#include "llvm/Pass.h"</span>
+<span class="cp">#include "llvm/IR/Function.h"</span>
+<span class="cp">#include "llvm/Support/raw_ostream.h"</span>
+
+<span class="k">using</span> <span class="k">namespace</span> <span class="n">llvm</span><span class="p">;</span>
+
+<span class="k">namespace</span> <span class="p">{</span>
+  <span class="k">struct</span> <span class="n">Hello</span> <span class="o">:</span> <span class="k">public</span> <span class="n">FunctionPass</span> <span class="p">{</span>
+    <span class="k">static</span> <span class="kt">char</span> <span class="n">ID</span><span class="p">;</span>
+    <span class="n">Hello</span><span class="p">()</span> <span class="o">:</span> <span class="n">FunctionPass</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="n">ID</span><span class="p">)</span> <span class="p">{}</span>
+
+    <span class="k">virtual</span> <span class="kt">bool</span> <span class="n">runOnFunction</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="n">Function</span> <span class="o">&</span><span class="n">F</span><span class="p">)</span> <span class="p">{</span>
+      <span class="n">errs</span><span class="p">()</span> <span class="o"><<</span> <span class="s">"Hello: "</span><span class="p">;</span>
+      <span class="n">errs</span><span class="p">().</span><span class="n">write_escaped</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="n">F</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="n">getName</span><span class="p">())</span> <span class="o"><<</span> <span class="sc">'\n'</span><span class="p">;</span>
+      <span class="k">return</span> <span class="nb">false</span><span class="p">;</span>
+    <span class="p">}</span>
+  <span class="p">};</span>
+<span class="p">}</span>
+
+<span class="kt">char</span> <span class="n">Hello</span><span class="o">::</span><span class="n">ID</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="mi">0</span><span class="p">;</span>
+<span class="k">static</span> <span class="n">RegisterPass</span><span class="o"><</span><span class="n">Hello</span><span class="o">></span> <span class="n">X</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="s">"hello"</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="s">"Hello World Pass"</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="nb">false</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="nb">false</span><span class="p">);</span>
+</pre></div>
+</div>
+<p>Now that it’s all together, compile the file with a simple “<tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">gmake</span></tt>” command
+in the local directory and you should get a new file
+“<tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">Debug+Asserts/lib/Hello.so</span></tt>” under the top level directory of the LLVM
+source tree (not in the local directory).  Note that everything in this file is
+contained in an anonymous namespace — this reflects the fact that passes
+are self contained units that do not need external interfaces (although they
+can have them) to be useful.</p>
+</div>
+<div class="section" id="running-a-pass-with-opt">
+<h3><a class="toc-backref" href="#id9">Running a pass with <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">opt</span></tt></a><a class="headerlink" href="#running-a-pass-with-opt" title="Permalink to this headline">¶</a></h3>
+<p>Now that you have a brand new shiny shared object file, we can use the
+<strong class="program">opt</strong> command to run an LLVM program through your pass.  Because you
+registered your pass with <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">RegisterPass</span></tt>, you will be able to use the
+<strong class="program">opt</strong> tool to access it, once loaded.</p>
+<p>To test it, follow the example at the end of the <a class="reference internal" href="GettingStarted.html"><em>Getting Started with the LLVM System</em></a> to
+compile “Hello World” to LLVM.  We can now run the bitcode file (hello.bc) for
+the program through our transformation like this (or course, any bitcode file
+will work):</p>
+<div class="highlight-console"><div class="highlight"><pre><span class="gp">$</span> opt -load ../../../Debug+Asserts/lib/Hello.so -hello < hello.bc > /dev/null
+<span class="go">Hello: __main</span>
+<span class="go">Hello: puts</span>
+<span class="go">Hello: main</span>
+</pre></div>
+</div>
+<p>The <a class="reference internal" href="CommandGuide/opt.html#cmdoption-load"><em class="xref std std-option">-load</em></a> option specifies that <strong class="program">opt</strong> should load your pass
+as a shared object, which makes “<tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">-hello</span></tt>” a valid command line argument
+(which is one reason you need to <a class="reference internal" href="#writing-an-llvm-pass-registration"><em>register your pass</em></a>).  Because the Hello pass does not modify
+the program in any interesting way, we just throw away the result of
+<strong class="program">opt</strong> (sending it to <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">/dev/null</span></tt>).</p>
+<p>To see what happened to the other string you registered, try running
+<strong class="program">opt</strong> with the <a class="reference internal" href="CommandGuide/opt.html#cmdoption-help"><em class="xref std std-option">-help</em></a> option:</p>
+<div class="highlight-console"><div class="highlight"><pre><span class="gp">$</span> opt -load ../../../Debug+Asserts/lib/Hello.so -help
+<span class="go">OVERVIEW: llvm .bc -> .bc modular optimizer</span>
+
+<span class="go">USAGE: opt [options] <input bitcode></span>
+
+<span class="go">OPTIONS:</span>
+<span class="go">  Optimizations available:</span>
+<span class="go">...</span>
+<span class="go">    -globalopt                - Global Variable Optimizer</span>
+<span class="go">    -globalsmodref-aa         - Simple mod/ref analysis for globals</span>
+<span class="go">    -gvn                      - Global Value Numbering</span>
+<span class="go">    -hello                    - Hello World Pass</span>
+<span class="go">    -indvars                  - Induction Variable Simplification</span>
+<span class="go">    -inline                   - Function Integration/Inlining</span>
+<span class="go">    -insert-edge-profiling    - Insert instrumentation for edge profiling</span>
+<span class="go">...</span>
+</pre></div>
+</div>
+<p>The pass name gets added as the information string for your pass, giving some
+documentation to users of <strong class="program">opt</strong>.  Now that you have a working pass,
+you would go ahead and make it do the cool transformations you want.  Once you
+get it all working and tested, it may become useful to find out how fast your
+pass is.  The <a class="reference internal" href="#writing-an-llvm-pass-passmanager"><em>PassManager</em></a> provides a
+nice command line option (<a class="reference internal" href="CommandGuide/llc.html#cmdoption--time-passes"><em class="xref std std-option">--time-passes</em></a>) that allows you to get
+information about the execution time of your pass along with the other passes
+you queue up.  For example:</p>
+<div class="highlight-console"><div class="highlight"><pre><span class="gp">$</span> opt -load ../../../Debug+Asserts/lib/Hello.so -hello -time-passes < hello.bc > /dev/null
+<span class="go">Hello: __main</span>
+<span class="go">Hello: puts</span>
+<span class="go">Hello: main</span>
+<span class="go">===============================================================================</span>
+<span class="go">                      ... Pass execution timing report ...</span>
+<span class="go">===============================================================================</span>
+<span class="go">  Total Execution Time: 0.02 seconds (0.0479059 wall clock)</span>
+
+<span class="go">   ---User Time---   --System Time--   --User+System--   ---Wall Time---  --- Pass Name ---</span>
+<span class="go">   0.0100 (100.0%)   0.0000 (  0.0%)   0.0100 ( 50.0%)   0.0402 ( 84.0%)  Bitcode Writer</span>
+<span class="go">   0.0000 (  0.0%)   0.0100 (100.0%)   0.0100 ( 50.0%)   0.0031 (  6.4%)  Dominator Set Construction</span>
+<span class="go">   0.0000 (  0.0%)   0.0000 (  0.0%)   0.0000 (  0.0%)   0.0013 (  2.7%)  Module Verifier</span>
+<span class="go">   0.0000 (  0.0%)   0.0000 (  0.0%)   0.0000 (  0.0%)   0.0033 (  6.9%)  Hello World Pass</span>
+<span class="go">   0.0100 (100.0%)   0.0100 (100.0%)   0.0200 (100.0%)   0.0479 (100.0%)  TOTAL</span>
+</pre></div>
+</div>
+<p>As you can see, our implementation above is pretty fast.  The additional
+passes listed are automatically inserted by the <strong class="program">opt</strong> tool to verify
+that the LLVM emitted by your pass is still valid and well formed LLVM, which
+hasn’t been broken somehow.</p>
+<p>Now that you have seen the basics of the mechanics behind passes, we can talk
+about some more details of how they work and how to use them.</p>
+</div>
+</div>
+<div class="section" id="pass-classes-and-requirements">
+<span id="writing-an-llvm-pass-pass-classes"></span><h2><a class="toc-backref" href="#id10">Pass classes and requirements</a><a class="headerlink" href="#pass-classes-and-requirements" title="Permalink to this headline">¶</a></h2>
+<p>One of the first things that you should do when designing a new pass is to
+decide what class you should subclass for your pass.  The <a class="reference internal" href="#writing-an-llvm-pass-basiccode"><em>Hello World</em></a> example uses the <a class="reference internal" href="#writing-an-llvm-pass-functionpass"><em>FunctionPass</em></a> class for its implementation, but we did
+not discuss why or when this should occur.  Here we talk about the classes
+available, from the most general to the most specific.</p>
+<p>When choosing a superclass for your <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">Pass</span></tt>, you should choose the <strong>most
+specific</strong> class possible, while still being able to meet the requirements
+listed.  This gives the LLVM Pass Infrastructure information necessary to
+optimize how passes are run, so that the resultant compiler isn’t unnecessarily
+slow.</p>
+<div class="section" id="the-immutablepass-class">
+<h3><a class="toc-backref" href="#id11">The <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">ImmutablePass</span></tt> class</a><a class="headerlink" href="#the-immutablepass-class" title="Permalink to this headline">¶</a></h3>
+<p>The most plain and boring type of pass is the “<a class="reference external" href="http://llvm.org/doxygen/classllvm_1_1ImmutablePass.html">ImmutablePass</a>” class.  This pass
+type is used for passes that do not have to be run, do not change state, and
+never need to be updated.  This is not a normal type of transformation or
+analysis, but can provide information about the current compiler configuration.</p>
+<p>Although this pass class is very infrequently used, it is important for
+providing information about the current target machine being compiled for, and
+other static information that can affect the various transformations.</p>
+<p><tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">ImmutablePass</span></tt>es never invalidate other transformations, are never
+invalidated, and are never “run”.</p>
+</div>
+<div class="section" id="the-modulepass-class">
+<span id="writing-an-llvm-pass-modulepass"></span><h3><a class="toc-backref" href="#id12">The <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">ModulePass</span></tt> class</a><a class="headerlink" href="#the-modulepass-class" title="Permalink to this headline">¶</a></h3>
+<p>The <a class="reference external" href="http://llvm.org/doxygen/classllvm_1_1ModulePass.html">ModulePass</a> class
+is the most general of all superclasses that you can use.  Deriving from
+<tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">ModulePass</span></tt> indicates that your pass uses the entire program as a unit,
+referring to function bodies in no predictable order, or adding and removing
+functions.  Because nothing is known about the behavior of <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">ModulePass</span></tt>
+subclasses, no optimization can be done for their execution.</p>
+<p>A module pass can use function level passes (e.g. dominators) using the
+<tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">getAnalysis</span></tt> interface <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">getAnalysis<DominatorTree>(llvm::Function</span> <span class="pre">*)</span></tt> to
+provide the function to retrieve analysis result for, if the function pass does
+not require any module or immutable passes.  Note that this can only be done
+for functions for which the analysis ran, e.g. in the case of dominators you
+should only ask for the <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">DominatorTree</span></tt> for function definitions, not
+declarations.</p>
+<p>To write a correct <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">ModulePass</span></tt> subclass, derive from <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">ModulePass</span></tt> and
+overload the <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">runOnModule</span></tt> method with the following signature:</p>
+<div class="section" id="the-runonmodule-method">
+<h4><a class="toc-backref" href="#id13">The <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">runOnModule</span></tt> method</a><a class="headerlink" href="#the-runonmodule-method" title="Permalink to this headline">¶</a></h4>
+<div class="highlight-c++"><div class="highlight"><pre><span class="k">virtual</span> <span class="kt">bool</span> <span class="n">runOnModule</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="n">Module</span> <span class="o">&</span><span class="n">M</span><span class="p">)</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="mi">0</span><span class="p">;</span>
+</pre></div>
+</div>
+<p>The <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">runOnModule</span></tt> method performs the interesting work of the pass.  It
+should return <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">true</span></tt> if the module was modified by the transformation and
+<tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">false</span></tt> otherwise.</p>
+</div>
+</div>
+<div class="section" id="the-callgraphsccpass-class">
+<span id="writing-an-llvm-pass-callgraphsccpass"></span><h3><a class="toc-backref" href="#id14">The <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">CallGraphSCCPass</span></tt> class</a><a class="headerlink" href="#the-callgraphsccpass-class" title="Permalink to this headline">¶</a></h3>
+<p>The <a class="reference external" href="http://llvm.org/doxygen/classllvm_1_1CallGraphSCCPass.html">CallGraphSCCPass</a> is used by
+passes that need to traverse the program bottom-up on the call graph (callees
+before callers).  Deriving from <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">CallGraphSCCPass</span></tt> provides some mechanics
+for building and traversing the <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">CallGraph</span></tt>, but also allows the system to
+optimize execution of <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">CallGraphSCCPass</span></tt>es.  If your pass meets the
+requirements outlined below, and doesn’t meet the requirements of a
+<a class="reference internal" href="#writing-an-llvm-pass-functionpass"><em>FunctionPass</em></a> or <a class="reference internal" href="#writing-an-llvm-pass-basicblockpass"><em>BasicBlockPass</em></a>, you should derive from
+<tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">CallGraphSCCPass</span></tt>.</p>
+<p><tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">TODO</span></tt>: explain briefly what SCC, Tarjan’s algo, and B-U mean.</p>
+<p>To be explicit, CallGraphSCCPass subclasses are:</p>
+<ol class="arabic simple">
+<li>... <em>not allowed</em> to inspect or modify any <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">Function</span></tt>s other than those
+in the current SCC and the direct callers and direct callees of the SCC.</li>
+<li>... <em>required</em> to preserve the current <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">CallGraph</span></tt> object, updating it to
+reflect any changes made to the program.</li>
+<li>... <em>not allowed</em> to add or remove SCC’s from the current Module, though
+they may change the contents of an SCC.</li>
+<li>... <em>allowed</em> to add or remove global variables from the current Module.</li>
+<li>... <em>allowed</em> to maintain state across invocations of <a class="reference internal" href="#writing-an-llvm-pass-runonscc"><em>runOnSCC</em></a> (including global data).</li>
+</ol>
+<p>Implementing a <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">CallGraphSCCPass</span></tt> is slightly tricky in some cases because it
+has to handle SCCs with more than one node in it.  All of the virtual methods
+described below should return <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">true</span></tt> if they modified the program, or
+<tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">false</span></tt> if they didn’t.</p>
+<div class="section" id="the-doinitialization-callgraph-method">
+<h4><a class="toc-backref" href="#id15">The <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">doInitialization(CallGraph</span> <span class="pre">&)</span></tt> method</a><a class="headerlink" href="#the-doinitialization-callgraph-method" title="Permalink to this headline">¶</a></h4>
+<div class="highlight-c++"><div class="highlight"><pre><span class="k">virtual</span> <span class="kt">bool</span> <span class="nf">doInitialization</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="n">CallGraph</span> <span class="o">&</span><span class="n">CG</span><span class="p">);</span>
+</pre></div>
+</div>
+<p>The <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">doInitialization</span></tt> method is allowed to do most of the things that
+<tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">CallGraphSCCPass</span></tt>es are not allowed to do.  They can add and remove
+functions, get pointers to functions, etc.  The <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">doInitialization</span></tt> method is
+designed to do simple initialization type of stuff that does not depend on the
+SCCs being processed.  The <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">doInitialization</span></tt> method call is not scheduled to
+overlap with any other pass executions (thus it should be very fast).</p>
+</div>
+<div class="section" id="the-runonscc-method">
+<span id="writing-an-llvm-pass-runonscc"></span><h4><a class="toc-backref" href="#id16">The <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">runOnSCC</span></tt> method</a><a class="headerlink" href="#the-runonscc-method" title="Permalink to this headline">¶</a></h4>
+<div class="highlight-c++"><div class="highlight"><pre><span class="k">virtual</span> <span class="kt">bool</span> <span class="n">runOnSCC</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="n">CallGraphSCC</span> <span class="o">&</span><span class="n">SCC</span><span class="p">)</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="mi">0</span><span class="p">;</span>
+</pre></div>
+</div>
+<p>The <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">runOnSCC</span></tt> method performs the interesting work of the pass, and should
+return <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">true</span></tt> if the module was modified by the transformation, <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">false</span></tt>
+otherwise.</p>
+</div>
+<div class="section" id="the-dofinalization-callgraph-method">
+<h4><a class="toc-backref" href="#id17">The <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">doFinalization(CallGraph</span> <span class="pre">&)</span></tt> method</a><a class="headerlink" href="#the-dofinalization-callgraph-method" title="Permalink to this headline">¶</a></h4>
+<div class="highlight-c++"><div class="highlight"><pre><span class="k">virtual</span> <span class="kt">bool</span> <span class="nf">doFinalization</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="n">CallGraph</span> <span class="o">&</span><span class="n">CG</span><span class="p">);</span>
+</pre></div>
+</div>
+<p>The <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">doFinalization</span></tt> method is an infrequently used method that is called
+when the pass framework has finished calling <a class="reference internal" href="#writing-an-llvm-pass-runonfunction"><em>runOnFunction</em></a> for every function in the program being
+compiled.</p>
+</div>
+</div>
+<div class="section" id="the-functionpass-class">
+<span id="writing-an-llvm-pass-functionpass"></span><h3><a class="toc-backref" href="#id18">The <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">FunctionPass</span></tt> class</a><a class="headerlink" href="#the-functionpass-class" title="Permalink to this headline">¶</a></h3>
+<p>In contrast to <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">ModulePass</span></tt> subclasses, <a class="reference external" href="http://llvm.org/doxygen/classllvm_1_1Pass.html">FunctionPass</a> subclasses do have a
+predictable, local behavior that can be expected by the system.  All
+<tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">FunctionPass</span></tt> execute on each function in the program independent of all of
+the other functions in the program.  <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">FunctionPass</span></tt>es do not require that
+they are executed in a particular order, and <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">FunctionPass</span></tt>es do not modify
+external functions.</p>
+<p>To be explicit, <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">FunctionPass</span></tt> subclasses are not allowed to:</p>
+<ol class="arabic simple">
+<li>Inspect or modify a <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">Function</span></tt> other than the one currently being processed.</li>
+<li>Add or remove <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">Function</span></tt>s from the current <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">Module</span></tt>.</li>
+<li>Add or remove global variables from the current <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">Module</span></tt>.</li>
+<li>Maintain state across invocations of:ref:<cite>runOnFunction
+<writing-an-llvm-pass-runOnFunction></cite> (including global data).</li>
+</ol>
+<p>Implementing a <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">FunctionPass</span></tt> is usually straightforward (See the <a class="reference internal" href="#writing-an-llvm-pass-basiccode"><em>Hello
+World</em></a> pass for example).
+<tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">FunctionPass</span></tt>es may overload three virtual methods to do their work.  All
+of these methods should return <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">true</span></tt> if they modified the program, or
+<tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">false</span></tt> if they didn’t.</p>
+<div class="section" id="the-doinitialization-module-method">
+<span id="writing-an-llvm-pass-doinitialization-mod"></span><h4><a class="toc-backref" href="#id19">The <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">doInitialization(Module</span> <span class="pre">&)</span></tt> method</a><a class="headerlink" href="#the-doinitialization-module-method" title="Permalink to this headline">¶</a></h4>
+<div class="highlight-c++"><div class="highlight"><pre><span class="k">virtual</span> <span class="kt">bool</span> <span class="nf">doInitialization</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="n">Module</span> <span class="o">&</span><span class="n">M</span><span class="p">);</span>
+</pre></div>
+</div>
+<p>The <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">doInitialization</span></tt> method is allowed to do most of the things that
+<tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">FunctionPass</span></tt>es are not allowed to do.  They can add and remove functions,
+get pointers to functions, etc.  The <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">doInitialization</span></tt> method is designed to
+do simple initialization type of stuff that does not depend on the functions
+being processed.  The <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">doInitialization</span></tt> method call is not scheduled to
+overlap with any other pass executions (thus it should be very fast).</p>
+<p>A good example of how this method should be used is the <a class="reference external" href="http://llvm.org/doxygen/LowerAllocations_8cpp-source.html">LowerAllocations</a> pass.  This pass
+converts <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">malloc</span></tt> and <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">free</span></tt> instructions into platform dependent
+<tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">malloc()</span></tt> and <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">free()</span></tt> function calls.  It uses the <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">doInitialization</span></tt>
+method to get a reference to the <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">malloc</span></tt> and <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">free</span></tt> functions that it
+needs, adding prototypes to the module if necessary.</p>
+</div>
+<div class="section" id="the-runonfunction-method">
+<span id="writing-an-llvm-pass-runonfunction"></span><h4><a class="toc-backref" href="#id20">The <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">runOnFunction</span></tt> method</a><a class="headerlink" href="#the-runonfunction-method" title="Permalink to this headline">¶</a></h4>
+<div class="highlight-c++"><div class="highlight"><pre><span class="k">virtual</span> <span class="kt">bool</span> <span class="n">runOnFunction</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="n">Function</span> <span class="o">&</span><span class="n">F</span><span class="p">)</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="mi">0</span><span class="p">;</span>
+</pre></div>
+</div>
+<p>The <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">runOnFunction</span></tt> method must be implemented by your subclass to do the
+transformation or analysis work of your pass.  As usual, a <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">true</span></tt> value
+should be returned if the function is modified.</p>
+</div>
+<div class="section" id="the-dofinalization-module-method">
+<span id="writing-an-llvm-pass-dofinalization-mod"></span><h4><a class="toc-backref" href="#id21">The <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">doFinalization(Module</span> <span class="pre">&)</span></tt> method</a><a class="headerlink" href="#the-dofinalization-module-method" title="Permalink to this headline">¶</a></h4>
+<div class="highlight-c++"><div class="highlight"><pre><span class="k">virtual</span> <span class="kt">bool</span> <span class="nf">doFinalization</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="n">Module</span> <span class="o">&</span><span class="n">M</span><span class="p">);</span>
+</pre></div>
+</div>
+<p>The <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">doFinalization</span></tt> method is an infrequently used method that is called
+when the pass framework has finished calling <a class="reference internal" href="#writing-an-llvm-pass-runonfunction"><em>runOnFunction</em></a> for every function in the program being
+compiled.</p>
+</div>
+</div>
+<div class="section" id="the-looppass-class">
+<span id="writing-an-llvm-pass-looppass"></span><h3><a class="toc-backref" href="#id22">The <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">LoopPass</span></tt> class</a><a class="headerlink" href="#the-looppass-class" title="Permalink to this headline">¶</a></h3>
+<p>All <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">LoopPass</span></tt> execute on each loop in the function independent of all of the
+other loops in the function.  <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">LoopPass</span></tt> processes loops in loop nest order
+such that outer most loop is processed last.</p>
+<p><tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">LoopPass</span></tt> subclasses are allowed to update loop nest using <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">LPPassManager</span></tt>
+interface.  Implementing a loop pass is usually straightforward.
+<tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">LoopPass</span></tt>es may overload three virtual methods to do their work.  All
+these methods should return <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">true</span></tt> if they modified the program, or <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">false</span></tt>
+if they didn’t.</p>
+<div class="section" id="the-doinitialization-loop-lppassmanager-method">
+<h4><a class="toc-backref" href="#id23">The <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">doInitialization(Loop</span> <span class="pre">*,</span> <span class="pre">LPPassManager</span> <span class="pre">&)</span></tt> method</a><a class="headerlink" href="#the-doinitialization-loop-lppassmanager-method" title="Permalink to this headline">¶</a></h4>
+<div class="highlight-c++"><div class="highlight"><pre><span class="k">virtual</span> <span class="kt">bool</span> <span class="nf">doInitialization</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="n">Loop</span> <span class="o">*</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="n">LPPassManager</span> <span class="o">&</span><span class="n">LPM</span><span class="p">);</span>
+</pre></div>
+</div>
+<p>The <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">doInitialization</span></tt> method is designed to do simple initialization type of
+stuff that does not depend on the functions being processed.  The
+<tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">doInitialization</span></tt> method call is not scheduled to overlap with any other
+pass executions (thus it should be very fast).  <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">LPPassManager</span></tt> interface
+should be used to access <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">Function</span></tt> or <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">Module</span></tt> level analysis information.</p>
+</div>
+<div class="section" id="the-runonloop-method">
+<span id="writing-an-llvm-pass-runonloop"></span><h4><a class="toc-backref" href="#id24">The <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">runOnLoop</span></tt> method</a><a class="headerlink" href="#the-runonloop-method" title="Permalink to this headline">¶</a></h4>
+<div class="highlight-c++"><div class="highlight"><pre><span class="k">virtual</span> <span class="kt">bool</span> <span class="n">runOnLoop</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="n">Loop</span> <span class="o">*</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="n">LPPassManager</span> <span class="o">&</span><span class="n">LPM</span><span class="p">)</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="mi">0</span><span class="p">;</span>
+</pre></div>
+</div>
+<p>The <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">runOnLoop</span></tt> method must be implemented by your subclass to do the
+transformation or analysis work of your pass.  As usual, a <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">true</span></tt> value
+should be returned if the function is modified.  <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">LPPassManager</span></tt> interface
+should be used to update loop nest.</p>
+</div>
+<div class="section" id="the-dofinalization-method">
+<h4><a class="toc-backref" href="#id25">The <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">doFinalization()</span></tt> method</a><a class="headerlink" href="#the-dofinalization-method" title="Permalink to this headline">¶</a></h4>
+<div class="highlight-c++"><div class="highlight"><pre><span class="k">virtual</span> <span class="kt">bool</span> <span class="nf">doFinalization</span><span class="p">();</span>
+</pre></div>
+</div>
+<p>The <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">doFinalization</span></tt> method is an infrequently used method that is called
+when the pass framework has finished calling <a class="reference internal" href="#writing-an-llvm-pass-runonloop"><em>runOnLoop</em></a> for every loop in the program being compiled.</p>
+</div>
+</div>
+<div class="section" id="the-regionpass-class">
+<span id="writing-an-llvm-pass-regionpass"></span><h3><a class="toc-backref" href="#id26">The <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">RegionPass</span></tt> class</a><a class="headerlink" href="#the-regionpass-class" title="Permalink to this headline">¶</a></h3>
+<p><tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">RegionPass</span></tt> is similar to <a class="reference internal" href="#writing-an-llvm-pass-looppass"><em>LoopPass</em></a>,
+but executes on each single entry single exit region in the function.
+<tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">RegionPass</span></tt> processes regions in nested order such that the outer most
+region is processed last.</p>
+<p><tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">RegionPass</span></tt> subclasses are allowed to update the region tree by using the
+<tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">RGPassManager</span></tt> interface.  You may overload three virtual methods of
+<tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">RegionPass</span></tt> to implement your own region pass.  All these methods should
+return <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">true</span></tt> if they modified the program, or <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">false</span></tt> if they did not.</p>
+<div class="section" id="the-doinitialization-region-rgpassmanager-method">
+<h4><a class="toc-backref" href="#id27">The <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">doInitialization(Region</span> <span class="pre">*,</span> <span class="pre">RGPassManager</span> <span class="pre">&)</span></tt> method</a><a class="headerlink" href="#the-doinitialization-region-rgpassmanager-method" title="Permalink to this headline">¶</a></h4>
+<div class="highlight-c++"><div class="highlight"><pre><span class="k">virtual</span> <span class="kt">bool</span> <span class="nf">doInitialization</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="n">Region</span> <span class="o">*</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="n">RGPassManager</span> <span class="o">&</span><span class="n">RGM</span><span class="p">);</span>
+</pre></div>
+</div>
+<p>The <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">doInitialization</span></tt> method is designed to do simple initialization type of
+stuff that does not depend on the functions being processed.  The
+<tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">doInitialization</span></tt> method call is not scheduled to overlap with any other
+pass executions (thus it should be very fast).  <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">RPPassManager</span></tt> interface
+should be used to access <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">Function</span></tt> or <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">Module</span></tt> level analysis information.</p>
+</div>
+<div class="section" id="the-runonregion-method">
+<span id="writing-an-llvm-pass-runonregion"></span><h4><a class="toc-backref" href="#id28">The <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">runOnRegion</span></tt> method</a><a class="headerlink" href="#the-runonregion-method" title="Permalink to this headline">¶</a></h4>
+<div class="highlight-c++"><div class="highlight"><pre><span class="k">virtual</span> <span class="kt">bool</span> <span class="n">runOnRegion</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="n">Region</span> <span class="o">*</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="n">RGPassManager</span> <span class="o">&</span><span class="n">RGM</span><span class="p">)</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="mi">0</span><span class="p">;</span>
+</pre></div>
+</div>
+<p>The <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">runOnRegion</span></tt> method must be implemented by your subclass to do the
+transformation or analysis work of your pass.  As usual, a true value should be
+returned if the region is modified.  <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">RGPassManager</span></tt> interface should be used to
+update region tree.</p>
+</div>
+<div class="section" id="id2">
+<h4><a class="toc-backref" href="#id29">The <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">doFinalization()</span></tt> method</a><a class="headerlink" href="#id2" title="Permalink to this headline">¶</a></h4>
+<div class="highlight-c++"><div class="highlight"><pre><span class="k">virtual</span> <span class="kt">bool</span> <span class="nf">doFinalization</span><span class="p">();</span>
+</pre></div>
+</div>
+<p>The <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">doFinalization</span></tt> method is an infrequently used method that is called
+when the pass framework has finished calling <a class="reference internal" href="#writing-an-llvm-pass-runonregion"><em>runOnRegion</em></a> for every region in the program being
+compiled.</p>
+</div>
+</div>
+<div class="section" id="the-basicblockpass-class">
+<span id="writing-an-llvm-pass-basicblockpass"></span><h3><a class="toc-backref" href="#id30">The <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">BasicBlockPass</span></tt> class</a><a class="headerlink" href="#the-basicblockpass-class" title="Permalink to this headline">¶</a></h3>
+<p><tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">BasicBlockPass</span></tt>es are just like <a class="reference internal" href="#writing-an-llvm-pass-functionpass"><em>FunctionPass’s</em></a> , except that they must limit their scope
+of inspection and modification to a single basic block at a time.  As such,
+they are <strong>not</strong> allowed to do any of the following:</p>
+<ol class="arabic simple">
+<li>Modify or inspect any basic blocks outside of the current one.</li>
+<li>Maintain state across invocations of <a class="reference internal" href="#writing-an-llvm-pass-runonbasicblock"><em>runOnBasicBlock</em></a>.</li>
+<li>Modify the control flow graph (by altering terminator instructions)</li>
+<li>Any of the things forbidden for <a class="reference internal" href="#writing-an-llvm-pass-functionpass"><em>FunctionPasses</em></a>.</li>
+</ol>
+<p><tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">BasicBlockPass</span></tt>es are useful for traditional local and “peephole”
+optimizations.  They may override the same <a class="reference internal" href="#writing-an-llvm-pass-doinitialization-mod"><em>doInitialization(Module &)</em></a> and <a class="reference internal" href="#writing-an-llvm-pass-dofinalization-mod"><em>doFinalization(Module &)</em></a> methods that <a class="reference internal" href="#writing-an-llvm-pass-functionpass"><em>FunctionPass’s</em></a> have, but also have the following virtual
+methods that may also be implemented:</p>
+<div class="section" id="the-doinitialization-function-method">
+<h4><a class="toc-backref" href="#id31">The <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">doInitialization(Function</span> <span class="pre">&)</span></tt> method</a><a class="headerlink" href="#the-doinitialization-function-method" title="Permalink to this headline">¶</a></h4>
+<div class="highlight-c++"><div class="highlight"><pre><span class="k">virtual</span> <span class="kt">bool</span> <span class="nf">doInitialization</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="n">Function</span> <span class="o">&</span><span class="n">F</span><span class="p">);</span>
+</pre></div>
+</div>
+<p>The <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">doInitialization</span></tt> method is allowed to do most of the things that
+<tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">BasicBlockPass</span></tt>es are not allowed to do, but that <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">FunctionPass</span></tt>es
+can.  The <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">doInitialization</span></tt> method is designed to do simple initialization
+that does not depend on the <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">BasicBlock</span></tt>s being processed.  The
+<tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">doInitialization</span></tt> method call is not scheduled to overlap with any other
+pass executions (thus it should be very fast).</p>
+</div>
+<div class="section" id="the-runonbasicblock-method">
+<span id="writing-an-llvm-pass-runonbasicblock"></span><h4><a class="toc-backref" href="#id32">The <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">runOnBasicBlock</span></tt> method</a><a class="headerlink" href="#the-runonbasicblock-method" title="Permalink to this headline">¶</a></h4>
+<div class="highlight-c++"><div class="highlight"><pre><span class="k">virtual</span> <span class="kt">bool</span> <span class="n">runOnBasicBlock</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="n">BasicBlock</span> <span class="o">&</span><span class="n">BB</span><span class="p">)</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="mi">0</span><span class="p">;</span>
+</pre></div>
+</div>
+<p>Override this function to do the work of the <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">BasicBlockPass</span></tt>.  This function
+is not allowed to inspect or modify basic blocks other than the parameter, and
+are not allowed to modify the CFG.  A <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">true</span></tt> value must be returned if the
+basic block is modified.</p>
+</div>
+<div class="section" id="the-dofinalization-function-method">
+<h4><a class="toc-backref" href="#id33">The <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">doFinalization(Function</span> <span class="pre">&)</span></tt> method</a><a class="headerlink" href="#the-dofinalization-function-method" title="Permalink to this headline">¶</a></h4>
+<div class="highlight-c++"><div class="highlight"><pre><span class="k">virtual</span> <span class="kt">bool</span> <span class="nf">doFinalization</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="n">Function</span> <span class="o">&</span><span class="n">F</span><span class="p">);</span>
+</pre></div>
+</div>
+<p>The <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">doFinalization</span></tt> method is an infrequently used method that is called
+when the pass framework has finished calling <a class="reference internal" href="#writing-an-llvm-pass-runonbasicblock"><em>runOnBasicBlock</em></a> for every <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">BasicBlock</span></tt> in the program
+being compiled.  This can be used to perform per-function finalization.</p>
+</div>
+</div>
+<div class="section" id="the-machinefunctionpass-class">
+<h3><a class="toc-backref" href="#id34">The <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">MachineFunctionPass</span></tt> class</a><a class="headerlink" href="#the-machinefunctionpass-class" title="Permalink to this headline">¶</a></h3>
+<p>A <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">MachineFunctionPass</span></tt> is a part of the LLVM code generator that executes on
+the machine-dependent representation of each LLVM function in the program.</p>
+<p>Code generator passes are registered and initialized specially by
+<tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">TargetMachine::addPassesToEmitFile</span></tt> and similar routines, so they cannot
+generally be run from the <strong class="program">opt</strong> or <strong class="program">bugpoint</strong> commands.</p>
+<p>A <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">MachineFunctionPass</span></tt> is also a <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">FunctionPass</span></tt>, so all the restrictions
+that apply to a <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">FunctionPass</span></tt> also apply to it.  <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">MachineFunctionPass</span></tt>es
+also have additional restrictions.  In particular, <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">MachineFunctionPass</span></tt>es
+are not allowed to do any of the following:</p>
+<ol class="arabic simple">
+<li>Modify or create any LLVM IR <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">Instruction</span></tt>s, <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">BasicBlock</span></tt>s,
+<tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">Argument</span></tt>s, <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">Function</span></tt>s, <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">GlobalVariable</span></tt>s,
+<tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">GlobalAlias</span></tt>es, or <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">Module</span></tt>s.</li>
+<li>Modify a <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">MachineFunction</span></tt> other than the one currently being processed.</li>
+<li>Maintain state across invocations of <a class="reference internal" href="#writing-an-llvm-pass-runonmachinefunction"><em>runOnMachineFunction</em></a> (including global data).</li>
+</ol>
+<div class="section" id="the-runonmachinefunction-machinefunction-mf-method">
+<span id="writing-an-llvm-pass-runonmachinefunction"></span><h4><a class="toc-backref" href="#id35">The <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">runOnMachineFunction(MachineFunction</span> <span class="pre">&MF)</span></tt> method</a><a class="headerlink" href="#the-runonmachinefunction-machinefunction-mf-method" title="Permalink to this headline">¶</a></h4>
+<div class="highlight-c++"><div class="highlight"><pre><span class="k">virtual</span> <span class="kt">bool</span> <span class="n">runOnMachineFunction</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="n">MachineFunction</span> <span class="o">&</span><span class="n">MF</span><span class="p">)</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="mi">0</span><span class="p">;</span>
+</pre></div>
+</div>
+<p><tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">runOnMachineFunction</span></tt> can be considered the main entry point of a
+<tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">MachineFunctionPass</span></tt>; that is, you should override this method to do the
+work of your <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">MachineFunctionPass</span></tt>.</p>
+<p>The <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">runOnMachineFunction</span></tt> method is called on every <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">MachineFunction</span></tt> in a
+<tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">Module</span></tt>, so that the <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">MachineFunctionPass</span></tt> may perform optimizations on
+the machine-dependent representation of the function.  If you want to get at
+the LLVM <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">Function</span></tt> for the <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">MachineFunction</span></tt> you’re working on, use
+<tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">MachineFunction</span></tt>‘s <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">getFunction()</span></tt> accessor method — but remember, you
+may not modify the LLVM <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">Function</span></tt> or its contents from a
+<tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">MachineFunctionPass</span></tt>.</p>
+</div>
+</div>
+<div class="section" id="pass-registration">
+<span id="writing-an-llvm-pass-registration"></span><h3><a class="toc-backref" href="#id36">Pass registration</a><a class="headerlink" href="#pass-registration" title="Permalink to this headline">¶</a></h3>
+<p>In the <a class="reference internal" href="#writing-an-llvm-pass-basiccode"><em>Hello World</em></a> example pass we
+illustrated how pass registration works, and discussed some of the reasons that
+it is used and what it does.  Here we discuss how and why passes are
+registered.</p>
+<p>As we saw above, passes are registered with the <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">RegisterPass</span></tt> template.  The
+template parameter is the name of the pass that is to be used on the command
+line to specify that the pass should be added to a program (for example, with
+<strong class="program">opt</strong> or <strong class="program">bugpoint</strong>).  The first argument is the name of the
+pass, which is to be used for the <a class="reference internal" href="CommandGuide/opt.html#cmdoption-help"><em class="xref std std-option">-help</em></a> output of programs, as well
+as for debug output generated by the <em class="xref std std-option">--debug-pass</em> option.</p>
+<p>If you want your pass to be easily dumpable, you should implement the virtual
+print method:</p>
+<div class="section" id="the-print-method">
+<h4><a class="toc-backref" href="#id37">The <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">print</span></tt> method</a><a class="headerlink" href="#the-print-method" title="Permalink to this headline">¶</a></h4>
+<div class="highlight-c++"><div class="highlight"><pre><span class="k">virtual</span> <span class="kt">void</span> <span class="n">print</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="n">llvm</span><span class="o">::</span><span class="n">raw_ostream</span> <span class="o">&</span><span class="n">O</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="k">const</span> <span class="n">Module</span> <span class="o">*</span><span class="n">M</span><span class="p">)</span> <span class="k">const</span><span class="p">;</span>
+</pre></div>
+</div>
+<p>The <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">print</span></tt> method must be implemented by “analyses” in order to print a
+human readable version of the analysis results.  This is useful for debugging
+an analysis itself, as well as for other people to figure out how an analysis
+works.  Use the opt <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">-analyze</span></tt> argument to invoke this method.</p>
+<p>The <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">llvm::raw_ostream</span></tt> parameter specifies the stream to write the results
+on, and the <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">Module</span></tt> parameter gives a pointer to the top level module of the
+program that has been analyzed.  Note however that this pointer may be <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">NULL</span></tt>
+in certain circumstances (such as calling the <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">Pass::dump()</span></tt> from a
+debugger), so it should only be used to enhance debug output, it should not be
+depended on.</p>
+</div>
+</div>
+<div class="section" id="specifying-interactions-between-passes">
+<span id="writing-an-llvm-pass-interaction"></span><h3><a class="toc-backref" href="#id38">Specifying interactions between passes</a><a class="headerlink" href="#specifying-interactions-between-passes" title="Permalink to this headline">¶</a></h3>
+<p>One of the main responsibilities of the <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">PassManager</span></tt> is to make sure that
+passes interact with each other correctly.  Because <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">PassManager</span></tt> tries to
+<a class="reference internal" href="#writing-an-llvm-pass-passmanager"><em>optimize the execution of passes</em></a> it
+must know how the passes interact with each other and what dependencies exist
+between the various passes.  To track this, each pass can declare the set of
+passes that are required to be executed before the current pass, and the passes
+which are invalidated by the current pass.</p>
+<p>Typically this functionality is used to require that analysis results are
+computed before your pass is run.  Running arbitrary transformation passes can
+invalidate the computed analysis results, which is what the invalidation set
+specifies.  If a pass does not implement the <a class="reference internal" href="#writing-an-llvm-pass-getanalysisusage"><em>getAnalysisUsage</em></a> method, it defaults to not having any
+prerequisite passes, and invalidating <strong>all</strong> other passes.</p>
+<div class="section" id="the-getanalysisusage-method">
+<span id="writing-an-llvm-pass-getanalysisusage"></span><h4><a class="toc-backref" href="#id39">The <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">getAnalysisUsage</span></tt> method</a><a class="headerlink" href="#the-getanalysisusage-method" title="Permalink to this headline">¶</a></h4>
+<div class="highlight-c++"><div class="highlight"><pre><span class="k">virtual</span> <span class="kt">void</span> <span class="n">getAnalysisUsage</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="n">AnalysisUsage</span> <span class="o">&</span><span class="n">Info</span><span class="p">)</span> <span class="k">const</span><span class="p">;</span>
+</pre></div>
+</div>
+<p>By implementing the <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">getAnalysisUsage</span></tt> method, the required and invalidated
+sets may be specified for your transformation.  The implementation should fill
+in the <a class="reference external" href="http://llvm.org/doxygen/classllvm_1_1AnalysisUsage.html">AnalysisUsage</a> object with
+information about which passes are required and not invalidated.  To do this, a
+pass may call any of the following methods on the <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">AnalysisUsage</span></tt> object:</p>
+</div>
+<div class="section" id="the-analysisusage-addrequired-and-analysisusage-addrequiredtransitive-methods">
+<h4><a class="toc-backref" href="#id40">The <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">AnalysisUsage::addRequired<></span></tt> and <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">AnalysisUsage::addRequiredTransitive<></span></tt> methods</a><a class="headerlink" href="#the-analysisusage-addrequired-and-analysisusage-addrequiredtransitive-methods" title="Permalink to this headline">¶</a></h4>
+<p>If your pass requires a previous pass to be executed (an analysis for example),
+it can use one of these methods to arrange for it to be run before your pass.
+LLVM has many different types of analyses and passes that can be required,
+spanning the range from <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">DominatorSet</span></tt> to <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">BreakCriticalEdges</span></tt>.  Requiring
+<tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">BreakCriticalEdges</span></tt>, for example, guarantees that there will be no critical
+edges in the CFG when your pass has been run.</p>
+<p>Some analyses chain to other analyses to do their job.  For example, an
+<cite>AliasAnalysis <AliasAnalysis></cite> implementation is required to <a class="reference internal" href="AliasAnalysis.html#aliasanalysis-chaining"><em>chain</em></a> to other alias analysis passes.  In cases where
+analyses chain, the <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">addRequiredTransitive</span></tt> method should be used instead of
+the <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">addRequired</span></tt> method.  This informs the <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">PassManager</span></tt> that the
+transitively required pass should be alive as long as the requiring pass is.</p>
+</div>
+<div class="section" id="the-analysisusage-addpreserved-method">
+<h4><a class="toc-backref" href="#id41">The <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">AnalysisUsage::addPreserved<></span></tt> method</a><a class="headerlink" href="#the-analysisusage-addpreserved-method" title="Permalink to this headline">¶</a></h4>
+<p>One of the jobs of the <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">PassManager</span></tt> is to optimize how and when analyses are
+run.  In particular, it attempts to avoid recomputing data unless it needs to.
+For this reason, passes are allowed to declare that they preserve (i.e., they
+don’t invalidate) an existing analysis if it’s available.  For example, a
+simple constant folding pass would not modify the CFG, so it can’t possibly
+affect the results of dominator analysis.  By default, all passes are assumed
+to invalidate all others.</p>
+<p>The <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">AnalysisUsage</span></tt> class provides several methods which are useful in
+certain circumstances that are related to <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">addPreserved</span></tt>.  In particular, the
+<tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">setPreservesAll</span></tt> method can be called to indicate that the pass does not
+modify the LLVM program at all (which is true for analyses), and the
+<tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">setPreservesCFG</span></tt> method can be used by transformations that change
+instructions in the program but do not modify the CFG or terminator
+instructions (note that this property is implicitly set for
+<a class="reference internal" href="#writing-an-llvm-pass-basicblockpass"><em>BasicBlockPass</em></a>es).</p>
+<p><tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">addPreserved</span></tt> is particularly useful for transformations like
+<tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">BreakCriticalEdges</span></tt>.  This pass knows how to update a small set of loop and
+dominator related analyses if they exist, so it can preserve them, despite the
+fact that it hacks on the CFG.</p>
+</div>
+<div class="section" id="example-implementations-of-getanalysisusage">
+<h4><a class="toc-backref" href="#id42">Example implementations of <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">getAnalysisUsage</span></tt></a><a class="headerlink" href="#example-implementations-of-getanalysisusage" title="Permalink to this headline">¶</a></h4>
+<div class="highlight-c++"><div class="highlight"><pre><span class="c1">// This example modifies the program, but does not modify the CFG</span>
+<span class="kt">void</span> <span class="n">LICM</span><span class="o">::</span><span class="n">getAnalysisUsage</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="n">AnalysisUsage</span> <span class="o">&</span><span class="n">AU</span><span class="p">)</span> <span class="k">const</span> <span class="p">{</span>
+  <span class="n">AU</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="n">setPreservesCFG</span><span class="p">();</span>
+  <span class="n">AU</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="n">addRequired</span><span class="o"><</span><span class="n">LoopInfo</span><span class="o">></span><span class="p">();</span>
+<span class="p">}</span>
+</pre></div>
+</div>
+</div>
+<div class="section" id="the-getanalysis-and-getanalysisifavailable-methods">
+<span id="writing-an-llvm-pass-getanalysis"></span><h4><a class="toc-backref" href="#id43">The <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">getAnalysis<></span></tt> and <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">getAnalysisIfAvailable<></span></tt> methods</a><a class="headerlink" href="#the-getanalysis-and-getanalysisifavailable-methods" title="Permalink to this headline">¶</a></h4>
+<p>The <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">Pass::getAnalysis<></span></tt> method is automatically inherited by your class,
+providing you with access to the passes that you declared that you required
+with the <a class="reference internal" href="#writing-an-llvm-pass-getanalysisusage"><em>getAnalysisUsage</em></a>
+method.  It takes a single template argument that specifies which pass class
+you want, and returns a reference to that pass.  For example:</p>
+<div class="highlight-c++"><div class="highlight"><pre><span class="kt">bool</span> <span class="n">LICM</span><span class="o">::</span><span class="n">runOnFunction</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="n">Function</span> <span class="o">&</span><span class="n">F</span><span class="p">)</span> <span class="p">{</span>
+  <span class="n">LoopInfo</span> <span class="o">&</span><span class="n">LI</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="n">getAnalysis</span><span class="o"><</span><span class="n">LoopInfo</span><span class="o">></span><span class="p">();</span>
+  <span class="c1">//...</span>
+<span class="p">}</span>
+</pre></div>
+</div>
+<p>This method call returns a reference to the pass desired.  You may get a
+runtime assertion failure if you attempt to get an analysis that you did not
+declare as required in your <a class="reference internal" href="#writing-an-llvm-pass-getanalysisusage"><em>getAnalysisUsage</em></a> implementation.  This method can be
+called by your <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">run*</span></tt> method implementation, or by any other local method
+invoked by your <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">run*</span></tt> method.</p>
+<p>A module level pass can use function level analysis info using this interface.
+For example:</p>
+<div class="highlight-c++"><div class="highlight"><pre><span class="kt">bool</span> <span class="n">ModuleLevelPass</span><span class="o">::</span><span class="n">runOnModule</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="n">Module</span> <span class="o">&</span><span class="n">M</span><span class="p">)</span> <span class="p">{</span>
+  <span class="c1">//...</span>
+  <span class="n">DominatorTree</span> <span class="o">&</span><span class="n">DT</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="n">getAnalysis</span><span class="o"><</span><span class="n">DominatorTree</span><span class="o">></span><span class="p">(</span><span class="n">Func</span><span class="p">);</span>
+  <span class="c1">//...</span>
+<span class="p">}</span>
+</pre></div>
+</div>
+<p>In above example, <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">runOnFunction</span></tt> for <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">DominatorTree</span></tt> is called by pass
+manager before returning a reference to the desired pass.</p>
+<p>If your pass is capable of updating analyses if they exist (e.g.,
+<tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">BreakCriticalEdges</span></tt>, as described above), you can use the
+<tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">getAnalysisIfAvailable</span></tt> method, which returns a pointer to the analysis if
+it is active.  For example:</p>
+<div class="highlight-c++"><div class="highlight"><pre><span class="k">if</span> <span class="p">(</span><span class="n">DominatorSet</span> <span class="o">*</span><span class="n">DS</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="n">getAnalysisIfAvailable</span><span class="o"><</span><span class="n">DominatorSet</span><span class="o">></span><span class="p">())</span> <span class="p">{</span>
+  <span class="c1">// A DominatorSet is active.  This code will update it.</span>
+<span class="p">}</span>
+</pre></div>
+</div>
+</div>
+</div>
+<div class="section" id="implementing-analysis-groups">
+<h3><a class="toc-backref" href="#id44">Implementing Analysis Groups</a><a class="headerlink" href="#implementing-analysis-groups" title="Permalink to this headline">¶</a></h3>
+<p>Now that we understand the basics of how passes are defined, how they are used,
+and how they are required from other passes, it’s time to get a little bit
+fancier.  All of the pass relationships that we have seen so far are very
+simple: one pass depends on one other specific pass to be run before it can
+run.  For many applications, this is great, for others, more flexibility is
+required.</p>
+<p>In particular, some analyses are defined such that there is a single simple
+interface to the analysis results, but multiple ways of calculating them.
+Consider alias analysis for example.  The most trivial alias analysis returns
+“may alias” for any alias query.  The most sophisticated analysis a
+flow-sensitive, context-sensitive interprocedural analysis that can take a
+significant amount of time to execute (and obviously, there is a lot of room
+between these two extremes for other implementations).  To cleanly support
+situations like this, the LLVM Pass Infrastructure supports the notion of
+Analysis Groups.</p>
+<div class="section" id="analysis-group-concepts">
+<h4><a class="toc-backref" href="#id45">Analysis Group Concepts</a><a class="headerlink" href="#analysis-group-concepts" title="Permalink to this headline">¶</a></h4>
+<p>An Analysis Group is a single simple interface that may be implemented by
+multiple different passes.  Analysis Groups can be given human readable names
+just like passes, but unlike passes, they need not derive from the <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">Pass</span></tt>
+class.  An analysis group may have one or more implementations, one of which is
+the “default” implementation.</p>
+<p>Analysis groups are used by client passes just like other passes are: the
+<tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">AnalysisUsage::addRequired()</span></tt> and <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">Pass::getAnalysis()</span></tt> methods.  In order
+to resolve this requirement, the <a class="reference internal" href="#writing-an-llvm-pass-passmanager"><em>PassManager</em></a> scans the available passes to see if any
+implementations of the analysis group are available.  If none is available, the
+default implementation is created for the pass to use.  All standard rules for
+<a class="reference internal" href="#writing-an-llvm-pass-interaction"><em>interaction between passes</em></a> still
+apply.</p>
+<p>Although <a class="reference internal" href="#writing-an-llvm-pass-registration"><em>Pass Registration</em></a> is
+optional for normal passes, all analysis group implementations must be
+registered, and must use the <a class="reference internal" href="#writing-an-llvm-pass-registeranalysisgroup"><em>INITIALIZE_AG_PASS</em></a> template to join the
+implementation pool.  Also, a default implementation of the interface <strong>must</strong>
+be registered with <a class="reference internal" href="#writing-an-llvm-pass-registeranalysisgroup"><em>RegisterAnalysisGroup</em></a>.</p>
+<p>As a concrete example of an Analysis Group in action, consider the
+<a class="reference external" href="http://llvm.org/doxygen/classllvm_1_1AliasAnalysis.html">AliasAnalysis</a>
+analysis group.  The default implementation of the alias analysis interface
+(the <a class="reference external" href="http://llvm.org/doxygen/structBasicAliasAnalysis.html">basicaa</a> pass)
+just does a few simple checks that don’t require significant analysis to
+compute (such as: two different globals can never alias each other, etc).
+Passes that use the <a class="reference external" href="http://llvm.org/doxygen/classllvm_1_1AliasAnalysis.html">AliasAnalysis</a> interface (for
+example the <a class="reference external" href="http://llvm.org/doxygen/structGCSE.html">gcse</a> pass), do not
+care which implementation of alias analysis is actually provided, they just use
+the designated interface.</p>
+<p>From the user’s perspective, commands work just like normal.  Issuing the
+command <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">opt</span> <span class="pre">-gcse</span> <span class="pre">...</span></tt> will cause the <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">basicaa</span></tt> class to be instantiated
+and added to the pass sequence.  Issuing the command <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">opt</span> <span class="pre">-somefancyaa</span> <span class="pre">-gcse</span>
+<span class="pre">...</span></tt> will cause the <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">gcse</span></tt> pass to use the <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">somefancyaa</span></tt> alias analysis
+(which doesn’t actually exist, it’s just a hypothetical example) instead.</p>
+</div>
+<div class="section" id="using-registeranalysisgroup">
+<span id="writing-an-llvm-pass-registeranalysisgroup"></span><h4><a class="toc-backref" href="#id46">Using <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">RegisterAnalysisGroup</span></tt></a><a class="headerlink" href="#using-registeranalysisgroup" title="Permalink to this headline">¶</a></h4>
+<p>The <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">RegisterAnalysisGroup</span></tt> template is used to register the analysis group
+itself, while the <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">INITIALIZE_AG_PASS</span></tt> is used to add pass implementations to
+the analysis group.  First, an analysis group should be registered, with a
+human readable name provided for it.  Unlike registration of passes, there is
+no command line argument to be specified for the Analysis Group Interface
+itself, because it is “abstract”:</p>
+<div class="highlight-c++"><div class="highlight"><pre><span class="k">static</span> <span class="n">RegisterAnalysisGroup</span><span class="o"><</span><span class="n">AliasAnalysis</span><span class="o">></span> <span class="n">A</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="s">"Alias Analysis"</span><span class="p">);</span>
+</pre></div>
+</div>
+<p>Once the analysis is registered, passes can declare that they are valid
+implementations of the interface by using the following code:</p>
+<div class="highlight-c++"><div class="highlight"><pre><span class="k">namespace</span> <span class="p">{</span>
+  <span class="c1">// Declare that we implement the AliasAnalysis interface</span>
+  <span class="n">INITIALIZE_AG_PASS</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="n">FancyAA</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="n">AliasAnalysis</span> <span class="p">,</span> <span class="s">"somefancyaa"</span><span class="p">,</span>
+      <span class="s">"A more complex alias analysis implementation"</span><span class="p">,</span>
+      <span class="nb">false</span><span class="p">,</span>  <span class="c1">// Is CFG Only?</span>
+      <span class="nb">true</span><span class="p">,</span>   <span class="c1">// Is Analysis?</span>
+      <span class="nb">false</span><span class="p">);</span> <span class="c1">// Is default Analysis Group implementation?</span>
+<span class="p">}</span>
+</pre></div>
+</div>
+<p>This just shows a class <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">FancyAA</span></tt> that uses the <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">INITIALIZE_AG_PASS</span></tt> macro
+both to register and to “join” the <a class="reference external" href="http://llvm.org/doxygen/classllvm_1_1AliasAnalysis.html">AliasAnalysis</a> analysis group.
+Every implementation of an analysis group should join using this macro.</p>
+<div class="highlight-c++"><div class="highlight"><pre><span class="k">namespace</span> <span class="p">{</span>
+  <span class="c1">// Declare that we implement the AliasAnalysis interface</span>
+  <span class="n">INITIALIZE_AG_PASS</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="n">BasicAA</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="n">AliasAnalysis</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="s">"basicaa"</span><span class="p">,</span>
+      <span class="s">"Basic Alias Analysis (default AA impl)"</span><span class="p">,</span>
+      <span class="nb">false</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="c1">// Is CFG Only?</span>
+      <span class="nb">true</span><span class="p">,</span>  <span class="c1">// Is Analysis?</span>
+      <span class="nb">true</span><span class="p">);</span> <span class="c1">// Is default Analysis Group implementation?</span>
+<span class="p">}</span>
+</pre></div>
+</div>
+<p>Here we show how the default implementation is specified (using the final
+argument to the <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">INITIALIZE_AG_PASS</span></tt> template).  There must be exactly one
+default implementation available at all times for an Analysis Group to be used.
+Only default implementation can derive from <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">ImmutablePass</span></tt>.  Here we declare
+that the <a class="reference external" href="http://llvm.org/doxygen/structBasicAliasAnalysis.html">BasicAliasAnalysis</a> pass is the default
+implementation for the interface.</p>
+</div>
+</div>
+</div>
+<div class="section" id="pass-statistics">
+<h2><a class="toc-backref" href="#id47">Pass Statistics</a><a class="headerlink" href="#pass-statistics" title="Permalink to this headline">¶</a></h2>
+<p>The <a class="reference external" href="http://llvm.org/doxygen/Statistic_8h-source.html">Statistic</a> class is
+designed to be an easy way to expose various success metrics from passes.
+These statistics are printed at the end of a run, when the <a class="reference internal" href="CommandGuide/opt.html#cmdoption-stats"><em class="xref std std-option">-stats</em></a>
+command line option is enabled on the command line.  See the <a class="reference internal" href="ProgrammersManual.html#statistic"><em>Statistics
+section</em></a> in the Programmer’s Manual for details.</p>
+<div class="section" id="what-passmanager-does">
+<span id="writing-an-llvm-pass-passmanager"></span><h3><a class="toc-backref" href="#id48">What PassManager does</a><a class="headerlink" href="#what-passmanager-does" title="Permalink to this headline">¶</a></h3>
+<p>The <a class="reference external" href="http://llvm.org/doxygen/PassManager_8h-source.html">PassManager</a> <a class="reference external" href="http://llvm.org/doxygen/classllvm_1_1PassManager.html">class</a> takes a list of
+passes, ensures their <a class="reference internal" href="#writing-an-llvm-pass-interaction"><em>prerequisites</em></a>
+are set up correctly, and then schedules passes to run efficiently.  All of the
+LLVM tools that run passes use the PassManager for execution of these passes.</p>
+<p>The PassManager does two main things to try to reduce the execution time of a
+series of passes:</p>
+<ol class="arabic">
+<li><p class="first"><strong>Share analysis results.</strong>  The <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">PassManager</span></tt> attempts to avoid
+recomputing analysis results as much as possible.  This means keeping track
+of which analyses are available already, which analyses get invalidated, and
+which analyses are needed to be run for a pass.  An important part of work
+is that the <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">PassManager</span></tt> tracks the exact lifetime of all analysis
+results, allowing it to <a class="reference internal" href="#writing-an-llvm-pass-releasememory"><em>free memory</em></a> allocated to holding analysis results
+as soon as they are no longer needed.</p>
+</li>
+<li><p class="first"><strong>Pipeline the execution of passes on the program.</strong>  The <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">PassManager</span></tt>
+attempts to get better cache and memory usage behavior out of a series of
+passes by pipelining the passes together.  This means that, given a series
+of consecutive <a class="reference internal" href="#writing-an-llvm-pass-functionpass"><em>FunctionPass</em></a>, it
+will execute all of the <a class="reference internal" href="#writing-an-llvm-pass-functionpass"><em>FunctionPass</em></a> on the first function, then all of the
+<a class="reference internal" href="#writing-an-llvm-pass-functionpass"><em>FunctionPasses</em></a> on the second
+function, etc... until the entire program has been run through the passes.</p>
+<p>This improves the cache behavior of the compiler, because it is only
+touching the LLVM program representation for a single function at a time,
+instead of traversing the entire program.  It reduces the memory consumption
+of compiler, because, for example, only one <a class="reference external" href="http://llvm.org/doxygen/classllvm_1_1DominatorSet.html">DominatorSet</a> needs to be
+calculated at a time.  This also makes it possible to implement some
+<a class="reference internal" href="#writing-an-llvm-pass-smp"><em>interesting enhancements</em></a> in the future.</p>
+</li>
+</ol>
+<p>The effectiveness of the <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">PassManager</span></tt> is influenced directly by how much
+information it has about the behaviors of the passes it is scheduling.  For
+example, the “preserved” set is intentionally conservative in the face of an
+unimplemented <a class="reference internal" href="#writing-an-llvm-pass-getanalysisusage"><em>getAnalysisUsage</em></a>
+method.  Not implementing when it should be implemented will have the effect of
+not allowing any analysis results to live across the execution of your pass.</p>
+<p>The <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">PassManager</span></tt> class exposes a <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">--debug-pass</span></tt> command line options that
+is useful for debugging pass execution, seeing how things work, and diagnosing
+when you should be preserving more analyses than you currently are.  (To get
+information about all of the variants of the <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">--debug-pass</span></tt> option, just type
+“<tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">opt</span> <span class="pre">-help-hidden</span></tt>”).</p>
+<p>By using the –debug-pass=Structure option, for example, we can see how our
+<a class="reference internal" href="#writing-an-llvm-pass-basiccode"><em>Hello World</em></a> pass interacts with other
+passes.  Lets try it out with the gcse and licm passes:</p>
+<div class="highlight-console"><div class="highlight"><pre><span class="gp">$</span> opt -load ../../../Debug+Asserts/lib/Hello.so -gcse -licm --debug-pass<span class="o">=</span>Structure < hello.bc > /dev/null
+<span class="go">Module Pass Manager</span>
+<span class="go">  Function Pass Manager</span>
+<span class="go">    Dominator Set Construction</span>
+<span class="go">    Immediate Dominators Construction</span>
+<span class="go">    Global Common Subexpression Elimination</span>
+<span class="go">--  Immediate Dominators Construction</span>
+<span class="go">--  Global Common Subexpression Elimination</span>
+<span class="go">    Natural Loop Construction</span>
+<span class="go">    Loop Invariant Code Motion</span>
+<span class="go">--  Natural Loop Construction</span>
+<span class="go">--  Loop Invariant Code Motion</span>
+<span class="go">    Module Verifier</span>
+<span class="go">--  Dominator Set Construction</span>
+<span class="go">--  Module Verifier</span>
+<span class="go">  Bitcode Writer</span>
+<span class="go">--Bitcode Writer</span>
+</pre></div>
+</div>
+<p>This output shows us when passes are constructed and when the analysis results
+are known to be dead (prefixed with “<tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">--</span></tt>”).  Here we see that GCSE uses
+dominator and immediate dominator information to do its job.  The LICM pass
+uses natural loop information, which uses dominator sets, but not immediate
+dominators.  Because immediate dominators are no longer useful after the GCSE
+pass, it is immediately destroyed.  The dominator sets are then reused to
+compute natural loop information, which is then used by the LICM pass.</p>
+<p>After the LICM pass, the module verifier runs (which is automatically added by
+the <strong class="program">opt</strong> tool), which uses the dominator set to check that the
+resultant LLVM code is well formed.  After it finishes, the dominator set
+information is destroyed, after being computed once, and shared by three
+passes.</p>
+<p>Lets see how this changes when we run the <a class="reference internal" href="#writing-an-llvm-pass-basiccode"><em>Hello World</em></a> pass in between the two passes:</p>
+<div class="highlight-console"><div class="highlight"><pre><span class="gp">$</span> opt -load ../../../Debug+Asserts/lib/Hello.so -gcse -hello -licm --debug-pass<span class="o">=</span>Structure < hello.bc > /dev/null
+<span class="go">Module Pass Manager</span>
+<span class="go">  Function Pass Manager</span>
+<span class="go">    Dominator Set Construction</span>
+<span class="go">    Immediate Dominators Construction</span>
+<span class="go">    Global Common Subexpression Elimination</span>
+<span class="go">--  Dominator Set Construction</span>
+<span class="go">--  Immediate Dominators Construction</span>
+<span class="go">--  Global Common Subexpression Elimination</span>
+<span class="go">    Hello World Pass</span>
+<span class="go">--  Hello World Pass</span>
+<span class="go">    Dominator Set Construction</span>
+<span class="go">    Natural Loop Construction</span>
+<span class="go">    Loop Invariant Code Motion</span>
+<span class="go">--  Natural Loop Construction</span>
+<span class="go">--  Loop Invariant Code Motion</span>
+<span class="go">    Module Verifier</span>
+<span class="go">--  Dominator Set Construction</span>
+<span class="go">--  Module Verifier</span>
+<span class="go">  Bitcode Writer</span>
+<span class="go">--Bitcode Writer</span>
+<span class="go">Hello: __main</span>
+<span class="go">Hello: puts</span>
+<span class="go">Hello: main</span>
+</pre></div>
+</div>
+<p>Here we see that the <a class="reference internal" href="#writing-an-llvm-pass-basiccode"><em>Hello World</em></a> pass
+has killed the Dominator Set pass, even though it doesn’t modify the code at
+all!  To fix this, we need to add the following <a class="reference internal" href="#writing-an-llvm-pass-getanalysisusage"><em>getAnalysisUsage</em></a> method to our pass:</p>
+<div class="highlight-c++"><div class="highlight"><pre><span class="c1">// We don't modify the program, so we preserve all analyses</span>
+<span class="k">virtual</span> <span class="kt">void</span> <span class="nf">getAnalysisUsage</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="n">AnalysisUsage</span> <span class="o">&</span><span class="n">AU</span><span class="p">)</span> <span class="k">const</span> <span class="p">{</span>
+  <span class="n">AU</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="n">setPreservesAll</span><span class="p">();</span>
+<span class="p">}</span>
+</pre></div>
+</div>
+<p>Now when we run our pass, we get this output:</p>
+<div class="highlight-console"><div class="highlight"><pre><span class="gp">$</span> opt -load ../../../Debug+Asserts/lib/Hello.so -gcse -hello -licm --debug-pass<span class="o">=</span>Structure < hello.bc > /dev/null
+<span class="go">Pass Arguments:  -gcse -hello -licm</span>
+<span class="go">Module Pass Manager</span>
+<span class="go">  Function Pass Manager</span>
+<span class="go">    Dominator Set Construction</span>
+<span class="go">    Immediate Dominators Construction</span>
+<span class="go">    Global Common Subexpression Elimination</span>
+<span class="go">--  Immediate Dominators Construction</span>
+<span class="go">--  Global Common Subexpression Elimination</span>
+<span class="go">    Hello World Pass</span>
+<span class="go">--  Hello World Pass</span>
+<span class="go">    Natural Loop Construction</span>
+<span class="go">    Loop Invariant Code Motion</span>
+<span class="go">--  Loop Invariant Code Motion</span>
+<span class="go">--  Natural Loop Construction</span>
+<span class="go">    Module Verifier</span>
+<span class="go">--  Dominator Set Construction</span>
+<span class="go">--  Module Verifier</span>
+<span class="go">  Bitcode Writer</span>
+<span class="go">--Bitcode Writer</span>
+<span class="go">Hello: __main</span>
+<span class="go">Hello: puts</span>
+<span class="go">Hello: main</span>
+</pre></div>
+</div>
+<p>Which shows that we don’t accidentally invalidate dominator information
+anymore, and therefore do not have to compute it twice.</p>
+<div class="section" id="the-releasememory-method">
+<span id="writing-an-llvm-pass-releasememory"></span><h4><a class="toc-backref" href="#id49">The <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">releaseMemory</span></tt> method</a><a class="headerlink" href="#the-releasememory-method" title="Permalink to this headline">¶</a></h4>
+<div class="highlight-c++"><div class="highlight"><pre><span class="k">virtual</span> <span class="kt">void</span> <span class="nf">releaseMemory</span><span class="p">();</span>
+</pre></div>
+</div>
+<p>The <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">PassManager</span></tt> automatically determines when to compute analysis results,
+and how long to keep them around for.  Because the lifetime of the pass object
+itself is effectively the entire duration of the compilation process, we need
+some way to free analysis results when they are no longer useful.  The
+<tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">releaseMemory</span></tt> virtual method is the way to do this.</p>
+<p>If you are writing an analysis or any other pass that retains a significant
+amount of state (for use by another pass which “requires” your pass and uses
+the <a class="reference internal" href="#writing-an-llvm-pass-getanalysis"><em>getAnalysis</em></a> method) you should
+implement <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">releaseMemory</span></tt> to, well, release the memory allocated to maintain
+this internal state.  This method is called after the <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">run*</span></tt> method for the
+class, before the next call of <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">run*</span></tt> in your pass.</p>
+</div>
+</div>
+</div>
+<div class="section" id="registering-dynamically-loaded-passes">
+<h2><a class="toc-backref" href="#id50">Registering dynamically loaded passes</a><a class="headerlink" href="#registering-dynamically-loaded-passes" title="Permalink to this headline">¶</a></h2>
+<p><em>Size matters</em> when constructing production quality tools using LLVM, both for
+the purposes of distribution, and for regulating the resident code size when
+running on the target system.  Therefore, it becomes desirable to selectively
+use some passes, while omitting others and maintain the flexibility to change
+configurations later on.  You want to be able to do all this, and, provide
+feedback to the user.  This is where pass registration comes into play.</p>
+<p>The fundamental mechanisms for pass registration are the
+<tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">MachinePassRegistry</span></tt> class and subclasses of <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">MachinePassRegistryNode</span></tt>.</p>
+<p>An instance of <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">MachinePassRegistry</span></tt> is used to maintain a list of
+<tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">MachinePassRegistryNode</span></tt> objects.  This instance maintains the list and
+communicates additions and deletions to the command line interface.</p>
+<p>An instance of <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">MachinePassRegistryNode</span></tt> subclass is used to maintain
+information provided about a particular pass.  This information includes the
+command line name, the command help string and the address of the function used
+to create an instance of the pass.  A global static constructor of one of these
+instances <em>registers</em> with a corresponding <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">MachinePassRegistry</span></tt>, the static
+destructor <em>unregisters</em>.  Thus a pass that is statically linked in the tool
+will be registered at start up.  A dynamically loaded pass will register on
+load and unregister at unload.</p>
+<div class="section" id="using-existing-registries">
+<h3><a class="toc-backref" href="#id51">Using existing registries</a><a class="headerlink" href="#using-existing-registries" title="Permalink to this headline">¶</a></h3>
+<p>There are predefined registries to track instruction scheduling
+(<tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">RegisterScheduler</span></tt>) and register allocation (<tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">RegisterRegAlloc</span></tt>) machine
+passes.  Here we will describe how to <em>register</em> a register allocator machine
+pass.</p>
+<p>Implement your register allocator machine pass.  In your register allocator
+<tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">.cpp</span></tt> file add the following include:</p>
+<div class="highlight-c++"><div class="highlight"><pre><span class="cp">#include "llvm/CodeGen/RegAllocRegistry.h"</span>
+</pre></div>
+</div>
+<p>Also in your register allocator <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">.cpp</span></tt> file, define a creator function in the
+form:</p>
+<div class="highlight-c++"><div class="highlight"><pre><span class="n">FunctionPass</span> <span class="o">*</span><span class="nf">createMyRegisterAllocator</span><span class="p">()</span> <span class="p">{</span>
+  <span class="k">return</span> <span class="k">new</span> <span class="n">MyRegisterAllocator</span><span class="p">();</span>
+<span class="p">}</span>
+</pre></div>
+</div>
+<p>Note that the signature of this function should match the type of
+<tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">RegisterRegAlloc::FunctionPassCtor</span></tt>.  In the same file add the “installing”
+declaration, in the form:</p>
+<div class="highlight-c++"><div class="highlight"><pre><span class="k">static</span> <span class="n">RegisterRegAlloc</span> <span class="nf">myRegAlloc</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="s">"myregalloc"</span><span class="p">,</span>
+                                   <span class="s">"my register allocator help string"</span><span class="p">,</span>
+                                   <span class="n">createMyRegisterAllocator</span><span class="p">);</span>
+</pre></div>
+</div>
+<p>Note the two spaces prior to the help string produces a tidy result on the
+<a class="reference internal" href="CommandGuide/opt.html#cmdoption-help"><em class="xref std std-option">-help</em></a> query.</p>
+<div class="highlight-console"><div class="highlight"><pre><span class="gp">$</span> llc -help
+<span class="go">  ...</span>
+<span class="go">  -regalloc                    - Register allocator to use (default=linearscan)</span>
+<span class="go">    =linearscan                -   linear scan register allocator</span>
+<span class="go">    =local                     -   local register allocator</span>
+<span class="go">    =simple                    -   simple register allocator</span>
+<span class="go">    =myregalloc                -   my register allocator help string</span>
+<span class="go">  ...</span>
+</pre></div>
+</div>
+<p>And that’s it.  The user is now free to use <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">-regalloc=myregalloc</span></tt> as an
+option.  Registering instruction schedulers is similar except use the
+<tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">RegisterScheduler</span></tt> class.  Note that the
+<tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">RegisterScheduler::FunctionPassCtor</span></tt> is significantly different from
+<tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">RegisterRegAlloc::FunctionPassCtor</span></tt>.</p>
+<p>To force the load/linking of your register allocator into the
+<strong class="program">llc</strong>/<strong class="program">lli</strong> tools, add your creator function’s global
+declaration to <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">Passes.h</span></tt> and add a “pseudo” call line to
+<tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">llvm/Codegen/LinkAllCodegenComponents.h</span></tt>.</p>
+</div>
+<div class="section" id="creating-new-registries">
+<h3><a class="toc-backref" href="#id52">Creating new registries</a><a class="headerlink" href="#creating-new-registries" title="Permalink to this headline">¶</a></h3>
+<p>The easiest way to get started is to clone one of the existing registries; we
+recommend <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">llvm/CodeGen/RegAllocRegistry.h</span></tt>.  The key things to modify are
+the class name and the <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">FunctionPassCtor</span></tt> type.</p>
+<p>Then you need to declare the registry.  Example: if your pass registry is
+<tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">RegisterMyPasses</span></tt> then define:</p>
+<div class="highlight-c++"><div class="highlight"><pre><span class="n">MachinePassRegistry</span> <span class="n">RegisterMyPasses</span><span class="o">::</span><span class="n">Registry</span><span class="p">;</span>
+</pre></div>
+</div>
+<p>And finally, declare the command line option for your passes.  Example:</p>
+<div class="highlight-c++"><div class="highlight"><pre><span class="n">cl</span><span class="o">::</span><span class="n">opt</span><span class="o"><</span><span class="n">RegisterMyPasses</span><span class="o">::</span><span class="n">FunctionPassCtor</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="nb">false</span><span class="p">,</span>
+        <span class="n">RegisterPassParser</span><span class="o"><</span><span class="n">RegisterMyPasses</span><span class="o">></span> <span class="o">></span>
+<span class="n">MyPassOpt</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="s">"mypass"</span><span class="p">,</span>
+          <span class="n">cl</span><span class="o">::</span><span class="n">init</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="o">&</span><span class="n">createDefaultMyPass</span><span class="p">),</span>
+          <span class="n">cl</span><span class="o">::</span><span class="n">desc</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="s">"my pass option help"</span><span class="p">));</span>
+</pre></div>
+</div>
+<p>Here the command option is “<tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">mypass</span></tt>”, with <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">createDefaultMyPass</span></tt> as the
+default creator.</p>
+</div>
+<div class="section" id="using-gdb-with-dynamically-loaded-passes">
+<h3><a class="toc-backref" href="#id53">Using GDB with dynamically loaded passes</a><a class="headerlink" href="#using-gdb-with-dynamically-loaded-passes" title="Permalink to this headline">¶</a></h3>
+<p>Unfortunately, using GDB with dynamically loaded passes is not as easy as it
+should be.  First of all, you can’t set a breakpoint in a shared object that
+has not been loaded yet, and second of all there are problems with inlined
+functions in shared objects.  Here are some suggestions to debugging your pass
+with GDB.</p>
+<p>For sake of discussion, I’m going to assume that you are debugging a
+transformation invoked by <strong class="program">opt</strong>, although nothing described here
+depends on that.</p>
+<div class="section" id="setting-a-breakpoint-in-your-pass">
+<h4><a class="toc-backref" href="#id54">Setting a breakpoint in your pass</a><a class="headerlink" href="#setting-a-breakpoint-in-your-pass" title="Permalink to this headline">¶</a></h4>
+<p>First thing you do is start gdb on the opt process:</p>
+<div class="highlight-console"><div class="highlight"><pre><span class="gp">$</span> gdb opt
+<span class="go">GNU gdb 5.0</span>
+<span class="go">Copyright 2000 Free Software Foundation, Inc.</span>
+<span class="go">GDB is free software, covered by the GNU General Public License, and you are</span>
+<span class="go">welcome to change it and/or distribute copies of it under certain conditions.</span>
+<span class="go">Type "show copying" to see the conditions.</span>
+<span class="go">There is absolutely no warranty for GDB.  Type "show warranty" for details.</span>
+<span class="go">This GDB was configured as "sparc-sun-solaris2.6"...</span>
+<span class="go">(gdb)</span>
+</pre></div>
+</div>
+<p>Note that <strong class="program">opt</strong> has a lot of debugging information in it, so it takes
+time to load.  Be patient.  Since we cannot set a breakpoint in our pass yet
+(the shared object isn’t loaded until runtime), we must execute the process,
+and have it stop before it invokes our pass, but after it has loaded the shared
+object.  The most foolproof way of doing this is to set a breakpoint in
+<tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">PassManager::run</span></tt> and then run the process with the arguments you want:</p>
+<div class="highlight-console"><div class="highlight"><pre><span class="gp">$</span> <span class="o">(</span>gdb<span class="o">)</span> <span class="nb">break </span>llvm::PassManager::run
+<span class="go">Breakpoint 1 at 0x2413bc: file Pass.cpp, line 70.</span>
+<span class="go">(gdb) run test.bc -load $(LLVMTOP)/llvm/Debug+Asserts/lib/[libname].so -[passoption]</span>
+<span class="go">Starting program: opt test.bc -load $(LLVMTOP)/llvm/Debug+Asserts/lib/[libname].so -[passoption]</span>
+<span class="go">Breakpoint 1, PassManager::run (this=0xffbef174, M=@0x70b298) at Pass.cpp:70</span>
+<span class="go">70      bool PassManager::run(Module &M) { return PM->run(M); }</span>
+<span class="go">(gdb)</span>
+</pre></div>
+</div>
+<p>Once the <strong class="program">opt</strong> stops in the <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">PassManager::run</span></tt> method you are now
+free to set breakpoints in your pass so that you can trace through execution or
+do other standard debugging stuff.</p>
+</div>
+<div class="section" id="miscellaneous-problems">
+<h4><a class="toc-backref" href="#id55">Miscellaneous Problems</a><a class="headerlink" href="#miscellaneous-problems" title="Permalink to this headline">¶</a></h4>
+<p>Once you have the basics down, there are a couple of problems that GDB has,
+some with solutions, some without.</p>
+<ul class="simple">
+<li>Inline functions have bogus stack information.  In general, GDB does a pretty
+good job getting stack traces and stepping through inline functions.  When a
+pass is dynamically loaded however, it somehow completely loses this
+capability.  The only solution I know of is to de-inline a function (move it
+from the body of a class to a <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">.cpp</span></tt> file).</li>
+<li>Restarting the program breaks breakpoints.  After following the information
+above, you have succeeded in getting some breakpoints planted in your pass.
+Nex thing you know, you restart the program (i.e., you type “<tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">run</span></tt>” again),
+and you start getting errors about breakpoints being unsettable.  The only
+way I have found to “fix” this problem is to delete the breakpoints that are
+already set in your pass, run the program, and re-set the breakpoints once
+execution stops in <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">PassManager::run</span></tt>.</li>
+</ul>
+<p>Hopefully these tips will help with common case debugging situations.  If you’d
+like to contribute some tips of your own, just contact <a class="reference external" href="mailto:sabre%40nondot.org">Chris</a>.</p>
+</div>
+</div>
+<div class="section" id="future-extensions-planned">
+<h3><a class="toc-backref" href="#id56">Future extensions planned</a><a class="headerlink" href="#future-extensions-planned" title="Permalink to this headline">¶</a></h3>
+<p>Although the LLVM Pass Infrastructure is very capable as it stands, and does
+some nifty stuff, there are things we’d like to add in the future.  Here is
+where we are going:</p>
+<div class="section" id="multithreaded-llvm">
+<span id="writing-an-llvm-pass-smp"></span><h4><a class="toc-backref" href="#id57">Multithreaded LLVM</a><a class="headerlink" href="#multithreaded-llvm" title="Permalink to this headline">¶</a></h4>
+<p>Multiple CPU machines are becoming more common and compilation can never be
+fast enough: obviously we should allow for a multithreaded compiler.  Because
+of the semantics defined for passes above (specifically they cannot maintain
+state across invocations of their <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">run*</span></tt> methods), a nice clean way to
+implement a multithreaded compiler would be for the <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">PassManager</span></tt> class to
+create multiple instances of each pass object, and allow the separate instances
+to be hacking on different parts of the program at the same time.</p>
+<p>This implementation would prevent each of the passes from having to implement
+multithreaded constructs, requiring only the LLVM core to have locking in a few
+places (for global resources).  Although this is a simple extension, we simply
+haven’t had time (or multiprocessor machines, thus a reason) to implement this.
+Despite that, we have kept the LLVM passes SMP ready, and you should too.</p>
+</div>
+</div>
+</div>
+</div>
+
+
+          </div>
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+            
+  <div class="section" id="yaml-i-o">
+<h1>YAML I/O<a class="headerlink" href="#yaml-i-o" title="Permalink to this headline">¶</a></h1>
+<div class="contents local topic" id="contents">
+<ul class="simple">
+<li><a class="reference internal" href="#introduction-to-yaml" id="id1">Introduction to YAML</a></li>
+<li><a class="reference internal" href="#introduction-to-yaml-i-o" id="id2">Introduction to YAML I/O</a></li>
+<li><a class="reference internal" href="#error-handling" id="id3">Error Handling</a></li>
+<li><a class="reference internal" href="#scalars" id="id4">Scalars</a><ul>
+<li><a class="reference internal" href="#built-in-types" id="id5">Built-in types</a></li>
+<li><a class="reference internal" href="#unique-types" id="id6">Unique types</a></li>
+<li><a class="reference internal" href="#hex-types" id="id7">Hex types</a></li>
+<li><a class="reference internal" href="#scalarenumerationtraits" id="id8">ScalarEnumerationTraits</a></li>
+<li><a class="reference internal" href="#bitvalue" id="id9">BitValue</a></li>
+<li><a class="reference internal" href="#custom-scalar" id="id10">Custom Scalar</a></li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li><a class="reference internal" href="#mappings" id="id11">Mappings</a><ul>
+<li><a class="reference internal" href="#no-normalization" id="id12">No Normalization</a></li>
+<li><a class="reference internal" href="#normalization" id="id13">Normalization</a></li>
+<li><a class="reference internal" href="#default-values" id="id14">Default values</a></li>
+<li><a class="reference internal" href="#order-of-keys" id="id15">Order of Keys</a></li>
+<li><a class="reference internal" href="#tags" id="id16">Tags</a></li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li><a class="reference internal" href="#sequence" id="id17">Sequence</a><ul>
+<li><a class="reference internal" href="#flow-sequence" id="id18">Flow Sequence</a></li>
+<li><a class="reference internal" href="#utility-macros" id="id19">Utility Macros</a></li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li><a class="reference internal" href="#document-list" id="id20">Document List</a></li>
+<li><a class="reference internal" href="#user-context-data" id="id21">User Context Data</a></li>
+<li><a class="reference internal" href="#output" id="id22">Output</a></li>
+<li><a class="reference internal" href="#input" id="id23">Input</a></li>
+</ul>
+</div>
+<div class="section" id="introduction-to-yaml">
+<h2><a class="toc-backref" href="#id1">Introduction to YAML</a><a class="headerlink" href="#introduction-to-yaml" title="Permalink to this headline">¶</a></h2>
+<p>YAML is a human readable data serialization language.  The full YAML language
+spec can be read at <a class="reference external" href="http://www.yaml.org/spec/1.2/spec.html#Introduction">yaml.org</a>.  The simplest form of
+yaml is just “scalars”, “mappings”, and “sequences”.  A scalar is any number
+or string.  The pound/hash symbol (#) begins a comment line.   A mapping is
+a set of key-value pairs where the key ends with a colon.  For example:</p>
+<div class="highlight-yaml"><div class="highlight"><pre><span class="c1"># a mapping</span>
+<span class="l-Scalar-Plain">name</span><span class="p-Indicator">:</span>      <span class="l-Scalar-Plain">Tom</span>
+<span class="l-Scalar-Plain">hat-size</span><span class="p-Indicator">:</span>  <span class="l-Scalar-Plain">7</span>
+</pre></div>
+</div>
+<p>A sequence is a list of items where each item starts with a leading dash (‘-‘).
+For example:</p>
+<div class="highlight-yaml"><div class="highlight"><pre><span class="c1"># a sequence</span>
+<span class="p-Indicator">-</span> <span class="l-Scalar-Plain">x86</span>
+<span class="p-Indicator">-</span> <span class="l-Scalar-Plain">x86_64</span>
+<span class="p-Indicator">-</span> <span class="l-Scalar-Plain">PowerPC</span>
+</pre></div>
+</div>
+<p>You can combine mappings and sequences by indenting.  For example a sequence
+of mappings in which one of the mapping values is itself a sequence:</p>
+<div class="highlight-yaml"><div class="highlight"><pre><span class="c1"># a sequence of mappings with one key's value being a sequence</span>
+<span class="p-Indicator">-</span> <span class="l-Scalar-Plain">name</span><span class="p-Indicator">:</span>      <span class="l-Scalar-Plain">Tom</span>
+  <span class="l-Scalar-Plain">cpus</span><span class="p-Indicator">:</span>
+   <span class="p-Indicator">-</span> <span class="l-Scalar-Plain">x86</span>
+   <span class="p-Indicator">-</span> <span class="l-Scalar-Plain">x86_64</span>
+<span class="p-Indicator">-</span> <span class="l-Scalar-Plain">name</span><span class="p-Indicator">:</span>      <span class="l-Scalar-Plain">Bob</span>
+  <span class="l-Scalar-Plain">cpus</span><span class="p-Indicator">:</span>
+   <span class="p-Indicator">-</span> <span class="l-Scalar-Plain">x86</span>
+<span class="p-Indicator">-</span> <span class="l-Scalar-Plain">name</span><span class="p-Indicator">:</span>      <span class="l-Scalar-Plain">Dan</span>
+  <span class="l-Scalar-Plain">cpus</span><span class="p-Indicator">:</span>
+   <span class="p-Indicator">-</span> <span class="l-Scalar-Plain">PowerPC</span>
+   <span class="p-Indicator">-</span> <span class="l-Scalar-Plain">x86</span>
+</pre></div>
+</div>
+<p>Sometime sequences are known to be short and the one entry per line is too
+verbose, so YAML offers an alternate syntax for sequences called a “Flow
+Sequence” in which you put comma separated sequence elements into square
+brackets.  The above example could then be simplified to :</p>
+<div class="highlight-yaml"><div class="highlight"><pre><span class="c1"># a sequence of mappings with one key's value being a flow sequence</span>
+<span class="p-Indicator">-</span> <span class="l-Scalar-Plain">name</span><span class="p-Indicator">:</span>      <span class="l-Scalar-Plain">Tom</span>
+  <span class="l-Scalar-Plain">cpus</span><span class="p-Indicator">:</span>      <span class="p-Indicator">[</span> <span class="nv">x86</span><span class="p-Indicator">,</span> <span class="nv">x86_64</span> <span class="p-Indicator">]</span>
+<span class="p-Indicator">-</span> <span class="l-Scalar-Plain">name</span><span class="p-Indicator">:</span>      <span class="l-Scalar-Plain">Bob</span>
+  <span class="l-Scalar-Plain">cpus</span><span class="p-Indicator">:</span>      <span class="p-Indicator">[</span> <span class="nv">x86</span> <span class="p-Indicator">]</span>
+<span class="p-Indicator">-</span> <span class="l-Scalar-Plain">name</span><span class="p-Indicator">:</span>      <span class="l-Scalar-Plain">Dan</span>
+  <span class="l-Scalar-Plain">cpus</span><span class="p-Indicator">:</span>      <span class="p-Indicator">[</span> <span class="nv">PowerPC</span><span class="p-Indicator">,</span> <span class="nv">x86</span> <span class="p-Indicator">]</span>
+</pre></div>
+</div>
+</div>
+<div class="section" id="introduction-to-yaml-i-o">
+<h2><a class="toc-backref" href="#id2">Introduction to YAML I/O</a><a class="headerlink" href="#introduction-to-yaml-i-o" title="Permalink to this headline">¶</a></h2>
+<p>The use of indenting makes the YAML easy for a human to read and understand,
+but having a program read and write YAML involves a lot of tedious details.
+The YAML I/O library structures and simplifies reading and writing YAML
+documents.</p>
+<p>YAML I/O assumes you have some “native” data structures which you want to be
+able to dump as YAML and recreate from YAML.  The first step is to try
+writing example YAML for your data structures. You may find after looking at
+possible YAML representations that a direct mapping of your data structures
+to YAML is not very readable.  Often the fields are not in the order that
+a human would find readable.  Or the same information is replicated in multiple
+locations, making it hard for a human to write such YAML correctly.</p>
+<p>In relational database theory there is a design step called normalization in
+which you reorganize fields and tables.  The same considerations need to
+go into the design of your YAML encoding.  But, you may not want to change
+your existing native data structures.  Therefore, when writing out YAML
+there may be a normalization step, and when reading YAML there would be a
+corresponding denormalization step.</p>
+<p>YAML I/O uses a non-invasive, traits based design.  YAML I/O defines some
+abstract base templates.  You specialize those templates on your data types.
+For instance, if you have an enumerated type FooBar you could specialize
+ScalarEnumerationTraits on that type and define the enumeration() method:</p>
+<div class="highlight-c++"><div class="highlight"><pre><span class="k">using</span> <span class="n">llvm</span><span class="o">::</span><span class="n">yaml</span><span class="o">::</span><span class="n">ScalarEnumerationTraits</span><span class="p">;</span>
+<span class="k">using</span> <span class="n">llvm</span><span class="o">::</span><span class="n">yaml</span><span class="o">::</span><span class="n">IO</span><span class="p">;</span>
+
+<span class="k">template</span> <span class="o"><></span>
+<span class="k">struct</span> <span class="n">ScalarEnumerationTraits</span><span class="o"><</span><span class="n">FooBar</span><span class="o">></span> <span class="p">{</span>
+  <span class="k">static</span> <span class="kt">void</span> <span class="n">enumeration</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="n">IO</span> <span class="o">&</span><span class="n">io</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="n">FooBar</span> <span class="o">&</span><span class="n">value</span><span class="p">)</span> <span class="p">{</span>
+  <span class="p">...</span>
+  <span class="p">}</span>
+<span class="p">};</span>
+</pre></div>
+</div>
+<p>As with all YAML I/O template specializations, the ScalarEnumerationTraits is used for
+both reading and writing YAML. That is, the mapping between in-memory enum
+values and the YAML string representation is only in one place.
+This assures that the code for writing and parsing of YAML stays in sync.</p>
+<p>To specify a YAML mappings, you define a specialization on
+llvm::yaml::MappingTraits.
+If your native data structure happens to be a struct that is already normalized,
+then the specialization is simple.  For example:</p>
+<div class="highlight-c++"><div class="highlight"><pre><span class="k">using</span> <span class="n">llvm</span><span class="o">::</span><span class="n">yaml</span><span class="o">::</span><span class="n">MappingTraits</span><span class="p">;</span>
+<span class="k">using</span> <span class="n">llvm</span><span class="o">::</span><span class="n">yaml</span><span class="o">::</span><span class="n">IO</span><span class="p">;</span>
+
+<span class="k">template</span> <span class="o"><></span>
+<span class="k">struct</span> <span class="n">MappingTraits</span><span class="o"><</span><span class="n">Person</span><span class="o">></span> <span class="p">{</span>
+  <span class="k">static</span> <span class="kt">void</span> <span class="n">mapping</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="n">IO</span> <span class="o">&</span><span class="n">io</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="n">Person</span> <span class="o">&</span><span class="n">info</span><span class="p">)</span> <span class="p">{</span>
+    <span class="n">io</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="n">mapRequired</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="s">"name"</span><span class="p">,</span>         <span class="n">info</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="n">name</span><span class="p">);</span>
+    <span class="n">io</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="n">mapOptional</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="s">"hat-size"</span><span class="p">,</span>     <span class="n">info</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="n">hatSize</span><span class="p">);</span>
+  <span class="p">}</span>
+<span class="p">};</span>
+</pre></div>
+</div>
+<p>A YAML sequence is automatically inferred if you data type has begin()/end()
+iterators and a push_back() method.  Therefore any of the STL containers
+(such as std::vector<>) will automatically translate to YAML sequences.</p>
+<p>Once you have defined specializations for your data types, you can
+programmatically use YAML I/O to write a YAML document:</p>
+<div class="highlight-c++"><div class="highlight"><pre><span class="k">using</span> <span class="n">llvm</span><span class="o">::</span><span class="n">yaml</span><span class="o">::</span><span class="n">Output</span><span class="p">;</span>
+
+<span class="n">Person</span> <span class="n">tom</span><span class="p">;</span>
+<span class="n">tom</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="n">name</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="s">"Tom"</span><span class="p">;</span>
+<span class="n">tom</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="n">hatSize</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="mi">8</span><span class="p">;</span>
+<span class="n">Person</span> <span class="n">dan</span><span class="p">;</span>
+<span class="n">dan</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="n">name</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="s">"Dan"</span><span class="p">;</span>
+<span class="n">dan</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="n">hatSize</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="mi">7</span><span class="p">;</span>
+<span class="n">std</span><span class="o">::</span><span class="n">vector</span><span class="o"><</span><span class="n">Person</span><span class="o">></span> <span class="n">persons</span><span class="p">;</span>
+<span class="n">persons</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="n">push_back</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="n">tom</span><span class="p">);</span>
+<span class="n">persons</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="n">push_back</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="n">dan</span><span class="p">);</span>
+
+<span class="n">Output</span> <span class="nf">yout</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="n">llvm</span><span class="o">::</span><span class="n">outs</span><span class="p">());</span>
+<span class="n">yout</span> <span class="o"><<</span> <span class="n">persons</span><span class="p">;</span>
+</pre></div>
+</div>
+<p>This would write the following:</p>
+<div class="highlight-yaml"><div class="highlight"><pre><span class="p-Indicator">-</span> <span class="l-Scalar-Plain">name</span><span class="p-Indicator">:</span>      <span class="l-Scalar-Plain">Tom</span>
+  <span class="l-Scalar-Plain">hat-size</span><span class="p-Indicator">:</span>  <span class="l-Scalar-Plain">8</span>
+<span class="p-Indicator">-</span> <span class="l-Scalar-Plain">name</span><span class="p-Indicator">:</span>      <span class="l-Scalar-Plain">Dan</span>
+  <span class="l-Scalar-Plain">hat-size</span><span class="p-Indicator">:</span>  <span class="l-Scalar-Plain">7</span>
+</pre></div>
+</div>
+<p>And you can also read such YAML documents with the following code:</p>
+<div class="highlight-c++"><div class="highlight"><pre><span class="k">using</span> <span class="n">llvm</span><span class="o">::</span><span class="n">yaml</span><span class="o">::</span><span class="n">Input</span><span class="p">;</span>
+
+<span class="k">typedef</span> <span class="n">std</span><span class="o">::</span><span class="n">vector</span><span class="o"><</span><span class="n">Person</span><span class="o">></span> <span class="n">PersonList</span><span class="p">;</span>
+<span class="n">std</span><span class="o">::</span><span class="n">vector</span><span class="o"><</span><span class="n">PersonList</span><span class="o">></span> <span class="n">docs</span><span class="p">;</span>
+
+<span class="n">Input</span> <span class="nf">yin</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="n">document</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="n">getBuffer</span><span class="p">());</span>
+<span class="n">yin</span> <span class="o">>></span> <span class="n">docs</span><span class="p">;</span>
+
+<span class="k">if</span> <span class="p">(</span> <span class="n">yin</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="n">error</span><span class="p">()</span> <span class="p">)</span>
+  <span class="k">return</span><span class="p">;</span>
+
+<span class="c1">// Process read document</span>
+<span class="k">for</span> <span class="p">(</span> <span class="n">PersonList</span> <span class="o">&</span><span class="n">pl</span> <span class="o">:</span> <span class="n">docs</span> <span class="p">)</span> <span class="p">{</span>
+  <span class="k">for</span> <span class="p">(</span> <span class="n">Person</span> <span class="o">&</span><span class="n">person</span> <span class="o">:</span> <span class="n">pl</span> <span class="p">)</span> <span class="p">{</span>
+    <span class="n">cout</span> <span class="o"><<</span> <span class="s">"name="</span> <span class="o"><<</span> <span class="n">person</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="n">name</span><span class="p">;</span>
+  <span class="p">}</span>
+<span class="p">}</span>
+</pre></div>
+</div>
+<p>One other feature of YAML is the ability to define multiple documents in a
+single file.  That is why reading YAML produces a vector of your document type.</p>
+</div>
+<div class="section" id="error-handling">
+<h2><a class="toc-backref" href="#id3">Error Handling</a><a class="headerlink" href="#error-handling" title="Permalink to this headline">¶</a></h2>
+<p>When parsing a YAML document, if the input does not match your schema (as
+expressed in your XxxTraits<> specializations).  YAML I/O
+will print out an error message and your Input object’s error() method will
+return true. For instance the following document:</p>
+<div class="highlight-yaml"><div class="highlight"><pre><span class="p-Indicator">-</span> <span class="l-Scalar-Plain">name</span><span class="p-Indicator">:</span>      <span class="l-Scalar-Plain">Tom</span>
+  <span class="l-Scalar-Plain">shoe-size</span><span class="p-Indicator">:</span> <span class="l-Scalar-Plain">12</span>
+<span class="p-Indicator">-</span> <span class="l-Scalar-Plain">name</span><span class="p-Indicator">:</span>      <span class="l-Scalar-Plain">Dan</span>
+  <span class="l-Scalar-Plain">hat-size</span><span class="p-Indicator">:</span>  <span class="l-Scalar-Plain">7</span>
+</pre></div>
+</div>
+<p>Has a key (shoe-size) that is not defined in the schema.  YAML I/O will
+automatically generate this error:</p>
+<div class="highlight-yaml"><div class="highlight"><pre><span class="l-Scalar-Plain">YAML:2:2</span><span class="p-Indicator">:</span> <span class="l-Scalar-Plain">error</span><span class="p-Indicator">:</span> <span class="l-Scalar-Plain">unknown key 'shoe-size'</span>
+  <span class="l-Scalar-Plain">shoe-size</span><span class="p-Indicator">:</span>       <span class="l-Scalar-Plain">12</span>
+  <span class="l-Scalar-Plain">^~~~~~~~~</span>
+</pre></div>
+</div>
+<p>Similar errors are produced for other input not conforming to the schema.</p>
+</div>
+<div class="section" id="scalars">
+<h2><a class="toc-backref" href="#id4">Scalars</a><a class="headerlink" href="#scalars" title="Permalink to this headline">¶</a></h2>
+<p>YAML scalars are just strings (i.e. not a sequence or mapping).  The YAML I/O
+library provides support for translating between YAML scalars and specific
+C++ types.</p>
+<div class="section" id="built-in-types">
+<h3><a class="toc-backref" href="#id5">Built-in types</a><a class="headerlink" href="#built-in-types" title="Permalink to this headline">¶</a></h3>
+<p>The following types have built-in support in YAML I/O:</p>
+<ul class="simple">
+<li>bool</li>
+<li>float</li>
+<li>double</li>
+<li>StringRef</li>
+<li>int64_t</li>
+<li>int32_t</li>
+<li>int16_t</li>
+<li>int8_t</li>
+<li>uint64_t</li>
+<li>uint32_t</li>
+<li>uint16_t</li>
+<li>uint8_t</li>
+</ul>
+<p>That is, you can use those types in fields of MappingTraits or as element type
+in sequence.  When reading, YAML I/O will validate that the string found
+is convertible to that type and error out if not.</p>
+</div>
+<div class="section" id="unique-types">
+<h3><a class="toc-backref" href="#id6">Unique types</a><a class="headerlink" href="#unique-types" title="Permalink to this headline">¶</a></h3>
+<p>Given that YAML I/O is trait based, the selection of how to convert your data
+to YAML is based on the type of your data.  But in C++ type matching, typedefs
+do not generate unique type names.  That means if you have two typedefs of
+unsigned int, to YAML I/O both types look exactly like unsigned int.  To
+facilitate make unique type names, YAML I/O provides a macro which is used
+like a typedef on built-in types, but expands to create a class with conversion
+operators to and from the base type.  For example:</p>
+<div class="highlight-c++"><div class="highlight"><pre><span class="n">LLVM_YAML_STRONG_TYPEDEF</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="kt">uint32_t</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="n">MyFooFlags</span><span class="p">)</span>
+<span class="n">LLVM_YAML_STRONG_TYPEDEF</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="kt">uint32_t</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="n">MyBarFlags</span><span class="p">)</span>
+</pre></div>
+</div>
+<p>This generates two classes MyFooFlags and MyBarFlags which you can use in your
+native data structures instead of uint32_t. They are implicitly
+converted to and from uint32_t.  The point of creating these unique types
+is that you can now specify traits on them to get different YAML conversions.</p>
+</div>
+<div class="section" id="hex-types">
+<h3><a class="toc-backref" href="#id7">Hex types</a><a class="headerlink" href="#hex-types" title="Permalink to this headline">¶</a></h3>
+<p>An example use of a unique type is that YAML I/O provides fixed sized unsigned
+integers that are written with YAML I/O as hexadecimal instead of the decimal
+format used by the built-in integer types:</p>
+<ul class="simple">
+<li>Hex64</li>
+<li>Hex32</li>
+<li>Hex16</li>
+<li>Hex8</li>
+</ul>
+<p>You can use llvm::yaml::Hex32 instead of uint32_t and the only different will
+be that when YAML I/O writes out that type it will be formatted in hexadecimal.</p>
+</div>
+<div class="section" id="scalarenumerationtraits">
+<h3><a class="toc-backref" href="#id8">ScalarEnumerationTraits</a><a class="headerlink" href="#scalarenumerationtraits" title="Permalink to this headline">¶</a></h3>
+<p>YAML I/O supports translating between in-memory enumerations and a set of string
+values in YAML documents. This is done by specializing ScalarEnumerationTraits<>
+on your enumeration type and define a enumeration() method.
+For instance, suppose you had an enumeration of CPUs and a struct with it as
+a field:</p>
+<div class="highlight-c++"><div class="highlight"><pre><span class="k">enum</span> <span class="n">CPUs</span> <span class="p">{</span>
+  <span class="n">cpu_x86_64</span>  <span class="o">=</span> <span class="mi">5</span><span class="p">,</span>
+  <span class="n">cpu_x86</span>     <span class="o">=</span> <span class="mi">7</span><span class="p">,</span>
+  <span class="n">cpu_PowerPC</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="mi">8</span>
+<span class="p">};</span>
+
+<span class="k">struct</span> <span class="n">Info</span> <span class="p">{</span>
+  <span class="n">CPUs</span>      <span class="n">cpu</span><span class="p">;</span>
+  <span class="kt">uint32_t</span>  <span class="n">flags</span><span class="p">;</span>
+<span class="p">};</span>
+</pre></div>
+</div>
+<p>To support reading and writing of this enumeration, you can define a
+ScalarEnumerationTraits specialization on CPUs, which can then be used
+as a field type:</p>
+<div class="highlight-c++"><div class="highlight"><pre><span class="k">using</span> <span class="n">llvm</span><span class="o">::</span><span class="n">yaml</span><span class="o">::</span><span class="n">ScalarEnumerationTraits</span><span class="p">;</span>
+<span class="k">using</span> <span class="n">llvm</span><span class="o">::</span><span class="n">yaml</span><span class="o">::</span><span class="n">MappingTraits</span><span class="p">;</span>
+<span class="k">using</span> <span class="n">llvm</span><span class="o">::</span><span class="n">yaml</span><span class="o">::</span><span class="n">IO</span><span class="p">;</span>
+
+<span class="k">template</span> <span class="o"><></span>
+<span class="k">struct</span> <span class="n">ScalarEnumerationTraits</span><span class="o"><</span><span class="n">CPUs</span><span class="o">></span> <span class="p">{</span>
+  <span class="k">static</span> <span class="kt">void</span> <span class="n">enumeration</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="n">IO</span> <span class="o">&</span><span class="n">io</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="n">CPUs</span> <span class="o">&</span><span class="n">value</span><span class="p">)</span> <span class="p">{</span>
+    <span class="n">io</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="n">enumCase</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="n">value</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="s">"x86_64"</span><span class="p">,</span>  <span class="n">cpu_x86_64</span><span class="p">);</span>
+    <span class="n">io</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="n">enumCase</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="n">value</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="s">"x86"</span><span class="p">,</span>     <span class="n">cpu_x86</span><span class="p">);</span>
+    <span class="n">io</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="n">enumCase</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="n">value</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="s">"PowerPC"</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="n">cpu_PowerPC</span><span class="p">);</span>
+  <span class="p">}</span>
+<span class="p">};</span>
+
+<span class="k">template</span> <span class="o"><></span>
+<span class="k">struct</span> <span class="n">MappingTraits</span><span class="o"><</span><span class="n">Info</span><span class="o">></span> <span class="p">{</span>
+  <span class="k">static</span> <span class="kt">void</span> <span class="n">mapping</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="n">IO</span> <span class="o">&</span><span class="n">io</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="n">Info</span> <span class="o">&</span><span class="n">info</span><span class="p">)</span> <span class="p">{</span>
+    <span class="n">io</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="n">mapRequired</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="s">"cpu"</span><span class="p">,</span>       <span class="n">info</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="n">cpu</span><span class="p">);</span>
+    <span class="n">io</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="n">mapOptional</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="s">"flags"</span><span class="p">,</span>     <span class="n">info</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="n">flags</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="mi">0</span><span class="p">);</span>
+  <span class="p">}</span>
+<span class="p">};</span>
+</pre></div>
+</div>
+<p>When reading YAML, if the string found does not match any of the the strings
+specified by enumCase() methods, an error is automatically generated.
+When writing YAML, if the value being written does not match any of the values
+specified by the enumCase() methods, a runtime assertion is triggered.</p>
+</div>
+<div class="section" id="bitvalue">
+<h3><a class="toc-backref" href="#id9">BitValue</a><a class="headerlink" href="#bitvalue" title="Permalink to this headline">¶</a></h3>
+<p>Another common data structure in C++ is a field where each bit has a unique
+meaning.  This is often used in a “flags” field.  YAML I/O has support for
+converting such fields to a flow sequence.   For instance suppose you
+had the following bit flags defined:</p>
+<div class="highlight-c++"><div class="highlight"><pre><span class="k">enum</span> <span class="p">{</span>
+  <span class="n">flagsPointy</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="mi">1</span>
+  <span class="n">flagsHollow</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="mi">2</span>
+  <span class="n">flagsFlat</span>   <span class="o">=</span> <span class="mi">4</span>
+  <span class="n">flagsRound</span>  <span class="o">=</span> <span class="mi">8</span>
+<span class="p">};</span>
+
+<span class="n">LLVM_YAML_STRONG_TYPEDEF</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="kt">uint32_t</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="n">MyFlags</span><span class="p">)</span>
+</pre></div>
+</div>
+<p>To support reading and writing of MyFlags, you specialize ScalarBitSetTraits<>
+on MyFlags and provide the bit values and their names.</p>
+<div class="highlight-c++"><div class="highlight"><pre><span class="k">using</span> <span class="n">llvm</span><span class="o">::</span><span class="n">yaml</span><span class="o">::</span><span class="n">ScalarBitSetTraits</span><span class="p">;</span>
+<span class="k">using</span> <span class="n">llvm</span><span class="o">::</span><span class="n">yaml</span><span class="o">::</span><span class="n">MappingTraits</span><span class="p">;</span>
+<span class="k">using</span> <span class="n">llvm</span><span class="o">::</span><span class="n">yaml</span><span class="o">::</span><span class="n">IO</span><span class="p">;</span>
+
+<span class="k">template</span> <span class="o"><></span>
+<span class="k">struct</span> <span class="n">ScalarBitSetTraits</span><span class="o"><</span><span class="n">MyFlags</span><span class="o">></span> <span class="p">{</span>
+  <span class="k">static</span> <span class="kt">void</span> <span class="n">bitset</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="n">IO</span> <span class="o">&</span><span class="n">io</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="n">MyFlags</span> <span class="o">&</span><span class="n">value</span><span class="p">)</span> <span class="p">{</span>
+    <span class="n">io</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="n">bitSetCase</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="n">value</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="s">"hollow"</span><span class="p">,</span>  <span class="n">flagHollow</span><span class="p">);</span>
+    <span class="n">io</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="n">bitSetCase</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="n">value</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="s">"flat"</span><span class="p">,</span>    <span class="n">flagFlat</span><span class="p">);</span>
+    <span class="n">io</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="n">bitSetCase</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="n">value</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="s">"round"</span><span class="p">,</span>   <span class="n">flagRound</span><span class="p">);</span>
+    <span class="n">io</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="n">bitSetCase</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="n">value</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="s">"pointy"</span><span class="p">,</span>  <span class="n">flagPointy</span><span class="p">);</span>
+  <span class="p">}</span>
+<span class="p">};</span>
+
+<span class="k">struct</span> <span class="n">Info</span> <span class="p">{</span>
+  <span class="n">StringRef</span>   <span class="n">name</span><span class="p">;</span>
+  <span class="n">MyFlags</span>     <span class="n">flags</span><span class="p">;</span>
+<span class="p">};</span>
+
+<span class="k">template</span> <span class="o"><></span>
+<span class="k">struct</span> <span class="n">MappingTraits</span><span class="o"><</span><span class="n">Info</span><span class="o">></span> <span class="p">{</span>
+  <span class="k">static</span> <span class="kt">void</span> <span class="n">mapping</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="n">IO</span> <span class="o">&</span><span class="n">io</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="n">Info</span><span class="o">&</span> <span class="n">info</span><span class="p">)</span> <span class="p">{</span>
+    <span class="n">io</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="n">mapRequired</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="s">"name"</span><span class="p">,</span>  <span class="n">info</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="n">name</span><span class="p">);</span>
+    <span class="n">io</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="n">mapRequired</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="s">"flags"</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="n">info</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="n">flags</span><span class="p">);</span>
+   <span class="p">}</span>
+<span class="p">};</span>
+</pre></div>
+</div>
+<p>With the above, YAML I/O (when writing) will test mask each value in the
+bitset trait against the flags field, and each that matches will
+cause the corresponding string to be added to the flow sequence.  The opposite
+is done when reading and any unknown string values will result in a error. With
+the above schema, a same valid YAML document is:</p>
+<div class="highlight-yaml"><div class="highlight"><pre><span class="l-Scalar-Plain">name</span><span class="p-Indicator">:</span>    <span class="l-Scalar-Plain">Tom</span>
+<span class="l-Scalar-Plain">flags</span><span class="p-Indicator">:</span>   <span class="p-Indicator">[</span> <span class="nv">pointy</span><span class="p-Indicator">,</span> <span class="nv">flat</span> <span class="p-Indicator">]</span>
+</pre></div>
+</div>
+</div>
+<div class="section" id="custom-scalar">
+<h3><a class="toc-backref" href="#id10">Custom Scalar</a><a class="headerlink" href="#custom-scalar" title="Permalink to this headline">¶</a></h3>
+<p>Sometimes for readability a scalar needs to be formatted in a custom way. For
+instance your internal data structure may use a integer for time (seconds since
+some epoch), but in YAML it would be much nicer to express that integer in
+some time format (e.g. 4-May-2012 10:30pm).  YAML I/O has a way to support
+custom formatting and parsing of scalar types by specializing ScalarTraits<> on
+your data type.  When writing, YAML I/O will provide the native type and
+your specialization must create a temporary llvm::StringRef.  When reading,
+YAML I/O will provide an llvm::StringRef of scalar and your specialization
+must convert that to your native data type.  An outline of a custom scalar type
+looks like:</p>
+<div class="highlight-c++"><div class="highlight"><pre><span class="k">using</span> <span class="n">llvm</span><span class="o">::</span><span class="n">yaml</span><span class="o">::</span><span class="n">ScalarTraits</span><span class="p">;</span>
+<span class="k">using</span> <span class="n">llvm</span><span class="o">::</span><span class="n">yaml</span><span class="o">::</span><span class="n">IO</span><span class="p">;</span>
+
+<span class="k">template</span> <span class="o"><></span>
+<span class="k">struct</span> <span class="n">ScalarTraits</span><span class="o"><</span><span class="n">MyCustomType</span><span class="o">></span> <span class="p">{</span>
+  <span class="k">static</span> <span class="kt">void</span> <span class="n">output</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="k">const</span> <span class="n">T</span> <span class="o">&</span><span class="n">value</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="n">llvm</span><span class="o">::</span><span class="n">raw_ostream</span> <span class="o">&</span><span class="n">out</span><span class="p">)</span> <span class="p">{</span>
+    <span class="n">out</span> <span class="o"><<</span> <span class="n">value</span><span class="p">;</span>  <span class="c1">// do custom formatting here</span>
+  <span class="p">}</span>
+  <span class="k">static</span> <span class="n">StringRef</span> <span class="n">input</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="n">StringRef</span> <span class="n">scalar</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="n">T</span> <span class="o">&</span><span class="n">value</span><span class="p">)</span> <span class="p">{</span>
+    <span class="c1">// do custom parsing here.  Return the empty string on success,</span>
+    <span class="c1">// or an error message on failure.</span>
+    <span class="k">return</span> <span class="n">StringRef</span><span class="p">();</span>
+  <span class="p">}</span>
+<span class="p">};</span>
+</pre></div>
+</div>
+</div>
+</div>
+<div class="section" id="mappings">
+<h2><a class="toc-backref" href="#id11">Mappings</a><a class="headerlink" href="#mappings" title="Permalink to this headline">¶</a></h2>
+<p>To be translated to or from a YAML mapping for your type T you must specialize
+llvm::yaml::MappingTraits on T and implement the “void mapping(IO &io, T&)”
+method. If your native data structures use pointers to a class everywhere,
+you can specialize on the class pointer.  Examples:</p>
+<div class="highlight-c++"><div class="highlight"><pre><span class="k">using</span> <span class="n">llvm</span><span class="o">::</span><span class="n">yaml</span><span class="o">::</span><span class="n">MappingTraits</span><span class="p">;</span>
+<span class="k">using</span> <span class="n">llvm</span><span class="o">::</span><span class="n">yaml</span><span class="o">::</span><span class="n">IO</span><span class="p">;</span>
+
+<span class="c1">// Example of struct Foo which is used by value</span>
+<span class="k">template</span> <span class="o"><></span>
+<span class="k">struct</span> <span class="n">MappingTraits</span><span class="o"><</span><span class="n">Foo</span><span class="o">></span> <span class="p">{</span>
+  <span class="k">static</span> <span class="kt">void</span> <span class="n">mapping</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="n">IO</span> <span class="o">&</span><span class="n">io</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="n">Foo</span> <span class="o">&</span><span class="n">foo</span><span class="p">)</span> <span class="p">{</span>
+    <span class="n">io</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="n">mapOptional</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="s">"size"</span><span class="p">,</span>      <span class="n">foo</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="n">size</span><span class="p">);</span>
+  <span class="p">...</span>
+  <span class="p">}</span>
+<span class="p">};</span>
+
+<span class="c1">// Example of struct Bar which is natively always a pointer</span>
+<span class="k">template</span> <span class="o"><></span>
+<span class="k">struct</span> <span class="n">MappingTraits</span><span class="o"><</span><span class="n">Bar</span><span class="o">*></span> <span class="p">{</span>
+  <span class="k">static</span> <span class="kt">void</span> <span class="n">mapping</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="n">IO</span> <span class="o">&</span><span class="n">io</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="n">Bar</span> <span class="o">*&</span><span class="n">bar</span><span class="p">)</span> <span class="p">{</span>
+    <span class="n">io</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="n">mapOptional</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="s">"size"</span><span class="p">,</span>    <span class="n">bar</span><span class="o">-></span><span class="n">size</span><span class="p">);</span>
+  <span class="p">...</span>
+  <span class="p">}</span>
+<span class="p">};</span>
+</pre></div>
+</div>
+<div class="section" id="no-normalization">
+<h3><a class="toc-backref" href="#id12">No Normalization</a><a class="headerlink" href="#no-normalization" title="Permalink to this headline">¶</a></h3>
+<p>The mapping() method is responsible, if needed, for normalizing and
+denormalizing. In a simple case where the native data structure requires no
+normalization, the mapping method just uses mapOptional() or mapRequired() to
+bind the struct’s fields to YAML key names.  For example:</p>
+<div class="highlight-c++"><div class="highlight"><pre><span class="k">using</span> <span class="n">llvm</span><span class="o">::</span><span class="n">yaml</span><span class="o">::</span><span class="n">MappingTraits</span><span class="p">;</span>
+<span class="k">using</span> <span class="n">llvm</span><span class="o">::</span><span class="n">yaml</span><span class="o">::</span><span class="n">IO</span><span class="p">;</span>
+
+<span class="k">template</span> <span class="o"><></span>
+<span class="k">struct</span> <span class="n">MappingTraits</span><span class="o"><</span><span class="n">Person</span><span class="o">></span> <span class="p">{</span>
+  <span class="k">static</span> <span class="kt">void</span> <span class="n">mapping</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="n">IO</span> <span class="o">&</span><span class="n">io</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="n">Person</span> <span class="o">&</span><span class="n">info</span><span class="p">)</span> <span class="p">{</span>
+    <span class="n">io</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="n">mapRequired</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="s">"name"</span><span class="p">,</span>         <span class="n">info</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="n">name</span><span class="p">);</span>
+    <span class="n">io</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="n">mapOptional</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="s">"hat-size"</span><span class="p">,</span>     <span class="n">info</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="n">hatSize</span><span class="p">);</span>
+  <span class="p">}</span>
+<span class="p">};</span>
+</pre></div>
+</div>
+</div>
+<div class="section" id="normalization">
+<h3><a class="toc-backref" href="#id13">Normalization</a><a class="headerlink" href="#normalization" title="Permalink to this headline">¶</a></h3>
+<p>When [de]normalization is required, the mapping() method needs a way to access
+normalized values as fields. To help with this, there is
+a template MappingNormalization<> which you can then use to automatically
+do the normalization and denormalization.  The template is used to create
+a local variable in your mapping() method which contains the normalized keys.</p>
+<p>Suppose you have native data type
+Polar which specifies a position in polar coordinates (distance, angle):</p>
+<div class="highlight-c++"><div class="highlight"><pre><span class="k">struct</span> <span class="n">Polar</span> <span class="p">{</span>
+  <span class="kt">float</span> <span class="n">distance</span><span class="p">;</span>
+  <span class="kt">float</span> <span class="n">angle</span><span class="p">;</span>
+<span class="p">};</span>
+</pre></div>
+</div>
+<p>but you’ve decided the normalized YAML for should be in x,y coordinates. That
+is, you want the yaml to look like:</p>
+<div class="highlight-yaml"><div class="highlight"><pre><span class="l-Scalar-Plain">x</span><span class="p-Indicator">:</span>   <span class="l-Scalar-Plain">10.3</span>
+<span class="l-Scalar-Plain">y</span><span class="p-Indicator">:</span>   <span class="l-Scalar-Plain">-4.7</span>
+</pre></div>
+</div>
+<p>You can support this by defining a MappingTraits that normalizes the polar
+coordinates to x,y coordinates when writing YAML and denormalizes x,y
+coordinates into polar when reading YAML.</p>
+<div class="highlight-c++"><div class="highlight"><pre><span class="k">using</span> <span class="n">llvm</span><span class="o">::</span><span class="n">yaml</span><span class="o">::</span><span class="n">MappingTraits</span><span class="p">;</span>
+<span class="k">using</span> <span class="n">llvm</span><span class="o">::</span><span class="n">yaml</span><span class="o">::</span><span class="n">IO</span><span class="p">;</span>
+
+<span class="k">template</span> <span class="o"><></span>
+<span class="k">struct</span> <span class="n">MappingTraits</span><span class="o"><</span><span class="n">Polar</span><span class="o">></span> <span class="p">{</span>
+
+  <span class="k">class</span> <span class="nc">NormalizedPolar</span> <span class="p">{</span>
+  <span class="nl">public:</span>
+    <span class="n">NormalizedPolar</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="n">IO</span> <span class="o">&</span><span class="n">io</span><span class="p">)</span>
+      <span class="o">:</span> <span class="n">x</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="mf">0.0</span><span class="p">),</span> <span class="n">y</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="mf">0.0</span><span class="p">)</span> <span class="p">{</span>
+    <span class="p">}</span>
+    <span class="n">NormalizedPolar</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="n">IO</span> <span class="o">&</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="n">Polar</span> <span class="o">&</span><span class="n">polar</span><span class="p">)</span>
+      <span class="o">:</span> <span class="n">x</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="n">polar</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="n">distance</span> <span class="o">*</span> <span class="n">cos</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="n">polar</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="n">angle</span><span class="p">)),</span>
+        <span class="n">y</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="n">polar</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="n">distance</span> <span class="o">*</span> <span class="n">sin</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="n">polar</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="n">angle</span><span class="p">))</span> <span class="p">{</span>
+    <span class="p">}</span>
+    <span class="n">Polar</span> <span class="n">denormalize</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="n">IO</span> <span class="o">&</span><span class="p">)</span> <span class="p">{</span>
+      <span class="k">return</span> <span class="n">Polar</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="n">sqrt</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="n">x</span><span class="o">*</span><span class="n">x</span><span class="o">+</span><span class="n">y</span><span class="o">*</span><span class="n">y</span><span class="p">),</span> <span class="n">arctan</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="n">x</span><span class="p">,</span><span class="n">y</span><span class="p">));</span>
+    <span class="p">}</span>
+
+    <span class="kt">float</span>        <span class="n">x</span><span class="p">;</span>
+    <span class="kt">float</span>        <span class="n">y</span><span class="p">;</span>
+  <span class="p">};</span>
+
+  <span class="k">static</span> <span class="kt">void</span> <span class="nf">mapping</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="n">IO</span> <span class="o">&</span><span class="n">io</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="n">Polar</span> <span class="o">&</span><span class="n">polar</span><span class="p">)</span> <span class="p">{</span>
+    <span class="n">MappingNormalization</span><span class="o"><</span><span class="n">NormalizedPolar</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="n">Polar</span><span class="o">></span> <span class="n">keys</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="n">io</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="n">polar</span><span class="p">);</span>
+
+    <span class="n">io</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="n">mapRequired</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="s">"x"</span><span class="p">,</span>    <span class="n">keys</span><span class="o">-></span><span class="n">x</span><span class="p">);</span>
+    <span class="n">io</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="n">mapRequired</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="s">"y"</span><span class="p">,</span>    <span class="n">keys</span><span class="o">-></span><span class="n">y</span><span class="p">);</span>
+  <span class="p">}</span>
+<span class="p">};</span>
+</pre></div>
+</div>
+<p>When writing YAML, the local variable “keys” will be a stack allocated
+instance of NormalizedPolar, constructed from the supplied polar object which
+initializes it x and y fields.  The mapRequired() methods then write out the x
+and y values as key/value pairs.</p>
+<p>When reading YAML, the local variable “keys” will be a stack allocated instance
+of NormalizedPolar, constructed by the empty constructor.  The mapRequired
+methods will find the matching key in the YAML document and fill in the x and y
+fields of the NormalizedPolar object keys. At the end of the mapping() method
+when the local keys variable goes out of scope, the denormalize() method will
+automatically be called to convert the read values back to polar coordinates,
+and then assigned back to the second parameter to mapping().</p>
+<p>In some cases, the normalized class may be a subclass of the native type and
+could be returned by the denormalize() method, except that the temporary
+normalized instance is stack allocated.  In these cases, the utility template
+MappingNormalizationHeap<> can be used instead.  It just like
+MappingNormalization<> except that it heap allocates the normalized object
+when reading YAML.  It never destroys the normalized object.  The denormalize()
+method can this return “this”.</p>
+</div>
+<div class="section" id="default-values">
+<h3><a class="toc-backref" href="#id14">Default values</a><a class="headerlink" href="#default-values" title="Permalink to this headline">¶</a></h3>
+<p>Within a mapping() method, calls to io.mapRequired() mean that that key is
+required to exist when parsing YAML documents, otherwise YAML I/O will issue an
+error.</p>
+<p>On the other hand, keys registered with io.mapOptional() are allowed to not
+exist in the YAML document being read.  So what value is put in the field
+for those optional keys?
+There are two steps to how those optional fields are filled in. First, the
+second parameter to the mapping() method is a reference to a native class.  That
+native class must have a default constructor.  Whatever value the default
+constructor initially sets for an optional field will be that field’s value.
+Second, the mapOptional() method has an optional third parameter.  If provided
+it is the value that mapOptional() should set that field to if the YAML document
+does not have that key.</p>
+<p>There is one important difference between those two ways (default constructor
+and third parameter to mapOptional). When YAML I/O generates a YAML document,
+if the mapOptional() third parameter is used, if the actual value being written
+is the same as (using ==) the default value, then that key/value is not written.</p>
+</div>
+<div class="section" id="order-of-keys">
+<h3><a class="toc-backref" href="#id15">Order of Keys</a><a class="headerlink" href="#order-of-keys" title="Permalink to this headline">¶</a></h3>
+<p>When writing out a YAML document, the keys are written in the order that the
+calls to mapRequired()/mapOptional() are made in the mapping() method. This
+gives you a chance to write the fields in an order that a human reader of
+the YAML document would find natural.  This may be different that the order
+of the fields in the native class.</p>
+<p>When reading in a YAML document, the keys in the document can be in any order,
+but they are processed in the order that the calls to mapRequired()/mapOptional()
+are made in the mapping() method.  That enables some interesting
+functionality.  For instance, if the first field bound is the cpu and the second
+field bound is flags, and the flags are cpu specific, you can programmatically
+switch how the flags are converted to and from YAML based on the cpu.
+This works for both reading and writing. For example:</p>
+<div class="highlight-c++"><div class="highlight"><pre><span class="k">using</span> <span class="n">llvm</span><span class="o">::</span><span class="n">yaml</span><span class="o">::</span><span class="n">MappingTraits</span><span class="p">;</span>
+<span class="k">using</span> <span class="n">llvm</span><span class="o">::</span><span class="n">yaml</span><span class="o">::</span><span class="n">IO</span><span class="p">;</span>
+
+<span class="k">struct</span> <span class="n">Info</span> <span class="p">{</span>
+  <span class="n">CPUs</span>        <span class="n">cpu</span><span class="p">;</span>
+  <span class="kt">uint32_t</span>    <span class="n">flags</span><span class="p">;</span>
+<span class="p">};</span>
+
+<span class="k">template</span> <span class="o"><></span>
+<span class="k">struct</span> <span class="n">MappingTraits</span><span class="o"><</span><span class="n">Info</span><span class="o">></span> <span class="p">{</span>
+  <span class="k">static</span> <span class="kt">void</span> <span class="n">mapping</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="n">IO</span> <span class="o">&</span><span class="n">io</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="n">Info</span> <span class="o">&</span><span class="n">info</span><span class="p">)</span> <span class="p">{</span>
+    <span class="n">io</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="n">mapRequired</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="s">"cpu"</span><span class="p">,</span>       <span class="n">info</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="n">cpu</span><span class="p">);</span>
+    <span class="c1">// flags must come after cpu for this to work when reading yaml</span>
+    <span class="k">if</span> <span class="p">(</span> <span class="n">info</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="n">cpu</span> <span class="o">==</span> <span class="n">cpu_x86_64</span> <span class="p">)</span>
+      <span class="n">io</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="n">mapRequired</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="s">"flags"</span><span class="p">,</span>  <span class="o">*</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="n">My86_64Flags</span><span class="o">*</span><span class="p">)</span><span class="n">info</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="n">flags</span><span class="p">);</span>
+    <span class="k">else</span>
+      <span class="n">io</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="n">mapRequired</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="s">"flags"</span><span class="p">,</span>  <span class="o">*</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="n">My86Flags</span><span class="o">*</span><span class="p">)</span><span class="n">info</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="n">flags</span><span class="p">);</span>
+ <span class="p">}</span>
+<span class="p">};</span>
+</pre></div>
+</div>
+</div>
+<div class="section" id="tags">
+<h3><a class="toc-backref" href="#id16">Tags</a><a class="headerlink" href="#tags" title="Permalink to this headline">¶</a></h3>
+<p>The YAML syntax supports tags as a way to specify the type of a node before
+it is parsed. This allows dynamic types of nodes.  But the YAML I/O model uses
+static typing, so there are limits to how you can use tags with the YAML I/O
+model. Recently, we added support to YAML I/O for checking/setting the optional
+tag on a map. Using this functionality it is even possbile to support differnt
+mappings, as long as they are convertable.</p>
+<p>To check a tag, inside your mapping() method you can use io.mapTag() to specify
+what the tag should be.  This will also add that tag when writing yaml.</p>
+</div>
+</div>
+<div class="section" id="sequence">
+<h2><a class="toc-backref" href="#id17">Sequence</a><a class="headerlink" href="#sequence" title="Permalink to this headline">¶</a></h2>
+<p>To be translated to or from a YAML sequence for your type T you must specialize
+llvm::yaml::SequenceTraits on T and implement two methods:
+<tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">size_t</span> <span class="pre">size(IO</span> <span class="pre">&io,</span> <span class="pre">T&)</span></tt> and
+<tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">T::value_type&</span> <span class="pre">element(IO</span> <span class="pre">&io,</span> <span class="pre">T&,</span> <span class="pre">size_t</span> <span class="pre">indx)</span></tt>.  For example:</p>
+<div class="highlight-c++"><div class="highlight"><pre><span class="k">template</span> <span class="o"><></span>
+<span class="k">struct</span> <span class="n">SequenceTraits</span><span class="o"><</span><span class="n">MySeq</span><span class="o">></span> <span class="p">{</span>
+  <span class="k">static</span> <span class="kt">size_t</span> <span class="n">size</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="n">IO</span> <span class="o">&</span><span class="n">io</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="n">MySeq</span> <span class="o">&</span><span class="n">list</span><span class="p">)</span> <span class="p">{</span> <span class="p">...</span> <span class="p">}</span>
+  <span class="k">static</span> <span class="n">MySeqEl</span> <span class="o">&</span><span class="n">element</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="n">IO</span> <span class="o">&</span><span class="n">io</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="n">MySeq</span> <span class="o">&</span><span class="n">list</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="kt">size_t</span> <span class="n">index</span><span class="p">)</span> <span class="p">{</span> <span class="p">...</span> <span class="p">}</span>
+<span class="p">};</span>
+</pre></div>
+</div>
+<p>The size() method returns how many elements are currently in your sequence.
+The element() method returns a reference to the i’th element in the sequence.
+When parsing YAML, the element() method may be called with an index one bigger
+than the current size.  Your element() method should allocate space for one
+more element (using default constructor if element is a C++ object) and returns
+a reference to that new allocated space.</p>
+<div class="section" id="flow-sequence">
+<h3><a class="toc-backref" href="#id18">Flow Sequence</a><a class="headerlink" href="#flow-sequence" title="Permalink to this headline">¶</a></h3>
+<p>A YAML “flow sequence” is a sequence that when written to YAML it uses the
+inline notation (e.g [ foo, bar ] ).  To specify that a sequence type should
+be written in YAML as a flow sequence, your SequenceTraits specialization should
+add “static const bool flow = true;”.  For instance:</p>
+<div class="highlight-c++"><div class="highlight"><pre><span class="k">template</span> <span class="o"><></span>
+<span class="k">struct</span> <span class="n">SequenceTraits</span><span class="o"><</span><span class="n">MyList</span><span class="o">></span> <span class="p">{</span>
+  <span class="k">static</span> <span class="kt">size_t</span> <span class="n">size</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="n">IO</span> <span class="o">&</span><span class="n">io</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="n">MyList</span> <span class="o">&</span><span class="n">list</span><span class="p">)</span> <span class="p">{</span> <span class="p">...</span> <span class="p">}</span>
+  <span class="k">static</span> <span class="n">MyListEl</span> <span class="o">&</span><span class="n">element</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="n">IO</span> <span class="o">&</span><span class="n">io</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="n">MyList</span> <span class="o">&</span><span class="n">list</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="kt">size_t</span> <span class="n">index</span><span class="p">)</span> <span class="p">{</span> <span class="p">...</span> <span class="p">}</span>
+
+  <span class="c1">// The existence of this member causes YAML I/O to use a flow sequence</span>
+  <span class="k">static</span> <span class="k">const</span> <span class="kt">bool</span> <span class="n">flow</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="nb">true</span><span class="p">;</span>
+<span class="p">};</span>
+</pre></div>
+</div>
+<p>With the above, if you used MyList as the data type in your native data
+structures, then then when converted to YAML, a flow sequence of integers
+will be used (e.g. [ 10, -3, 4 ]).</p>
+</div>
+<div class="section" id="utility-macros">
+<h3><a class="toc-backref" href="#id19">Utility Macros</a><a class="headerlink" href="#utility-macros" title="Permalink to this headline">¶</a></h3>
+<p>Since a common source of sequences is std::vector<>, YAML I/O provides macros:
+LLVM_YAML_IS_SEQUENCE_VECTOR() and LLVM_YAML_IS_FLOW_SEQUENCE_VECTOR() which
+can be used to easily specify SequenceTraits<> on a std::vector type.  YAML
+I/O does not partial specialize SequenceTraits on std::vector<> because that
+would force all vectors to be sequences.  An example use of the macros:</p>
+<div class="highlight-c++"><div class="highlight"><pre><span class="n">std</span><span class="o">::</span><span class="n">vector</span><span class="o"><</span><span class="n">MyType1</span><span class="o">></span><span class="p">;</span>
+<span class="n">std</span><span class="o">::</span><span class="n">vector</span><span class="o"><</span><span class="n">MyType2</span><span class="o">></span><span class="p">;</span>
+<span class="n">LLVM_YAML_IS_SEQUENCE_VECTOR</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="n">MyType1</span><span class="p">)</span>
+<span class="n">LLVM_YAML_IS_FLOW_SEQUENCE_VECTOR</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="n">MyType2</span><span class="p">)</span>
+</pre></div>
+</div>
+</div>
+</div>
+<div class="section" id="document-list">
+<h2><a class="toc-backref" href="#id20">Document List</a><a class="headerlink" href="#document-list" title="Permalink to this headline">¶</a></h2>
+<p>YAML allows you to define multiple “documents” in a single YAML file.  Each
+new document starts with a left aligned “—” token.  The end of all documents
+is denoted with a left aligned ”...” token.  Many users of YAML will never
+have need for multiple documents.  The top level node in their YAML schema
+will be a mapping or sequence. For those cases, the following is not needed.
+But for cases where you do want multiple documents, you can specify a
+trait for you document list type.  The trait has the same methods as
+SequenceTraits but is named DocumentListTraits.  For example:</p>
+<div class="highlight-c++"><div class="highlight"><pre><span class="k">template</span> <span class="o"><></span>
+<span class="k">struct</span> <span class="n">DocumentListTraits</span><span class="o"><</span><span class="n">MyDocList</span><span class="o">></span> <span class="p">{</span>
+  <span class="k">static</span> <span class="kt">size_t</span> <span class="n">size</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="n">IO</span> <span class="o">&</span><span class="n">io</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="n">MyDocList</span> <span class="o">&</span><span class="n">list</span><span class="p">)</span> <span class="p">{</span> <span class="p">...</span> <span class="p">}</span>
+  <span class="k">static</span> <span class="n">MyDocType</span> <span class="n">element</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="n">IO</span> <span class="o">&</span><span class="n">io</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="n">MyDocList</span> <span class="o">&</span><span class="n">list</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="kt">size_t</span> <span class="n">index</span><span class="p">)</span> <span class="p">{</span> <span class="p">...</span> <span class="p">}</span>
+<span class="p">};</span>
+</pre></div>
+</div>
+</div>
+<div class="section" id="user-context-data">
+<h2><a class="toc-backref" href="#id21">User Context Data</a><a class="headerlink" href="#user-context-data" title="Permalink to this headline">¶</a></h2>
+<p>When an llvm::yaml::Input or llvm::yaml::Output object is created their
+constructors take an optional “context” parameter.  This is a pointer to
+whatever state information you might need.</p>
+<p>For instance, in a previous example we showed how the conversion type for a
+flags field could be determined at runtime based on the value of another field
+in the mapping. But what if an inner mapping needs to know some field value
+of an outer mapping?  That is where the “context” parameter comes in. You
+can set values in the context in the outer map’s mapping() method and
+retrieve those values in the inner map’s mapping() method.</p>
+<p>The context value is just a void*.  All your traits which use the context
+and operate on your native data types, need to agree what the context value
+actually is.  It could be a pointer to an object or struct which your various
+traits use to shared context sensitive information.</p>
+</div>
+<div class="section" id="output">
+<h2><a class="toc-backref" href="#id22">Output</a><a class="headerlink" href="#output" title="Permalink to this headline">¶</a></h2>
+<p>The llvm::yaml::Output class is used to generate a YAML document from your
+in-memory data structures, using traits defined on your data types.
+To instantiate an Output object you need an llvm::raw_ostream, and optionally
+a context pointer:</p>
+<div class="highlight-c++"><div class="highlight"><pre><span class="k">class</span> <span class="nc">Output</span> <span class="o">:</span> <span class="k">public</span> <span class="n">IO</span> <span class="p">{</span>
+<span class="nl">public:</span>
+  <span class="n">Output</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="n">llvm</span><span class="o">::</span><span class="n">raw_ostream</span> <span class="o">&</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="kt">void</span> <span class="o">*</span><span class="n">context</span><span class="o">=</span><span class="nb">NULL</span><span class="p">);</span>
+</pre></div>
+</div>
+<p>Once you have an Output object, you can use the C++ stream operator on it
+to write your native data as YAML. One thing to recall is that a YAML file
+can contain multiple “documents”.  If the top level data structure you are
+streaming as YAML is a mapping, scalar, or sequence, then Output assumes you
+are generating one document and wraps the mapping output
+with  “<tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">---</span></tt>” and trailing “<tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">...</span></tt>”.</p>
+<div class="highlight-c++"><div class="highlight"><pre><span class="k">using</span> <span class="n">llvm</span><span class="o">::</span><span class="n">yaml</span><span class="o">::</span><span class="n">Output</span><span class="p">;</span>
+
+<span class="kt">void</span> <span class="nf">dumpMyMapDoc</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="k">const</span> <span class="n">MyMapType</span> <span class="o">&</span><span class="n">info</span><span class="p">)</span> <span class="p">{</span>
+  <span class="n">Output</span> <span class="n">yout</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="n">llvm</span><span class="o">::</span><span class="n">outs</span><span class="p">());</span>
+  <span class="n">yout</span> <span class="o"><<</span> <span class="n">info</span><span class="p">;</span>
+<span class="p">}</span>
+</pre></div>
+</div>
+<p>The above could produce output like:</p>
+<div class="highlight-yaml"><div class="highlight"><pre><span class="nn">---</span>
+<span class="l-Scalar-Plain">name</span><span class="p-Indicator">:</span>      <span class="l-Scalar-Plain">Tom</span>
+<span class="l-Scalar-Plain">hat-size</span><span class="p-Indicator">:</span>  <span class="l-Scalar-Plain">7</span>
+<span class="nn">...</span>
+</pre></div>
+</div>
+<p>On the other hand, if the top level data structure you are streaming as YAML
+has a DocumentListTraits specialization, then Output walks through each element
+of your DocumentList and generates a “—” before the start of each element
+and ends with a ”...”.</p>
+<div class="highlight-c++"><div class="highlight"><pre><span class="k">using</span> <span class="n">llvm</span><span class="o">::</span><span class="n">yaml</span><span class="o">::</span><span class="n">Output</span><span class="p">;</span>
+
+<span class="kt">void</span> <span class="nf">dumpMyMapDoc</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="k">const</span> <span class="n">MyDocListType</span> <span class="o">&</span><span class="n">docList</span><span class="p">)</span> <span class="p">{</span>
+  <span class="n">Output</span> <span class="n">yout</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="n">llvm</span><span class="o">::</span><span class="n">outs</span><span class="p">());</span>
+  <span class="n">yout</span> <span class="o"><<</span> <span class="n">docList</span><span class="p">;</span>
+<span class="p">}</span>
+</pre></div>
+</div>
+<p>The above could produce output like:</p>
+<div class="highlight-yaml"><div class="highlight"><pre><span class="nn">---</span>
+<span class="l-Scalar-Plain">name</span><span class="p-Indicator">:</span>      <span class="l-Scalar-Plain">Tom</span>
+<span class="l-Scalar-Plain">hat-size</span><span class="p-Indicator">:</span>  <span class="l-Scalar-Plain">7</span>
+<span class="nn">---</span>
+<span class="l-Scalar-Plain">name</span><span class="p-Indicator">:</span>      <span class="l-Scalar-Plain">Tom</span>
+<span class="l-Scalar-Plain">shoe-size</span><span class="p-Indicator">:</span>  <span class="l-Scalar-Plain">11</span>
+<span class="nn">...</span>
+</pre></div>
+</div>
+</div>
+<div class="section" id="input">
+<h2><a class="toc-backref" href="#id23">Input</a><a class="headerlink" href="#input" title="Permalink to this headline">¶</a></h2>
+<p>The llvm::yaml::Input class is used to parse YAML document(s) into your native
+data structures. To instantiate an Input
+object you need a StringRef to the entire YAML file, and optionally a context
+pointer:</p>
+<div class="highlight-c++"><div class="highlight"><pre><span class="k">class</span> <span class="nc">Input</span> <span class="o">:</span> <span class="k">public</span> <span class="n">IO</span> <span class="p">{</span>
+<span class="nl">public:</span>
+  <span class="n">Input</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="n">StringRef</span> <span class="n">inputContent</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="kt">void</span> <span class="o">*</span><span class="n">context</span><span class="o">=</span><span class="nb">NULL</span><span class="p">);</span>
+</pre></div>
+</div>
+<p>Once you have an Input object, you can use the C++ stream operator to read
+the document(s).  If you expect there might be multiple YAML documents in
+one file, you’ll need to specialize DocumentListTraits on a list of your
+document type and stream in that document list type.  Otherwise you can
+just stream in the document type.  Also, you can check if there was
+any syntax errors in the YAML be calling the error() method on the Input
+object.  For example:</p>
+<div class="highlight-c++"><div class="highlight"><pre><span class="c1">// Reading a single document</span>
+<span class="k">using</span> <span class="n">llvm</span><span class="o">::</span><span class="n">yaml</span><span class="o">::</span><span class="n">Input</span><span class="p">;</span>
+
+<span class="n">Input</span> <span class="nf">yin</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="n">mb</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="n">getBuffer</span><span class="p">());</span>
+
+<span class="c1">// Parse the YAML file</span>
+<span class="n">MyDocType</span> <span class="n">theDoc</span><span class="p">;</span>
+<span class="n">yin</span> <span class="o">>></span> <span class="n">theDoc</span><span class="p">;</span>
+
+<span class="c1">// Check for error</span>
+<span class="k">if</span> <span class="p">(</span> <span class="n">yin</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="n">error</span><span class="p">()</span> <span class="p">)</span>
+  <span class="k">return</span><span class="p">;</span>
+</pre></div>
+</div>
+<div class="highlight-c++"><div class="highlight"><pre><span class="c1">// Reading multiple documents in one file</span>
+<span class="k">using</span> <span class="n">llvm</span><span class="o">::</span><span class="n">yaml</span><span class="o">::</span><span class="n">Input</span><span class="p">;</span>
+
+<span class="n">LLVM_YAML_IS_DOCUMENT_LIST_VECTOR</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="n">std</span><span class="o">::</span><span class="n">vector</span><span class="o"><</span><span class="n">MyDocType</span><span class="o">></span><span class="p">)</span>
+
+<span class="n">Input</span> <span class="n">yin</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="n">mb</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="n">getBuffer</span><span class="p">());</span>
+
+<span class="c1">// Parse the YAML file</span>
+<span class="n">std</span><span class="o">::</span><span class="n">vector</span><span class="o"><</span><span class="n">MyDocType</span><span class="o">></span> <span class="n">theDocList</span><span class="p">;</span>
+<span class="n">yin</span> <span class="o">>></span> <span class="n">theDocList</span><span class="p">;</span>
+
+<span class="c1">// Check for error</span>
+<span class="k">if</span> <span class="p">(</span> <span class="n">yin</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="n">error</span><span class="p">()</span> <span class="p">)</span>
+  <span class="k">return</span><span class="p">;</span>
+</pre></div>
+</div>
+</div>
+</div>
+
+
+          </div>
+      </div>
+      <div class="clearer"></div>
+    </div>
+    <div class="related">
+      <h3>Navigation</h3>
+      <ul>
+        <li class="right" style="margin-right: 10px">
+          <a href="genindex.html" title="General Index"
+             >index</a></li>
+        <li class="right" >
+          <a href="GetElementPtr.html" title="The Often Misunderstood GEP Instruction"
+             >next</a> |</li>
+        <li class="right" >
+          <a href="Passes.html" title="LLVM’s Analysis and Transform Passes"
+             >previous</a> |</li>
+  <li><a href="http://llvm.org/">LLVM Home</a> | </li>
+  <li><a href="index.html">Documentation</a>»</li>
+ 
+      </ul>
+    </div>
+    <div class="footer">
+        © Copyright 2003-2013, LLVM Project.
+      Last updated on 2014-05-06.
+      Created using <a href="http://sphinx.pocoo.org/">Sphinx</a> 1.1.3.
+    </div>
+  </body>
+</html>
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@@ -0,0 +1,699 @@
+==================================
+LLVM Alias Analysis Infrastructure
+==================================
+
+.. contents::
+   :local:
+
+Introduction
+============
+
+Alias Analysis (aka Pointer Analysis) is a class of techniques which attempt to
+determine whether or not two pointers ever can point to the same object in
+memory.  There are many different algorithms for alias analysis and many
+different ways of classifying them: flow-sensitive vs. flow-insensitive,
+context-sensitive vs. context-insensitive, field-sensitive
+vs. field-insensitive, unification-based vs. subset-based, etc.  Traditionally,
+alias analyses respond to a query with a `Must, May, or No`_ alias response,
+indicating that two pointers always point to the same object, might point to the
+same object, or are known to never point to the same object.
+
+The LLVM `AliasAnalysis
+<http://llvm.org/doxygen/classllvm_1_1AliasAnalysis.html>`__ class is the
+primary interface used by clients and implementations of alias analyses in the
+LLVM system.  This class is the common interface between clients of alias
+analysis information and the implementations providing it, and is designed to
+support a wide range of implementations and clients (but currently all clients
+are assumed to be flow-insensitive).  In addition to simple alias analysis
+information, this class exposes Mod/Ref information from those implementations
+which can provide it, allowing for powerful analyses and transformations to work
+well together.
+
+This document contains information necessary to successfully implement this
+interface, use it, and to test both sides.  It also explains some of the finer
+points about what exactly results mean.  If you feel that something is unclear
+or should be added, please `let me know <mailto:sabre at nondot.org>`_.
+
+``AliasAnalysis`` Class Overview
+================================
+
+The `AliasAnalysis <http://llvm.org/doxygen/classllvm_1_1AliasAnalysis.html>`__
+class defines the interface that the various alias analysis implementations
+should support.  This class exports two important enums: ``AliasResult`` and
+``ModRefResult`` which represent the result of an alias query or a mod/ref
+query, respectively.
+
+The ``AliasAnalysis`` interface exposes information about memory, represented in
+several different ways.  In particular, memory objects are represented as a
+starting address and size, and function calls are represented as the actual
+``call`` or ``invoke`` instructions that performs the call.  The
+``AliasAnalysis`` interface also exposes some helper methods which allow you to
+get mod/ref information for arbitrary instructions.
+
+All ``AliasAnalysis`` interfaces require that in queries involving multiple
+values, values which are not `constants <LangRef.html#constants>`_ are all
+defined within the same function.
+
+Representation of Pointers
+--------------------------
+
+Most importantly, the ``AliasAnalysis`` class provides several methods which are
+used to query whether or not two memory objects alias, whether function calls
+can modify or read a memory object, etc.  For all of these queries, memory
+objects are represented as a pair of their starting address (a symbolic LLVM
+``Value*``) and a static size.
+
+Representing memory objects as a starting address and a size is critically
+important for correct Alias Analyses.  For example, consider this (silly, but
+possible) C code:
+
+.. code-block:: c++
+
+  int i;
+  char C[2];
+  char A[10]; 
+  /* ... */
+  for (i = 0; i != 10; ++i) {
+    C[0] = A[i];          /* One byte store */
+    C[1] = A[9-i];        /* One byte store */
+  }
+
+In this case, the ``basicaa`` pass will disambiguate the stores to ``C[0]`` and
+``C[1]`` because they are accesses to two distinct locations one byte apart, and
+the accesses are each one byte.  In this case, the Loop Invariant Code Motion
+(LICM) pass can use store motion to remove the stores from the loop.  In
+constrast, the following code:
+
+.. code-block:: c++
+
+  int i;
+  char C[2];
+  char A[10]; 
+  /* ... */
+  for (i = 0; i != 10; ++i) {
+    ((short*)C)[0] = A[i];  /* Two byte store! */
+    C[1] = A[9-i];          /* One byte store */
+  }
+
+In this case, the two stores to C do alias each other, because the access to the
+``&C[0]`` element is a two byte access.  If size information wasn't available in
+the query, even the first case would have to conservatively assume that the
+accesses alias.
+
+.. _alias:
+
+The ``alias`` method
+--------------------
+  
+The ``alias`` method is the primary interface used to determine whether or not
+two memory objects alias each other.  It takes two memory objects as input and
+returns MustAlias, PartialAlias, MayAlias, or NoAlias as appropriate.
+
+Like all ``AliasAnalysis`` interfaces, the ``alias`` method requires that either
+the two pointer values be defined within the same function, or at least one of
+the values is a `constant <LangRef.html#constants>`_.
+
+.. _Must, May, or No:
+
+Must, May, and No Alias Responses
+^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
+
+The ``NoAlias`` response may be used when there is never an immediate dependence
+between any memory reference *based* on one pointer and any memory reference
+*based* the other. The most obvious example is when the two pointers point to
+non-overlapping memory ranges. Another is when the two pointers are only ever
+used for reading memory. Another is when the memory is freed and reallocated
+between accesses through one pointer and accesses through the other --- in this
+case, there is a dependence, but it's mediated by the free and reallocation.
+
+As an exception to this is with the `noalias <LangRef.html#noalias>`_ keyword;
+the "irrelevant" dependencies are ignored.
+
+The ``MayAlias`` response is used whenever the two pointers might refer to the
+same object.
+
+The ``PartialAlias`` response is used when the two memory objects are known to
+be overlapping in some way, but do not start at the same address.
+
+The ``MustAlias`` response may only be returned if the two memory objects are
+guaranteed to always start at exactly the same location. A ``MustAlias``
+response implies that the pointers compare equal.
+
+The ``getModRefInfo`` methods
+-----------------------------
+
+The ``getModRefInfo`` methods return information about whether the execution of
+an instruction can read or modify a memory location.  Mod/Ref information is
+always conservative: if an instruction **might** read or write a location,
+``ModRef`` is returned.
+
+The ``AliasAnalysis`` class also provides a ``getModRefInfo`` method for testing
+dependencies between function calls.  This method takes two call sites (``CS1``
+& ``CS2``), returns ``NoModRef`` if neither call writes to memory read or
+written by the other, ``Ref`` if ``CS1`` reads memory written by ``CS2``,
+``Mod`` if ``CS1`` writes to memory read or written by ``CS2``, or ``ModRef`` if
+``CS1`` might read or write memory written to by ``CS2``.  Note that this
+relation is not commutative.
+
+Other useful ``AliasAnalysis`` methods
+--------------------------------------
+
+Several other tidbits of information are often collected by various alias
+analysis implementations and can be put to good use by various clients.
+
+The ``pointsToConstantMemory`` method
+^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
+
+The ``pointsToConstantMemory`` method returns true if and only if the analysis
+can prove that the pointer only points to unchanging memory locations
+(functions, constant global variables, and the null pointer).  This information
+can be used to refine mod/ref information: it is impossible for an unchanging
+memory location to be modified.
+
+.. _never access memory or only read memory:
+
+The ``doesNotAccessMemory`` and  ``onlyReadsMemory`` methods
+^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
+
+These methods are used to provide very simple mod/ref information for function
+calls.  The ``doesNotAccessMemory`` method returns true for a function if the
+analysis can prove that the function never reads or writes to memory, or if the
+function only reads from constant memory.  Functions with this property are
+side-effect free and only depend on their input arguments, allowing them to be
+eliminated if they form common subexpressions or be hoisted out of loops.  Many
+common functions behave this way (e.g., ``sin`` and ``cos``) but many others do
+not (e.g., ``acos``, which modifies the ``errno`` variable).
+
+The ``onlyReadsMemory`` method returns true for a function if analysis can prove
+that (at most) the function only reads from non-volatile memory.  Functions with
+this property are side-effect free, only depending on their input arguments and
+the state of memory when they are called.  This property allows calls to these
+functions to be eliminated and moved around, as long as there is no store
+instruction that changes the contents of memory.  Note that all functions that
+satisfy the ``doesNotAccessMemory`` method also satisfies ``onlyReadsMemory``.
+
+Writing a new ``AliasAnalysis`` Implementation
+==============================================
+
+Writing a new alias analysis implementation for LLVM is quite straight-forward.
+There are already several implementations that you can use for examples, and the
+following information should help fill in any details.  For a examples, take a
+look at the `various alias analysis implementations`_ included with LLVM.
+
+Different Pass styles
+---------------------
+
+The first step to determining what type of :doc:`LLVM pass <WritingAnLLVMPass>`
+you need to use for your Alias Analysis.  As is the case with most other
+analyses and transformations, the answer should be fairly obvious from what type
+of problem you are trying to solve:
+
+#. If you require interprocedural analysis, it should be a ``Pass``.
+#. If you are a function-local analysis, subclass ``FunctionPass``.
+#. If you don't need to look at the program at all, subclass ``ImmutablePass``.
+
+In addition to the pass that you subclass, you should also inherit from the
+``AliasAnalysis`` interface, of course, and use the ``RegisterAnalysisGroup``
+template to register as an implementation of ``AliasAnalysis``.
+
+Required initialization calls
+-----------------------------
+
+Your subclass of ``AliasAnalysis`` is required to invoke two methods on the
+``AliasAnalysis`` base class: ``getAnalysisUsage`` and
+``InitializeAliasAnalysis``.  In particular, your implementation of
+``getAnalysisUsage`` should explicitly call into the
+``AliasAnalysis::getAnalysisUsage`` method in addition to doing any declaring
+any pass dependencies your pass has.  Thus you should have something like this:
+
+.. code-block:: c++
+
+  void getAnalysisUsage(AnalysisUsage &AU) const {
+    AliasAnalysis::getAnalysisUsage(AU);
+    // declare your dependencies here.
+  }
+
+Additionally, your must invoke the ``InitializeAliasAnalysis`` method from your
+analysis run method (``run`` for a ``Pass``, ``runOnFunction`` for a
+``FunctionPass``, or ``InitializePass`` for an ``ImmutablePass``).  For example
+(as part of a ``Pass``):
+
+.. code-block:: c++
+
+  bool run(Module &M) {
+    InitializeAliasAnalysis(this);
+    // Perform analysis here...
+    return false;
+  }
+
+Interfaces which may be specified
+---------------------------------
+
+All of the `AliasAnalysis
+<http://llvm.org/doxygen/classllvm_1_1AliasAnalysis.html>`__ virtual methods
+default to providing :ref:`chaining <aliasanalysis-chaining>` to another alias
+analysis implementation, which ends up returning conservatively correct
+information (returning "May" Alias and "Mod/Ref" for alias and mod/ref queries
+respectively).  Depending on the capabilities of the analysis you are
+implementing, you just override the interfaces you can improve.
+
+.. _aliasanalysis-chaining:
+
+``AliasAnalysis`` chaining behavior
+-----------------------------------
+
+With only one special exception (the :ref:`-no-aa <aliasanalysis-no-aa>` pass)
+every alias analysis pass chains to another alias analysis implementation (for
+example, the user can specify "``-basicaa -ds-aa -licm``" to get the maximum
+benefit from both alias analyses).  The alias analysis class automatically
+takes care of most of this for methods that you don't override.  For methods
+that you do override, in code paths that return a conservative MayAlias or
+Mod/Ref result, simply return whatever the superclass computes.  For example:
+
+.. code-block:: c++
+
+  AliasAnalysis::AliasResult alias(const Value *V1, unsigned V1Size,
+                                   const Value *V2, unsigned V2Size) {
+    if (...)
+      return NoAlias;
+    ...
+
+    // Couldn't determine a must or no-alias result.
+    return AliasAnalysis::alias(V1, V1Size, V2, V2Size);
+  }
+
+In addition to analysis queries, you must make sure to unconditionally pass LLVM
+`update notification`_ methods to the superclass as well if you override them,
+which allows all alias analyses in a change to be updated.
+
+.. _update notification:
+
+Updating analysis results for transformations
+---------------------------------------------
+
+Alias analysis information is initially computed for a static snapshot of the
+program, but clients will use this information to make transformations to the
+code.  All but the most trivial forms of alias analysis will need to have their
+analysis results updated to reflect the changes made by these transformations.
+
+The ``AliasAnalysis`` interface exposes four methods which are used to
+communicate program changes from the clients to the analysis implementations.
+Various alias analysis implementations should use these methods to ensure that
+their internal data structures are kept up-to-date as the program changes (for
+example, when an instruction is deleted), and clients of alias analysis must be
+sure to call these interfaces appropriately.
+
+The ``deleteValue`` method
+^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
+
+The ``deleteValue`` method is called by transformations when they remove an
+instruction or any other value from the program (including values that do not
+use pointers).  Typically alias analyses keep data structures that have entries
+for each value in the program.  When this method is called, they should remove
+any entries for the specified value, if they exist.
+
+The ``copyValue`` method
+^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
+
+The ``copyValue`` method is used when a new value is introduced into the
+program.  There is no way to introduce a value into the program that did not
+exist before (this doesn't make sense for a safe compiler transformation), so
+this is the only way to introduce a new value.  This method indicates that the
+new value has exactly the same properties as the value being copied.
+
+The ``replaceWithNewValue`` method
+^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
+
+This method is a simple helper method that is provided to make clients easier to
+use.  It is implemented by copying the old analysis information to the new
+value, then deleting the old value.  This method cannot be overridden by alias
+analysis implementations.
+
+The ``addEscapingUse`` method
+^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
+
+The ``addEscapingUse`` method is used when the uses of a pointer value have
+changed in ways that may invalidate precomputed analysis information.
+Implementations may either use this callback to provide conservative responses
+for points whose uses have change since analysis time, or may recompute some or
+all of their internal state to continue providing accurate responses.
+
+In general, any new use of a pointer value is considered an escaping use, and
+must be reported through this callback, *except* for the uses below:
+
+* A ``bitcast`` or ``getelementptr`` of the pointer
+* A ``store`` through the pointer (but not a ``store`` *of* the pointer)
+* A ``load`` through the pointer
+
+Efficiency Issues
+-----------------
+
+From the LLVM perspective, the only thing you need to do to provide an efficient
+alias analysis is to make sure that alias analysis **queries** are serviced
+quickly.  The actual calculation of the alias analysis results (the "run"
+method) is only performed once, but many (perhaps duplicate) queries may be
+performed.  Because of this, try to move as much computation to the run method
+as possible (within reason).
+
+Limitations
+-----------
+
+The AliasAnalysis infrastructure has several limitations which make writing a
+new ``AliasAnalysis`` implementation difficult.
+
+There is no way to override the default alias analysis. It would be very useful
+to be able to do something like "``opt -my-aa -O2``" and have it use ``-my-aa``
+for all passes which need AliasAnalysis, but there is currently no support for
+that, short of changing the source code and recompiling. Similarly, there is
+also no way of setting a chain of analyses as the default.
+
+There is no way for transform passes to declare that they preserve
+``AliasAnalysis`` implementations. The ``AliasAnalysis`` interface includes
+``deleteValue`` and ``copyValue`` methods which are intended to allow a pass to
+keep an AliasAnalysis consistent, however there's no way for a pass to declare
+in its ``getAnalysisUsage`` that it does so. Some passes attempt to use
+``AU.addPreserved<AliasAnalysis>``, however this doesn't actually have any
+effect.
+
+``AliasAnalysisCounter`` (``-count-aa``) and ``AliasDebugger`` (``-debug-aa``)
+are implemented as ``ModulePass`` classes, so if your alias analysis uses
+``FunctionPass``, it won't be able to use these utilities. If you try to use
+them, the pass manager will silently route alias analysis queries directly to
+``BasicAliasAnalysis`` instead.
+
+Similarly, the ``opt -p`` option introduces ``ModulePass`` passes between each
+pass, which prevents the use of ``FunctionPass`` alias analysis passes.
+
+The ``AliasAnalysis`` API does have functions for notifying implementations when
+values are deleted or copied, however these aren't sufficient. There are many
+other ways that LLVM IR can be modified which could be relevant to
+``AliasAnalysis`` implementations which can not be expressed.
+
+The ``AliasAnalysisDebugger`` utility seems to suggest that ``AliasAnalysis``
+implementations can expect that they will be informed of any relevant ``Value``
+before it appears in an alias query. However, popular clients such as ``GVN``
+don't support this, and are known to trigger errors when run with the
+``AliasAnalysisDebugger``.
+
+Due to several of the above limitations, the most obvious use for the
+``AliasAnalysisCounter`` utility, collecting stats on all alias queries in a
+compilation, doesn't work, even if the ``AliasAnalysis`` implementations don't
+use ``FunctionPass``.  There's no way to set a default, much less a default
+sequence, and there's no way to preserve it.
+
+The ``AliasSetTracker`` class (which is used by ``LICM``) makes a
+non-deterministic number of alias queries. This can cause stats collected by
+``AliasAnalysisCounter`` to have fluctuations among identical runs, for
+example. Another consequence is that debugging techniques involving pausing
+execution after a predetermined number of queries can be unreliable.
+
+Many alias queries can be reformulated in terms of other alias queries. When
+multiple ``AliasAnalysis`` queries are chained together, it would make sense to
+start those queries from the beginning of the chain, with care taken to avoid
+infinite looping, however currently an implementation which wants to do this can
+only start such queries from itself.
+
+Using alias analysis results
+============================
+
+There are several different ways to use alias analysis results.  In order of
+preference, these are:
+
+Using the ``MemoryDependenceAnalysis`` Pass
+-------------------------------------------
+
+The ``memdep`` pass uses alias analysis to provide high-level dependence
+information about memory-using instructions.  This will tell you which store
+feeds into a load, for example.  It uses caching and other techniques to be
+efficient, and is used by Dead Store Elimination, GVN, and memcpy optimizations.
+
+.. _AliasSetTracker:
+
+Using the ``AliasSetTracker`` class
+-----------------------------------
+
+Many transformations need information about alias **sets** that are active in
+some scope, rather than information about pairwise aliasing.  The
+`AliasSetTracker <http://llvm.org/doxygen/classllvm_1_1AliasSetTracker.html>`__
+class is used to efficiently build these Alias Sets from the pairwise alias
+analysis information provided by the ``AliasAnalysis`` interface.
+
+First you initialize the AliasSetTracker by using the "``add``" methods to add
+information about various potentially aliasing instructions in the scope you are
+interested in.  Once all of the alias sets are completed, your pass should
+simply iterate through the constructed alias sets, using the ``AliasSetTracker``
+``begin()``/``end()`` methods.
+
+The ``AliasSet``\s formed by the ``AliasSetTracker`` are guaranteed to be
+disjoint, calculate mod/ref information and volatility for the set, and keep
+track of whether or not all of the pointers in the set are Must aliases.  The
+AliasSetTracker also makes sure that sets are properly folded due to call
+instructions, and can provide a list of pointers in each set.
+
+As an example user of this, the `Loop Invariant Code Motion
+<doxygen/structLICM.html>`_ pass uses ``AliasSetTracker``\s to calculate alias
+sets for each loop nest.  If an ``AliasSet`` in a loop is not modified, then all
+load instructions from that set may be hoisted out of the loop.  If any alias
+sets are stored to **and** are must alias sets, then the stores may be sunk
+to outside of the loop, promoting the memory location to a register for the
+duration of the loop nest.  Both of these transformations only apply if the
+pointer argument is loop-invariant.
+
+The AliasSetTracker implementation
+^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
+
+The AliasSetTracker class is implemented to be as efficient as possible.  It
+uses the union-find algorithm to efficiently merge AliasSets when a pointer is
+inserted into the AliasSetTracker that aliases multiple sets.  The primary data
+structure is a hash table mapping pointers to the AliasSet they are in.
+
+The AliasSetTracker class must maintain a list of all of the LLVM ``Value*``\s
+that are in each AliasSet.  Since the hash table already has entries for each
+LLVM ``Value*`` of interest, the AliasesSets thread the linked list through
+these hash-table nodes to avoid having to allocate memory unnecessarily, and to
+make merging alias sets extremely efficient (the linked list merge is constant
+time).
+
+You shouldn't need to understand these details if you are just a client of the
+AliasSetTracker, but if you look at the code, hopefully this brief description
+will help make sense of why things are designed the way they are.
+
+Using the ``AliasAnalysis`` interface directly
+----------------------------------------------
+
+If neither of these utility class are what your pass needs, you should use the
+interfaces exposed by the ``AliasAnalysis`` class directly.  Try to use the
+higher-level methods when possible (e.g., use mod/ref information instead of the
+`alias`_ method directly if possible) to get the best precision and efficiency.
+
+Existing alias analysis implementations and clients
+===================================================
+
+If you're going to be working with the LLVM alias analysis infrastructure, you
+should know what clients and implementations of alias analysis are available.
+In particular, if you are implementing an alias analysis, you should be aware of
+the `the clients`_ that are useful for monitoring and evaluating different
+implementations.
+
+.. _various alias analysis implementations:
+
+Available ``AliasAnalysis`` implementations
+-------------------------------------------
+
+This section lists the various implementations of the ``AliasAnalysis``
+interface.  With the exception of the :ref:`-no-aa <aliasanalysis-no-aa>`
+implementation, all of these :ref:`chain <aliasanalysis-chaining>` to other
+alias analysis implementations.
+
+.. _aliasanalysis-no-aa:
+
+The ``-no-aa`` pass
+^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
+
+The ``-no-aa`` pass is just like what it sounds: an alias analysis that never
+returns any useful information.  This pass can be useful if you think that alias
+analysis is doing something wrong and are trying to narrow down a problem.
+
+The ``-basicaa`` pass
+^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
+
+The ``-basicaa`` pass is an aggressive local analysis that *knows* many
+important facts:
+
+* Distinct globals, stack allocations, and heap allocations can never alias.
+* Globals, stack allocations, and heap allocations never alias the null pointer.
+* Different fields of a structure do not alias.
+* Indexes into arrays with statically differing subscripts cannot alias.
+* Many common standard C library functions `never access memory or only read
+  memory`_.
+* Pointers that obviously point to constant globals "``pointToConstantMemory``".
+* Function calls can not modify or references stack allocations if they never
+  escape from the function that allocates them (a common case for automatic
+  arrays).
+
+The ``-globalsmodref-aa`` pass
+^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
+
+This pass implements a simple context-sensitive mod/ref and alias analysis for
+internal global variables that don't "have their address taken".  If a global
+does not have its address taken, the pass knows that no pointers alias the
+global.  This pass also keeps track of functions that it knows never access
+memory or never read memory.  This allows certain optimizations (e.g. GVN) to
+eliminate call instructions entirely.
+
+The real power of this pass is that it provides context-sensitive mod/ref
+information for call instructions.  This allows the optimizer to know that calls
+to a function do not clobber or read the value of the global, allowing loads and
+stores to be eliminated.
+
+.. note::
+
+  This pass is somewhat limited in its scope (only support non-address taken
+  globals), but is very quick analysis.
+
+The ``-steens-aa`` pass
+^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
+
+The ``-steens-aa`` pass implements a variation on the well-known "Steensgaard's
+algorithm" for interprocedural alias analysis.  Steensgaard's algorithm is a
+unification-based, flow-insensitive, context-insensitive, and field-insensitive
+alias analysis that is also very scalable (effectively linear time).
+
+The LLVM ``-steens-aa`` pass implements a "speculatively field-**sensitive**"
+version of Steensgaard's algorithm using the Data Structure Analysis framework.
+This gives it substantially more precision than the standard algorithm while
+maintaining excellent analysis scalability.
+
+.. note::
+
+  ``-steens-aa`` is available in the optional "poolalloc" module. It is not part
+  of the LLVM core.
+
+The ``-ds-aa`` pass
+^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
+
+The ``-ds-aa`` pass implements the full Data Structure Analysis algorithm.  Data
+Structure Analysis is a modular unification-based, flow-insensitive,
+context-**sensitive**, and speculatively field-**sensitive** alias
+analysis that is also quite scalable, usually at ``O(n * log(n))``.
+
+This algorithm is capable of responding to a full variety of alias analysis
+queries, and can provide context-sensitive mod/ref information as well.  The
+only major facility not implemented so far is support for must-alias
+information.
+
+.. note::
+
+  ``-ds-aa`` is available in the optional "poolalloc" module. It is not part of
+  the LLVM core.
+
+The ``-scev-aa`` pass
+^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
+
+The ``-scev-aa`` pass implements AliasAnalysis queries by translating them into
+ScalarEvolution queries. This gives it a more complete understanding of
+``getelementptr`` instructions and loop induction variables than other alias
+analyses have.
+
+Alias analysis driven transformations
+-------------------------------------
+
+LLVM includes several alias-analysis driven transformations which can be used
+with any of the implementations above.
+
+The ``-adce`` pass
+^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
+
+The ``-adce`` pass, which implements Aggressive Dead Code Elimination uses the
+``AliasAnalysis`` interface to delete calls to functions that do not have
+side-effects and are not used.
+
+The ``-licm`` pass
+^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
+
+The ``-licm`` pass implements various Loop Invariant Code Motion related
+transformations.  It uses the ``AliasAnalysis`` interface for several different
+transformations:
+
+* It uses mod/ref information to hoist or sink load instructions out of loops if
+  there are no instructions in the loop that modifies the memory loaded.
+
+* It uses mod/ref information to hoist function calls out of loops that do not
+  write to memory and are loop-invariant.
+
+* If uses alias information to promote memory objects that are loaded and stored
+  to in loops to live in a register instead.  It can do this if there are no may
+  aliases to the loaded/stored memory location.
+
+The ``-argpromotion`` pass
+^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
+
+The ``-argpromotion`` pass promotes by-reference arguments to be passed in
+by-value instead.  In particular, if pointer arguments are only loaded from it
+passes in the value loaded instead of the address to the function.  This pass
+uses alias information to make sure that the value loaded from the argument
+pointer is not modified between the entry of the function and any load of the
+pointer.
+
+The ``-gvn``, ``-memcpyopt``, and ``-dse`` passes
+^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
+
+These passes use AliasAnalysis information to reason about loads and stores.
+
+.. _the clients:
+
+Clients for debugging and evaluation of implementations
+-------------------------------------------------------
+
+These passes are useful for evaluating the various alias analysis
+implementations.  You can use them with commands like:
+
+.. code-block:: bash
+
+  % opt -ds-aa -aa-eval foo.bc -disable-output -stats
+
+The ``-print-alias-sets`` pass
+^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
+
+The ``-print-alias-sets`` pass is exposed as part of the ``opt`` tool to print
+out the Alias Sets formed by the `AliasSetTracker`_ class.  This is useful if
+you're using the ``AliasSetTracker`` class.  To use it, use something like:
+
+.. code-block:: bash
+
+  % opt -ds-aa -print-alias-sets -disable-output
+
+The ``-count-aa`` pass
+^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
+
+The ``-count-aa`` pass is useful to see how many queries a particular pass is
+making and what responses are returned by the alias analysis.  As an example:
+
+.. code-block:: bash
+
+  % opt -basicaa -count-aa -ds-aa -count-aa -licm
+
+will print out how many queries (and what responses are returned) by the
+``-licm`` pass (of the ``-ds-aa`` pass) and how many queries are made of the
+``-basicaa`` pass by the ``-ds-aa`` pass.  This can be useful when debugging a
+transformation or an alias analysis implementation.
+
+The ``-aa-eval`` pass
+^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
+
+The ``-aa-eval`` pass simply iterates through all pairs of pointers in a
+function and asks an alias analysis whether or not the pointers alias.  This
+gives an indication of the precision of the alias analysis.  Statistics are
+printed indicating the percent of no/may/must aliases found (a more precise
+algorithm will have a lower number of may aliases).
+
+Memory Dependence Analysis
+==========================
+
+If you're just looking to be a client of alias analysis information, consider
+using the Memory Dependence Analysis interface instead.  MemDep is a lazy,
+caching layer on top of alias analysis that is able to answer the question of
+what preceding memory operations a given instruction depends on, either at an
+intra- or inter-block level.  Because of its laziness and caching policy, using
+MemDep can be a significant performance win over accessing alias analysis
+directly.

Added: www-releases/trunk/3.4.1/docs/_sources/Atomics.txt
URL: http://llvm.org/viewvc/llvm-project/www-releases/trunk/3.4.1/docs/_sources/Atomics.txt?rev=208244&view=auto
==============================================================================
--- www-releases/trunk/3.4.1/docs/_sources/Atomics.txt (added)
+++ www-releases/trunk/3.4.1/docs/_sources/Atomics.txt Wed May  7 15:09:32 2014
@@ -0,0 +1,439 @@
+==============================================
+LLVM Atomic Instructions and Concurrency Guide
+==============================================
+
+.. contents::
+   :local:
+
+Introduction
+============
+
+Historically, LLVM has not had very strong support for concurrency; some minimal
+intrinsics were provided, and ``volatile`` was used in some cases to achieve
+rough semantics in the presence of concurrency.  However, this is changing;
+there are now new instructions which are well-defined in the presence of threads
+and asynchronous signals, and the model for existing instructions has been
+clarified in the IR.
+
+The atomic instructions are designed specifically to provide readable IR and
+optimized code generation for the following:
+
+* The new C++0x ``<atomic>`` header.  (`C++0x draft available here
+  <http://www.open-std.org/jtc1/sc22/wg21/>`_.) (`C1x draft available here
+  <http://www.open-std.org/jtc1/sc22/wg14/>`_.)
+
+* Proper semantics for Java-style memory, for both ``volatile`` and regular
+  shared variables. (`Java Specification
+  <http://java.sun.com/docs/books/jls/third_edition/html/memory.html>`_)
+
+* gcc-compatible ``__sync_*`` builtins. (`Description
+  <http://gcc.gnu.org/onlinedocs/gcc/Atomic-Builtins.html>`_)
+
+* Other scenarios with atomic semantics, including ``static`` variables with
+  non-trivial constructors in C++.
+
+Atomic and volatile in the IR are orthogonal; "volatile" is the C/C++ volatile,
+which ensures that every volatile load and store happens and is performed in the
+stated order.  A couple examples: if a SequentiallyConsistent store is
+immediately followed by another SequentiallyConsistent store to the same
+address, the first store can be erased. This transformation is not allowed for a
+pair of volatile stores. On the other hand, a non-volatile non-atomic load can
+be moved across a volatile load freely, but not an Acquire load.
+
+This document is intended to provide a guide to anyone either writing a frontend
+for LLVM or working on optimization passes for LLVM with a guide for how to deal
+with instructions with special semantics in the presence of concurrency.  This
+is not intended to be a precise guide to the semantics; the details can get
+extremely complicated and unreadable, and are not usually necessary.
+
+.. _Optimization outside atomic:
+
+Optimization outside atomic
+===========================
+
+The basic ``'load'`` and ``'store'`` allow a variety of optimizations, but can
+lead to undefined results in a concurrent environment; see `NotAtomic`_. This
+section specifically goes into the one optimizer restriction which applies in
+concurrent environments, which gets a bit more of an extended description
+because any optimization dealing with stores needs to be aware of it.
+
+From the optimizer's point of view, the rule is that if there are not any
+instructions with atomic ordering involved, concurrency does not matter, with
+one exception: if a variable might be visible to another thread or signal
+handler, a store cannot be inserted along a path where it might not execute
+otherwise.  Take the following example:
+
+.. code-block:: c
+
+ /* C code, for readability; run through clang -O2 -S -emit-llvm to get
+     equivalent IR */
+  int x;
+  void f(int* a) {
+    for (int i = 0; i < 100; i++) {
+      if (a[i])
+        x += 1;
+    }
+  }
+
+The following is equivalent in non-concurrent situations:
+
+.. code-block:: c
+
+  int x;
+  void f(int* a) {
+    int xtemp = x;
+    for (int i = 0; i < 100; i++) {
+      if (a[i])
+        xtemp += 1;
+    }
+    x = xtemp;
+  }
+
+However, LLVM is not allowed to transform the former to the latter: it could
+indirectly introduce undefined behavior if another thread can access ``x`` at
+the same time. (This example is particularly of interest because before the
+concurrency model was implemented, LLVM would perform this transformation.)
+
+Note that speculative loads are allowed; a load which is part of a race returns
+``undef``, but does not have undefined behavior.
+
+Atomic instructions
+===================
+
+For cases where simple loads and stores are not sufficient, LLVM provides
+various atomic instructions. The exact guarantees provided depend on the
+ordering; see `Atomic orderings`_.
+
+``load atomic`` and ``store atomic`` provide the same basic functionality as
+non-atomic loads and stores, but provide additional guarantees in situations
+where threads and signals are involved.
+
+``cmpxchg`` and ``atomicrmw`` are essentially like an atomic load followed by an
+atomic store (where the store is conditional for ``cmpxchg``), but no other
+memory operation can happen on any thread between the load and store.  Note that
+LLVM's cmpxchg does not provide quite as many options as the C++0x version.
+
+A ``fence`` provides Acquire and/or Release ordering which is not part of
+another operation; it is normally used along with Monotonic memory operations.
+A Monotonic load followed by an Acquire fence is roughly equivalent to an
+Acquire load.
+
+Frontends generating atomic instructions generally need to be aware of the
+target to some degree; atomic instructions are guaranteed to be lock-free, and
+therefore an instruction which is wider than the target natively supports can be
+impossible to generate.
+
+.. _Atomic orderings:
+
+Atomic orderings
+================
+
+In order to achieve a balance between performance and necessary guarantees,
+there are six levels of atomicity. They are listed in order of strength; each
+level includes all the guarantees of the previous level except for
+Acquire/Release. (See also `LangRef Ordering <LangRef.html#ordering>`_.)
+
+.. _NotAtomic:
+
+NotAtomic
+---------
+
+NotAtomic is the obvious, a load or store which is not atomic. (This isn't
+really a level of atomicity, but is listed here for comparison.) This is
+essentially a regular load or store. If there is a race on a given memory
+location, loads from that location return undef.
+
+Relevant standard
+  This is intended to match shared variables in C/C++, and to be used in any
+  other context where memory access is necessary, and a race is impossible. (The
+  precise definition is in `LangRef Memory Model <LangRef.html#memmodel>`_.)
+
+Notes for frontends
+  The rule is essentially that all memory accessed with basic loads and stores
+  by multiple threads should be protected by a lock or other synchronization;
+  otherwise, you are likely to run into undefined behavior. If your frontend is
+  for a "safe" language like Java, use Unordered to load and store any shared
+  variable.  Note that NotAtomic volatile loads and stores are not properly
+  atomic; do not try to use them as a substitute. (Per the C/C++ standards,
+  volatile does provide some limited guarantees around asynchronous signals, but
+  atomics are generally a better solution.)
+
+Notes for optimizers
+  Introducing loads to shared variables along a codepath where they would not
+  otherwise exist is allowed; introducing stores to shared variables is not. See
+  `Optimization outside atomic`_.
+
+Notes for code generation
+  The one interesting restriction here is that it is not allowed to write to
+  bytes outside of the bytes relevant to a store.  This is mostly relevant to
+  unaligned stores: it is not allowed in general to convert an unaligned store
+  into two aligned stores of the same width as the unaligned store. Backends are
+  also expected to generate an i8 store as an i8 store, and not an instruction
+  which writes to surrounding bytes.  (If you are writing a backend for an
+  architecture which cannot satisfy these restrictions and cares about
+  concurrency, please send an email to llvmdev.)
+
+Unordered
+---------
+
+Unordered is the lowest level of atomicity. It essentially guarantees that races
+produce somewhat sane results instead of having undefined behavior.  It also
+guarantees the operation to be lock-free, so it do not depend on the data being
+part of a special atomic structure or depend on a separate per-process global
+lock.  Note that code generation will fail for unsupported atomic operations; if
+you need such an operation, use explicit locking.
+
+Relevant standard
+  This is intended to match the Java memory model for shared variables.
+
+Notes for frontends
+  This cannot be used for synchronization, but is useful for Java and other
+  "safe" languages which need to guarantee that the generated code never
+  exhibits undefined behavior. Note that this guarantee is cheap on common
+  platforms for loads of a native width, but can be expensive or unavailable for
+  wider loads, like a 64-bit store on ARM. (A frontend for Java or other "safe"
+  languages would normally split a 64-bit store on ARM into two 32-bit unordered
+  stores.)
+
+Notes for optimizers
+  In terms of the optimizer, this prohibits any transformation that transforms a
+  single load into multiple loads, transforms a store into multiple stores,
+  narrows a store, or stores a value which would not be stored otherwise.  Some
+  examples of unsafe optimizations are narrowing an assignment into a bitfield,
+  rematerializing a load, and turning loads and stores into a memcpy
+  call. Reordering unordered operations is safe, though, and optimizers should
+  take advantage of that because unordered operations are common in languages
+  that need them.
+
+Notes for code generation
+  These operations are required to be atomic in the sense that if you use
+  unordered loads and unordered stores, a load cannot see a value which was
+  never stored.  A normal load or store instruction is usually sufficient, but
+  note that an unordered load or store cannot be split into multiple
+  instructions (or an instruction which does multiple memory operations, like
+  ``LDRD`` on ARM without LPAE, or not naturally-aligned ``LDRD`` on LPAE ARM).
+
+Monotonic
+---------
+
+Monotonic is the weakest level of atomicity that can be used in synchronization
+primitives, although it does not provide any general synchronization. It
+essentially guarantees that if you take all the operations affecting a specific
+address, a consistent ordering exists.
+
+Relevant standard
+  This corresponds to the C++0x/C1x ``memory_order_relaxed``; see those
+  standards for the exact definition.
+
+Notes for frontends
+  If you are writing a frontend which uses this directly, use with caution.  The
+  guarantees in terms of synchronization are very weak, so make sure these are
+  only used in a pattern which you know is correct.  Generally, these would
+  either be used for atomic operations which do not protect other memory (like
+  an atomic counter), or along with a ``fence``.
+
+Notes for optimizers
+  In terms of the optimizer, this can be treated as a read+write on the relevant
+  memory location (and alias analysis will take advantage of that). In addition,
+  it is legal to reorder non-atomic and Unordered loads around Monotonic
+  loads. CSE/DSE and a few other optimizations are allowed, but Monotonic
+  operations are unlikely to be used in ways which would make those
+  optimizations useful.
+
+Notes for code generation
+  Code generation is essentially the same as that for unordered for loads and
+  stores.  No fences are required.  ``cmpxchg`` and ``atomicrmw`` are required
+  to appear as a single operation.
+
+Acquire
+-------
+
+Acquire provides a barrier of the sort necessary to acquire a lock to access
+other memory with normal loads and stores.
+
+Relevant standard
+  This corresponds to the C++0x/C1x ``memory_order_acquire``. It should also be
+  used for C++0x/C1x ``memory_order_consume``.
+
+Notes for frontends
+  If you are writing a frontend which uses this directly, use with caution.
+  Acquire only provides a semantic guarantee when paired with a Release
+  operation.
+
+Notes for optimizers
+  Optimizers not aware of atomics can treat this like a nothrow call.  It is
+  also possible to move stores from before an Acquire load or read-modify-write
+  operation to after it, and move non-Acquire loads from before an Acquire
+  operation to after it.
+
+Notes for code generation
+  Architectures with weak memory ordering (essentially everything relevant today
+  except x86 and SPARC) require some sort of fence to maintain the Acquire
+  semantics.  The precise fences required varies widely by architecture, but for
+  a simple implementation, most architectures provide a barrier which is strong
+  enough for everything (``dmb`` on ARM, ``sync`` on PowerPC, etc.).  Putting
+  such a fence after the equivalent Monotonic operation is sufficient to
+  maintain Acquire semantics for a memory operation.
+
+Release
+-------
+
+Release is similar to Acquire, but with a barrier of the sort necessary to
+release a lock.
+
+Relevant standard
+  This corresponds to the C++0x/C1x ``memory_order_release``.
+
+Notes for frontends
+  If you are writing a frontend which uses this directly, use with caution.
+  Release only provides a semantic guarantee when paired with a Acquire
+  operation.
+
+Notes for optimizers
+  Optimizers not aware of atomics can treat this like a nothrow call.  It is
+  also possible to move loads from after a Release store or read-modify-write
+  operation to before it, and move non-Release stores from after an Release
+  operation to before it.
+
+Notes for code generation
+  See the section on Acquire; a fence before the relevant operation is usually
+  sufficient for Release. Note that a store-store fence is not sufficient to
+  implement Release semantics; store-store fences are generally not exposed to
+  IR because they are extremely difficult to use correctly.
+
+AcquireRelease
+--------------
+
+AcquireRelease (``acq_rel`` in IR) provides both an Acquire and a Release
+barrier (for fences and operations which both read and write memory).
+
+Relevant standard
+  This corresponds to the C++0x/C1x ``memory_order_acq_rel``.
+
+Notes for frontends
+  If you are writing a frontend which uses this directly, use with caution.
+  Acquire only provides a semantic guarantee when paired with a Release
+  operation, and vice versa.
+
+Notes for optimizers
+  In general, optimizers should treat this like a nothrow call; the possible
+  optimizations are usually not interesting.
+
+Notes for code generation
+  This operation has Acquire and Release semantics; see the sections on Acquire
+  and Release.
+
+SequentiallyConsistent
+----------------------
+
+SequentiallyConsistent (``seq_cst`` in IR) provides Acquire semantics for loads
+and Release semantics for stores. Additionally, it guarantees that a total
+ordering exists between all SequentiallyConsistent operations.
+
+Relevant standard
+  This corresponds to the C++0x/C1x ``memory_order_seq_cst``, Java volatile, and
+  the gcc-compatible ``__sync_*`` builtins which do not specify otherwise.
+
+Notes for frontends
+  If a frontend is exposing atomic operations, these are much easier to reason
+  about for the programmer than other kinds of operations, and using them is
+  generally a practical performance tradeoff.
+
+Notes for optimizers
+  Optimizers not aware of atomics can treat this like a nothrow call.  For
+  SequentiallyConsistent loads and stores, the same reorderings are allowed as
+  for Acquire loads and Release stores, except that SequentiallyConsistent
+  operations may not be reordered.
+
+Notes for code generation
+  SequentiallyConsistent loads minimally require the same barriers as Acquire
+  operations and SequentiallyConsistent stores require Release
+  barriers. Additionally, the code generator must enforce ordering between
+  SequentiallyConsistent stores followed by SequentiallyConsistent loads. This
+  is usually done by emitting either a full fence before the loads or a full
+  fence after the stores; which is preferred varies by architecture.
+
+Atomics and IR optimization
+===========================
+
+Predicates for optimizer writers to query:
+
+* ``isSimple()``: A load or store which is not volatile or atomic.  This is
+  what, for example, memcpyopt would check for operations it might transform.
+
+* ``isUnordered()``: A load or store which is not volatile and at most
+  Unordered. This would be checked, for example, by LICM before hoisting an
+  operation.
+
+* ``mayReadFromMemory()``/``mayWriteToMemory()``: Existing predicate, but note
+  that they return true for any operation which is volatile or at least
+  Monotonic.
+
+* Alias analysis: Note that AA will return ModRef for anything Acquire or
+  Release, and for the address accessed by any Monotonic operation.
+
+To support optimizing around atomic operations, make sure you are using the
+right predicates; everything should work if that is done.  If your pass should
+optimize some atomic operations (Unordered operations in particular), make sure
+it doesn't replace an atomic load or store with a non-atomic operation.
+
+Some examples of how optimizations interact with various kinds of atomic
+operations:
+
+* ``memcpyopt``: An atomic operation cannot be optimized into part of a
+  memcpy/memset, including unordered loads/stores.  It can pull operations
+  across some atomic operations.
+
+* LICM: Unordered loads/stores can be moved out of a loop.  It just treats
+  monotonic operations like a read+write to a memory location, and anything
+  stricter than that like a nothrow call.
+
+* DSE: Unordered stores can be DSE'ed like normal stores.  Monotonic stores can
+  be DSE'ed in some cases, but it's tricky to reason about, and not especially
+  important.
+
+* Folding a load: Any atomic load from a constant global can be constant-folded,
+  because it cannot be observed.  Similar reasoning allows scalarrepl with
+  atomic loads and stores.
+
+Atomics and Codegen
+===================
+
+Atomic operations are represented in the SelectionDAG with ``ATOMIC_*`` opcodes.
+On architectures which use barrier instructions for all atomic ordering (like
+ARM), appropriate fences are split out as the DAG is built.
+
+The MachineMemOperand for all atomic operations is currently marked as volatile;
+this is not correct in the IR sense of volatile, but CodeGen handles anything
+marked volatile very conservatively.  This should get fixed at some point.
+
+Common architectures have some way of representing at least a pointer-sized
+lock-free ``cmpxchg``; such an operation can be used to implement all the other
+atomic operations which can be represented in IR up to that size.  Backends are
+expected to implement all those operations, but not operations which cannot be
+implemented in a lock-free manner.  It is expected that backends will give an
+error when given an operation which cannot be implemented.  (The LLVM code
+generator is not very helpful here at the moment, but hopefully that will
+change.)
+
+The implementation of atomics on LL/SC architectures (like ARM) is currently a
+bit of a mess; there is a lot of copy-pasted code across targets, and the
+representation is relatively unsuited to optimization (it would be nice to be
+able to optimize loops involving cmpxchg etc.).
+
+On x86, all atomic loads generate a ``MOV``. SequentiallyConsistent stores
+generate an ``XCHG``, other stores generate a ``MOV``. SequentiallyConsistent
+fences generate an ``MFENCE``, other fences do not cause any code to be
+generated.  cmpxchg uses the ``LOCK CMPXCHG`` instruction.  ``atomicrmw xchg``
+uses ``XCHG``, ``atomicrmw add`` and ``atomicrmw sub`` use ``XADD``, and all
+other ``atomicrmw`` operations generate a loop with ``LOCK CMPXCHG``.  Depending
+on the users of the result, some ``atomicrmw`` operations can be translated into
+operations like ``LOCK AND``, but that does not work in general.
+
+On ARM, MIPS, and many other RISC architectures, Acquire, Release, and
+SequentiallyConsistent semantics require barrier instructions for every such
+operation. Loads and stores generate normal instructions.  ``cmpxchg`` and
+``atomicrmw`` can be represented using a loop with LL/SC-style instructions
+which take some sort of exclusive lock on a cache line (``LDREX`` and ``STREX``
+on ARM, etc.). At the moment, the IR does not provide any way to represent a
+weak ``cmpxchg`` which would not require a loop.

Added: www-releases/trunk/3.4.1/docs/_sources/BitCodeFormat.txt
URL: http://llvm.org/viewvc/llvm-project/www-releases/trunk/3.4.1/docs/_sources/BitCodeFormat.txt?rev=208244&view=auto
==============================================================================
--- www-releases/trunk/3.4.1/docs/_sources/BitCodeFormat.txt (added)
+++ www-releases/trunk/3.4.1/docs/_sources/BitCodeFormat.txt Wed May  7 15:09:32 2014
@@ -0,0 +1,1093 @@
+.. role:: raw-html(raw)
+   :format: html
+
+========================
+LLVM Bitcode File Format
+========================
+
+.. contents::
+   :local:
+
+Abstract
+========
+
+This document describes the LLVM bitstream file format and the encoding of the
+LLVM IR into it.
+
+Overview
+========
+
+What is commonly known as the LLVM bitcode file format (also, sometimes
+anachronistically known as bytecode) is actually two things: a `bitstream
+container format`_ and an `encoding of LLVM IR`_ into the container format.
+
+The bitstream format is an abstract encoding of structured data, very similar to
+XML in some ways.  Like XML, bitstream files contain tags, and nested
+structures, and you can parse the file without having to understand the tags.
+Unlike XML, the bitstream format is a binary encoding, and unlike XML it
+provides a mechanism for the file to self-describe "abbreviations", which are
+effectively size optimizations for the content.
+
+LLVM IR files may be optionally embedded into a `wrapper`_ structure that makes
+it easy to embed extra data along with LLVM IR files.
+
+This document first describes the LLVM bitstream format, describes the wrapper
+format, then describes the record structure used by LLVM IR files.
+
+.. _bitstream container format:
+
+Bitstream Format
+================
+
+The bitstream format is literally a stream of bits, with a very simple
+structure.  This structure consists of the following concepts:
+
+* A "`magic number`_" that identifies the contents of the stream.
+
+* Encoding `primitives`_ like variable bit-rate integers.
+
+* `Blocks`_, which define nested content.
+
+* `Data Records`_, which describe entities within the file.
+
+* Abbreviations, which specify compression optimizations for the file.
+
+Note that the :doc:`llvm-bcanalyzer <CommandGuide/llvm-bcanalyzer>` tool can be
+used to dump and inspect arbitrary bitstreams, which is very useful for
+understanding the encoding.
+
+.. _magic number:
+
+Magic Numbers
+-------------
+
+The first two bytes of a bitcode file are 'BC' (``0x42``, ``0x43``).  The second
+two bytes are an application-specific magic number.  Generic bitcode tools can
+look at only the first two bytes to verify the file is bitcode, while
+application-specific programs will want to look at all four.
+
+.. _primitives:
+
+Primitives
+----------
+
+A bitstream literally consists of a stream of bits, which are read in order
+starting with the least significant bit of each byte.  The stream is made up of
+a number of primitive values that encode a stream of unsigned integer values.
+These integers are encoded in two ways: either as `Fixed Width Integers`_ or as
+`Variable Width Integers`_.
+
+.. _Fixed Width Integers:
+.. _fixed-width value:
+
+Fixed Width Integers
+^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
+
+Fixed-width integer values have their low bits emitted directly to the file.
+For example, a 3-bit integer value encodes 1 as 001.  Fixed width integers are
+used when there are a well-known number of options for a field.  For example,
+boolean values are usually encoded with a 1-bit wide integer.
+
+.. _Variable Width Integers:
+.. _Variable Width Integer:
+.. _variable-width value:
+
+Variable Width Integers
+^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
+
+Variable-width integer (VBR) values encode values of arbitrary size, optimizing
+for the case where the values are small.  Given a 4-bit VBR field, any 3-bit
+value (0 through 7) is encoded directly, with the high bit set to zero.  Values
+larger than N-1 bits emit their bits in a series of N-1 bit chunks, where all
+but the last set the high bit.
+
+For example, the value 27 (0x1B) is encoded as 1011 0011 when emitted as a vbr4
+value.  The first set of four bits indicates the value 3 (011) with a
+continuation piece (indicated by a high bit of 1).  The next word indicates a
+value of 24 (011 << 3) with no continuation.  The sum (3+24) yields the value
+27.
+
+.. _char6-encoded value:
+
+6-bit characters
+^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
+
+6-bit characters encode common characters into a fixed 6-bit field.  They
+represent the following characters with the following 6-bit values:
+
+::
+
+  'a' .. 'z' ---  0 .. 25
+  'A' .. 'Z' --- 26 .. 51
+  '0' .. '9' --- 52 .. 61
+         '.' --- 62
+         '_' --- 63
+
+This encoding is only suitable for encoding characters and strings that consist
+only of the above characters.  It is completely incapable of encoding characters
+not in the set.
+
+Word Alignment
+^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
+
+Occasionally, it is useful to emit zero bits until the bitstream is a multiple
+of 32 bits.  This ensures that the bit position in the stream can be represented
+as a multiple of 32-bit words.
+
+Abbreviation IDs
+----------------
+
+A bitstream is a sequential series of `Blocks`_ and `Data Records`_.  Both of
+these start with an abbreviation ID encoded as a fixed-bitwidth field.  The
+width is specified by the current block, as described below.  The value of the
+abbreviation ID specifies either a builtin ID (which have special meanings,
+defined below) or one of the abbreviation IDs defined for the current block by
+the stream itself.
+
+The set of builtin abbrev IDs is:
+
+* 0 - `END_BLOCK`_ --- This abbrev ID marks the end of the current block.
+
+* 1 - `ENTER_SUBBLOCK`_ --- This abbrev ID marks the beginning of a new
+  block.
+
+* 2 - `DEFINE_ABBREV`_ --- This defines a new abbreviation.
+
+* 3 - `UNABBREV_RECORD`_ --- This ID specifies the definition of an
+  unabbreviated record.
+
+Abbreviation IDs 4 and above are defined by the stream itself, and specify an
+`abbreviated record encoding`_.
+
+.. _Blocks:
+
+Blocks
+------
+
+Blocks in a bitstream denote nested regions of the stream, and are identified by
+a content-specific id number (for example, LLVM IR uses an ID of 12 to represent
+function bodies).  Block IDs 0-7 are reserved for `standard blocks`_ whose
+meaning is defined by Bitcode; block IDs 8 and greater are application
+specific. Nested blocks capture the hierarchical structure of the data encoded
+in it, and various properties are associated with blocks as the file is parsed.
+Block definitions allow the reader to efficiently skip blocks in constant time
+if the reader wants a summary of blocks, or if it wants to efficiently skip data
+it does not understand.  The LLVM IR reader uses this mechanism to skip function
+bodies, lazily reading them on demand.
+
+When reading and encoding the stream, several properties are maintained for the
+block.  In particular, each block maintains:
+
+#. A current abbrev id width.  This value starts at 2 at the beginning of the
+   stream, and is set every time a block record is entered.  The block entry
+   specifies the abbrev id width for the body of the block.
+
+#. A set of abbreviations.  Abbreviations may be defined within a block, in
+   which case they are only defined in that block (neither subblocks nor
+   enclosing blocks see the abbreviation).  Abbreviations can also be defined
+   inside a `BLOCKINFO`_ block, in which case they are defined in all blocks
+   that match the ID that the ``BLOCKINFO`` block is describing.
+
+As sub blocks are entered, these properties are saved and the new sub-block has
+its own set of abbreviations, and its own abbrev id width.  When a sub-block is
+popped, the saved values are restored.
+
+.. _ENTER_SUBBLOCK:
+
+ENTER_SUBBLOCK Encoding
+^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
+
+:raw-html:`<tt>`
+[ENTER_SUBBLOCK, blockid\ :sub:`vbr8`, newabbrevlen\ :sub:`vbr4`, <align32bits>, blocklen_32]
+:raw-html:`</tt>`
+
+The ``ENTER_SUBBLOCK`` abbreviation ID specifies the start of a new block
+record.  The ``blockid`` value is encoded as an 8-bit VBR identifier, and
+indicates the type of block being entered, which can be a `standard block`_ or
+an application-specific block.  The ``newabbrevlen`` value is a 4-bit VBR, which
+specifies the abbrev id width for the sub-block.  The ``blocklen`` value is a
+32-bit aligned value that specifies the size of the subblock in 32-bit
+words. This value allows the reader to skip over the entire block in one jump.
+
+.. _END_BLOCK:
+
+END_BLOCK Encoding
+^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
+
+``[END_BLOCK, <align32bits>]``
+
+The ``END_BLOCK`` abbreviation ID specifies the end of the current block record.
+Its end is aligned to 32-bits to ensure that the size of the block is an even
+multiple of 32-bits.
+
+.. _Data Records:
+
+Data Records
+------------
+
+Data records consist of a record code and a number of (up to) 64-bit integer
+values.  The interpretation of the code and values is application specific and
+may vary between different block types.  Records can be encoded either using an
+unabbrev record, or with an abbreviation.  In the LLVM IR format, for example,
+there is a record which encodes the target triple of a module.  The code is
+``MODULE_CODE_TRIPLE``, and the values of the record are the ASCII codes for the
+characters in the string.
+
+.. _UNABBREV_RECORD:
+
+UNABBREV_RECORD Encoding
+^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
+
+:raw-html:`<tt>`
+[UNABBREV_RECORD, code\ :sub:`vbr6`, numops\ :sub:`vbr6`, op0\ :sub:`vbr6`, op1\ :sub:`vbr6`, ...]
+:raw-html:`</tt>`
+
+An ``UNABBREV_RECORD`` provides a default fallback encoding, which is both
+completely general and extremely inefficient.  It can describe an arbitrary
+record by emitting the code and operands as VBRs.
+
+For example, emitting an LLVM IR target triple as an unabbreviated record
+requires emitting the ``UNABBREV_RECORD`` abbrevid, a vbr6 for the
+``MODULE_CODE_TRIPLE`` code, a vbr6 for the length of the string, which is equal
+to the number of operands, and a vbr6 for each character.  Because there are no
+letters with values less than 32, each letter would need to be emitted as at
+least a two-part VBR, which means that each letter would require at least 12
+bits.  This is not an efficient encoding, but it is fully general.
+
+.. _abbreviated record encoding:
+
+Abbreviated Record Encoding
+^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
+
+``[<abbrevid>, fields...]``
+
+An abbreviated record is a abbreviation id followed by a set of fields that are
+encoded according to the `abbreviation definition`_.  This allows records to be
+encoded significantly more densely than records encoded with the
+`UNABBREV_RECORD`_ type, and allows the abbreviation types to be specified in
+the stream itself, which allows the files to be completely self describing.  The
+actual encoding of abbreviations is defined below.
+
+The record code, which is the first field of an abbreviated record, may be
+encoded in the abbreviation definition (as a literal operand) or supplied in the
+abbreviated record (as a Fixed or VBR operand value).
+
+.. _abbreviation definition:
+
+Abbreviations
+-------------
+
+Abbreviations are an important form of compression for bitstreams.  The idea is
+to specify a dense encoding for a class of records once, then use that encoding
+to emit many records.  It takes space to emit the encoding into the file, but
+the space is recouped (hopefully plus some) when the records that use it are
+emitted.
+
+Abbreviations can be determined dynamically per client, per file. Because the
+abbreviations are stored in the bitstream itself, different streams of the same
+format can contain different sets of abbreviations according to the needs of the
+specific stream.  As a concrete example, LLVM IR files usually emit an
+abbreviation for binary operators.  If a specific LLVM module contained no or
+few binary operators, the abbreviation does not need to be emitted.
+
+.. _DEFINE_ABBREV:
+
+DEFINE_ABBREV Encoding
+^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
+
+:raw-html:`<tt>`
+[DEFINE_ABBREV, numabbrevops\ :sub:`vbr5`, abbrevop0, abbrevop1, ...]
+:raw-html:`</tt>`
+
+A ``DEFINE_ABBREV`` record adds an abbreviation to the list of currently defined
+abbreviations in the scope of this block.  This definition only exists inside
+this immediate block --- it is not visible in subblocks or enclosing blocks.
+Abbreviations are implicitly assigned IDs sequentially starting from 4 (the
+first application-defined abbreviation ID).  Any abbreviations defined in a
+``BLOCKINFO`` record for the particular block type receive IDs first, in order,
+followed by any abbreviations defined within the block itself.  Abbreviated data
+records reference this ID to indicate what abbreviation they are invoking.
+
+An abbreviation definition consists of the ``DEFINE_ABBREV`` abbrevid followed
+by a VBR that specifies the number of abbrev operands, then the abbrev operands
+themselves.  Abbreviation operands come in three forms.  They all start with a
+single bit that indicates whether the abbrev operand is a literal operand (when
+the bit is 1) or an encoding operand (when the bit is 0).
+
+#. Literal operands --- :raw-html:`<tt>` [1\ :sub:`1`, litvalue\
+   :sub:`vbr8`] :raw-html:`</tt>` --- Literal operands specify that the value in
+   the result is always a single specific value.  This specific value is emitted
+   as a vbr8 after the bit indicating that it is a literal operand.
+
+#. Encoding info without data --- :raw-html:`<tt>` [0\ :sub:`1`, encoding\
+   :sub:`3`] :raw-html:`</tt>` --- Operand encodings that do not have extra data
+   are just emitted as their code.
+
+#. Encoding info with data --- :raw-html:`<tt>` [0\ :sub:`1`, encoding\
+   :sub:`3`, value\ :sub:`vbr5`] :raw-html:`</tt>` --- Operand encodings that do
+   have extra data are emitted as their code, followed by the extra data.
+
+The possible operand encodings are:
+
+* Fixed (code 1): The field should be emitted as a `fixed-width value`_, whose
+  width is specified by the operand's extra data.
+
+* VBR (code 2): The field should be emitted as a `variable-width value`_, whose
+  width is specified by the operand's extra data.
+
+* Array (code 3): This field is an array of values.  The array operand has no
+  extra data, but expects another operand to follow it, indicating the element
+  type of the array.  When reading an array in an abbreviated record, the first
+  integer is a vbr6 that indicates the array length, followed by the encoded
+  elements of the array.  An array may only occur as the last operand of an
+  abbreviation (except for the one final operand that gives the array's
+  type).
+
+* Char6 (code 4): This field should be emitted as a `char6-encoded value`_.
+  This operand type takes no extra data. Char6 encoding is normally used as an
+  array element type.
+
+* Blob (code 5): This field is emitted as a vbr6, followed by padding to a
+  32-bit boundary (for alignment) and an array of 8-bit objects.  The array of
+  bytes is further followed by tail padding to ensure that its total length is a
+  multiple of 4 bytes.  This makes it very efficient for the reader to decode
+  the data without having to make a copy of it: it can use a pointer to the data
+  in the mapped in file and poke directly at it.  A blob may only occur as the
+  last operand of an abbreviation.
+
+For example, target triples in LLVM modules are encoded as a record of the form
+``[TRIPLE, 'a', 'b', 'c', 'd']``.  Consider if the bitstream emitted the
+following abbrev entry:
+
+::
+
+  [0, Fixed, 4]
+  [0, Array]
+  [0, Char6]
+
+When emitting a record with this abbreviation, the above entry would be emitted
+as:
+
+:raw-html:`<tt><blockquote>`
+[4\ :sub:`abbrevwidth`, 2\ :sub:`4`, 4\ :sub:`vbr6`, 0\ :sub:`6`, 1\ :sub:`6`, 2\ :sub:`6`, 3\ :sub:`6`]
+:raw-html:`</blockquote></tt>`
+
+These values are:
+
+#. The first value, 4, is the abbreviation ID for this abbreviation.
+
+#. The second value, 2, is the record code for ``TRIPLE`` records within LLVM IR
+   file ``MODULE_BLOCK`` blocks.
+
+#. The third value, 4, is the length of the array.
+
+#. The rest of the values are the char6 encoded values for ``"abcd"``.
+
+With this abbreviation, the triple is emitted with only 37 bits (assuming a
+abbrev id width of 3).  Without the abbreviation, significantly more space would
+be required to emit the target triple.  Also, because the ``TRIPLE`` value is
+not emitted as a literal in the abbreviation, the abbreviation can also be used
+for any other string value.
+
+.. _standard blocks:
+.. _standard block:
+
+Standard Blocks
+---------------
+
+In addition to the basic block structure and record encodings, the bitstream
+also defines specific built-in block types.  These block types specify how the
+stream is to be decoded or other metadata.  In the future, new standard blocks
+may be added.  Block IDs 0-7 are reserved for standard blocks.
+
+.. _BLOCKINFO:
+
+#0 - BLOCKINFO Block
+^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
+
+The ``BLOCKINFO`` block allows the description of metadata for other blocks.
+The currently specified records are:
+
+::
+
+  [SETBID (#1), blockid]
+  [DEFINE_ABBREV, ...]
+  [BLOCKNAME, ...name...]
+  [SETRECORDNAME, RecordID, ...name...]
+
+The ``SETBID`` record (code 1) indicates which block ID is being described.
+``SETBID`` records can occur multiple times throughout the block to change which
+block ID is being described.  There must be a ``SETBID`` record prior to any
+other records.
+
+Standard ``DEFINE_ABBREV`` records can occur inside ``BLOCKINFO`` blocks, but
+unlike their occurrence in normal blocks, the abbreviation is defined for blocks
+matching the block ID we are describing, *not* the ``BLOCKINFO`` block
+itself.  The abbreviations defined in ``BLOCKINFO`` blocks receive abbreviation
+IDs as described in `DEFINE_ABBREV`_.
+
+The ``BLOCKNAME`` record (code 2) can optionally occur in this block.  The
+elements of the record are the bytes of the string name of the block.
+llvm-bcanalyzer can use this to dump out bitcode files symbolically.
+
+The ``SETRECORDNAME`` record (code 3) can also optionally occur in this block.
+The first operand value is a record ID number, and the rest of the elements of
+the record are the bytes for the string name of the record.  llvm-bcanalyzer can
+use this to dump out bitcode files symbolically.
+
+Note that although the data in ``BLOCKINFO`` blocks is described as "metadata,"
+the abbreviations they contain are essential for parsing records from the
+corresponding blocks.  It is not safe to skip them.
+
+.. _wrapper:
+
+Bitcode Wrapper Format
+======================
+
+Bitcode files for LLVM IR may optionally be wrapped in a simple wrapper
+structure.  This structure contains a simple header that indicates the offset
+and size of the embedded BC file.  This allows additional information to be
+stored alongside the BC file.  The structure of this file header is:
+
+:raw-html:`<tt><blockquote>`
+[Magic\ :sub:`32`, Version\ :sub:`32`, Offset\ :sub:`32`, Size\ :sub:`32`, CPUType\ :sub:`32`]
+:raw-html:`</blockquote></tt>`
+
+Each of the fields are 32-bit fields stored in little endian form (as with the
+rest of the bitcode file fields).  The Magic number is always ``0x0B17C0DE`` and
+the version is currently always ``0``.  The Offset field is the offset in bytes
+to the start of the bitcode stream in the file, and the Size field is the size
+in bytes of the stream. CPUType is a target-specific value that can be used to
+encode the CPU of the target.
+
+.. _encoding of LLVM IR:
+
+LLVM IR Encoding
+================
+
+LLVM IR is encoded into a bitstream by defining blocks and records.  It uses
+blocks for things like constant pools, functions, symbol tables, etc.  It uses
+records for things like instructions, global variable descriptors, type
+descriptions, etc.  This document does not describe the set of abbreviations
+that the writer uses, as these are fully self-described in the file, and the
+reader is not allowed to build in any knowledge of this.
+
+Basics
+------
+
+LLVM IR Magic Number
+^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
+
+The magic number for LLVM IR files is:
+
+:raw-html:`<tt><blockquote>`
+[0x0\ :sub:`4`, 0xC\ :sub:`4`, 0xE\ :sub:`4`, 0xD\ :sub:`4`]
+:raw-html:`</blockquote></tt>`
+
+When combined with the bitcode magic number and viewed as bytes, this is
+``"BC 0xC0DE"``.
+
+.. _Signed VBRs:
+
+Signed VBRs
+^^^^^^^^^^^
+
+`Variable Width Integer`_ encoding is an efficient way to encode arbitrary sized
+unsigned values, but is an extremely inefficient for encoding signed values, as
+signed values are otherwise treated as maximally large unsigned values.
+
+As such, signed VBR values of a specific width are emitted as follows:
+
+* Positive values are emitted as VBRs of the specified width, but with their
+  value shifted left by one.
+
+* Negative values are emitted as VBRs of the specified width, but the negated
+  value is shifted left by one, and the low bit is set.
+
+With this encoding, small positive and small negative values can both be emitted
+efficiently. Signed VBR encoding is used in ``CST_CODE_INTEGER`` and
+``CST_CODE_WIDE_INTEGER`` records within ``CONSTANTS_BLOCK`` blocks.
+It is also used for phi instruction operands in `MODULE_CODE_VERSION`_ 1.
+
+LLVM IR Blocks
+^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
+
+LLVM IR is defined with the following blocks:
+
+* 8 --- `MODULE_BLOCK`_ --- This is the top-level block that contains the entire
+  module, and describes a variety of per-module information.
+
+* 9 --- `PARAMATTR_BLOCK`_ --- This enumerates the parameter attributes.
+
+* 10 --- `TYPE_BLOCK`_ --- This describes all of the types in the module.
+
+* 11 --- `CONSTANTS_BLOCK`_ --- This describes constants for a module or
+  function.
+
+* 12 --- `FUNCTION_BLOCK`_ --- This describes a function body.
+
+* 13 --- `TYPE_SYMTAB_BLOCK`_ --- This describes the type symbol table.
+
+* 14 --- `VALUE_SYMTAB_BLOCK`_ --- This describes a value symbol table.
+
+* 15 --- `METADATA_BLOCK`_ --- This describes metadata items.
+
+* 16 --- `METADATA_ATTACHMENT`_ --- This contains records associating metadata
+  with function instruction values.
+
+.. _MODULE_BLOCK:
+
+MODULE_BLOCK Contents
+---------------------
+
+The ``MODULE_BLOCK`` block (id 8) is the top-level block for LLVM bitcode files,
+and each bitcode file must contain exactly one. In addition to records
+(described below) containing information about the module, a ``MODULE_BLOCK``
+block may contain the following sub-blocks:
+
+* `BLOCKINFO`_
+* `PARAMATTR_BLOCK`_
+* `TYPE_BLOCK`_
+* `TYPE_SYMTAB_BLOCK`_
+* `VALUE_SYMTAB_BLOCK`_
+* `CONSTANTS_BLOCK`_
+* `FUNCTION_BLOCK`_
+* `METADATA_BLOCK`_
+
+.. _MODULE_CODE_VERSION:
+
+MODULE_CODE_VERSION Record
+^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
+
+``[VERSION, version#]``
+
+The ``VERSION`` record (code 1) contains a single value indicating the format
+version. Versions 0 and 1 are supported at this time. The difference between
+version 0 and 1 is in the encoding of instruction operands in
+each `FUNCTION_BLOCK`_.
+
+In version 0, each value defined by an instruction is assigned an ID
+unique to the function. Function-level value IDs are assigned starting from
+``NumModuleValues`` since they share the same namespace as module-level
+values. The value enumerator resets after each function. When a value is
+an operand of an instruction, the value ID is used to represent the operand.
+For large functions or large modules, these operand values can be large.
+
+The encoding in version 1 attempts to avoid large operand values
+in common cases. Instead of using the value ID directly, operands are
+encoded as relative to the current instruction. Thus, if an operand
+is the value defined by the previous instruction, the operand
+will be encoded as 1.
+
+For example, instead of
+
+.. code-block:: llvm
+
+  #n = load #n-1
+  #n+1 = icmp eq #n, #const0
+  br #n+1, label #(bb1), label #(bb2)
+
+version 1 will encode the instructions as
+
+.. code-block:: llvm
+
+  #n = load #1
+  #n+1 = icmp eq #1, (#n+1)-#const0
+  br #1, label #(bb1), label #(bb2)
+
+Note in the example that operands which are constants also use
+the relative encoding, while operands like basic block labels
+do not use the relative encoding.
+
+Forward references will result in a negative value.
+This can be inefficient, as operands are normally encoded
+as unsigned VBRs. However, forward references are rare, except in the
+case of phi instructions. For phi instructions, operands are encoded as
+`Signed VBRs`_ to deal with forward references.
+
+
+MODULE_CODE_TRIPLE Record
+^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
+
+``[TRIPLE, ...string...]``
+
+The ``TRIPLE`` record (code 2) contains a variable number of values representing
+the bytes of the ``target triple`` specification string.
+
+MODULE_CODE_DATALAYOUT Record
+^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
+
+``[DATALAYOUT, ...string...]``
+
+The ``DATALAYOUT`` record (code 3) contains a variable number of values
+representing the bytes of the ``target datalayout`` specification string.
+
+MODULE_CODE_ASM Record
+^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
+
+``[ASM, ...string...]``
+
+The ``ASM`` record (code 4) contains a variable number of values representing
+the bytes of ``module asm`` strings, with individual assembly blocks separated
+by newline (ASCII 10) characters.
+
+.. _MODULE_CODE_SECTIONNAME:
+
+MODULE_CODE_SECTIONNAME Record
+^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
+
+``[SECTIONNAME, ...string...]``
+
+The ``SECTIONNAME`` record (code 5) contains a variable number of values
+representing the bytes of a single section name string. There should be one
+``SECTIONNAME`` record for each section name referenced (e.g., in global
+variable or function ``section`` attributes) within the module. These records
+can be referenced by the 1-based index in the *section* fields of ``GLOBALVAR``
+or ``FUNCTION`` records.
+
+MODULE_CODE_DEPLIB Record
+^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
+
+``[DEPLIB, ...string...]``
+
+The ``DEPLIB`` record (code 6) contains a variable number of values representing
+the bytes of a single dependent library name string, one of the libraries
+mentioned in a ``deplibs`` declaration.  There should be one ``DEPLIB`` record
+for each library name referenced.
+
+MODULE_CODE_GLOBALVAR Record
+^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
+
+``[GLOBALVAR, pointer type, isconst, initid, linkage, alignment, section, visibility, threadlocal, unnamed_addr]``
+
+The ``GLOBALVAR`` record (code 7) marks the declaration or definition of a
+global variable. The operand fields are:
+
+* *pointer type*: The type index of the pointer type used to point to this
+  global variable
+
+* *isconst*: Non-zero if the variable is treated as constant within the module,
+  or zero if it is not
+
+* *initid*: If non-zero, the value index of the initializer for this variable,
+  plus 1.
+
+.. _linkage type:
+
+* *linkage*: An encoding of the linkage type for this variable:
+  * ``external``: code 0
+  * ``weak``: code 1
+  * ``appending``: code 2
+  * ``internal``: code 3
+  * ``linkonce``: code 4
+  * ``dllimport``: code 5
+  * ``dllexport``: code 6
+  * ``extern_weak``: code 7
+  * ``common``: code 8
+  * ``private``: code 9
+  * ``weak_odr``: code 10
+  * ``linkonce_odr``: code 11
+  * ``available_externally``: code 12
+  * ``linker_private``: code 13
+
+* alignment*: The logarithm base 2 of the variable's requested alignment, plus 1
+
+* *section*: If non-zero, the 1-based section index in the table of
+  `MODULE_CODE_SECTIONNAME`_ entries.
+
+.. _visibility:
+
+* *visibility*: If present, an encoding of the visibility of this variable:
+  * ``default``: code 0
+  * ``hidden``: code 1
+  * ``protected``: code 2
+
+* *threadlocal*: If present, an encoding of the thread local storage mode of the
+  variable:
+  * ``not thread local``: code 0
+  * ``thread local; default TLS model``: code 1
+  * ``localdynamic``: code 2
+  * ``initialexec``: code 3
+  * ``localexec``: code 4
+
+* *unnamed_addr*: If present and non-zero, indicates that the variable has
+  ``unnamed_addr``
+
+.. _FUNCTION:
+
+MODULE_CODE_FUNCTION Record
+^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
+
+``[FUNCTION, type, callingconv, isproto, linkage, paramattr, alignment, section, visibility, gc, prefix]``
+
+The ``FUNCTION`` record (code 8) marks the declaration or definition of a
+function. The operand fields are:
+
+* *type*: The type index of the function type describing this function
+
+* *callingconv*: The calling convention number:
+  * ``ccc``: code 0
+  * ``fastcc``: code 8
+  * ``coldcc``: code 9
+  * ``x86_stdcallcc``: code 64
+  * ``x86_fastcallcc``: code 65
+  * ``arm_apcscc``: code 66
+  * ``arm_aapcscc``: code 67
+  * ``arm_aapcs_vfpcc``: code 68
+
+* isproto*: Non-zero if this entry represents a declaration rather than a
+  definition
+
+* *linkage*: An encoding of the `linkage type`_ for this function
+
+* *paramattr*: If nonzero, the 1-based parameter attribute index into the table
+  of `PARAMATTR_CODE_ENTRY`_ entries.
+
+* *alignment*: The logarithm base 2 of the function's requested alignment, plus
+  1
+
+* *section*: If non-zero, the 1-based section index in the table of
+  `MODULE_CODE_SECTIONNAME`_ entries.
+
+* *visibility*: An encoding of the `visibility`_ of this function
+
+* *gc*: If present and nonzero, the 1-based garbage collector index in the table
+  of `MODULE_CODE_GCNAME`_ entries.
+
+* *unnamed_addr*: If present and non-zero, indicates that the function has
+  ``unnamed_addr``
+
+* *prefix*: If non-zero, the value index of the prefix data for this function,
+  plus 1.
+
+MODULE_CODE_ALIAS Record
+^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
+
+``[ALIAS, alias type, aliasee val#, linkage, visibility]``
+
+The ``ALIAS`` record (code 9) marks the definition of an alias. The operand
+fields are
+
+* *alias type*: The type index of the alias
+
+* *aliasee val#*: The value index of the aliased value
+
+* *linkage*: An encoding of the `linkage type`_ for this alias
+
+* *visibility*: If present, an encoding of the `visibility`_ of the alias
+
+MODULE_CODE_PURGEVALS Record
+^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
+
+``[PURGEVALS, numvals]``
+
+The ``PURGEVALS`` record (code 10) resets the module-level value list to the
+size given by the single operand value. Module-level value list items are added
+by ``GLOBALVAR``, ``FUNCTION``, and ``ALIAS`` records.  After a ``PURGEVALS``
+record is seen, new value indices will start from the given *numvals* value.
+
+.. _MODULE_CODE_GCNAME:
+
+MODULE_CODE_GCNAME Record
+^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
+
+``[GCNAME, ...string...]``
+
+The ``GCNAME`` record (code 11) contains a variable number of values
+representing the bytes of a single garbage collector name string. There should
+be one ``GCNAME`` record for each garbage collector name referenced in function
+``gc`` attributes within the module. These records can be referenced by 1-based
+index in the *gc* fields of ``FUNCTION`` records.
+
+.. _PARAMATTR_BLOCK:
+
+PARAMATTR_BLOCK Contents
+------------------------
+
+The ``PARAMATTR_BLOCK`` block (id 9) contains a table of entries describing the
+attributes of function parameters. These entries are referenced by 1-based index
+in the *paramattr* field of module block `FUNCTION`_ records, or within the
+*attr* field of function block ``INST_INVOKE`` and ``INST_CALL`` records.
+
+Entries within ``PARAMATTR_BLOCK`` are constructed to ensure that each is unique
+(i.e., no two indicies represent equivalent attribute lists).
+
+.. _PARAMATTR_CODE_ENTRY:
+
+PARAMATTR_CODE_ENTRY Record
+^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
+
+``[ENTRY, paramidx0, attr0, paramidx1, attr1...]``
+
+The ``ENTRY`` record (code 1) contains an even number of values describing a
+unique set of function parameter attributes. Each *paramidx* value indicates
+which set of attributes is represented, with 0 representing the return value
+attributes, 0xFFFFFFFF representing function attributes, and other values
+representing 1-based function parameters. Each *attr* value is a bitmap with the
+following interpretation:
+
+* bit 0: ``zeroext``
+* bit 1: ``signext``
+* bit 2: ``noreturn``
+* bit 3: ``inreg``
+* bit 4: ``sret``
+* bit 5: ``nounwind``
+* bit 6: ``noalias``
+* bit 7: ``byval``
+* bit 8: ``nest``
+* bit 9: ``readnone``
+* bit 10: ``readonly``
+* bit 11: ``noinline``
+* bit 12: ``alwaysinline``
+* bit 13: ``optsize``
+* bit 14: ``ssp``
+* bit 15: ``sspreq``
+* bits 16-31: ``align n``
+* bit 32: ``nocapture``
+* bit 33: ``noredzone``
+* bit 34: ``noimplicitfloat``
+* bit 35: ``naked``
+* bit 36: ``inlinehint``
+* bits 37-39: ``alignstack n``, represented as the logarithm
+  base 2 of the requested alignment, plus 1
+
+.. _TYPE_BLOCK:
+
+TYPE_BLOCK Contents
+-------------------
+
+The ``TYPE_BLOCK`` block (id 10) contains records which constitute a table of
+type operator entries used to represent types referenced within an LLVM
+module. Each record (with the exception of `NUMENTRY`_) generates a single type
+table entry, which may be referenced by 0-based index from instructions,
+constants, metadata, type symbol table entries, or other type operator records.
+
+Entries within ``TYPE_BLOCK`` are constructed to ensure that each entry is
+unique (i.e., no two indicies represent structurally equivalent types).
+
+.. _TYPE_CODE_NUMENTRY:
+.. _NUMENTRY:
+
+TYPE_CODE_NUMENTRY Record
+^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
+
+``[NUMENTRY, numentries]``
+
+The ``NUMENTRY`` record (code 1) contains a single value which indicates the
+total number of type code entries in the type table of the module. If present,
+``NUMENTRY`` should be the first record in the block.
+
+TYPE_CODE_VOID Record
+^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
+
+``[VOID]``
+
+The ``VOID`` record (code 2) adds a ``void`` type to the type table.
+
+TYPE_CODE_HALF Record
+^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
+
+``[HALF]``
+
+The ``HALF`` record (code 10) adds a ``half`` (16-bit floating point) type to
+the type table.
+
+TYPE_CODE_FLOAT Record
+^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
+
+``[FLOAT]``
+
+The ``FLOAT`` record (code 3) adds a ``float`` (32-bit floating point) type to
+the type table.
+
+TYPE_CODE_DOUBLE Record
+^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
+
+``[DOUBLE]``
+
+The ``DOUBLE`` record (code 4) adds a ``double`` (64-bit floating point) type to
+the type table.
+
+TYPE_CODE_LABEL Record
+^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
+
+``[LABEL]``
+
+The ``LABEL`` record (code 5) adds a ``label`` type to the type table.
+
+TYPE_CODE_OPAQUE Record
+^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
+
+``[OPAQUE]``
+
+The ``OPAQUE`` record (code 6) adds an ``opaque`` type to the type table. Note
+that distinct ``opaque`` types are not unified.
+
+TYPE_CODE_INTEGER Record
+^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
+
+``[INTEGER, width]``
+
+The ``INTEGER`` record (code 7) adds an integer type to the type table. The
+single *width* field indicates the width of the integer type.
+
+TYPE_CODE_POINTER Record
+^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
+
+``[POINTER, pointee type, address space]``
+
+The ``POINTER`` record (code 8) adds a pointer type to the type table. The
+operand fields are
+
+* *pointee type*: The type index of the pointed-to type
+
+* *address space*: If supplied, the target-specific numbered address space where
+  the pointed-to object resides. Otherwise, the default address space is zero.
+
+TYPE_CODE_FUNCTION Record
+^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
+
+``[FUNCTION, vararg, ignored, retty, ...paramty... ]``
+
+The ``FUNCTION`` record (code 9) adds a function type to the type table. The
+operand fields are
+
+* *vararg*: Non-zero if the type represents a varargs function
+
+* *ignored*: This value field is present for backward compatibility only, and is
+  ignored
+
+* *retty*: The type index of the function's return type
+
+* *paramty*: Zero or more type indices representing the parameter types of the
+  function
+
+TYPE_CODE_STRUCT Record
+^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
+
+``[STRUCT, ispacked, ...eltty...]``
+
+The ``STRUCT`` record (code 10) adds a struct type to the type table. The
+operand fields are
+
+* *ispacked*: Non-zero if the type represents a packed structure
+
+* *eltty*: Zero or more type indices representing the element types of the
+  structure
+
+TYPE_CODE_ARRAY Record
+^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
+
+``[ARRAY, numelts, eltty]``
+
+The ``ARRAY`` record (code 11) adds an array type to the type table.  The
+operand fields are
+
+* *numelts*: The number of elements in arrays of this type
+
+* *eltty*: The type index of the array element type
+
+TYPE_CODE_VECTOR Record
+^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
+
+``[VECTOR, numelts, eltty]``
+
+The ``VECTOR`` record (code 12) adds a vector type to the type table.  The
+operand fields are
+
+* *numelts*: The number of elements in vectors of this type
+
+* *eltty*: The type index of the vector element type
+
+TYPE_CODE_X86_FP80 Record
+^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
+
+``[X86_FP80]``
+
+The ``X86_FP80`` record (code 13) adds an ``x86_fp80`` (80-bit floating point)
+type to the type table.
+
+TYPE_CODE_FP128 Record
+^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
+
+``[FP128]``
+
+The ``FP128`` record (code 14) adds an ``fp128`` (128-bit floating point) type
+to the type table.
+
+TYPE_CODE_PPC_FP128 Record
+^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
+
+``[PPC_FP128]``
+
+The ``PPC_FP128`` record (code 15) adds a ``ppc_fp128`` (128-bit floating point)
+type to the type table.
+
+TYPE_CODE_METADATA Record
+^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
+
+``[METADATA]``
+
+The ``METADATA`` record (code 16) adds a ``metadata`` type to the type table.
+
+.. _CONSTANTS_BLOCK:
+
+CONSTANTS_BLOCK Contents
+------------------------
+
+The ``CONSTANTS_BLOCK`` block (id 11) ...
+
+.. _FUNCTION_BLOCK:
+
+FUNCTION_BLOCK Contents
+-----------------------
+
+The ``FUNCTION_BLOCK`` block (id 12) ...
+
+In addition to the record types described below, a ``FUNCTION_BLOCK`` block may
+contain the following sub-blocks:
+
+* `CONSTANTS_BLOCK`_
+* `VALUE_SYMTAB_BLOCK`_
+* `METADATA_ATTACHMENT`_
+
+.. _TYPE_SYMTAB_BLOCK:
+
+TYPE_SYMTAB_BLOCK Contents
+--------------------------
+
+The ``TYPE_SYMTAB_BLOCK`` block (id 13) contains entries which map between
+module-level named types and their corresponding type indices.
+
+.. _TST_CODE_ENTRY:
+
+TST_CODE_ENTRY Record
+^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
+
+``[ENTRY, typeid, ...string...]``
+
+The ``ENTRY`` record (code 1) contains a variable number of values, with the
+first giving the type index of the designated type, and the remaining values
+giving the character codes of the type name. Each entry corresponds to a single
+named type.
+
+.. _VALUE_SYMTAB_BLOCK:
+
+VALUE_SYMTAB_BLOCK Contents
+---------------------------
+
+The ``VALUE_SYMTAB_BLOCK`` block (id 14) ... 
+
+.. _METADATA_BLOCK:
+
+METADATA_BLOCK Contents
+-----------------------
+
+The ``METADATA_BLOCK`` block (id 15) ...
+
+.. _METADATA_ATTACHMENT:
+
+METADATA_ATTACHMENT Contents
+----------------------------
+
+The ``METADATA_ATTACHMENT`` block (id 16) ...

Added: www-releases/trunk/3.4.1/docs/_sources/BranchWeightMetadata.txt
URL: http://llvm.org/viewvc/llvm-project/www-releases/trunk/3.4.1/docs/_sources/BranchWeightMetadata.txt?rev=208244&view=auto
==============================================================================
--- www-releases/trunk/3.4.1/docs/_sources/BranchWeightMetadata.txt (added)
+++ www-releases/trunk/3.4.1/docs/_sources/BranchWeightMetadata.txt Wed May  7 15:09:32 2014
@@ -0,0 +1,116 @@
+===========================
+LLVM Branch Weight Metadata
+===========================
+
+.. contents::
+   :local:
+
+Introduction
+============
+
+Branch Weight Metadata represents branch weights as its likeliness to be
+taken. Metadata is assigned to the ``TerminatorInst`` as a ``MDNode`` of the
+``MD_prof`` kind. The first operator is always a ``MDString`` node with the
+string "branch_weights". Number of operators depends on the terminator type.
+
+Branch weights might be fetch from the profiling file, or generated based on
+`__builtin_expect`_ instruction.
+
+All weights are represented as an unsigned 32-bit values, where higher value
+indicates greater chance to be taken.
+
+Supported Instructions
+======================
+
+``BranchInst``
+^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
+
+Metadata is only assigned to the conditional branches. There are two extra
+operarands for the true and the false branch.
+
+.. code-block:: llvm
+
+  !0 = metadata !{
+    metadata !"branch_weights",
+    i32 <TRUE_BRANCH_WEIGHT>,
+    i32 <FALSE_BRANCH_WEIGHT>
+  }
+
+``SwitchInst``
+^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
+
+Branch weights are assigned to every case (including the ``default`` case which
+is always case #0).
+
+.. code-block:: llvm
+
+  !0 = metadata !{
+    metadata !"branch_weights",
+    i32 <DEFAULT_BRANCH_WEIGHT>
+    [ , i32 <CASE_BRANCH_WEIGHT> ... ]
+  }
+
+``IndirectBrInst``
+^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
+
+Branch weights are assigned to every destination.
+
+.. code-block:: llvm
+
+  !0 = metadata !{
+    metadata !"branch_weights",
+    i32 <LABEL_BRANCH_WEIGHT>
+    [ , i32 <LABEL_BRANCH_WEIGHT> ... ]
+  }
+
+Other
+^^^^^
+
+Other terminator instructions are not allowed to contain Branch Weight Metadata.
+
+.. _\__builtin_expect:
+
+Built-in ``expect`` Instructions
+================================
+
+``__builtin_expect(long exp, long c)`` instruction provides branch prediction
+information. The return value is the value of ``exp``.
+
+It is especially useful in conditional statements. Currently Clang supports two
+conditional statements:
+
+``if`` statement
+^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
+
+The ``exp`` parameter is the condition. The ``c`` parameter is the expected
+comparison value. If it is equal to 1 (true), the condition is likely to be
+true, in other case condition is likely to be false. For example:
+
+.. code-block:: c++
+
+  if (__builtin_expect(x > 0, 1)) {
+    // This block is likely to be taken.
+  }
+
+``switch`` statement
+^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
+
+The ``exp`` parameter is the value. The ``c`` parameter is the expected
+value. If the expected value doesn't show on the cases list, the ``default``
+case is assumed to be likely taken.
+
+.. code-block:: c++
+
+  switch (__builtin_expect(x, 5)) {
+  default: break;
+  case 0:  // ...
+  case 3:  // ...
+  case 5:  // This case is likely to be taken.
+  }
+
+CFG Modifications
+=================
+
+Branch Weight Metatada is not proof against CFG changes. If terminator operands'
+are changed some action should be taken. In other case some misoptimizations may
+occur due to incorrent branch prediction information.

Added: www-releases/trunk/3.4.1/docs/_sources/Bugpoint.txt
URL: http://llvm.org/viewvc/llvm-project/www-releases/trunk/3.4.1/docs/_sources/Bugpoint.txt?rev=208244&view=auto
==============================================================================
--- www-releases/trunk/3.4.1/docs/_sources/Bugpoint.txt (added)
+++ www-releases/trunk/3.4.1/docs/_sources/Bugpoint.txt Wed May  7 15:09:32 2014
@@ -0,0 +1,216 @@
+====================================
+LLVM bugpoint tool: design and usage
+====================================
+
+.. contents::
+   :local:
+
+Description
+===========
+
+``bugpoint`` narrows down the source of problems in LLVM tools and passes.  It
+can be used to debug three types of failures: optimizer crashes, miscompilations
+by optimizers, or bad native code generation (including problems in the static
+and JIT compilers).  It aims to reduce large test cases to small, useful ones.
+For example, if ``opt`` crashes while optimizing a file, it will identify the
+optimization (or combination of optimizations) that causes the crash, and reduce
+the file down to a small example which triggers the crash.
+
+For detailed case scenarios, such as debugging ``opt``, or one of the LLVM code
+generators, see `How To Submit a Bug Report document <HowToSubmitABug.html>`_.
+
+Design Philosophy
+=================
+
+``bugpoint`` is designed to be a useful tool without requiring any hooks into
+the LLVM infrastructure at all.  It works with any and all LLVM passes and code
+generators, and does not need to "know" how they work.  Because of this, it may
+appear to do stupid things or miss obvious simplifications.  ``bugpoint`` is
+also designed to trade off programmer time for computer time in the
+compiler-debugging process; consequently, it may take a long period of
+(unattended) time to reduce a test case, but we feel it is still worth it. Note
+that ``bugpoint`` is generally very quick unless debugging a miscompilation
+where each test of the program (which requires executing it) takes a long time.
+
+Automatic Debugger Selection
+----------------------------
+
+``bugpoint`` reads each ``.bc`` or ``.ll`` file specified on the command line
+and links them together into a single module, called the test program.  If any
+LLVM passes are specified on the command line, it runs these passes on the test
+program.  If any of the passes crash, or if they produce malformed output (which
+causes the verifier to abort), ``bugpoint`` starts the `crash debugger`_.
+
+Otherwise, if the ``-output`` option was not specified, ``bugpoint`` runs the
+test program with the "safe" backend (which is assumed to generate good code) to
+generate a reference output.  Once ``bugpoint`` has a reference output for the
+test program, it tries executing it with the selected code generator.  If the
+selected code generator crashes, ``bugpoint`` starts the `crash debugger`_ on
+the code generator.  Otherwise, if the resulting output differs from the
+reference output, it assumes the difference resulted from a code generator
+failure, and starts the `code generator debugger`_.
+
+Finally, if the output of the selected code generator matches the reference
+output, ``bugpoint`` runs the test program after all of the LLVM passes have
+been applied to it.  If its output differs from the reference output, it assumes
+the difference resulted from a failure in one of the LLVM passes, and enters the
+`miscompilation debugger`_.  Otherwise, there is no problem ``bugpoint`` can
+debug.
+
+.. _crash debugger:
+
+Crash debugger
+--------------
+
+If an optimizer or code generator crashes, ``bugpoint`` will try as hard as it
+can to reduce the list of passes (for optimizer crashes) and the size of the
+test program.  First, ``bugpoint`` figures out which combination of optimizer
+passes triggers the bug. This is useful when debugging a problem exposed by
+``opt``, for example, because it runs over 38 passes.
+
+Next, ``bugpoint`` tries removing functions from the test program, to reduce its
+size.  Usually it is able to reduce a test program to a single function, when
+debugging intraprocedural optimizations.  Once the number of functions has been
+reduced, it attempts to delete various edges in the control flow graph, to
+reduce the size of the function as much as possible.  Finally, ``bugpoint``
+deletes any individual LLVM instructions whose absence does not eliminate the
+failure.  At the end, ``bugpoint`` should tell you what passes crash, give you a
+bitcode file, and give you instructions on how to reproduce the failure with
+``opt`` or ``llc``.
+
+.. _code generator debugger:
+
+Code generator debugger
+-----------------------
+
+The code generator debugger attempts to narrow down the amount of code that is
+being miscompiled by the selected code generator.  To do this, it takes the test
+program and partitions it into two pieces: one piece which it compiles with the
+"safe" backend (into a shared object), and one piece which it runs with either
+the JIT or the static LLC compiler.  It uses several techniques to reduce the
+amount of code pushed through the LLVM code generator, to reduce the potential
+scope of the problem.  After it is finished, it emits two bitcode files (called
+"test" [to be compiled with the code generator] and "safe" [to be compiled with
+the "safe" backend], respectively), and instructions for reproducing the
+problem.  The code generator debugger assumes that the "safe" backend produces
+good code.
+
+.. _miscompilation debugger:
+
+Miscompilation debugger
+-----------------------
+
+The miscompilation debugger works similarly to the code generator debugger.  It
+works by splitting the test program into two pieces, running the optimizations
+specified on one piece, linking the two pieces back together, and then executing
+the result.  It attempts to narrow down the list of passes to the one (or few)
+which are causing the miscompilation, then reduce the portion of the test
+program which is being miscompiled.  The miscompilation debugger assumes that
+the selected code generator is working properly.
+
+Advice for using bugpoint
+=========================
+
+``bugpoint`` can be a remarkably useful tool, but it sometimes works in
+non-obvious ways.  Here are some hints and tips:
+
+* In the code generator and miscompilation debuggers, ``bugpoint`` only works
+  with programs that have deterministic output.  Thus, if the program outputs
+  ``argv[0]``, the date, time, or any other "random" data, ``bugpoint`` may
+  misinterpret differences in these data, when output, as the result of a
+  miscompilation.  Programs should be temporarily modified to disable outputs
+  that are likely to vary from run to run.
+
+* In the code generator and miscompilation debuggers, debugging will go faster
+  if you manually modify the program or its inputs to reduce the runtime, but
+  still exhibit the problem.
+
+* ``bugpoint`` is extremely useful when working on a new optimization: it helps
+  track down regressions quickly.  To avoid having to relink ``bugpoint`` every
+  time you change your optimization however, have ``bugpoint`` dynamically load
+  your optimization with the ``-load`` option.
+
+* ``bugpoint`` can generate a lot of output and run for a long period of time.
+  It is often useful to capture the output of the program to file.  For example,
+  in the C shell, you can run:
+
+  .. code-block:: console
+
+    $ bugpoint  ... |& tee bugpoint.log
+
+  to get a copy of ``bugpoint``'s output in the file ``bugpoint.log``, as well
+  as on your terminal.
+
+* ``bugpoint`` cannot debug problems with the LLVM linker. If ``bugpoint``
+  crashes before you see its "All input ok" message, you might try ``llvm-link
+  -v`` on the same set of input files. If that also crashes, you may be
+  experiencing a linker bug.
+
+* ``bugpoint`` is useful for proactively finding bugs in LLVM.  Invoking
+  ``bugpoint`` with the ``-find-bugs`` option will cause the list of specified
+  optimizations to be randomized and applied to the program. This process will
+  repeat until a bug is found or the user kills ``bugpoint``.
+
+What to do when bugpoint isn't enough
+=====================================
+	
+Sometimes, ``bugpoint`` is not enough. In particular, InstCombine and
+TargetLowering both have visitor structured code with lots of potential
+transformations.  If the process of using bugpoint has left you with still too
+much code to figure out and the problem seems to be in instcombine, the
+following steps may help.  These same techniques are useful with TargetLowering
+as well.
+
+Turn on ``-debug-only=instcombine`` and see which transformations within
+instcombine are firing by selecting out lines with "``IC``" in them.
+
+At this point, you have a decision to make.  Is the number of transformations
+small enough to step through them using a debugger?  If so, then try that.
+
+If there are too many transformations, then a source modification approach may
+be helpful.  In this approach, you can modify the source code of instcombine to
+disable just those transformations that are being performed on your test input
+and perform a binary search over the set of transformations.  One set of places
+to modify are the "``visit*``" methods of ``InstCombiner`` (*e.g.*
+``visitICmpInst``) by adding a "``return false``" as the first line of the
+method.
+
+If that still doesn't remove enough, then change the caller of
+``InstCombiner::DoOneIteration``, ``InstCombiner::runOnFunction`` to limit the
+number of iterations.
+
+You may also find it useful to use "``-stats``" now to see what parts of
+instcombine are firing.  This can guide where to put additional reporting code.
+
+At this point, if the amount of transformations is still too large, then
+inserting code to limit whether or not to execute the body of the code in the
+visit function can be helpful.  Add a static counter which is incremented on
+every invocation of the function.  Then add code which simply returns false on
+desired ranges.  For example:
+
+.. code-block:: c++
+
+
+  static int calledCount = 0;
+  calledCount++;
+  DEBUG(if (calledCount < 212) return false);
+  DEBUG(if (calledCount > 217) return false);
+  DEBUG(if (calledCount == 213) return false);
+  DEBUG(if (calledCount == 214) return false);
+  DEBUG(if (calledCount == 215) return false);
+  DEBUG(if (calledCount == 216) return false);
+  DEBUG(dbgs() << "visitXOR calledCount: " << calledCount << "\n");
+  DEBUG(dbgs() << "I: "; I->dump());
+
+could be added to ``visitXOR`` to limit ``visitXor`` to being applied only to
+calls 212 and 217. This is from an actual test case and raises an important
+point---a simple binary search may not be sufficient, as transformations that
+interact may require isolating more than one call.  In TargetLowering, use
+``return SDNode();`` instead of ``return false;``.
+
+Now that that the number of transformations is down to a manageable number, try
+examining the output to see if you can figure out which transformations are
+being done.  If that can be figured out, then do the usual debugging.  If which
+code corresponds to the transformation being performed isn't obvious, set a
+breakpoint after the call count based disabling and step through the code.
+Alternatively, you can use "``printf``" style debugging to report waypoints.

Added: www-releases/trunk/3.4.1/docs/_sources/CMake.txt
URL: http://llvm.org/viewvc/llvm-project/www-releases/trunk/3.4.1/docs/_sources/CMake.txt?rev=208244&view=auto
==============================================================================
--- www-releases/trunk/3.4.1/docs/_sources/CMake.txt (added)
+++ www-releases/trunk/3.4.1/docs/_sources/CMake.txt Wed May  7 15:09:32 2014
@@ -0,0 +1,426 @@
+========================
+Building LLVM with CMake
+========================
+
+.. contents::
+   :local:
+
+Introduction
+============
+
+`CMake <http://www.cmake.org/>`_ is a cross-platform build-generator tool. CMake
+does not build the project, it generates the files needed by your build tool
+(GNU make, Visual Studio, etc) for building LLVM.
+
+If you are really anxious about getting a functional LLVM build, go to the
+`Quick start`_ section. If you are a CMake novice, start on `Basic CMake usage`_
+and then go back to the `Quick start`_ once you know what you are doing. The
+`Options and variables`_ section is a reference for customizing your build. If
+you already have experience with CMake, this is the recommended starting point.
+
+.. _Quick start:
+
+Quick start
+===========
+
+We use here the command-line, non-interactive CMake interface.
+
+#. `Download <http://www.cmake.org/cmake/resources/software.html>`_ and install
+   CMake. Version 2.8 is the minimum required.
+
+#. Open a shell. Your development tools must be reachable from this shell
+   through the PATH environment variable.
+
+#. Create a directory for containing the build. It is not supported to build
+   LLVM on the source directory. cd to this directory:
+
+   .. code-block:: console
+
+     $ mkdir mybuilddir
+     $ cd mybuilddir
+
+#. Execute this command on the shell replacing `path/to/llvm/source/root` with
+   the path to the root of your LLVM source tree:
+
+   .. code-block:: console
+
+     $ cmake path/to/llvm/source/root
+
+   CMake will detect your development environment, perform a series of test and
+   generate the files required for building LLVM. CMake will use default values
+   for all build parameters. See the `Options and variables`_ section for
+   fine-tuning your build
+
+   This can fail if CMake can't detect your toolset, or if it thinks that the
+   environment is not sane enough. On this case make sure that the toolset that
+   you intend to use is the only one reachable from the shell and that the shell
+   itself is the correct one for you development environment. CMake will refuse
+   to build MinGW makefiles if you have a POSIX shell reachable through the PATH
+   environment variable, for instance. You can force CMake to use a given build
+   tool, see the `Usage`_ section.
+
+.. _Basic CMake usage:
+.. _Usage:
+
+Basic CMake usage
+=================
+
+This section explains basic aspects of CMake, mostly for explaining those
+options which you may need on your day-to-day usage.
+
+CMake comes with extensive documentation in the form of html files and on the
+cmake executable itself. Execute ``cmake --help`` for further help options.
+
+CMake requires to know for which build tool it shall generate files (GNU make,
+Visual Studio, Xcode, etc). If not specified on the command line, it tries to
+guess it based on you environment. Once identified the build tool, CMake uses
+the corresponding *Generator* for creating files for your build tool. You can
+explicitly specify the generator with the command line option ``-G "Name of the
+generator"``. For knowing the available generators on your platform, execute
+
+.. code-block:: console
+
+  $ cmake --help
+
+This will list the generator's names at the end of the help text. Generator's
+names are case-sensitive. Example:
+
+.. code-block:: console
+
+  $ cmake -G "Visual Studio 10" path/to/llvm/source/root
+
+For a given development platform there can be more than one adequate
+generator. If you use Visual Studio "NMake Makefiles" is a generator you can use
+for building with NMake. By default, CMake chooses the more specific generator
+supported by your development environment. If you want an alternative generator,
+you must tell this to CMake with the ``-G`` option.
+
+.. todo::
+
+  Explain variables and cache. Move explanation here from #options section.
+
+.. _Options and variables:
+
+Options and variables
+=====================
+
+Variables customize how the build will be generated. Options are boolean
+variables, with possible values ON/OFF. Options and variables are defined on the
+CMake command line like this:
+
+.. code-block:: console
+
+  $ cmake -DVARIABLE=value path/to/llvm/source
+
+You can set a variable after the initial CMake invocation for changing its
+value. You can also undefine a variable:
+
+.. code-block:: console
+
+  $ cmake -UVARIABLE path/to/llvm/source
+
+Variables are stored on the CMake cache. This is a file named ``CMakeCache.txt``
+on the root of the build directory. Do not hand-edit it.
+
+Variables are listed here appending its type after a colon. It is correct to
+write the variable and the type on the CMake command line:
+
+.. code-block:: console
+
+  $ cmake -DVARIABLE:TYPE=value path/to/llvm/source
+
+Frequently-used CMake variables
+-------------------------------
+
+Here are listed some of the CMake variables that are used often, along with a
+brief explanation and LLVM-specific notes. For full documentation, check the
+CMake docs or execute ``cmake --help-variable VARIABLE_NAME``.
+
+**CMAKE_BUILD_TYPE**:STRING
+  Sets the build type for ``make`` based generators. Possible values are
+  Release, Debug, RelWithDebInfo and MinSizeRel. On systems like Visual Studio
+  the user sets the build type with the IDE settings.
+
+**CMAKE_INSTALL_PREFIX**:PATH
+  Path where LLVM will be installed if "make install" is invoked or the
+  "INSTALL" target is built.
+
+**LLVM_LIBDIR_SUFFIX**:STRING
+  Extra suffix to append to the directory where libraries are to be
+  installed. On a 64-bit architecture, one could use ``-DLLVM_LIBDIR_SUFFIX=64``
+  to install libraries to ``/usr/lib64``.
+
+**CMAKE_C_FLAGS**:STRING
+  Extra flags to use when compiling C source files.
+
+**CMAKE_CXX_FLAGS**:STRING
+  Extra flags to use when compiling C++ source files.
+
+**BUILD_SHARED_LIBS**:BOOL
+  Flag indicating is shared libraries will be built. Its default value is
+  OFF. Shared libraries are not supported on Windows and not recommended in the
+  other OSes.
+
+.. _LLVM-specific variables:
+
+LLVM-specific variables
+-----------------------
+
+**LLVM_TARGETS_TO_BUILD**:STRING
+  Semicolon-separated list of targets to build, or *all* for building all
+  targets. Case-sensitive. Defaults to *all*. Example:
+  ``-DLLVM_TARGETS_TO_BUILD="X86;PowerPC"``.
+
+**LLVM_BUILD_TOOLS**:BOOL
+  Build LLVM tools. Defaults to ON. Targets for building each tool are generated
+  in any case. You can build an tool separately by invoking its target. For
+  example, you can build *llvm-as* with a makefile-based system executing *make
+  llvm-as* on the root of your build directory.
+
+**LLVM_INCLUDE_TOOLS**:BOOL
+  Generate build targets for the LLVM tools. Defaults to ON. You can use that
+  option for disabling the generation of build targets for the LLVM tools.
+
+**LLVM_BUILD_EXAMPLES**:BOOL
+  Build LLVM examples. Defaults to OFF. Targets for building each example are
+  generated in any case. See documentation for *LLVM_BUILD_TOOLS* above for more
+  details.
+
+**LLVM_INCLUDE_EXAMPLES**:BOOL
+  Generate build targets for the LLVM examples. Defaults to ON. You can use that
+  option for disabling the generation of build targets for the LLVM examples.
+
+**LLVM_BUILD_TESTS**:BOOL
+  Build LLVM unit tests. Defaults to OFF. Targets for building each unit test
+  are generated in any case. You can build a specific unit test with the target
+  *UnitTestNameTests* (where at this time *UnitTestName* can be ADT, Analysis,
+  ExecutionEngine, JIT, Support, Transform, VMCore; see the subdirectories of
+  *unittests* for an updated list.) It is possible to build all unit tests with
+  the target *UnitTests*.
+
+**LLVM_INCLUDE_TESTS**:BOOL
+  Generate build targets for the LLVM unit tests. Defaults to ON. You can use
+  that option for disabling the generation of build targets for the LLVM unit
+  tests.
+
+**LLVM_APPEND_VC_REV**:BOOL
+  Append version control revision info (svn revision number or Git revision id)
+  to LLVM version string (stored in the PACKAGE_VERSION macro). For this to work
+  cmake must be invoked before the build. Defaults to OFF.
+
+**LLVM_ENABLE_THREADS**:BOOL
+  Build with threads support, if available. Defaults to ON.
+
+**LLVM_ENABLE_ASSERTIONS**:BOOL
+  Enables code assertions. Defaults to OFF if and only if ``CMAKE_BUILD_TYPE``
+  is *Release*.
+
+**LLVM_ENABLE_PIC**:BOOL
+  Add the ``-fPIC`` flag for the compiler command-line, if the compiler supports
+  this flag. Some systems, like Windows, do not need this flag. Defaults to ON.
+
+**LLVM_ENABLE_WARNINGS**:BOOL
+  Enable all compiler warnings. Defaults to ON.
+
+**LLVM_ENABLE_PEDANTIC**:BOOL
+  Enable pedantic mode. This disable compiler specific extensions, is
+  possible. Defaults to ON.
+
+**LLVM_ENABLE_WERROR**:BOOL
+  Stop and fail build, if a compiler warning is triggered. Defaults to OFF.
+
+**LLVM_BUILD_32_BITS**:BOOL
+  Build 32-bits executables and libraries on 64-bits systems. This option is
+  available only on some 64-bits unix systems. Defaults to OFF.
+
+**LLVM_TARGET_ARCH**:STRING
+  LLVM target to use for native code generation. This is required for JIT
+  generation. It defaults to "host", meaning that it shall pick the architecture
+  of the machine where LLVM is being built. If you are cross-compiling, set it
+  to the target architecture name.
+
+**LLVM_TABLEGEN**:STRING
+  Full path to a native TableGen executable (usually named ``tblgen``). This is
+  intended for cross-compiling: if the user sets this variable, no native
+  TableGen will be created.
+
+**LLVM_LIT_ARGS**:STRING
+  Arguments given to lit.  ``make check`` and ``make clang-test`` are affected.
+  By default, ``'-sv --no-progress-bar'`` on Visual C++ and Xcode, ``'-sv'`` on
+  others.
+
+**LLVM_LIT_TOOLS_DIR**:PATH
+  The path to GnuWin32 tools for tests. Valid on Windows host.  Defaults to "",
+  then Lit seeks tools according to %PATH%.  Lit can find tools(eg. grep, sort,
+  &c) on LLVM_LIT_TOOLS_DIR at first, without specifying GnuWin32 to %PATH%.
+
+**LLVM_ENABLE_FFI**:BOOL
+  Indicates whether LLVM Interpreter will be linked with Foreign Function
+  Interface library. If the library or its headers are installed on a custom
+  location, you can set the variables FFI_INCLUDE_DIR and
+  FFI_LIBRARY_DIR. Defaults to OFF.
+
+**LLVM_EXTERNAL_{CLANG,LLD,POLLY}_SOURCE_DIR**:PATH
+  Path to ``{Clang,lld,Polly}``\'s source directory. Defaults to
+  ``tools/{clang,lld,polly}``. ``{Clang,lld,Polly}`` will not be built when it
+  is empty or it does not point valid path.
+
+**LLVM_USE_OPROFILE**:BOOL
+  Enable building OProfile JIT support. Defaults to OFF
+
+**LLVM_USE_INTEL_JITEVENTS**:BOOL
+  Enable building support for Intel JIT Events API. Defaults to OFF
+
+**LLVM_ENABLE_ZLIB**:BOOL
+  Build with zlib to support compression/uncompression in LLVM tools.
+  Defaults to ON.
+
+**LLVM_USE_SANITIZER**:STRING
+  Define the sanitizer used to build LLVM binaries and tests. Possible values
+  are ``Address``, ``Memory`` and ``MemoryWithOrigins``. Defaults to empty
+  string.
+
+Executing the test suite
+========================
+
+Testing is performed when the *check* target is built. For instance, if you are
+using makefiles, execute this command while on the top level of your build
+directory:
+
+.. code-block:: console
+
+  $ make check
+
+On Visual Studio, you may run tests to build the project "check".
+
+Cross compiling
+===============
+
+See `this wiki page <http://www.vtk.org/Wiki/CMake_Cross_Compiling>`_ for
+generic instructions on how to cross-compile with CMake. It goes into detailed
+explanations and may seem daunting, but it is not. On the wiki page there are
+several examples including toolchain files. Go directly to `this section
+<http://www.vtk.org/Wiki/CMake_Cross_Compiling#Information_how_to_set_up_various_cross_compiling_toolchains>`_
+for a quick solution.
+
+Also see the `LLVM-specific variables`_ section for variables used when
+cross-compiling.
+
+Embedding LLVM in your project
+==============================
+
+The most difficult part of adding LLVM to the build of a project is to determine
+the set of LLVM libraries corresponding to the set of required LLVM
+features. What follows is an example of how to obtain this information:
+
+.. code-block:: cmake
+
+  # A convenience variable:
+  set(LLVM_ROOT "" CACHE PATH "Root of LLVM install.")
+
+  # A bit of a sanity check:
+  if( NOT EXISTS ${LLVM_ROOT}/include/llvm )
+  message(FATAL_ERROR "LLVM_ROOT (${LLVM_ROOT}) is not a valid LLVM install")
+  endif()
+
+  # We incorporate the CMake features provided by LLVM:
+  set(CMAKE_MODULE_PATH ${CMAKE_MODULE_PATH} "${LLVM_ROOT}/share/llvm/cmake")
+  include(LLVMConfig)
+
+  # Now set the header and library paths:
+  include_directories( ${LLVM_INCLUDE_DIRS} )
+  link_directories( ${LLVM_LIBRARY_DIRS} )
+  add_definitions( ${LLVM_DEFINITIONS} )
+
+  # Let's suppose we want to build a JIT compiler with support for
+  # binary code (no interpreter):
+  llvm_map_components_to_libraries(REQ_LLVM_LIBRARIES jit native)
+
+  # Finally, we link the LLVM libraries to our executable:
+  target_link_libraries(mycompiler ${REQ_LLVM_LIBRARIES})
+
+This assumes that LLVM_ROOT points to an install of LLVM. The procedure works
+too for uninstalled builds although we need to take care to add an
+`include_directories` for the location of the headers on the LLVM source
+directory (if we are building out-of-source.)
+
+Alternativaly, you can utilize CMake's ``find_package`` functionality. Here is
+an equivalent variant of snippet shown above:
+
+.. code-block:: cmake
+
+  find_package(LLVM)
+
+  if( NOT LLVM_FOUND )
+    message(FATAL_ERROR "LLVM package can't be found. Set CMAKE_PREFIX_PATH variable to LLVM's installation prefix.")
+  endif()
+
+  include_directories( ${LLVM_INCLUDE_DIRS} )
+  link_directories( ${LLVM_LIBRARY_DIRS} )
+
+  llvm_map_components_to_libraries(REQ_LLVM_LIBRARIES jit native)
+
+  target_link_libraries(mycompiler ${REQ_LLVM_LIBRARIES})
+
+.. _cmake-out-of-source-pass:
+
+Developing LLVM pass out of source
+----------------------------------
+
+It is possible to develop LLVM passes against installed LLVM.  An example of
+project layout provided below:
+
+.. code-block:: none
+
+  <project dir>/
+      |
+      CMakeLists.txt
+      <pass name>/
+          |
+          CMakeLists.txt
+          Pass.cpp
+          ...
+
+Contents of ``<project dir>/CMakeLists.txt``:
+
+.. code-block:: cmake
+
+  find_package(LLVM)
+
+  # Define add_llvm_* macro's.
+  include(AddLLVM)
+
+  add_definitions(${LLVM_DEFINITIONS})
+  include_directories(${LLVM_INCLUDE_DIRS})
+  link_directories(${LLVM_LIBRARY_DIRS})
+
+  add_subdirectory(<pass name>)
+
+Contents of ``<project dir>/<pass name>/CMakeLists.txt``:
+
+.. code-block:: cmake
+
+  add_llvm_loadable_module(LLVMPassname
+    Pass.cpp
+    )
+
+When you are done developing your pass, you may wish to integrate it
+into LLVM source tree. You can achieve it in two easy steps:
+
+#. Copying ``<pass name>`` folder into ``<LLVM root>/lib/Transform`` directory.
+
+#. Adding ``add_subdirectory(<pass name>)`` line into
+   ``<LLVM root>/lib/Transform/CMakeLists.txt``.
+
+Compiler/Platform specific topics
+=================================
+
+Notes for specific compilers and/or platforms.
+
+Microsoft Visual C++
+--------------------
+
+**LLVM_COMPILER_JOBS**:STRING
+  Specifies the maximum number of parallell compiler jobs to use per project
+  when building with msbuild or Visual Studio. Only supported for the Visual
+  Studio 2010 CMake generator. 0 means use all processors. Default is 0.

Added: www-releases/trunk/3.4.1/docs/_sources/CodeGenerator.txt
URL: http://llvm.org/viewvc/llvm-project/www-releases/trunk/3.4.1/docs/_sources/CodeGenerator.txt?rev=208244&view=auto
==============================================================================
--- www-releases/trunk/3.4.1/docs/_sources/CodeGenerator.txt (added)
+++ www-releases/trunk/3.4.1/docs/_sources/CodeGenerator.txt Wed May  7 15:09:32 2014
@@ -0,0 +1,2444 @@
+==========================================
+The LLVM Target-Independent Code Generator
+==========================================
+
+.. role:: raw-html(raw)
+   :format: html
+
+.. raw:: html
+
+  <style>
+    .unknown { background-color: #C0C0C0; text-align: center; }
+    .unknown:before { content: "?" }
+    .no { background-color: #C11B17 }
+    .no:before { content: "N" }
+    .partial { background-color: #F88017 }
+    .yes { background-color: #0F0; }
+    .yes:before { content: "Y" }
+    .na { background-color: #6666FF; }
+    .na:before { content: "N/A" }
+  </style>
+
+.. contents::
+   :local:
+
+.. warning::
+  This is a work in progress.
+
+Introduction
+============
+
+The LLVM target-independent code generator is a framework that provides a suite
+of reusable components for translating the LLVM internal representation to the
+machine code for a specified target---either in assembly form (suitable for a
+static compiler) or in binary machine code format (usable for a JIT
+compiler). The LLVM target-independent code generator consists of six main
+components:
+
+1. `Abstract target description`_ interfaces which capture important properties
+   about various aspects of the machine, independently of how they will be used.
+   These interfaces are defined in ``include/llvm/Target/``.
+
+2. Classes used to represent the `code being generated`_ for a target.  These
+   classes are intended to be abstract enough to represent the machine code for
+   *any* target machine.  These classes are defined in
+   ``include/llvm/CodeGen/``. At this level, concepts like "constant pool
+   entries" and "jump tables" are explicitly exposed.
+
+3. Classes and algorithms used to represent code as the object file level, the
+   `MC Layer`_.  These classes represent assembly level constructs like labels,
+   sections, and instructions.  At this level, concepts like "constant pool
+   entries" and "jump tables" don't exist.
+
+4. `Target-independent algorithms`_ used to implement various phases of native
+   code generation (register allocation, scheduling, stack frame representation,
+   etc).  This code lives in ``lib/CodeGen/``.
+
+5. `Implementations of the abstract target description interfaces`_ for
+   particular targets.  These machine descriptions make use of the components
+   provided by LLVM, and can optionally provide custom target-specific passes,
+   to build complete code generators for a specific target.  Target descriptions
+   live in ``lib/Target/``.
+
+6. The target-independent JIT components.  The LLVM JIT is completely target
+   independent (it uses the ``TargetJITInfo`` structure to interface for
+   target-specific issues.  The code for the target-independent JIT lives in
+   ``lib/ExecutionEngine/JIT``.
+
+Depending on which part of the code generator you are interested in working on,
+different pieces of this will be useful to you.  In any case, you should be
+familiar with the `target description`_ and `machine code representation`_
+classes.  If you want to add a backend for a new target, you will need to
+`implement the target description`_ classes for your new target and understand
+the `LLVM code representation <LangRef.html>`_.  If you are interested in
+implementing a new `code generation algorithm`_, it should only depend on the
+target-description and machine code representation classes, ensuring that it is
+portable.
+
+Required components in the code generator
+-----------------------------------------
+
+The two pieces of the LLVM code generator are the high-level interface to the
+code generator and the set of reusable components that can be used to build
+target-specific backends.  The two most important interfaces (:raw-html:`<tt>`
+`TargetMachine`_ :raw-html:`</tt>` and :raw-html:`<tt>` `DataLayout`_
+:raw-html:`</tt>`) are the only ones that are required to be defined for a
+backend to fit into the LLVM system, but the others must be defined if the
+reusable code generator components are going to be used.
+
+This design has two important implications.  The first is that LLVM can support
+completely non-traditional code generation targets.  For example, the C backend
+does not require register allocation, instruction selection, or any of the other
+standard components provided by the system.  As such, it only implements these
+two interfaces, and does its own thing. Note that C backend was removed from the
+trunk since LLVM 3.1 release. Another example of a code generator like this is a
+(purely hypothetical) backend that converts LLVM to the GCC RTL form and uses
+GCC to emit machine code for a target.
+
+This design also implies that it is possible to design and implement radically
+different code generators in the LLVM system that do not make use of any of the
+built-in components.  Doing so is not recommended at all, but could be required
+for radically different targets that do not fit into the LLVM machine
+description model: FPGAs for example.
+
+.. _high-level design of the code generator:
+
+The high-level design of the code generator
+-------------------------------------------
+
+The LLVM target-independent code generator is designed to support efficient and
+quality code generation for standard register-based microprocessors.  Code
+generation in this model is divided into the following stages:
+
+1. `Instruction Selection`_ --- This phase determines an efficient way to
+   express the input LLVM code in the target instruction set.  This stage
+   produces the initial code for the program in the target instruction set, then
+   makes use of virtual registers in SSA form and physical registers that
+   represent any required register assignments due to target constraints or
+   calling conventions.  This step turns the LLVM code into a DAG of target
+   instructions.
+
+2. `Scheduling and Formation`_ --- This phase takes the DAG of target
+   instructions produced by the instruction selection phase, determines an
+   ordering of the instructions, then emits the instructions as :raw-html:`<tt>`
+   `MachineInstr`_\s :raw-html:`</tt>` with that ordering.  Note that we
+   describe this in the `instruction selection section`_ because it operates on
+   a `SelectionDAG`_.
+
+3. `SSA-based Machine Code Optimizations`_ --- This optional stage consists of a
+   series of machine-code optimizations that operate on the SSA-form produced by
+   the instruction selector.  Optimizations like modulo-scheduling or peephole
+   optimization work here.
+
+4. `Register Allocation`_ --- The target code is transformed from an infinite
+   virtual register file in SSA form to the concrete register file used by the
+   target.  This phase introduces spill code and eliminates all virtual register
+   references from the program.
+
+5. `Prolog/Epilog Code Insertion`_ --- Once the machine code has been generated
+   for the function and the amount of stack space required is known (used for
+   LLVM alloca's and spill slots), the prolog and epilog code for the function
+   can be inserted and "abstract stack location references" can be eliminated.
+   This stage is responsible for implementing optimizations like frame-pointer
+   elimination and stack packing.
+
+6. `Late Machine Code Optimizations`_ --- Optimizations that operate on "final"
+   machine code can go here, such as spill code scheduling and peephole
+   optimizations.
+
+7. `Code Emission`_ --- The final stage actually puts out the code for the
+   current function, either in the target assembler format or in machine
+   code.
+
+The code generator is based on the assumption that the instruction selector will
+use an optimal pattern matching selector to create high-quality sequences of
+native instructions.  Alternative code generator designs based on pattern
+expansion and aggressive iterative peephole optimization are much slower.  This
+design permits efficient compilation (important for JIT environments) and
+aggressive optimization (used when generating code offline) by allowing
+components of varying levels of sophistication to be used for any step of
+compilation.
+
+In addition to these stages, target implementations can insert arbitrary
+target-specific passes into the flow.  For example, the X86 target uses a
+special pass to handle the 80x87 floating point stack architecture.  Other
+targets with unusual requirements can be supported with custom passes as needed.
+
+Using TableGen for target description
+-------------------------------------
+
+The target description classes require a detailed description of the target
+architecture.  These target descriptions often have a large amount of common
+information (e.g., an ``add`` instruction is almost identical to a ``sub``
+instruction).  In order to allow the maximum amount of commonality to be
+factored out, the LLVM code generator uses the
+:doc:`TableGen <TableGenFundamentals>` tool to describe big chunks of the
+target machine, which allows the use of domain-specific and target-specific
+abstractions to reduce the amount of repetition.
+
+As LLVM continues to be developed and refined, we plan to move more and more of
+the target description to the ``.td`` form.  Doing so gives us a number of
+advantages.  The most important is that it makes it easier to port LLVM because
+it reduces the amount of C++ code that has to be written, and the surface area
+of the code generator that needs to be understood before someone can get
+something working.  Second, it makes it easier to change things. In particular,
+if tables and other things are all emitted by ``tblgen``, we only need a change
+in one place (``tblgen``) to update all of the targets to a new interface.
+
+.. _Abstract target description:
+.. _target description:
+
+Target description classes
+==========================
+
+The LLVM target description classes (located in the ``include/llvm/Target``
+directory) provide an abstract description of the target machine independent of
+any particular client.  These classes are designed to capture the *abstract*
+properties of the target (such as the instructions and registers it has), and do
+not incorporate any particular pieces of code generation algorithms.
+
+All of the target description classes (except the :raw-html:`<tt>` `DataLayout`_
+:raw-html:`</tt>` class) are designed to be subclassed by the concrete target
+implementation, and have virtual methods implemented.  To get to these
+implementations, the :raw-html:`<tt>` `TargetMachine`_ :raw-html:`</tt>` class
+provides accessors that should be implemented by the target.
+
+.. _TargetMachine:
+
+The ``TargetMachine`` class
+---------------------------
+
+The ``TargetMachine`` class provides virtual methods that are used to access the
+target-specific implementations of the various target description classes via
+the ``get*Info`` methods (``getInstrInfo``, ``getRegisterInfo``,
+``getFrameInfo``, etc.).  This class is designed to be specialized by a concrete
+target implementation (e.g., ``X86TargetMachine``) which implements the various
+virtual methods.  The only required target description class is the
+:raw-html:`<tt>` `DataLayout`_ :raw-html:`</tt>` class, but if the code
+generator components are to be used, the other interfaces should be implemented
+as well.
+
+.. _DataLayout:
+
+The ``DataLayout`` class
+------------------------
+
+The ``DataLayout`` class is the only required target description class, and it
+is the only class that is not extensible (you cannot derive a new class from
+it).  ``DataLayout`` specifies information about how the target lays out memory
+for structures, the alignment requirements for various data types, the size of
+pointers in the target, and whether the target is little-endian or
+big-endian.
+
+.. _TargetLowering:
+
+The ``TargetLowering`` class
+----------------------------
+
+The ``TargetLowering`` class is used by SelectionDAG based instruction selectors
+primarily to describe how LLVM code should be lowered to SelectionDAG
+operations.  Among other things, this class indicates:
+
+* an initial register class to use for various ``ValueType``\s,
+
+* which operations are natively supported by the target machine,
+
+* the return type of ``setcc`` operations,
+
+* the type to use for shift amounts, and
+
+* various high-level characteristics, like whether it is profitable to turn
+  division by a constant into a multiplication sequence.
+
+.. _TargetRegisterInfo:
+
+The ``TargetRegisterInfo`` class
+--------------------------------
+
+The ``TargetRegisterInfo`` class is used to describe the register file of the
+target and any interactions between the registers.
+
+Registers are represented in the code generator by unsigned integers.  Physical
+registers (those that actually exist in the target description) are unique
+small numbers, and virtual registers are generally large.  Note that
+register ``#0`` is reserved as a flag value.
+
+Each register in the processor description has an associated
+``TargetRegisterDesc`` entry, which provides a textual name for the register
+(used for assembly output and debugging dumps) and a set of aliases (used to
+indicate whether one register overlaps with another).
+
+In addition to the per-register description, the ``TargetRegisterInfo`` class
+exposes a set of processor specific register classes (instances of the
+``TargetRegisterClass`` class).  Each register class contains sets of registers
+that have the same properties (for example, they are all 32-bit integer
+registers).  Each SSA virtual register created by the instruction selector has
+an associated register class.  When the register allocator runs, it replaces
+virtual registers with a physical register in the set.
+
+The target-specific implementations of these classes is auto-generated from a
+`TableGen <TableGenFundamentals.html>`_ description of the register file.
+
+.. _TargetInstrInfo:
+
+The ``TargetInstrInfo`` class
+-----------------------------
+
+The ``TargetInstrInfo`` class is used to describe the machine instructions
+supported by the target.  Descriptions define things like the mnemonic for
+the opcode, the number of operands, the list of implicit register uses and defs,
+whether the instruction has certain target-independent properties (accesses
+memory, is commutable, etc), and holds any target-specific flags.
+
+The ``TargetFrameInfo`` class
+-----------------------------
+
+The ``TargetFrameInfo`` class is used to provide information about the stack
+frame layout of the target. It holds the direction of stack growth, the known
+stack alignment on entry to each function, and the offset to the local area.
+The offset to the local area is the offset from the stack pointer on function
+entry to the first location where function data (local variables, spill
+locations) can be stored.
+
+The ``TargetSubtarget`` class
+-----------------------------
+
+The ``TargetSubtarget`` class is used to provide information about the specific
+chip set being targeted.  A sub-target informs code generation of which
+instructions are supported, instruction latencies and instruction execution
+itinerary; i.e., which processing units are used, in what order, and for how
+long.
+
+The ``TargetJITInfo`` class
+---------------------------
+
+The ``TargetJITInfo`` class exposes an abstract interface used by the
+Just-In-Time code generator to perform target-specific activities, such as
+emitting stubs.  If a ``TargetMachine`` supports JIT code generation, it should
+provide one of these objects through the ``getJITInfo`` method.
+
+.. _code being generated:
+.. _machine code representation:
+
+Machine code description classes
+================================
+
+At the high-level, LLVM code is translated to a machine specific representation
+formed out of :raw-html:`<tt>` `MachineFunction`_ :raw-html:`</tt>`,
+:raw-html:`<tt>` `MachineBasicBlock`_ :raw-html:`</tt>`, and :raw-html:`<tt>`
+`MachineInstr`_ :raw-html:`</tt>` instances (defined in
+``include/llvm/CodeGen``).  This representation is completely target agnostic,
+representing instructions in their most abstract form: an opcode and a series of
+operands.  This representation is designed to support both an SSA representation
+for machine code, as well as a register allocated, non-SSA form.
+
+.. _MachineInstr:
+
+The ``MachineInstr`` class
+--------------------------
+
+Target machine instructions are represented as instances of the ``MachineInstr``
+class.  This class is an extremely abstract way of representing machine
+instructions.  In particular, it only keeps track of an opcode number and a set
+of operands.
+
+The opcode number is a simple unsigned integer that only has meaning to a
+specific backend.  All of the instructions for a target should be defined in the
+``*InstrInfo.td`` file for the target. The opcode enum values are auto-generated
+from this description.  The ``MachineInstr`` class does not have any information
+about how to interpret the instruction (i.e., what the semantics of the
+instruction are); for that you must refer to the :raw-html:`<tt>`
+`TargetInstrInfo`_ :raw-html:`</tt>` class.
+
+The operands of a machine instruction can be of several different types: a
+register reference, a constant integer, a basic block reference, etc.  In
+addition, a machine operand should be marked as a def or a use of the value
+(though only registers are allowed to be defs).
+
+By convention, the LLVM code generator orders instruction operands so that all
+register definitions come before the register uses, even on architectures that
+are normally printed in other orders.  For example, the SPARC add instruction:
+"``add %i1, %i2, %i3``" adds the "%i1", and "%i2" registers and stores the
+result into the "%i3" register.  In the LLVM code generator, the operands should
+be stored as "``%i3, %i1, %i2``": with the destination first.
+
+Keeping destination (definition) operands at the beginning of the operand list
+has several advantages.  In particular, the debugging printer will print the
+instruction like this:
+
+.. code-block:: llvm
+
+  %r3 = add %i1, %i2
+
+Also if the first operand is a def, it is easier to `create instructions`_ whose
+only def is the first operand.
+
+.. _create instructions:
+
+Using the ``MachineInstrBuilder.h`` functions
+^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
+
+Machine instructions are created by using the ``BuildMI`` functions, located in
+the ``include/llvm/CodeGen/MachineInstrBuilder.h`` file.  The ``BuildMI``
+functions make it easy to build arbitrary machine instructions.  Usage of the
+``BuildMI`` functions look like this:
+
+.. code-block:: c++
+
+  // Create a 'DestReg = mov 42' (rendered in X86 assembly as 'mov DestReg, 42')
+  // instruction.  The '1' specifies how many operands will be added.
+  MachineInstr *MI = BuildMI(X86::MOV32ri, 1, DestReg).addImm(42);
+
+  // Create the same instr, but insert it at the end of a basic block.
+  MachineBasicBlock &MBB = ...
+  BuildMI(MBB, X86::MOV32ri, 1, DestReg).addImm(42);
+
+  // Create the same instr, but insert it before a specified iterator point.
+  MachineBasicBlock::iterator MBBI = ...
+  BuildMI(MBB, MBBI, X86::MOV32ri, 1, DestReg).addImm(42);
+
+  // Create a 'cmp Reg, 0' instruction, no destination reg.
+  MI = BuildMI(X86::CMP32ri, 2).addReg(Reg).addImm(0);
+
+  // Create an 'sahf' instruction which takes no operands and stores nothing.
+  MI = BuildMI(X86::SAHF, 0);
+
+  // Create a self looping branch instruction.
+  BuildMI(MBB, X86::JNE, 1).addMBB(&MBB);
+
+The key thing to remember with the ``BuildMI`` functions is that you have to
+specify the number of operands that the machine instruction will take.  This
+allows for efficient memory allocation.  You also need to specify if operands
+default to be uses of values, not definitions.  If you need to add a definition
+operand (other than the optional destination register), you must explicitly mark
+it as such:
+
+.. code-block:: c++
+
+  MI.addReg(Reg, RegState::Define);
+
+Fixed (preassigned) registers
+^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
+
+One important issue that the code generator needs to be aware of is the presence
+of fixed registers.  In particular, there are often places in the instruction
+stream where the register allocator *must* arrange for a particular value to be
+in a particular register.  This can occur due to limitations of the instruction
+set (e.g., the X86 can only do a 32-bit divide with the ``EAX``/``EDX``
+registers), or external factors like calling conventions.  In any case, the
+instruction selector should emit code that copies a virtual register into or out
+of a physical register when needed.
+
+For example, consider this simple LLVM example:
+
+.. code-block:: llvm
+
+  define i32 @test(i32 %X, i32 %Y) {
+    %Z = udiv i32 %X, %Y
+    ret i32 %Z
+  }
+
+The X86 instruction selector produces this machine code for the ``div`` and
+``ret`` (use "``llc X.bc -march=x86 -print-machineinstrs``" to get this):
+
+.. code-block:: llvm
+
+  ;; Start of div
+  %EAX = mov %reg1024           ;; Copy X (in reg1024) into EAX
+  %reg1027 = sar %reg1024, 31
+  %EDX = mov %reg1027           ;; Sign extend X into EDX
+  idiv %reg1025                 ;; Divide by Y (in reg1025)
+  %reg1026 = mov %EAX           ;; Read the result (Z) out of EAX
+
+  ;; Start of ret
+  %EAX = mov %reg1026           ;; 32-bit return value goes in EAX
+  ret
+
+By the end of code generation, the register allocator has coalesced the
+registers and deleted the resultant identity moves producing the following
+code:
+
+.. code-block:: llvm
+
+  ;; X is in EAX, Y is in ECX
+  mov %EAX, %EDX
+  sar %EDX, 31
+  idiv %ECX
+  ret 
+
+This approach is extremely general (if it can handle the X86 architecture, it
+can handle anything!) and allows all of the target specific knowledge about the
+instruction stream to be isolated in the instruction selector.  Note that
+physical registers should have a short lifetime for good code generation, and
+all physical registers are assumed dead on entry to and exit from basic blocks
+(before register allocation).  Thus, if you need a value to be live across basic
+block boundaries, it *must* live in a virtual register.
+
+Call-clobbered registers
+^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
+
+Some machine instructions, like calls, clobber a large number of physical
+registers.  Rather than adding ``<def,dead>`` operands for all of them, it is
+possible to use an ``MO_RegisterMask`` operand instead.  The register mask
+operand holds a bit mask of preserved registers, and everything else is
+considered to be clobbered by the instruction.
+
+Machine code in SSA form
+^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
+
+``MachineInstr``'s are initially selected in SSA-form, and are maintained in
+SSA-form until register allocation happens.  For the most part, this is
+trivially simple since LLVM is already in SSA form; LLVM PHI nodes become
+machine code PHI nodes, and virtual registers are only allowed to have a single
+definition.
+
+After register allocation, machine code is no longer in SSA-form because there
+are no virtual registers left in the code.
+
+.. _MachineBasicBlock:
+
+The ``MachineBasicBlock`` class
+-------------------------------
+
+The ``MachineBasicBlock`` class contains a list of machine instructions
+(:raw-html:`<tt>` `MachineInstr`_ :raw-html:`</tt>` instances).  It roughly
+corresponds to the LLVM code input to the instruction selector, but there can be
+a one-to-many mapping (i.e. one LLVM basic block can map to multiple machine
+basic blocks). The ``MachineBasicBlock`` class has a "``getBasicBlock``" method,
+which returns the LLVM basic block that it comes from.
+
+.. _MachineFunction:
+
+The ``MachineFunction`` class
+-----------------------------
+
+The ``MachineFunction`` class contains a list of machine basic blocks
+(:raw-html:`<tt>` `MachineBasicBlock`_ :raw-html:`</tt>` instances).  It
+corresponds one-to-one with the LLVM function input to the instruction selector.
+In addition to a list of basic blocks, the ``MachineFunction`` contains a a
+``MachineConstantPool``, a ``MachineFrameInfo``, a ``MachineFunctionInfo``, and
+a ``MachineRegisterInfo``.  See ``include/llvm/CodeGen/MachineFunction.h`` for
+more information.
+
+``MachineInstr Bundles``
+------------------------
+
+LLVM code generator can model sequences of instructions as MachineInstr
+bundles. A MI bundle can model a VLIW group / pack which contains an arbitrary
+number of parallel instructions. It can also be used to model a sequential list
+of instructions (potentially with data dependencies) that cannot be legally
+separated (e.g. ARM Thumb2 IT blocks).
+
+Conceptually a MI bundle is a MI with a number of other MIs nested within:
+
+::
+
+  --------------
+  |   Bundle   | ---------
+  --------------          \
+         |           ----------------
+         |           |      MI      |
+         |           ----------------
+         |                   |
+         |           ----------------
+         |           |      MI      |
+         |           ----------------
+         |                   |
+         |           ----------------
+         |           |      MI      |
+         |           ----------------
+         |
+  --------------
+  |   Bundle   | --------
+  --------------         \
+         |           ----------------
+         |           |      MI      |
+         |           ----------------
+         |                   |
+         |           ----------------
+         |           |      MI      |
+         |           ----------------
+         |                   |
+         |                  ...
+         |
+  --------------
+  |   Bundle   | --------
+  --------------         \
+         |
+        ...
+
+MI bundle support does not change the physical representations of
+MachineBasicBlock and MachineInstr. All the MIs (including top level and nested
+ones) are stored as sequential list of MIs. The "bundled" MIs are marked with
+the 'InsideBundle' flag. A top level MI with the special BUNDLE opcode is used
+to represent the start of a bundle. It's legal to mix BUNDLE MIs with indiviual
+MIs that are not inside bundles nor represent bundles.
+
+MachineInstr passes should operate on a MI bundle as a single unit. Member
+methods have been taught to correctly handle bundles and MIs inside bundles.
+The MachineBasicBlock iterator has been modified to skip over bundled MIs to
+enforce the bundle-as-a-single-unit concept. An alternative iterator
+instr_iterator has been added to MachineBasicBlock to allow passes to iterate
+over all of the MIs in a MachineBasicBlock, including those which are nested
+inside bundles. The top level BUNDLE instruction must have the correct set of
+register MachineOperand's that represent the cumulative inputs and outputs of
+the bundled MIs.
+
+Packing / bundling of MachineInstr's should be done as part of the register
+allocation super-pass. More specifically, the pass which determines what MIs
+should be bundled together must be done after code generator exits SSA form
+(i.e. after two-address pass, PHI elimination, and copy coalescing).  Bundles
+should only be finalized (i.e. adding BUNDLE MIs and input and output register
+MachineOperands) after virtual registers have been rewritten into physical
+registers. This requirement eliminates the need to add virtual register operands
+to BUNDLE instructions which would effectively double the virtual register def
+and use lists.
+
+.. _MC Layer:
+
+The "MC" Layer
+==============
+
+The MC Layer is used to represent and process code at the raw machine code
+level, devoid of "high level" information like "constant pools", "jump tables",
+"global variables" or anything like that.  At this level, LLVM handles things
+like label names, machine instructions, and sections in the object file.  The
+code in this layer is used for a number of important purposes: the tail end of
+the code generator uses it to write a .s or .o file, and it is also used by the
+llvm-mc tool to implement standalone machine code assemblers and disassemblers.
+
+This section describes some of the important classes.  There are also a number
+of important subsystems that interact at this layer, they are described later in
+this manual.
+
+.. _MCStreamer:
+
+The ``MCStreamer`` API
+----------------------
+
+MCStreamer is best thought of as an assembler API.  It is an abstract API which
+is *implemented* in different ways (e.g. to output a .s file, output an ELF .o
+file, etc) but whose API correspond directly to what you see in a .s file.
+MCStreamer has one method per directive, such as EmitLabel, EmitSymbolAttribute,
+SwitchSection, EmitValue (for .byte, .word), etc, which directly correspond to
+assembly level directives.  It also has an EmitInstruction method, which is used
+to output an MCInst to the streamer.
+
+This API is most important for two clients: the llvm-mc stand-alone assembler is
+effectively a parser that parses a line, then invokes a method on MCStreamer. In
+the code generator, the `Code Emission`_ phase of the code generator lowers
+higher level LLVM IR and Machine* constructs down to the MC layer, emitting
+directives through MCStreamer.
+
+On the implementation side of MCStreamer, there are two major implementations:
+one for writing out a .s file (MCAsmStreamer), and one for writing out a .o
+file (MCObjectStreamer).  MCAsmStreamer is a straight-forward implementation
+that prints out a directive for each method (e.g. ``EmitValue -> .byte``), but
+MCObjectStreamer implements a full assembler.
+
+For target specific directives, the MCStreamer has a MCTargetStreamer instance.
+Each target that needs it defines a class that inherits from it and is a lot
+like MCStreamer itself: It has one method per directive and two classes that
+inherit from it, a target object streamer and a target asm streamer. The target
+asm streamer just prints it (``emitFnStart -> .fnstrart``), and the object
+streamer implement the assembler logic for it.
+
+To make llvm use these classes, the target initialization must call
+TargetRegistry::RegisterAsmStreamer and TargetRegistry::RegisterMCObjectStreamer
+passing callbacks that allocate the corresponding target streamer and pass it
+to createAsmStreamer or to the appropriate object streamer constructor.
+
+The ``MCContext`` class
+-----------------------
+
+The MCContext class is the owner of a variety of uniqued data structures at the
+MC layer, including symbols, sections, etc.  As such, this is the class that you
+interact with to create symbols and sections.  This class can not be subclassed.
+
+The ``MCSymbol`` class
+----------------------
+
+The MCSymbol class represents a symbol (aka label) in the assembly file.  There
+are two interesting kinds of symbols: assembler temporary symbols, and normal
+symbols.  Assembler temporary symbols are used and processed by the assembler
+but are discarded when the object file is produced.  The distinction is usually
+represented by adding a prefix to the label, for example "L" labels are
+assembler temporary labels in MachO.
+
+MCSymbols are created by MCContext and uniqued there.  This means that MCSymbols
+can be compared for pointer equivalence to find out if they are the same symbol.
+Note that pointer inequality does not guarantee the labels will end up at
+different addresses though.  It's perfectly legal to output something like this
+to the .s file:
+
+::
+
+  foo:
+  bar:
+    .byte 4
+
+In this case, both the foo and bar symbols will have the same address.
+
+The ``MCSection`` class
+-----------------------
+
+The ``MCSection`` class represents an object-file specific section. It is
+subclassed by object file specific implementations (e.g. ``MCSectionMachO``,
+``MCSectionCOFF``, ``MCSectionELF``) and these are created and uniqued by
+MCContext.  The MCStreamer has a notion of the current section, which can be
+changed with the SwitchToSection method (which corresponds to a ".section"
+directive in a .s file).
+
+.. _MCInst:
+
+The ``MCInst`` class
+--------------------
+
+The ``MCInst`` class is a target-independent representation of an instruction.
+It is a simple class (much more so than `MachineInstr`_) that holds a
+target-specific opcode and a vector of MCOperands.  MCOperand, in turn, is a
+simple discriminated union of three cases: 1) a simple immediate, 2) a target
+register ID, 3) a symbolic expression (e.g. "``Lfoo-Lbar+42``") as an MCExpr.
+
+MCInst is the common currency used to represent machine instructions at the MC
+layer.  It is the type used by the instruction encoder, the instruction printer,
+and the type generated by the assembly parser and disassembler.
+
+.. _Target-independent algorithms:
+.. _code generation algorithm:
+
+Target-independent code generation algorithms
+=============================================
+
+This section documents the phases described in the `high-level design of the
+code generator`_.  It explains how they work and some of the rationale behind
+their design.
+
+.. _Instruction Selection:
+.. _instruction selection section:
+
+Instruction Selection
+---------------------
+
+Instruction Selection is the process of translating LLVM code presented to the
+code generator into target-specific machine instructions.  There are several
+well-known ways to do this in the literature.  LLVM uses a SelectionDAG based
+instruction selector.
+
+Portions of the DAG instruction selector are generated from the target
+description (``*.td``) files.  Our goal is for the entire instruction selector
+to be generated from these ``.td`` files, though currently there are still
+things that require custom C++ code.
+
+.. _SelectionDAG:
+
+Introduction to SelectionDAGs
+^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
+
+The SelectionDAG provides an abstraction for code representation in a way that
+is amenable to instruction selection using automatic techniques
+(e.g. dynamic-programming based optimal pattern matching selectors). It is also
+well-suited to other phases of code generation; in particular, instruction
+scheduling (SelectionDAG's are very close to scheduling DAGs post-selection).
+Additionally, the SelectionDAG provides a host representation where a large
+variety of very-low-level (but target-independent) `optimizations`_ may be
+performed; ones which require extensive information about the instructions
+efficiently supported by the target.
+
+The SelectionDAG is a Directed-Acyclic-Graph whose nodes are instances of the
+``SDNode`` class.  The primary payload of the ``SDNode`` is its operation code
+(Opcode) that indicates what operation the node performs and the operands to the
+operation.  The various operation node types are described at the top of the
+``include/llvm/CodeGen/SelectionDAGNodes.h`` file.
+
+Although most operations define a single value, each node in the graph may
+define multiple values.  For example, a combined div/rem operation will define
+both the dividend and the remainder. Many other situations require multiple
+values as well.  Each node also has some number of operands, which are edges to
+the node defining the used value.  Because nodes may define multiple values,
+edges are represented by instances of the ``SDValue`` class, which is a
+``<SDNode, unsigned>`` pair, indicating the node and result value being used,
+respectively.  Each value produced by an ``SDNode`` has an associated ``MVT``
+(Machine Value Type) indicating what the type of the value is.
+
+SelectionDAGs contain two different kinds of values: those that represent data
+flow and those that represent control flow dependencies.  Data values are simple
+edges with an integer or floating point value type.  Control edges are
+represented as "chain" edges which are of type ``MVT::Other``.  These edges
+provide an ordering between nodes that have side effects (such as loads, stores,
+calls, returns, etc).  All nodes that have side effects should take a token
+chain as input and produce a new one as output.  By convention, token chain
+inputs are always operand #0, and chain results are always the last value
+produced by an operation.
+
+A SelectionDAG has designated "Entry" and "Root" nodes.  The Entry node is
+always a marker node with an Opcode of ``ISD::EntryToken``.  The Root node is
+the final side-effecting node in the token chain. For example, in a single basic
+block function it would be the return node.
+
+One important concept for SelectionDAGs is the notion of a "legal" vs.
+"illegal" DAG.  A legal DAG for a target is one that only uses supported
+operations and supported types.  On a 32-bit PowerPC, for example, a DAG with a
+value of type i1, i8, i16, or i64 would be illegal, as would a DAG that uses a
+SREM or UREM operation.  The `legalize types`_ and `legalize operations`_ phases
+are responsible for turning an illegal DAG into a legal DAG.
+
+.. _SelectionDAG-Process:
+
+SelectionDAG Instruction Selection Process
+^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
+
+SelectionDAG-based instruction selection consists of the following steps:
+
+#. `Build initial DAG`_ --- This stage performs a simple translation from the
+   input LLVM code to an illegal SelectionDAG.
+
+#. `Optimize SelectionDAG`_ --- This stage performs simple optimizations on the
+   SelectionDAG to simplify it, and recognize meta instructions (like rotates
+   and ``div``/``rem`` pairs) for targets that support these meta operations.
+   This makes the resultant code more efficient and the `select instructions
+   from DAG`_ phase (below) simpler.
+
+#. `Legalize SelectionDAG Types`_ --- This stage transforms SelectionDAG nodes
+   to eliminate any types that are unsupported on the target.
+
+#. `Optimize SelectionDAG`_ --- The SelectionDAG optimizer is run to clean up
+   redundancies exposed by type legalization.
+
+#. `Legalize SelectionDAG Ops`_ --- This stage transforms SelectionDAG nodes to
+   eliminate any operations that are unsupported on the target.
+
+#. `Optimize SelectionDAG`_ --- The SelectionDAG optimizer is run to eliminate
+   inefficiencies introduced by operation legalization.
+
+#. `Select instructions from DAG`_ --- Finally, the target instruction selector
+   matches the DAG operations to target instructions.  This process translates
+   the target-independent input DAG into another DAG of target instructions.
+
+#. `SelectionDAG Scheduling and Formation`_ --- The last phase assigns a linear
+   order to the instructions in the target-instruction DAG and emits them into
+   the MachineFunction being compiled.  This step uses traditional prepass
+   scheduling techniques.
+
+After all of these steps are complete, the SelectionDAG is destroyed and the
+rest of the code generation passes are run.
+
+One great way to visualize what is going on here is to take advantage of a few
+LLC command line options.  The following options pop up a window displaying the
+SelectionDAG at specific times (if you only get errors printed to the console
+while using this, you probably `need to configure your
+system <ProgrammersManual.html#ViewGraph>`_ to add support for it).
+
+* ``-view-dag-combine1-dags`` displays the DAG after being built, before the
+  first optimization pass.
+
+* ``-view-legalize-dags`` displays the DAG before Legalization.
+
+* ``-view-dag-combine2-dags`` displays the DAG before the second optimization
+  pass.
+
+* ``-view-isel-dags`` displays the DAG before the Select phase.
+
+* ``-view-sched-dags`` displays the DAG before Scheduling.
+
+The ``-view-sunit-dags`` displays the Scheduler's dependency graph.  This graph
+is based on the final SelectionDAG, with nodes that must be scheduled together
+bundled into a single scheduling-unit node, and with immediate operands and
+other nodes that aren't relevant for scheduling omitted.
+
+.. _Build initial DAG:
+
+Initial SelectionDAG Construction
+^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
+
+The initial SelectionDAG is na\ :raw-html:`ï`\ vely peephole expanded from
+the LLVM input by the ``SelectionDAGBuilder`` class.  The intent of this pass
+is to expose as much low-level, target-specific details to the SelectionDAG as
+possible.  This pass is mostly hard-coded (e.g. an LLVM ``add`` turns into an
+``SDNode add`` while a ``getelementptr`` is expanded into the obvious
+arithmetic). This pass requires target-specific hooks to lower calls, returns,
+varargs, etc.  For these features, the :raw-html:`<tt>` `TargetLowering`_
+:raw-html:`</tt>` interface is used.
+
+.. _legalize types:
+.. _Legalize SelectionDAG Types:
+.. _Legalize SelectionDAG Ops:
+
+SelectionDAG LegalizeTypes Phase
+^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
+
+The Legalize phase is in charge of converting a DAG to only use the types that
+are natively supported by the target.
+
+There are two main ways of converting values of unsupported scalar types to
+values of supported types: converting small types to larger types ("promoting"),
+and breaking up large integer types into smaller ones ("expanding").  For
+example, a target might require that all f32 values are promoted to f64 and that
+all i1/i8/i16 values are promoted to i32.  The same target might require that
+all i64 values be expanded into pairs of i32 values.  These changes can insert
+sign and zero extensions as needed to make sure that the final code has the same
+behavior as the input.
+
+There are two main ways of converting values of unsupported vector types to
+value of supported types: splitting vector types, multiple times if necessary,
+until a legal type is found, and extending vector types by adding elements to
+the end to round them out to legal types ("widening").  If a vector gets split
+all the way down to single-element parts with no supported vector type being
+found, the elements are converted to scalars ("scalarizing").
+
+A target implementation tells the legalizer which types are supported (and which
+register class to use for them) by calling the ``addRegisterClass`` method in
+its ``TargetLowering`` constructor.
+
+.. _legalize operations:
+.. _Legalizer:
+
+SelectionDAG Legalize Phase
+^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
+
+The Legalize phase is in charge of converting a DAG to only use the operations
+that are natively supported by the target.
+
+Targets often have weird constraints, such as not supporting every operation on
+every supported datatype (e.g. X86 does not support byte conditional moves and
+PowerPC does not support sign-extending loads from a 16-bit memory location).
+Legalize takes care of this by open-coding another sequence of operations to
+emulate the operation ("expansion"), by promoting one type to a larger type that
+supports the operation ("promotion"), or by using a target-specific hook to
+implement the legalization ("custom").
+
+A target implementation tells the legalizer which operations are not supported
+(and which of the above three actions to take) by calling the
+``setOperationAction`` method in its ``TargetLowering`` constructor.
+
+Prior to the existence of the Legalize passes, we required that every target
+`selector`_ supported and handled every operator and type even if they are not
+natively supported.  The introduction of the Legalize phases allows all of the
+canonicalization patterns to be shared across targets, and makes it very easy to
+optimize the canonicalized code because it is still in the form of a DAG.
+
+.. _optimizations:
+.. _Optimize SelectionDAG:
+.. _selector:
+
+SelectionDAG Optimization Phase: the DAG Combiner
+^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
+
+The SelectionDAG optimization phase is run multiple times for code generation,
+immediately after the DAG is built and once after each legalization.  The first
+run of the pass allows the initial code to be cleaned up (e.g. performing
+optimizations that depend on knowing that the operators have restricted type
+inputs).  Subsequent runs of the pass clean up the messy code generated by the
+Legalize passes, which allows Legalize to be very simple (it can focus on making
+code legal instead of focusing on generating *good* and legal code).
+
+One important class of optimizations performed is optimizing inserted sign and
+zero extension instructions.  We currently use ad-hoc techniques, but could move
+to more rigorous techniques in the future.  Here are some good papers on the
+subject:
+
+"`Widening integer arithmetic <http://www.eecs.harvard.edu/~nr/pubs/widen-abstract.html>`_" :raw-html:`<br>`
+Kevin Redwine and Norman Ramsey :raw-html:`<br>`
+International Conference on Compiler Construction (CC) 2004
+
+"`Effective sign extension elimination <http://portal.acm.org/citation.cfm?doid=512529.512552>`_"  :raw-html:`<br>`
+Motohiro Kawahito, Hideaki Komatsu, and Toshio Nakatani :raw-html:`<br>`
+Proceedings of the ACM SIGPLAN 2002 Conference on Programming Language Design
+and Implementation.
+
+.. _Select instructions from DAG:
+
+SelectionDAG Select Phase
+^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
+
+The Select phase is the bulk of the target-specific code for instruction
+selection.  This phase takes a legal SelectionDAG as input, pattern matches the
+instructions supported by the target to this DAG, and produces a new DAG of
+target code.  For example, consider the following LLVM fragment:
+
+.. code-block:: llvm
+
+  %t1 = fadd float %W, %X
+  %t2 = fmul float %t1, %Y
+  %t3 = fadd float %t2, %Z
+
+This LLVM code corresponds to a SelectionDAG that looks basically like this:
+
+.. code-block:: llvm
+
+  (fadd:f32 (fmul:f32 (fadd:f32 W, X), Y), Z)
+
+If a target supports floating point multiply-and-add (FMA) operations, one of
+the adds can be merged with the multiply.  On the PowerPC, for example, the
+output of the instruction selector might look like this DAG:
+
+::
+
+  (FMADDS (FADDS W, X), Y, Z)
+
+The ``FMADDS`` instruction is a ternary instruction that multiplies its first
+two operands and adds the third (as single-precision floating-point numbers).
+The ``FADDS`` instruction is a simple binary single-precision add instruction.
+To perform this pattern match, the PowerPC backend includes the following
+instruction definitions:
+
+.. code-block:: text
+  :emphasize-lines: 4-5,9
+
+  def FMADDS : AForm_1<59, 29,
+                      (ops F4RC:$FRT, F4RC:$FRA, F4RC:$FRC, F4RC:$FRB),
+                      "fmadds $FRT, $FRA, $FRC, $FRB",
+                      [(set F4RC:$FRT, (fadd (fmul F4RC:$FRA, F4RC:$FRC),
+                                             F4RC:$FRB))]>;
+  def FADDS : AForm_2<59, 21,
+                      (ops F4RC:$FRT, F4RC:$FRA, F4RC:$FRB),
+                      "fadds $FRT, $FRA, $FRB",
+                      [(set F4RC:$FRT, (fadd F4RC:$FRA, F4RC:$FRB))]>;
+
+The highlighted portion of the instruction definitions indicates the pattern
+used to match the instructions. The DAG operators (like ``fmul``/``fadd``)
+are defined in the ``include/llvm/Target/TargetSelectionDAG.td`` file.
+"``F4RC``" is the register class of the input and result values.
+
+The TableGen DAG instruction selector generator reads the instruction patterns
+in the ``.td`` file and automatically builds parts of the pattern matching code
+for your target.  It has the following strengths:
+
+* At compiler-compiler time, it analyzes your instruction patterns and tells you
+  if your patterns make sense or not.
+
+* It can handle arbitrary constraints on operands for the pattern match.  In
+  particular, it is straight-forward to say things like "match any immediate
+  that is a 13-bit sign-extended value".  For examples, see the ``immSExt16``
+  and related ``tblgen`` classes in the PowerPC backend.
+
+* It knows several important identities for the patterns defined.  For example,
+  it knows that addition is commutative, so it allows the ``FMADDS`` pattern
+  above to match "``(fadd X, (fmul Y, Z))``" as well as "``(fadd (fmul X, Y),
+  Z)``", without the target author having to specially handle this case.
+
+* It has a full-featured type-inferencing system.  In particular, you should
+  rarely have to explicitly tell the system what type parts of your patterns
+  are.  In the ``FMADDS`` case above, we didn't have to tell ``tblgen`` that all
+  of the nodes in the pattern are of type 'f32'.  It was able to infer and
+  propagate this knowledge from the fact that ``F4RC`` has type 'f32'.
+
+* Targets can define their own (and rely on built-in) "pattern fragments".
+  Pattern fragments are chunks of reusable patterns that get inlined into your
+  patterns during compiler-compiler time.  For example, the integer "``(not
+  x)``" operation is actually defined as a pattern fragment that expands as
+  "``(xor x, -1)``", since the SelectionDAG does not have a native '``not``'
+  operation.  Targets can define their own short-hand fragments as they see fit.
+  See the definition of '``not``' and '``ineg``' for examples.
+
+* In addition to instructions, targets can specify arbitrary patterns that map
+  to one or more instructions using the 'Pat' class.  For example, the PowerPC
+  has no way to load an arbitrary integer immediate into a register in one
+  instruction. To tell tblgen how to do this, it defines:
+
+  ::
+
+    // Arbitrary immediate support.  Implement in terms of LIS/ORI.
+    def : Pat<(i32 imm:$imm),
+              (ORI (LIS (HI16 imm:$imm)), (LO16 imm:$imm))>;
+
+  If none of the single-instruction patterns for loading an immediate into a
+  register match, this will be used.  This rule says "match an arbitrary i32
+  immediate, turning it into an ``ORI`` ('or a 16-bit immediate') and an ``LIS``
+  ('load 16-bit immediate, where the immediate is shifted to the left 16 bits')
+  instruction".  To make this work, the ``LO16``/``HI16`` node transformations
+  are used to manipulate the input immediate (in this case, take the high or low
+  16-bits of the immediate).
+
+* When using the 'Pat' class to map a pattern to an instruction that has one
+  or more complex operands (like e.g. `X86 addressing mode`_), the pattern may
+  either specify the operand as a whole using a ``ComplexPattern``, or else it
+  may specify the components of the complex operand separately.  The latter is
+  done e.g. for pre-increment instructions by the PowerPC back end:
+
+  ::
+
+    def STWU  : DForm_1<37, (outs ptr_rc:$ea_res), (ins GPRC:$rS, memri:$dst),
+                    "stwu $rS, $dst", LdStStoreUpd, []>,
+                    RegConstraint<"$dst.reg = $ea_res">, NoEncode<"$ea_res">;
+
+    def : Pat<(pre_store GPRC:$rS, ptr_rc:$ptrreg, iaddroff:$ptroff),
+              (STWU GPRC:$rS, iaddroff:$ptroff, ptr_rc:$ptrreg)>;
+
+  Here, the pair of ``ptroff`` and ``ptrreg`` operands is matched onto the
+  complex operand ``dst`` of class ``memri`` in the ``STWU`` instruction.
+
+* While the system does automate a lot, it still allows you to write custom C++
+  code to match special cases if there is something that is hard to
+  express.
+
+While it has many strengths, the system currently has some limitations,
+primarily because it is a work in progress and is not yet finished:
+
+* Overall, there is no way to define or match SelectionDAG nodes that define
+  multiple values (e.g. ``SMUL_LOHI``, ``LOAD``, ``CALL``, etc).  This is the
+  biggest reason that you currently still *have to* write custom C++ code
+  for your instruction selector.
+
+* There is no great way to support matching complex addressing modes yet.  In
+  the future, we will extend pattern fragments to allow them to define multiple
+  values (e.g. the four operands of the `X86 addressing mode`_, which are
+  currently matched with custom C++ code).  In addition, we'll extend fragments
+  so that a fragment can match multiple different patterns.
+
+* We don't automatically infer flags like ``isStore``/``isLoad`` yet.
+
+* We don't automatically generate the set of supported registers and operations
+  for the `Legalizer`_ yet.
+
+* We don't have a way of tying in custom legalized nodes yet.
+
+Despite these limitations, the instruction selector generator is still quite
+useful for most of the binary and logical operations in typical instruction
+sets.  If you run into any problems or can't figure out how to do something,
+please let Chris know!
+
+.. _Scheduling and Formation:
+.. _SelectionDAG Scheduling and Formation:
+
+SelectionDAG Scheduling and Formation Phase
+^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
+
+The scheduling phase takes the DAG of target instructions from the selection
+phase and assigns an order.  The scheduler can pick an order depending on
+various constraints of the machines (i.e. order for minimal register pressure or
+try to cover instruction latencies).  Once an order is established, the DAG is
+converted to a list of :raw-html:`<tt>` `MachineInstr`_\s :raw-html:`</tt>` and
+the SelectionDAG is destroyed.
+
+Note that this phase is logically separate from the instruction selection phase,
+but is tied to it closely in the code because it operates on SelectionDAGs.
+
+Future directions for the SelectionDAG
+^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
+
+#. Optional function-at-a-time selection.
+
+#. Auto-generate entire selector from ``.td`` file.
+
+.. _SSA-based Machine Code Optimizations:
+
+SSA-based Machine Code Optimizations
+------------------------------------
+
+To Be Written
+
+Live Intervals
+--------------
+
+Live Intervals are the ranges (intervals) where a variable is *live*.  They are
+used by some `register allocator`_ passes to determine if two or more virtual
+registers which require the same physical register are live at the same point in
+the program (i.e., they conflict).  When this situation occurs, one virtual
+register must be *spilled*.
+
+Live Variable Analysis
+^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
+
+The first step in determining the live intervals of variables is to calculate
+the set of registers that are immediately dead after the instruction (i.e., the
+instruction calculates the value, but it is never used) and the set of registers
+that are used by the instruction, but are never used after the instruction
+(i.e., they are killed). Live variable information is computed for
+each *virtual* register and *register allocatable* physical register
+in the function.  This is done in a very efficient manner because it uses SSA to
+sparsely compute lifetime information for virtual registers (which are in SSA
+form) and only has to track physical registers within a block.  Before register
+allocation, LLVM can assume that physical registers are only live within a
+single basic block.  This allows it to do a single, local analysis to resolve
+physical register lifetimes within each basic block. If a physical register is
+not register allocatable (e.g., a stack pointer or condition codes), it is not
+tracked.
+
+Physical registers may be live in to or out of a function. Live in values are
+typically arguments in registers. Live out values are typically return values in
+registers. Live in values are marked as such, and are given a dummy "defining"
+instruction during live intervals analysis. If the last basic block of a
+function is a ``return``, then it's marked as using all live out values in the
+function.
+
+``PHI`` nodes need to be handled specially, because the calculation of the live
+variable information from a depth first traversal of the CFG of the function
+won't guarantee that a virtual register used by the ``PHI`` node is defined
+before it's used. When a ``PHI`` node is encountered, only the definition is
+handled, because the uses will be handled in other basic blocks.
+
+For each ``PHI`` node of the current basic block, we simulate an assignment at
+the end of the current basic block and traverse the successor basic blocks. If a
+successor basic block has a ``PHI`` node and one of the ``PHI`` node's operands
+is coming from the current basic block, then the variable is marked as *alive*
+within the current basic block and all of its predecessor basic blocks, until
+the basic block with the defining instruction is encountered.
+
+Live Intervals Analysis
+^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
+
+We now have the information available to perform the live intervals analysis and
+build the live intervals themselves.  We start off by numbering the basic blocks
+and machine instructions.  We then handle the "live-in" values.  These are in
+physical registers, so the physical register is assumed to be killed by the end
+of the basic block.  Live intervals for virtual registers are computed for some
+ordering of the machine instructions ``[1, N]``.  A live interval is an interval
+``[i, j)``, where ``1 >= i >= j > N``, for which a variable is live.
+
+.. note::
+  More to come...
+
+.. _Register Allocation:
+.. _register allocator:
+
+Register Allocation
+-------------------
+
+The *Register Allocation problem* consists in mapping a program
+:raw-html:`<b><tt>` P\ :sub:`v`\ :raw-html:`</tt></b>`, that can use an unbounded
+number of virtual registers, to a program :raw-html:`<b><tt>` P\ :sub:`p`\
+:raw-html:`</tt></b>` that contains a finite (possibly small) number of physical
+registers. Each target architecture has a different number of physical
+registers. If the number of physical registers is not enough to accommodate all
+the virtual registers, some of them will have to be mapped into memory. These
+virtuals are called *spilled virtuals*.
+
+How registers are represented in LLVM
+^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
+
+In LLVM, physical registers are denoted by integer numbers that normally range
+from 1 to 1023. To see how this numbering is defined for a particular
+architecture, you can read the ``GenRegisterNames.inc`` file for that
+architecture. For instance, by inspecting
+``lib/Target/X86/X86GenRegisterInfo.inc`` we see that the 32-bit register
+``EAX`` is denoted by 43, and the MMX register ``MM0`` is mapped to 65.
+
+Some architectures contain registers that share the same physical location. A
+notable example is the X86 platform. For instance, in the X86 architecture, the
+registers ``EAX``, ``AX`` and ``AL`` share the first eight bits. These physical
+registers are marked as *aliased* in LLVM. Given a particular architecture, you
+can check which registers are aliased by inspecting its ``RegisterInfo.td``
+file. Moreover, the class ``MCRegAliasIterator`` enumerates all the physical
+registers aliased to a register.
+
+Physical registers, in LLVM, are grouped in *Register Classes*.  Elements in the
+same register class are functionally equivalent, and can be interchangeably
+used. Each virtual register can only be mapped to physical registers of a
+particular class. For instance, in the X86 architecture, some virtuals can only
+be allocated to 8 bit registers.  A register class is described by
+``TargetRegisterClass`` objects.  To discover if a virtual register is
+compatible with a given physical, this code can be used:</p>
+
+.. code-block:: c++
+
+  bool RegMapping_Fer::compatible_class(MachineFunction &mf,
+                                        unsigned v_reg,
+                                        unsigned p_reg) {
+    assert(TargetRegisterInfo::isPhysicalRegister(p_reg) &&
+           "Target register must be physical");
+    const TargetRegisterClass *trc = mf.getRegInfo().getRegClass(v_reg);
+    return trc->contains(p_reg);
+  }
+
+Sometimes, mostly for debugging purposes, it is useful to change the number of
+physical registers available in the target architecture. This must be done
+statically, inside the ``TargetRegsterInfo.td`` file. Just ``grep`` for
+``RegisterClass``, the last parameter of which is a list of registers. Just
+commenting some out is one simple way to avoid them being used. A more polite
+way is to explicitly exclude some registers from the *allocation order*. See the
+definition of the ``GR8`` register class in
+``lib/Target/X86/X86RegisterInfo.td`` for an example of this.
+
+Virtual registers are also denoted by integer numbers. Contrary to physical
+registers, different virtual registers never share the same number. Whereas
+physical registers are statically defined in a ``TargetRegisterInfo.td`` file
+and cannot be created by the application developer, that is not the case with
+virtual registers. In order to create new virtual registers, use the method
+``MachineRegisterInfo::createVirtualRegister()``. This method will return a new
+virtual register. Use an ``IndexedMap<Foo, VirtReg2IndexFunctor>`` to hold
+information per virtual register. If you need to enumerate all virtual
+registers, use the function ``TargetRegisterInfo::index2VirtReg()`` to find the
+virtual register numbers:
+
+.. code-block:: c++
+
+    for (unsigned i = 0, e = MRI->getNumVirtRegs(); i != e; ++i) {
+      unsigned VirtReg = TargetRegisterInfo::index2VirtReg(i);
+      stuff(VirtReg);
+    }
+
+Before register allocation, the operands of an instruction are mostly virtual
+registers, although physical registers may also be used. In order to check if a
+given machine operand is a register, use the boolean function
+``MachineOperand::isRegister()``. To obtain the integer code of a register, use
+``MachineOperand::getReg()``. An instruction may define or use a register. For
+instance, ``ADD reg:1026 := reg:1025 reg:1024`` defines the registers 1024, and
+uses registers 1025 and 1026. Given a register operand, the method
+``MachineOperand::isUse()`` informs if that register is being used by the
+instruction. The method ``MachineOperand::isDef()`` informs if that registers is
+being defined.
+
+We will call physical registers present in the LLVM bitcode before register
+allocation *pre-colored registers*. Pre-colored registers are used in many
+different situations, for instance, to pass parameters of functions calls, and
+to store results of particular instructions. There are two types of pre-colored
+registers: the ones *implicitly* defined, and those *explicitly*
+defined. Explicitly defined registers are normal operands, and can be accessed
+with ``MachineInstr::getOperand(int)::getReg()``.  In order to check which
+registers are implicitly defined by an instruction, use the
+``TargetInstrInfo::get(opcode)::ImplicitDefs``, where ``opcode`` is the opcode
+of the target instruction. One important difference between explicit and
+implicit physical registers is that the latter are defined statically for each
+instruction, whereas the former may vary depending on the program being
+compiled. For example, an instruction that represents a function call will
+always implicitly define or use the same set of physical registers. To read the
+registers implicitly used by an instruction, use
+``TargetInstrInfo::get(opcode)::ImplicitUses``. Pre-colored registers impose
+constraints on any register allocation algorithm. The register allocator must
+make sure that none of them are overwritten by the values of virtual registers
+while still alive.
+
+Mapping virtual registers to physical registers
+^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
+
+There are two ways to map virtual registers to physical registers (or to memory
+slots). The first way, that we will call *direct mapping*, is based on the use
+of methods of the classes ``TargetRegisterInfo``, and ``MachineOperand``. The
+second way, that we will call *indirect mapping*, relies on the ``VirtRegMap``
+class in order to insert loads and stores sending and getting values to and from
+memory.
+
+The direct mapping provides more flexibility to the developer of the register
+allocator; however, it is more error prone, and demands more implementation
+work.  Basically, the programmer will have to specify where load and store
+instructions should be inserted in the target function being compiled in order
+to get and store values in memory. To assign a physical register to a virtual
+register present in a given operand, use ``MachineOperand::setReg(p_reg)``. To
+insert a store instruction, use ``TargetInstrInfo::storeRegToStackSlot(...)``,
+and to insert a load instruction, use ``TargetInstrInfo::loadRegFromStackSlot``.
+
+The indirect mapping shields the application developer from the complexities of
+inserting load and store instructions. In order to map a virtual register to a
+physical one, use ``VirtRegMap::assignVirt2Phys(vreg, preg)``.  In order to map
+a certain virtual register to memory, use
+``VirtRegMap::assignVirt2StackSlot(vreg)``. This method will return the stack
+slot where ``vreg``'s value will be located.  If it is necessary to map another
+virtual register to the same stack slot, use
+``VirtRegMap::assignVirt2StackSlot(vreg, stack_location)``. One important point
+to consider when using the indirect mapping, is that even if a virtual register
+is mapped to memory, it still needs to be mapped to a physical register. This
+physical register is the location where the virtual register is supposed to be
+found before being stored or after being reloaded.
+
+If the indirect strategy is used, after all the virtual registers have been
+mapped to physical registers or stack slots, it is necessary to use a spiller
+object to place load and store instructions in the code. Every virtual that has
+been mapped to a stack slot will be stored to memory after been defined and will
+be loaded before being used. The implementation of the spiller tries to recycle
+load/store instructions, avoiding unnecessary instructions. For an example of
+how to invoke the spiller, see ``RegAllocLinearScan::runOnMachineFunction`` in
+``lib/CodeGen/RegAllocLinearScan.cpp``.
+
+Handling two address instructions
+^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
+
+With very rare exceptions (e.g., function calls), the LLVM machine code
+instructions are three address instructions. That is, each instruction is
+expected to define at most one register, and to use at most two registers.
+However, some architectures use two address instructions. In this case, the
+defined register is also one of the used register. For instance, an instruction
+such as ``ADD %EAX, %EBX``, in X86 is actually equivalent to ``%EAX = %EAX +
+%EBX``.
+
+In order to produce correct code, LLVM must convert three address instructions
+that represent two address instructions into true two address instructions. LLVM
+provides the pass ``TwoAddressInstructionPass`` for this specific purpose. It
+must be run before register allocation takes place. After its execution, the
+resulting code may no longer be in SSA form. This happens, for instance, in
+situations where an instruction such as ``%a = ADD %b %c`` is converted to two
+instructions such as:
+
+::
+
+  %a = MOVE %b
+  %a = ADD %a %c
+
+Notice that, internally, the second instruction is represented as ``ADD
+%a[def/use] %c``. I.e., the register operand ``%a`` is both used and defined by
+the instruction.
+
+The SSA deconstruction phase
+^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
+
+An important transformation that happens during register allocation is called
+the *SSA Deconstruction Phase*. The SSA form simplifies many analyses that are
+performed on the control flow graph of programs. However, traditional
+instruction sets do not implement PHI instructions. Thus, in order to generate
+executable code, compilers must replace PHI instructions with other instructions
+that preserve their semantics.
+
+There are many ways in which PHI instructions can safely be removed from the
+target code. The most traditional PHI deconstruction algorithm replaces PHI
+instructions with copy instructions. That is the strategy adopted by LLVM. The
+SSA deconstruction algorithm is implemented in
+``lib/CodeGen/PHIElimination.cpp``. In order to invoke this pass, the identifier
+``PHIEliminationID`` must be marked as required in the code of the register
+allocator.
+
+Instruction folding
+^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
+
+*Instruction folding* is an optimization performed during register allocation
+that removes unnecessary copy instructions. For instance, a sequence of
+instructions such as:
+
+::
+
+  %EBX = LOAD %mem_address
+  %EAX = COPY %EBX
+
+can be safely substituted by the single instruction:
+
+::
+
+  %EAX = LOAD %mem_address
+
+Instructions can be folded with the
+``TargetRegisterInfo::foldMemoryOperand(...)`` method. Care must be taken when
+folding instructions; a folded instruction can be quite different from the
+original instruction. See ``LiveIntervals::addIntervalsForSpills`` in
+``lib/CodeGen/LiveIntervalAnalysis.cpp`` for an example of its use.
+
+Built in register allocators
+^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
+
+The LLVM infrastructure provides the application developer with three different
+register allocators:
+
+* *Fast* --- This register allocator is the default for debug builds. It
+  allocates registers on a basic block level, attempting to keep values in
+  registers and reusing registers as appropriate.
+
+* *Basic* --- This is an incremental approach to register allocation. Live
+  ranges are assigned to registers one at a time in an order that is driven by
+  heuristics. Since code can be rewritten on-the-fly during allocation, this
+  framework allows interesting allocators to be developed as extensions. It is
+  not itself a production register allocator but is a potentially useful
+  stand-alone mode for triaging bugs and as a performance baseline.
+
+* *Greedy* --- *The default allocator*. This is a highly tuned implementation of
+  the *Basic* allocator that incorporates global live range splitting. This
+  allocator works hard to minimize the cost of spill code.
+
+* *PBQP* --- A Partitioned Boolean Quadratic Programming (PBQP) based register
+  allocator. This allocator works by constructing a PBQP problem representing
+  the register allocation problem under consideration, solving this using a PBQP
+  solver, and mapping the solution back to a register assignment.
+
+The type of register allocator used in ``llc`` can be chosen with the command
+line option ``-regalloc=...``:
+
+.. code-block:: bash
+
+  $ llc -regalloc=linearscan file.bc -o ln.s
+  $ llc -regalloc=fast file.bc -o fa.s
+  $ llc -regalloc=pbqp file.bc -o pbqp.s
+
+.. _Prolog/Epilog Code Insertion:
+
+Prolog/Epilog Code Insertion
+----------------------------
+
+Compact Unwind
+
+Throwing an exception requires *unwinding* out of a function. The information on
+how to unwind a given function is traditionally expressed in DWARF unwind
+(a.k.a. frame) info. But that format was originally developed for debuggers to
+backtrace, and each Frame Description Entry (FDE) requires ~20-30 bytes per
+function. There is also the cost of mapping from an address in a function to the
+corresponding FDE at runtime. An alternative unwind encoding is called *compact
+unwind* and requires just 4-bytes per function.
+
+The compact unwind encoding is a 32-bit value, which is encoded in an
+architecture-specific way. It specifies which registers to restore and from
+where, and how to unwind out of the function. When the linker creates a final
+linked image, it will create a ``__TEXT,__unwind_info`` section. This section is
+a small and fast way for the runtime to access unwind info for any given
+function. If we emit compact unwind info for the function, that compact unwind
+info will be encoded in the ``__TEXT,__unwind_info`` section. If we emit DWARF
+unwind info, the ``__TEXT,__unwind_info`` section will contain the offset of the
+FDE in the ``__TEXT,__eh_frame`` section in the final linked image.
+
+For X86, there are three modes for the compact unwind encoding:
+
+*Function with a Frame Pointer (``EBP`` or ``RBP``)*
+  ``EBP/RBP``-based frame, where ``EBP/RBP`` is pushed onto the stack
+  immediately after the return address, then ``ESP/RSP`` is moved to
+  ``EBP/RBP``. Thus to unwind, ``ESP/RSP`` is restored with the current
+  ``EBP/RBP`` value, then ``EBP/RBP`` is restored by popping the stack, and the
+  return is done by popping the stack once more into the PC. All non-volatile
+  registers that need to be restored must have been saved in a small range on
+  the stack that starts ``EBP-4`` to ``EBP-1020`` (``RBP-8`` to
+  ``RBP-1020``). The offset (divided by 4 in 32-bit mode and 8 in 64-bit mode)
+  is encoded in bits 16-23 (mask: ``0x00FF0000``).  The registers saved are
+  encoded in bits 0-14 (mask: ``0x00007FFF``) as five 3-bit entries from the
+  following table:
+
+    ==============  =============  ===============
+    Compact Number  i386 Register  x86-64 Register
+    ==============  =============  ===============
+    1               ``EBX``        ``RBX``
+    2               ``ECX``        ``R12``
+    3               ``EDX``        ``R13``
+    4               ``EDI``        ``R14``
+    5               ``ESI``        ``R15``
+    6               ``EBP``        ``RBP``
+    ==============  =============  ===============
+
+*Frameless with a Small Constant Stack Size (``EBP`` or ``RBP`` is not used as a frame pointer)*
+  To return, a constant (encoded in the compact unwind encoding) is added to the
+  ``ESP/RSP``.  Then the return is done by popping the stack into the PC. All
+  non-volatile registers that need to be restored must have been saved on the
+  stack immediately after the return address. The stack size (divided by 4 in
+  32-bit mode and 8 in 64-bit mode) is encoded in bits 16-23 (mask:
+  ``0x00FF0000``). There is a maximum stack size of 1024 bytes in 32-bit mode
+  and 2048 in 64-bit mode. The number of registers saved is encoded in bits 9-12
+  (mask: ``0x00001C00``). Bits 0-9 (mask: ``0x000003FF``) contain which
+  registers were saved and their order. (See the
+  ``encodeCompactUnwindRegistersWithoutFrame()`` function in
+  ``lib/Target/X86FrameLowering.cpp`` for the encoding algorithm.)
+
+*Frameless with a Large Constant Stack Size (``EBP`` or ``RBP`` is not used as a frame pointer)*
+  This case is like the "Frameless with a Small Constant Stack Size" case, but
+  the stack size is too large to encode in the compact unwind encoding. Instead
+  it requires that the function contains "``subl $nnnnnn, %esp``" in its
+  prolog. The compact encoding contains the offset to the ``$nnnnnn`` value in
+  the function in bits 9-12 (mask: ``0x00001C00``).
+
+.. _Late Machine Code Optimizations:
+
+Late Machine Code Optimizations
+-------------------------------
+
+.. note::
+
+  To Be Written
+
+.. _Code Emission:
+
+Code Emission
+-------------
+
+The code emission step of code generation is responsible for lowering from the
+code generator abstractions (like `MachineFunction`_, `MachineInstr`_, etc) down
+to the abstractions used by the MC layer (`MCInst`_, `MCStreamer`_, etc).  This
+is done with a combination of several different classes: the (misnamed)
+target-independent AsmPrinter class, target-specific subclasses of AsmPrinter
+(such as SparcAsmPrinter), and the TargetLoweringObjectFile class.
+
+Since the MC layer works at the level of abstraction of object files, it doesn't
+have a notion of functions, global variables etc.  Instead, it thinks about
+labels, directives, and instructions.  A key class used at this time is the
+MCStreamer class.  This is an abstract API that is implemented in different ways
+(e.g. to output a .s file, output an ELF .o file, etc) that is effectively an
+"assembler API".  MCStreamer has one method per directive, such as EmitLabel,
+EmitSymbolAttribute, SwitchSection, etc, which directly correspond to assembly
+level directives.
+
+If you are interested in implementing a code generator for a target, there are
+three important things that you have to implement for your target:
+
+#. First, you need a subclass of AsmPrinter for your target.  This class
+   implements the general lowering process converting MachineFunction's into MC
+   label constructs.  The AsmPrinter base class provides a number of useful
+   methods and routines, and also allows you to override the lowering process in
+   some important ways.  You should get much of the lowering for free if you are
+   implementing an ELF, COFF, or MachO target, because the
+   TargetLoweringObjectFile class implements much of the common logic.
+
+#. Second, you need to implement an instruction printer for your target.  The
+   instruction printer takes an `MCInst`_ and renders it to a raw_ostream as
+   text.  Most of this is automatically generated from the .td file (when you
+   specify something like "``add $dst, $src1, $src2``" in the instructions), but
+   you need to implement routines to print operands.
+
+#. Third, you need to implement code that lowers a `MachineInstr`_ to an MCInst,
+   usually implemented in "<target>MCInstLower.cpp".  This lowering process is
+   often target specific, and is responsible for turning jump table entries,
+   constant pool indices, global variable addresses, etc into MCLabels as
+   appropriate.  This translation layer is also responsible for expanding pseudo
+   ops used by the code generator into the actual machine instructions they
+   correspond to. The MCInsts that are generated by this are fed into the
+   instruction printer or the encoder.
+
+Finally, at your choosing, you can also implement an subclass of MCCodeEmitter
+which lowers MCInst's into machine code bytes and relocations.  This is
+important if you want to support direct .o file emission, or would like to
+implement an assembler for your target.
+
+VLIW Packetizer
+---------------
+
+In a Very Long Instruction Word (VLIW) architecture, the compiler is responsible
+for mapping instructions to functional-units available on the architecture. To
+that end, the compiler creates groups of instructions called *packets* or
+*bundles*. The VLIW packetizer in LLVM is a target-independent mechanism to
+enable the packetization of machine instructions.
+
+Mapping from instructions to functional units
+^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
+
+Instructions in a VLIW target can typically be mapped to multiple functional
+units. During the process of packetizing, the compiler must be able to reason
+about whether an instruction can be added to a packet. This decision can be
+complex since the compiler has to examine all possible mappings of instructions
+to functional units. Therefore to alleviate compilation-time complexity, the
+VLIW packetizer parses the instruction classes of a target and generates tables
+at compiler build time. These tables can then be queried by the provided
+machine-independent API to determine if an instruction can be accommodated in a
+packet.
+
+How the packetization tables are generated and used
+^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
+
+The packetizer reads instruction classes from a target's itineraries and creates
+a deterministic finite automaton (DFA) to represent the state of a packet. A DFA
+consists of three major elements: inputs, states, and transitions. The set of
+inputs for the generated DFA represents the instruction being added to a
+packet. The states represent the possible consumption of functional units by
+instructions in a packet. In the DFA, transitions from one state to another
+occur on the addition of an instruction to an existing packet. If there is a
+legal mapping of functional units to instructions, then the DFA contains a
+corresponding transition. The absence of a transition indicates that a legal
+mapping does not exist and that the instruction cannot be added to the packet.
+
+To generate tables for a VLIW target, add *Target*\ GenDFAPacketizer.inc as a
+target to the Makefile in the target directory. The exported API provides three
+functions: ``DFAPacketizer::clearResources()``,
+``DFAPacketizer::reserveResources(MachineInstr *MI)``, and
+``DFAPacketizer::canReserveResources(MachineInstr *MI)``. These functions allow
+a target packetizer to add an instruction to an existing packet and to check
+whether an instruction can be added to a packet. See
+``llvm/CodeGen/DFAPacketizer.h`` for more information.
+
+Implementing a Native Assembler
+===============================
+
+Though you're probably reading this because you want to write or maintain a
+compiler backend, LLVM also fully supports building a native assembler.
+We've tried hard to automate the generation of the assembler from the .td files
+(in particular the instruction syntax and encodings), which means that a large
+part of the manual and repetitive data entry can be factored and shared with the
+compiler.
+
+Instruction Parsing
+-------------------
+
+.. note::
+
+  To Be Written
+
+
+Instruction Alias Processing
+----------------------------
+
+Once the instruction is parsed, it enters the MatchInstructionImpl function.
+The MatchInstructionImpl function performs alias processing and then does actual
+matching.
+
+Alias processing is the phase that canonicalizes different lexical forms of the
+same instructions down to one representation.  There are several different kinds
+of alias that are possible to implement and they are listed below in the order
+that they are processed (which is in order from simplest/weakest to most
+complex/powerful).  Generally you want to use the first alias mechanism that
+meets the needs of your instruction, because it will allow a more concise
+description.
+
+Mnemonic Aliases
+^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
+
+The first phase of alias processing is simple instruction mnemonic remapping for
+classes of instructions which are allowed with two different mnemonics.  This
+phase is a simple and unconditionally remapping from one input mnemonic to one
+output mnemonic.  It isn't possible for this form of alias to look at the
+operands at all, so the remapping must apply for all forms of a given mnemonic.
+Mnemonic aliases are defined simply, for example X86 has:
+
+::
+
+  def : MnemonicAlias<"cbw",     "cbtw">;
+  def : MnemonicAlias<"smovq",   "movsq">;
+  def : MnemonicAlias<"fldcww",  "fldcw">;
+  def : MnemonicAlias<"fucompi", "fucomip">;
+  def : MnemonicAlias<"ud2a",    "ud2">;
+
+... and many others.  With a MnemonicAlias definition, the mnemonic is remapped
+simply and directly.  Though MnemonicAlias's can't look at any aspect of the
+instruction (such as the operands) they can depend on global modes (the same
+ones supported by the matcher), through a Requires clause:
+
+::
+
+  def : MnemonicAlias<"pushf", "pushfq">, Requires<[In64BitMode]>;
+  def : MnemonicAlias<"pushf", "pushfl">, Requires<[In32BitMode]>;
+
+In this example, the mnemonic gets mapped into different a new one depending on
+the current instruction set.
+
+Instruction Aliases
+^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
+
+The most general phase of alias processing occurs while matching is happening:
+it provides new forms for the matcher to match along with a specific instruction
+to generate.  An instruction alias has two parts: the string to match and the
+instruction to generate.  For example:
+
+::
+
+  def : InstAlias<"movsx $src, $dst", (MOVSX16rr8W GR16:$dst, GR8  :$src)>;
+  def : InstAlias<"movsx $src, $dst", (MOVSX16rm8W GR16:$dst, i8mem:$src)>;
+  def : InstAlias<"movsx $src, $dst", (MOVSX32rr8  GR32:$dst, GR8  :$src)>;
+  def : InstAlias<"movsx $src, $dst", (MOVSX32rr16 GR32:$dst, GR16 :$src)>;
+  def : InstAlias<"movsx $src, $dst", (MOVSX64rr8  GR64:$dst, GR8  :$src)>;
+  def : InstAlias<"movsx $src, $dst", (MOVSX64rr16 GR64:$dst, GR16 :$src)>;
+  def : InstAlias<"movsx $src, $dst", (MOVSX64rr32 GR64:$dst, GR32 :$src)>;
+
+This shows a powerful example of the instruction aliases, matching the same
+mnemonic in multiple different ways depending on what operands are present in
+the assembly.  The result of instruction aliases can include operands in a
+different order than the destination instruction, and can use an input multiple
+times, for example:
+
+::
+
+  def : InstAlias<"clrb $reg", (XOR8rr  GR8 :$reg, GR8 :$reg)>;
+  def : InstAlias<"clrw $reg", (XOR16rr GR16:$reg, GR16:$reg)>;
+  def : InstAlias<"clrl $reg", (XOR32rr GR32:$reg, GR32:$reg)>;
+  def : InstAlias<"clrq $reg", (XOR64rr GR64:$reg, GR64:$reg)>;
+
+This example also shows that tied operands are only listed once.  In the X86
+backend, XOR8rr has two input GR8's and one output GR8 (where an input is tied
+to the output).  InstAliases take a flattened operand list without duplicates
+for tied operands.  The result of an instruction alias can also use immediates
+and fixed physical registers which are added as simple immediate operands in the
+result, for example:
+
+::
+
+  // Fixed Immediate operand.
+  def : InstAlias<"aad", (AAD8i8 10)>;
+
+  // Fixed register operand.
+  def : InstAlias<"fcomi", (COM_FIr ST1)>;
+
+  // Simple alias.
+  def : InstAlias<"fcomi $reg", (COM_FIr RST:$reg)>;
+
+Instruction aliases can also have a Requires clause to make them subtarget
+specific.
+
+If the back-end supports it, the instruction printer can automatically emit the
+alias rather than what's being aliased. It typically leads to better, more
+readable code. If it's better to print out what's being aliased, then pass a '0'
+as the third parameter to the InstAlias definition.
+
+Instruction Matching
+--------------------
+
+.. note::
+
+  To Be Written
+
+.. _Implementations of the abstract target description interfaces:
+.. _implement the target description:
+
+Target-specific Implementation Notes
+====================================
+
+This section of the document explains features or design decisions that are
+specific to the code generator for a particular target.  First we start with a
+table that summarizes what features are supported by each target.
+
+.. _target-feature-matrix:
+
+Target Feature Matrix
+---------------------
+
+Note that this table does not include the C backend or Cpp backends, since they
+do not use the target independent code generator infrastructure.  It also
+doesn't list features that are not supported fully by any target yet.  It
+considers a feature to be supported if at least one subtarget supports it.  A
+feature being supported means that it is useful and works for most cases, it
+does not indicate that there are zero known bugs in the implementation.  Here is
+the key:
+
+:raw-html:`<table border="1" cellspacing="0">`
+:raw-html:`<tr>`
+:raw-html:`<th>Unknown</th>`
+:raw-html:`<th>Not Applicable</th>`
+:raw-html:`<th>No support</th>`
+:raw-html:`<th>Partial Support</th>`
+:raw-html:`<th>Complete Support</th>`
+:raw-html:`</tr>`
+:raw-html:`<tr>`
+:raw-html:`<td class="unknown"></td>`
+:raw-html:`<td class="na"></td>`
+:raw-html:`<td class="no"></td>`
+:raw-html:`<td class="partial"></td>`
+:raw-html:`<td class="yes"></td>`
+:raw-html:`</tr>`
+:raw-html:`</table>`
+
+Here is the table:
+
+:raw-html:`<table width="689" border="1" cellspacing="0">`
+:raw-html:`<tr><td></td>`
+:raw-html:`<td colspan="13" align="center" style="background-color:#ffc">Target</td>`
+:raw-html:`</tr>`
+:raw-html:`<tr>`
+:raw-html:`<th>Feature</th>`
+:raw-html:`<th>ARM</th>`
+:raw-html:`<th>Hexagon</th>`
+:raw-html:`<th>MSP430</th>`
+:raw-html:`<th>Mips</th>`
+:raw-html:`<th>NVPTX</th>`
+:raw-html:`<th>PowerPC</th>`
+:raw-html:`<th>Sparc</th>`
+:raw-html:`<th>SystemZ</th>`
+:raw-html:`<th>X86</th>`
+:raw-html:`<th>XCore</th>`
+:raw-html:`</tr>`
+
+:raw-html:`<tr>`
+:raw-html:`<td><a href="#feat_reliable">is generally reliable</a></td>`
+:raw-html:`<td class="yes"></td> <!-- ARM -->`
+:raw-html:`<td class="yes"></td> <!-- Hexagon -->`
+:raw-html:`<td class="unknown"></td> <!-- MSP430 -->`
+:raw-html:`<td class="yes"></td> <!-- Mips -->`
+:raw-html:`<td class="yes"></td> <!-- NVPTX -->`
+:raw-html:`<td class="yes"></td> <!-- PowerPC -->`
+:raw-html:`<td class="yes"></td> <!-- Sparc -->`
+:raw-html:`<td class="yes"></td> <!-- SystemZ -->`
+:raw-html:`<td class="yes"></td> <!-- X86 -->`
+:raw-html:`<td class="yes"></td> <!-- XCore -->`
+:raw-html:`</tr>`
+
+:raw-html:`<tr>`
+:raw-html:`<td><a href="#feat_asmparser">assembly parser</a></td>`
+:raw-html:`<td class="no"></td> <!-- ARM -->`
+:raw-html:`<td class="no"></td> <!-- Hexagon -->`
+:raw-html:`<td class="no"></td> <!-- MSP430 -->`
+:raw-html:`<td class="no"></td> <!-- Mips -->`
+:raw-html:`<td class="no"></td> <!-- NVPTX -->`
+:raw-html:`<td class="no"></td> <!-- PowerPC -->`
+:raw-html:`<td class="no"></td> <!-- Sparc -->`
+:raw-html:`<td class="yes"></td> <!-- SystemZ -->`
+:raw-html:`<td class="yes"></td> <!-- X86 -->`
+:raw-html:`<td class="no"></td> <!-- XCore -->`
+:raw-html:`</tr>`
+
+:raw-html:`<tr>`
+:raw-html:`<td><a href="#feat_disassembler">disassembler</a></td>`
+:raw-html:`<td class="yes"></td> <!-- ARM -->`
+:raw-html:`<td class="no"></td> <!-- Hexagon -->`
+:raw-html:`<td class="no"></td> <!-- MSP430 -->`
+:raw-html:`<td class="no"></td> <!-- Mips -->`
+:raw-html:`<td class="na"></td> <!-- NVPTX -->`
+:raw-html:`<td class="no"></td> <!-- PowerPC -->`
+:raw-html:`<td class="yes"></td> <!-- SystemZ -->`
+:raw-html:`<td class="no"></td> <!-- Sparc -->`
+:raw-html:`<td class="yes"></td> <!-- X86 -->`
+:raw-html:`<td class="yes"></td> <!-- XCore -->`
+:raw-html:`</tr>`
+
+:raw-html:`<tr>`
+:raw-html:`<td><a href="#feat_inlineasm">inline asm</a></td>`
+:raw-html:`<td class="yes"></td> <!-- ARM -->`
+:raw-html:`<td class="yes"></td> <!-- Hexagon -->`
+:raw-html:`<td class="unknown"></td> <!-- MSP430 -->`
+:raw-html:`<td class="no"></td> <!-- Mips -->`
+:raw-html:`<td class="yes"></td> <!-- NVPTX -->`
+:raw-html:`<td class="yes"></td> <!-- PowerPC -->`
+:raw-html:`<td class="unknown"></td> <!-- Sparc -->`
+:raw-html:`<td class="yes"></td> <!-- SystemZ -->`
+:raw-html:`<td class="yes"></td> <!-- X86 -->`
+:raw-html:`<td class="yes"></td> <!-- XCore -->`
+:raw-html:`</tr>`
+
+:raw-html:`<tr>`
+:raw-html:`<td><a href="#feat_jit">jit</a></td>`
+:raw-html:`<td class="partial"><a href="#feat_jit_arm">*</a></td> <!-- ARM -->`
+:raw-html:`<td class="no"></td> <!-- Hexagon -->`
+:raw-html:`<td class="unknown"></td> <!-- MSP430 -->`
+:raw-html:`<td class="yes"></td> <!-- Mips -->`
+:raw-html:`<td class="na"></td> <!-- NVPTX -->`
+:raw-html:`<td class="yes"></td> <!-- PowerPC -->`
+:raw-html:`<td class="unknown"></td> <!-- Sparc -->`
+:raw-html:`<td class="yes"></td> <!-- SystemZ -->`
+:raw-html:`<td class="yes"></td> <!-- X86 -->`
+:raw-html:`<td class="no"></td> <!-- XCore -->`
+:raw-html:`</tr>`
+
+:raw-html:`<tr>`
+:raw-html:`<td><a href="#feat_objectwrite">.o file writing</a></td>`
+:raw-html:`<td class="no"></td> <!-- ARM -->`
+:raw-html:`<td class="no"></td> <!-- Hexagon -->`
+:raw-html:`<td class="no"></td> <!-- MSP430 -->`
+:raw-html:`<td class="no"></td> <!-- Mips -->`
+:raw-html:`<td class="na"></td> <!-- NVPTX -->`
+:raw-html:`<td class="no"></td> <!-- PowerPC -->`
+:raw-html:`<td class="no"></td> <!-- Sparc -->`
+:raw-html:`<td class="yes"></td> <!-- SystemZ -->`
+:raw-html:`<td class="yes"></td> <!-- X86 -->`
+:raw-html:`<td class="no"></td> <!-- XCore -->`
+:raw-html:`</tr>`
+
+:raw-html:`<tr>`
+:raw-html:`<td><a hr:raw-html:`ef="#feat_tailcall">tail calls</a></td>`
+:raw-html:`<td class="yes"></td> <!-- ARM -->`
+:raw-html:`<td class="yes"></td> <!-- Hexagon -->`
+:raw-html:`<td class="unknown"></td> <!-- MSP430 -->`
+:raw-html:`<td class="no"></td> <!-- Mips -->`
+:raw-html:`<td class="no"></td> <!-- NVPTX -->`
+:raw-html:`<td class="yes"></td> <!-- PowerPC -->`
+:raw-html:`<td class="unknown"></td> <!-- Sparc -->`
+:raw-html:`<td class="no"></td> <!-- SystemZ -->`
+:raw-html:`<td class="yes"></td> <!-- X86 -->`
+:raw-html:`<td class="no"></td> <!-- XCore -->`
+:raw-html:`</tr>`
+
+:raw-html:`<tr>`
+:raw-html:`<td><a href="#feat_segstacks">segmented stacks</a></td>`
+:raw-html:`<td class="no"></td> <!-- ARM -->`
+:raw-html:`<td class="no"></td> <!-- Hexagon -->`
+:raw-html:`<td class="no"></td> <!-- MSP430 -->`
+:raw-html:`<td class="no"></td> <!-- Mips -->`
+:raw-html:`<td class="no"></td> <!-- NVPTX -->`
+:raw-html:`<td class="no"></td> <!-- PowerPC -->`
+:raw-html:`<td class="no"></td> <!-- Sparc -->`
+:raw-html:`<td class="no"></td> <!-- SystemZ -->`
+:raw-html:`<td class="partial"><a href="#feat_segstacks_x86">*</a></td> <!-- X86 -->`
+:raw-html:`<td class="no"></td> <!-- XCore -->`
+:raw-html:`</tr>`
+
+:raw-html:`</table>`
+
+.. _feat_reliable:
+
+Is Generally Reliable
+^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
+
+This box indicates whether the target is considered to be production quality.
+This indicates that the target has been used as a static compiler to compile
+large amounts of code by a variety of different people and is in continuous use.
+
+.. _feat_asmparser:
+
+Assembly Parser
+^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
+
+This box indicates whether the target supports parsing target specific .s files
+by implementing the MCAsmParser interface.  This is required for llvm-mc to be
+able to act as a native assembler and is required for inline assembly support in
+the native .o file writer.
+
+.. _feat_disassembler:
+
+Disassembler
+^^^^^^^^^^^^
+
+This box indicates whether the target supports the MCDisassembler API for
+disassembling machine opcode bytes into MCInst's.
+
+.. _feat_inlineasm:
+
+Inline Asm
+^^^^^^^^^^
+
+This box indicates whether the target supports most popular inline assembly
+constraints and modifiers.
+
+.. _feat_jit:
+
+JIT Support
+^^^^^^^^^^^
+
+This box indicates whether the target supports the JIT compiler through the
+ExecutionEngine interface.
+
+.. _feat_jit_arm:
+
+The ARM backend has basic support for integer code in ARM codegen mode, but
+lacks NEON and full Thumb support.
+
+.. _feat_objectwrite:
+
+.o File Writing
+^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
+
+This box indicates whether the target supports writing .o files (e.g. MachO,
+ELF, and/or COFF) files directly from the target.  Note that the target also
+must include an assembly parser and general inline assembly support for full
+inline assembly support in the .o writer.
+
+Targets that don't support this feature can obviously still write out .o files,
+they just rely on having an external assembler to translate from a .s file to a
+.o file (as is the case for many C compilers).
+
+.. _feat_tailcall:
+
+Tail Calls
+^^^^^^^^^^
+
+This box indicates whether the target supports guaranteed tail calls.  These are
+calls marked "`tail <LangRef.html#i_call>`_" and use the fastcc calling
+convention.  Please see the `tail call section more more details`_.
+
+.. _feat_segstacks:
+
+Segmented Stacks
+^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
+
+This box indicates whether the target supports segmented stacks. This replaces
+the traditional large C stack with many linked segments. It is compatible with
+the `gcc implementation <http://gcc.gnu.org/wiki/SplitStacks>`_ used by the Go
+front end.
+
+.. _feat_segstacks_x86:
+
+Basic support exists on the X86 backend. Currently vararg doesn't work and the
+object files are not marked the way the gold linker expects, but simple Go
+programs can be built by dragonegg.
+
+.. _tail call section more more details:
+
+Tail call optimization
+----------------------
+
+Tail call optimization, callee reusing the stack of the caller, is currently
+supported on x86/x86-64 and PowerPC. It is performed if:
+
+* Caller and callee have the calling convention ``fastcc``, ``cc 10`` (GHC
+  calling convention) or ``cc 11`` (HiPE calling convention).
+
+* The call is a tail call - in tail position (ret immediately follows call and
+  ret uses value of call or is void).
+
+* Option ``-tailcallopt`` is enabled.
+
+* Platform specific constraints are met.
+
+x86/x86-64 constraints:
+
+* No variable argument lists are used.
+
+* On x86-64 when generating GOT/PIC code only module-local calls (visibility =
+  hidden or protected) are supported.
+
+PowerPC constraints:
+
+* No variable argument lists are used.
+
+* No byval parameters are used.
+
+* On ppc32/64 GOT/PIC only module-local calls (visibility = hidden or protected)
+  are supported.
+
+Example:
+
+Call as ``llc -tailcallopt test.ll``.
+
+.. code-block:: llvm
+
+  declare fastcc i32 @tailcallee(i32 inreg %a1, i32 inreg %a2, i32 %a3, i32 %a4)
+
+  define fastcc i32 @tailcaller(i32 %in1, i32 %in2) {
+    %l1 = add i32 %in1, %in2
+    %tmp = tail call fastcc i32 @tailcallee(i32 %in1 inreg, i32 %in2 inreg, i32 %in1, i32 %l1)
+    ret i32 %tmp
+  }
+
+Implications of ``-tailcallopt``:
+
+To support tail call optimization in situations where the callee has more
+arguments than the caller a 'callee pops arguments' convention is used. This
+currently causes each ``fastcc`` call that is not tail call optimized (because
+one or more of above constraints are not met) to be followed by a readjustment
+of the stack. So performance might be worse in such cases.
+
+Sibling call optimization
+-------------------------
+
+Sibling call optimization is a restricted form of tail call optimization.
+Unlike tail call optimization described in the previous section, it can be
+performed automatically on any tail calls when ``-tailcallopt`` option is not
+specified.
+
+Sibling call optimization is currently performed on x86/x86-64 when the
+following constraints are met:
+
+* Caller and callee have the same calling convention. It can be either ``c`` or
+  ``fastcc``.
+
+* The call is a tail call - in tail position (ret immediately follows call and
+  ret uses value of call or is void).
+
+* Caller and callee have matching return type or the callee result is not used.
+
+* If any of the callee arguments are being passed in stack, they must be
+  available in caller's own incoming argument stack and the frame offsets must
+  be the same.
+
+Example:
+
+.. code-block:: llvm
+
+  declare i32 @bar(i32, i32)
+
+  define i32 @foo(i32 %a, i32 %b, i32 %c) {
+  entry:
+    %0 = tail call i32 @bar(i32 %a, i32 %b)
+    ret i32 %0
+  }
+
+The X86 backend
+---------------
+
+The X86 code generator lives in the ``lib/Target/X86`` directory.  This code
+generator is capable of targeting a variety of x86-32 and x86-64 processors, and
+includes support for ISA extensions such as MMX and SSE.
+
+X86 Target Triples supported
+^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
+
+The following are the known target triples that are supported by the X86
+backend.  This is not an exhaustive list, and it would be useful to add those
+that people test.
+
+* **i686-pc-linux-gnu** --- Linux
+
+* **i386-unknown-freebsd5.3** --- FreeBSD 5.3
+
+* **i686-pc-cygwin** --- Cygwin on Win32
+
+* **i686-pc-mingw32** --- MingW on Win32
+
+* **i386-pc-mingw32msvc** --- MingW crosscompiler on Linux
+
+* **i686-apple-darwin*** --- Apple Darwin on X86
+
+* **x86_64-unknown-linux-gnu** --- Linux
+
+X86 Calling Conventions supported
+^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
+
+The following target-specific calling conventions are known to backend:
+
+* **x86_StdCall** --- stdcall calling convention seen on Microsoft Windows
+  platform (CC ID = 64).
+
+* **x86_FastCall** --- fastcall calling convention seen on Microsoft Windows
+  platform (CC ID = 65).
+
+* **x86_ThisCall** --- Similar to X86_StdCall. Passes first argument in ECX,
+  others via stack. Callee is responsible for stack cleaning. This convention is
+  used by MSVC by default for methods in its ABI (CC ID = 70).
+
+.. _X86 addressing mode:
+
+Representing X86 addressing modes in MachineInstrs
+^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
+
+The x86 has a very flexible way of accessing memory.  It is capable of forming
+memory addresses of the following expression directly in integer instructions
+(which use ModR/M addressing):
+
+::
+
+  SegmentReg: Base + [1,2,4,8] * IndexReg + Disp32
+
+In order to represent this, LLVM tracks no less than 5 operands for each memory
+operand of this form.  This means that the "load" form of '``mov``' has the
+following ``MachineOperand``\s in this order:
+
+::
+
+  Index:        0     |    1        2       3           4          5
+  Meaning:   DestReg, | BaseReg,  Scale, IndexReg, Displacement Segment
+  OperandTy: VirtReg, | VirtReg, UnsImm, VirtReg,   SignExtImm  PhysReg
+
+Stores, and all other instructions, treat the four memory operands in the same
+way and in the same order.  If the segment register is unspecified (regno = 0),
+then no segment override is generated.  "Lea" operations do not have a segment
+register specified, so they only have 4 operands for their memory reference.
+
+X86 address spaces supported
+^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
+
+x86 has a feature which provides the ability to perform loads and stores to
+different address spaces via the x86 segment registers.  A segment override
+prefix byte on an instruction causes the instruction's memory access to go to
+the specified segment.  LLVM address space 0 is the default address space, which
+includes the stack, and any unqualified memory accesses in a program.  Address
+spaces 1-255 are currently reserved for user-defined code.  The GS-segment is
+represented by address space 256, while the FS-segment is represented by address
+space 257. Other x86 segments have yet to be allocated address space
+numbers.
+
+While these address spaces may seem similar to TLS via the ``thread_local``
+keyword, and often use the same underlying hardware, there are some fundamental
+differences.
+
+The ``thread_local`` keyword applies to global variables and specifies that they
+are to be allocated in thread-local memory. There are no type qualifiers
+involved, and these variables can be pointed to with normal pointers and
+accessed with normal loads and stores.  The ``thread_local`` keyword is
+target-independent at the LLVM IR level (though LLVM doesn't yet have
+implementations of it for some configurations)
+
+Special address spaces, in contrast, apply to static types. Every load and store
+has a particular address space in its address operand type, and this is what
+determines which address space is accessed.  LLVM ignores these special address
+space qualifiers on global variables, and does not provide a way to directly
+allocate storage in them.  At the LLVM IR level, the behavior of these special
+address spaces depends in part on the underlying OS or runtime environment, and
+they are specific to x86 (and LLVM doesn't yet handle them correctly in some
+cases).
+
+Some operating systems and runtime environments use (or may in the future use)
+the FS/GS-segment registers for various low-level purposes, so care should be
+taken when considering them.
+
+Instruction naming
+^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
+
+An instruction name consists of the base name, a default operand size, and a a
+character per operand with an optional special size. For example:
+
+::
+
+  ADD8rr      -> add, 8-bit register, 8-bit register
+  IMUL16rmi   -> imul, 16-bit register, 16-bit memory, 16-bit immediate
+  IMUL16rmi8  -> imul, 16-bit register, 16-bit memory, 8-bit immediate
+  MOVSX32rm16 -> movsx, 32-bit register, 16-bit memory
+
+The PowerPC backend
+-------------------
+
+The PowerPC code generator lives in the lib/Target/PowerPC directory.  The code
+generation is retargetable to several variations or *subtargets* of the PowerPC
+ISA; including ppc32, ppc64 and altivec.
+
+LLVM PowerPC ABI
+^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
+
+LLVM follows the AIX PowerPC ABI, with two deviations. LLVM uses a PC relative
+(PIC) or static addressing for accessing global values, so no TOC (r2) is
+used. Second, r31 is used as a frame pointer to allow dynamic growth of a stack
+frame.  LLVM takes advantage of having no TOC to provide space to save the frame
+pointer in the PowerPC linkage area of the caller frame.  Other details of
+PowerPC ABI can be found at `PowerPC ABI
+<http://developer.apple.com/documentation/DeveloperTools/Conceptual/LowLevelABI/Articles/32bitPowerPC.html>`_\
+. Note: This link describes the 32 bit ABI.  The 64 bit ABI is similar except
+space for GPRs are 8 bytes wide (not 4) and r13 is reserved for system use.
+
+Frame Layout
+^^^^^^^^^^^^
+
+The size of a PowerPC frame is usually fixed for the duration of a function's
+invocation.  Since the frame is fixed size, all references into the frame can be
+accessed via fixed offsets from the stack pointer.  The exception to this is
+when dynamic alloca or variable sized arrays are present, then a base pointer
+(r31) is used as a proxy for the stack pointer and stack pointer is free to grow
+or shrink.  A base pointer is also used if llvm-gcc is not passed the
+-fomit-frame-pointer flag. The stack pointer is always aligned to 16 bytes, so
+that space allocated for altivec vectors will be properly aligned.
+
+An invocation frame is laid out as follows (low memory at top):
+
+:raw-html:`<table border="1" cellspacing="0">`
+:raw-html:`<tr>`
+:raw-html:`<td>Linkage<br><br></td>`
+:raw-html:`</tr>`
+:raw-html:`<tr>`
+:raw-html:`<td>Parameter area<br><br></td>`
+:raw-html:`</tr>`
+:raw-html:`<tr>`
+:raw-html:`<td>Dynamic area<br><br></td>`
+:raw-html:`</tr>`
+:raw-html:`<tr>`
+:raw-html:`<td>Locals area<br><br></td>`
+:raw-html:`</tr>`
+:raw-html:`<tr>`
+:raw-html:`<td>Saved registers area<br><br></td>`
+:raw-html:`</tr>`
+:raw-html:`<tr style="border-style: none hidden none hidden;">`
+:raw-html:`<td><br></td>`
+:raw-html:`</tr>`
+:raw-html:`<tr>`
+:raw-html:`<td>Previous Frame<br><br></td>`
+:raw-html:`</tr>`
+:raw-html:`</table>`
+
+The *linkage* area is used by a callee to save special registers prior to
+allocating its own frame.  Only three entries are relevant to LLVM. The first
+entry is the previous stack pointer (sp), aka link.  This allows probing tools
+like gdb or exception handlers to quickly scan the frames in the stack.  A
+function epilog can also use the link to pop the frame from the stack.  The
+third entry in the linkage area is used to save the return address from the lr
+register. Finally, as mentioned above, the last entry is used to save the
+previous frame pointer (r31.)  The entries in the linkage area are the size of a
+GPR, thus the linkage area is 24 bytes long in 32 bit mode and 48 bytes in 64
+bit mode.
+
+32 bit linkage area:
+
+:raw-html:`<table  border="1" cellspacing="0">`
+:raw-html:`<tr>`
+:raw-html:`<td>0</td>`
+:raw-html:`<td>Saved SP (r1)</td>`
+:raw-html:`</tr>`
+:raw-html:`<tr>`
+:raw-html:`<td>4</td>`
+:raw-html:`<td>Saved CR</td>`
+:raw-html:`</tr>`
+:raw-html:`<tr>`
+:raw-html:`<td>8</td>`
+:raw-html:`<td>Saved LR</td>`
+:raw-html:`</tr>`
+:raw-html:`<tr>`
+:raw-html:`<td>12</td>`
+:raw-html:`<td>Reserved</td>`
+:raw-html:`</tr>`
+:raw-html:`<tr>`
+:raw-html:`<td>16</td>`
+:raw-html:`<td>Reserved</td>`
+:raw-html:`</tr>`
+:raw-html:`<tr>`
+:raw-html:`<td>20</td>`
+:raw-html:`<td>Saved FP (r31)</td>`
+:raw-html:`</tr>`
+:raw-html:`</table>`
+
+64 bit linkage area:
+
+:raw-html:`<table border="1" cellspacing="0">`
+:raw-html:`<tr>`
+:raw-html:`<td>0</td>`
+:raw-html:`<td>Saved SP (r1)</td>`
+:raw-html:`</tr>`
+:raw-html:`<tr>`
+:raw-html:`<td>8</td>`
+:raw-html:`<td>Saved CR</td>`
+:raw-html:`</tr>`
+:raw-html:`<tr>`
+:raw-html:`<td>16</td>`
+:raw-html:`<td>Saved LR</td>`
+:raw-html:`</tr>`
+:raw-html:`<tr>`
+:raw-html:`<td>24</td>`
+:raw-html:`<td>Reserved</td>`
+:raw-html:`</tr>`
+:raw-html:`<tr>`
+:raw-html:`<td>32</td>`
+:raw-html:`<td>Reserved</td>`
+:raw-html:`</tr>`
+:raw-html:`<tr>`
+:raw-html:`<td>40</td>`
+:raw-html:`<td>Saved FP (r31)</td>`
+:raw-html:`</tr>`
+:raw-html:`</table>`
+
+The *parameter area* is used to store arguments being passed to a callee
+function.  Following the PowerPC ABI, the first few arguments are actually
+passed in registers, with the space in the parameter area unused.  However, if
+there are not enough registers or the callee is a thunk or vararg function,
+these register arguments can be spilled into the parameter area.  Thus, the
+parameter area must be large enough to store all the parameters for the largest
+call sequence made by the caller.  The size must also be minimally large enough
+to spill registers r3-r10.  This allows callees blind to the call signature,
+such as thunks and vararg functions, enough space to cache the argument
+registers.  Therefore, the parameter area is minimally 32 bytes (64 bytes in 64
+bit mode.)  Also note that since the parameter area is a fixed offset from the
+top of the frame, that a callee can access its spilt arguments using fixed
+offsets from the stack pointer (or base pointer.)
+
+Combining the information about the linkage, parameter areas and alignment. A
+stack frame is minimally 64 bytes in 32 bit mode and 128 bytes in 64 bit mode.
+
+The *dynamic area* starts out as size zero.  If a function uses dynamic alloca
+then space is added to the stack, the linkage and parameter areas are shifted to
+top of stack, and the new space is available immediately below the linkage and
+parameter areas.  The cost of shifting the linkage and parameter areas is minor
+since only the link value needs to be copied.  The link value can be easily
+fetched by adding the original frame size to the base pointer.  Note that
+allocations in the dynamic space need to observe 16 byte alignment.
+
+The *locals area* is where the llvm compiler reserves space for local variables.
+
+The *saved registers area* is where the llvm compiler spills callee saved
+registers on entry to the callee.
+
+Prolog/Epilog
+^^^^^^^^^^^^^
+
+The llvm prolog and epilog are the same as described in the PowerPC ABI, with
+the following exceptions.  Callee saved registers are spilled after the frame is
+created.  This allows the llvm epilog/prolog support to be common with other
+targets.  The base pointer callee saved register r31 is saved in the TOC slot of
+linkage area.  This simplifies allocation of space for the base pointer and
+makes it convenient to locate programatically and during debugging.
+
+Dynamic Allocation
+^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
+
+.. note::
+
+  TODO - More to come.
+
+The NVPTX backend
+-----------------
+
+The NVPTX code generator under lib/Target/NVPTX is an open-source version of
+the NVIDIA NVPTX code generator for LLVM.  It is contributed by NVIDIA and is
+a port of the code generator used in the CUDA compiler (nvcc).  It targets the
+PTX 3.0/3.1 ISA and can target any compute capability greater than or equal to
+2.0 (Fermi).
+
+This target is of production quality and should be completely compatible with
+the official NVIDIA toolchain.
+
+Code Generator Options:
+
+:raw-html:`<table border="1" cellspacing="0">`
+:raw-html:`<tr>`
+:raw-html:`<th>Option</th>`
+:raw-html:`<th>Description</th>`
+:raw-html:`</tr>`
+:raw-html:`<tr>`
+:raw-html:`<td>sm_20</td>`
+:raw-html:`<td align="left">Set shader model/compute capability to 2.0</td>`
+:raw-html:`</tr>`
+:raw-html:`<tr>`
+:raw-html:`<td>sm_21</td>`
+:raw-html:`<td align="left">Set shader model/compute capability to 2.1</td>`
+:raw-html:`</tr>`
+:raw-html:`<tr>`
+:raw-html:`<td>sm_30</td>`
+:raw-html:`<td align="left">Set shader model/compute capability to 3.0</td>`
+:raw-html:`</tr>`
+:raw-html:`<tr>`
+:raw-html:`<td>sm_35</td>`
+:raw-html:`<td align="left">Set shader model/compute capability to 3.5</td>`
+:raw-html:`</tr>`
+:raw-html:`<tr>`
+:raw-html:`<td>ptx30</td>`
+:raw-html:`<td align="left">Target PTX 3.0</td>`
+:raw-html:`</tr>`
+:raw-html:`<tr>`
+:raw-html:`<td>ptx31</td>`
+:raw-html:`<td align="left">Target PTX 3.1</td>`
+:raw-html:`</tr>`
+:raw-html:`</table>`
+

Added: www-releases/trunk/3.4.1/docs/_sources/CodingStandards.txt
URL: http://llvm.org/viewvc/llvm-project/www-releases/trunk/3.4.1/docs/_sources/CodingStandards.txt?rev=208244&view=auto
==============================================================================
--- www-releases/trunk/3.4.1/docs/_sources/CodingStandards.txt (added)
+++ www-releases/trunk/3.4.1/docs/_sources/CodingStandards.txt Wed May  7 15:09:32 2014
@@ -0,0 +1,1348 @@
+=====================
+LLVM Coding Standards
+=====================
+
+.. contents::
+   :local:
+
+Introduction
+============
+
+This document attempts to describe a few coding standards that are being used in
+the LLVM source tree.  Although no coding standards should be regarded as
+absolute requirements to be followed in all instances, coding standards are
+particularly important for large-scale code bases that follow a library-based
+design (like LLVM).
+
+This document intentionally does not prescribe fixed standards for religious
+issues such as brace placement and space usage.  For issues like this, follow
+the golden rule:
+
+.. _Golden Rule:
+
+    **If you are extending, enhancing, or bug fixing already implemented code,
+    use the style that is already being used so that the source is uniform and
+    easy to follow.**
+
+Note that some code bases (e.g. ``libc++``) have really good reasons to deviate
+from the coding standards.  In the case of ``libc++``, this is because the
+naming and other conventions are dictated by the C++ standard.  If you think
+there is a specific good reason to deviate from the standards here, please bring
+it up on the LLVMdev mailing list.
+
+There are some conventions that are not uniformly followed in the code base
+(e.g. the naming convention).  This is because they are relatively new, and a
+lot of code was written before they were put in place.  Our long term goal is
+for the entire codebase to follow the convention, but we explicitly *do not*
+want patches that do large-scale reformating of existing code.  On the other
+hand, it is reasonable to rename the methods of a class if you're about to
+change it in some other way.  Just do the reformating as a separate commit from
+the functionality change.
+  
+The ultimate goal of these guidelines is the increase readability and
+maintainability of our common source base. If you have suggestions for topics to
+be included, please mail them to `Chris <mailto:sabre at nondot.org>`_.
+
+Mechanical Source Issues
+========================
+
+Source Code Formatting
+----------------------
+
+Commenting
+^^^^^^^^^^
+
+Comments are one critical part of readability and maintainability.  Everyone
+knows they should comment their code, and so should you.  When writing comments,
+write them as English prose, which means they should use proper capitalization,
+punctuation, etc.  Aim to describe what the code is trying to do and why, not
+*how* it does it at a micro level. Here are a few critical things to document:
+
+.. _header file comment:
+
+File Headers
+""""""""""""
+
+Every source file should have a header on it that describes the basic purpose of
+the file.  If a file does not have a header, it should not be checked into the
+tree.  The standard header looks like this:
+
+.. code-block:: c++
+
+  //===-- llvm/Instruction.h - Instruction class definition -------*- C++ -*-===//
+  //
+  //                     The LLVM Compiler Infrastructure
+  //
+  // This file is distributed under the University of Illinois Open Source
+  // License. See LICENSE.TXT for details.
+  //
+  //===----------------------------------------------------------------------===//
+  ///
+  /// \file
+  /// \brief This file contains the declaration of the Instruction class, which is
+  /// the base class for all of the VM instructions.
+  ///
+  //===----------------------------------------------------------------------===//
+
+A few things to note about this particular format: The "``-*- C++ -*-``" string
+on the first line is there to tell Emacs that the source file is a C++ file, not
+a C file (Emacs assumes ``.h`` files are C files by default).
+
+.. note::
+
+    This tag is not necessary in ``.cpp`` files.  The name of the file is also
+    on the first line, along with a very short description of the purpose of the
+    file.  This is important when printing out code and flipping though lots of
+    pages.
+
+The next section in the file is a concise note that defines the license that the
+file is released under.  This makes it perfectly clear what terms the source
+code can be distributed under and should not be modified in any way.
+
+The main body is a ``doxygen`` comment describing the purpose of the file.  It
+should have a ``\brief`` command that describes the file in one or two
+sentences.  Any additional information should be separated by a blank line.  If
+an algorithm is being implemented or something tricky is going on, a reference
+to the paper where it is published should be included, as well as any notes or
+*gotchas* in the code to watch out for.
+
+Class overviews
+"""""""""""""""
+
+Classes are one fundamental part of a good object oriented design.  As such, a
+class definition should have a comment block that explains what the class is
+used for and how it works.  Every non-trivial class is expected to have a
+``doxygen`` comment block.
+
+Method information
+""""""""""""""""""
+
+Methods defined in a class (as well as any global functions) should also be
+documented properly.  A quick note about what it does and a description of the
+borderline behaviour is all that is necessary here (unless something
+particularly tricky or insidious is going on).  The hope is that people can
+figure out how to use your interfaces without reading the code itself.
+
+Good things to talk about here are what happens when something unexpected
+happens: does the method return null?  Abort?  Format your hard disk?
+
+Comment Formatting
+^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
+
+In general, prefer C++ style (``//``) comments.  They take less space, require
+less typing, don't have nesting problems, etc.  There are a few cases when it is
+useful to use C style (``/* */``) comments however:
+
+#. When writing C code: Obviously if you are writing C code, use C style
+   comments.
+
+#. When writing a header file that may be ``#include``\d by a C source file.
+
+#. When writing a source file that is used by a tool that only accepts C style
+   comments.
+
+To comment out a large block of code, use ``#if 0`` and ``#endif``. These nest
+properly and are better behaved in general than C style comments.
+
+Doxygen Use in Documentation Comments
+^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
+
+Use the ``\file`` command to turn the standard file header into a file-level
+comment.
+
+Include descriptive ``\brief`` paragraphs for all public interfaces (public
+classes, member and non-member functions).  Explain API use and purpose in
+``\brief`` paragraphs, don't just restate the information that can be inferred
+from the API name.  Put detailed discussion into separate paragraphs.
+
+To refer to parameter names inside a paragraph, use the ``\p name`` command.
+Don't use the ``\arg name`` command since it starts a new paragraph that
+contains documentation for the parameter.
+
+Wrap non-inline code examples in ``\code ... \endcode``.
+
+To document a function parameter, start a new paragraph with the
+``\param name`` command.  If the parameter is used as an out or an in/out
+parameter, use the ``\param [out] name`` or ``\param [in,out] name`` command,
+respectively.
+
+To describe function return value, start a new paragraph with the ``\returns``
+command.
+
+A minimal documentation comment:
+
+.. code-block:: c++
+
+  /// \brief Does foo and bar.
+  void fooBar(bool Baz);
+
+A documentation comment that uses all Doxygen features in a preferred way:
+
+.. code-block:: c++
+
+  /// \brief Does foo and bar.
+  ///
+  /// Does not do foo the usual way if \p Baz is true.
+  ///
+  /// Typical usage:
+  /// \code
+  ///   fooBar(false, "quux", Res);
+  /// \endcode
+  ///
+  /// \param Quux kind of foo to do.
+  /// \param [out] Result filled with bar sequence on foo success.
+  ///
+  /// \returns true on success.
+  bool fooBar(bool Baz, StringRef Quux, std::vector<int> &Result);
+
+Don't duplicate the documentation comment in the header file and in the
+implementation file.  Put the documentation comments for public APIs into the
+header file.  Documentation comments for private APIs can go to the
+implementation file.  In any case, implementation files can include additional
+comments (not necessarily in Doxygen markup) to explain implementation details
+as needed.
+
+Don't duplicate function or class name at the beginning of the comment.
+For humans it is obvious which function or class is being documented;
+automatic documentation processing tools are smart enough to bind the comment
+to the correct declaration.
+
+Wrong:
+
+.. code-block:: c++
+
+  // In Something.h:
+
+  /// Something - An abstraction for some complicated thing.
+  class Something {
+  public:
+    /// fooBar - Does foo and bar.
+    void fooBar();
+  };
+
+  // In Something.cpp:
+
+  /// fooBar - Does foo and bar.
+  void Something::fooBar() { ... }
+
+Correct:
+
+.. code-block:: c++
+
+  // In Something.h:
+
+  /// \brief An abstraction for some complicated thing.
+  class Something {
+  public:
+    /// \brief Does foo and bar.
+    void fooBar();
+  };
+
+  // In Something.cpp:
+
+  // Builds a B-tree in order to do foo.  See paper by...
+  void Something::fooBar() { ... }
+
+It is not required to use additional Doxygen features, but sometimes it might
+be a good idea to do so.
+
+Consider:
+
+* adding comments to any narrow namespace containing a collection of
+  related functions or types;
+
+* using top-level groups to organize a collection of related functions at
+  namespace scope where the grouping is smaller than the namespace;
+
+* using member groups and additional comments attached to member
+  groups to organize within a class.
+
+For example:
+
+.. code-block:: c++
+
+  class Something {
+    /// \name Functions that do Foo.
+    /// @{
+    void fooBar();
+    void fooBaz();
+    /// @}
+    ...
+  };
+
+``#include`` Style
+^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
+
+Immediately after the `header file comment`_ (and include guards if working on a
+header file), the `minimal list of #includes`_ required by the file should be
+listed.  We prefer these ``#include``\s to be listed in this order:
+
+.. _Main Module Header:
+.. _Local/Private Headers:
+
+#. Main Module Header
+#. Local/Private Headers
+#. ``llvm/...``
+#. System ``#include``\s
+
+and each category should be sorted lexicographically by the full path.
+
+The `Main Module Header`_ file applies to ``.cpp`` files which implement an
+interface defined by a ``.h`` file.  This ``#include`` should always be included
+**first** regardless of where it lives on the file system.  By including a
+header file first in the ``.cpp`` files that implement the interfaces, we ensure
+that the header does not have any hidden dependencies which are not explicitly
+``#include``\d in the header, but should be. It is also a form of documentation
+in the ``.cpp`` file to indicate where the interfaces it implements are defined.
+
+.. _fit into 80 columns:
+
+Source Code Width
+^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
+
+Write your code to fit within 80 columns of text.  This helps those of us who
+like to print out code and look at your code in an ``xterm`` without resizing
+it.
+
+The longer answer is that there must be some limit to the width of the code in
+order to reasonably allow developers to have multiple files side-by-side in
+windows on a modest display.  If you are going to pick a width limit, it is
+somewhat arbitrary but you might as well pick something standard.  Going with 90
+columns (for example) instead of 80 columns wouldn't add any significant value
+and would be detrimental to printing out code.  Also many other projects have
+standardized on 80 columns, so some people have already configured their editors
+for it (vs something else, like 90 columns).
+
+This is one of many contentious issues in coding standards, but it is not up for
+debate.
+
+Use Spaces Instead of Tabs
+^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
+
+In all cases, prefer spaces to tabs in source files.  People have different
+preferred indentation levels, and different styles of indentation that they
+like; this is fine.  What isn't fine is that different editors/viewers expand
+tabs out to different tab stops.  This can cause your code to look completely
+unreadable, and it is not worth dealing with.
+
+As always, follow the `Golden Rule`_ above: follow the style of
+existing code if you are modifying and extending it.  If you like four spaces of
+indentation, **DO NOT** do that in the middle of a chunk of code with two spaces
+of indentation.  Also, do not reindent a whole source file: it makes for
+incredible diffs that are absolutely worthless.
+
+Indent Code Consistently
+^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
+
+Okay, in your first year of programming you were told that indentation is
+important.  If you didn't believe and internalize this then, now is the time.
+Just do it.
+
+Compiler Issues
+---------------
+
+Treat Compiler Warnings Like Errors
+^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
+
+If your code has compiler warnings in it, something is wrong --- you aren't
+casting values correctly, you have "questionable" constructs in your code, or
+you are doing something legitimately wrong.  Compiler warnings can cover up
+legitimate errors in output and make dealing with a translation unit difficult.
+
+It is not possible to prevent all warnings from all compilers, nor is it
+desirable.  Instead, pick a standard compiler (like ``gcc``) that provides a
+good thorough set of warnings, and stick to it.  At least in the case of
+``gcc``, it is possible to work around any spurious errors by changing the
+syntax of the code slightly.  For example, a warning that annoys me occurs when
+I write code like this:
+
+.. code-block:: c++
+
+  if (V = getValue()) {
+    ...
+  }
+
+``gcc`` will warn me that I probably want to use the ``==`` operator, and that I
+probably mistyped it.  In most cases, I haven't, and I really don't want the
+spurious errors.  To fix this particular problem, I rewrite the code like
+this:
+
+.. code-block:: c++
+
+  if ((V = getValue())) {
+    ...
+  }
+
+which shuts ``gcc`` up.  Any ``gcc`` warning that annoys you can be fixed by
+massaging the code appropriately.
+
+Write Portable Code
+^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
+
+In almost all cases, it is possible and within reason to write completely
+portable code.  If there are cases where it isn't possible to write portable
+code, isolate it behind a well defined (and well documented) interface.
+
+In practice, this means that you shouldn't assume much about the host compiler
+(and Visual Studio tends to be the lowest common denominator).  If advanced
+features are used, they should only be an implementation detail of a library
+which has a simple exposed API, and preferably be buried in ``libSystem``.
+
+Do not use RTTI or Exceptions
+^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
+
+In an effort to reduce code and executable size, LLVM does not use RTTI
+(e.g. ``dynamic_cast<>;``) or exceptions.  These two language features violate
+the general C++ principle of *"you only pay for what you use"*, causing
+executable bloat even if exceptions are never used in the code base, or if RTTI
+is never used for a class.  Because of this, we turn them off globally in the
+code.
+
+That said, LLVM does make extensive use of a hand-rolled form of RTTI that use
+templates like `isa<>, cast<>, and dyn_cast<> <ProgrammersManual.html#isa>`_.
+This form of RTTI is opt-in and can be
+:doc:`added to any class <HowToSetUpLLVMStyleRTTI>`. It is also
+substantially more efficient than ``dynamic_cast<>``.
+
+.. _static constructor:
+
+Do not use Static Constructors
+^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
+
+Static constructors and destructors (e.g. global variables whose types have a
+constructor or destructor) should not be added to the code base, and should be
+removed wherever possible.  Besides `well known problems
+<http://yosefk.com/c++fqa/ctors.html#fqa-10.12>`_ where the order of
+initialization is undefined between globals in different source files, the
+entire concept of static constructors is at odds with the common use case of
+LLVM as a library linked into a larger application.
+  
+Consider the use of LLVM as a JIT linked into another application (perhaps for
+`OpenGL, custom languages <http://llvm.org/Users.html>`_, `shaders in movies
+<http://llvm.org/devmtg/2010-11/Gritz-OpenShadingLang.pdf>`_, etc). Due to the
+design of static constructors, they must be executed at startup time of the
+entire application, regardless of whether or how LLVM is used in that larger
+application.  There are two problems with this:
+
+* The time to run the static constructors impacts startup time of applications
+  --- a critical time for GUI apps, among others.
+  
+* The static constructors cause the app to pull many extra pages of memory off
+  the disk: both the code for the constructor in each ``.o`` file and the small
+  amount of data that gets touched. In addition, touched/dirty pages put more
+  pressure on the VM system on low-memory machines.
+
+We would really like for there to be zero cost for linking in an additional LLVM
+target or other library into an application, but static constructors violate
+this goal.
+  
+That said, LLVM unfortunately does contain static constructors.  It would be a
+`great project <http://llvm.org/PR11944>`_ for someone to purge all static
+constructors from LLVM, and then enable the ``-Wglobal-constructors`` warning
+flag (when building with Clang) to ensure we do not regress in the future.
+
+Use of ``class`` and ``struct`` Keywords
+^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
+
+In C++, the ``class`` and ``struct`` keywords can be used almost
+interchangeably. The only difference is when they are used to declare a class:
+``class`` makes all members private by default while ``struct`` makes all
+members public by default.
+
+Unfortunately, not all compilers follow the rules and some will generate
+different symbols based on whether ``class`` or ``struct`` was used to declare
+the symbol.  This can lead to problems at link time.
+
+So, the rule for LLVM is to always use the ``class`` keyword, unless **all**
+members are public and the type is a C++ `POD
+<http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Plain_old_data_structure>`_ type, in which case
+``struct`` is allowed.
+
+Style Issues
+============
+
+The High-Level Issues
+---------------------
+
+A Public Header File **is** a Module
+^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
+
+C++ doesn't do too well in the modularity department.  There is no real
+encapsulation or data hiding (unless you use expensive protocol classes), but it
+is what we have to work with.  When you write a public header file (in the LLVM
+source tree, they live in the top level "``include``" directory), you are
+defining a module of functionality.
+
+Ideally, modules should be completely independent of each other, and their
+header files should only ``#include`` the absolute minimum number of headers
+possible. A module is not just a class, a function, or a namespace: it's a
+collection of these that defines an interface.  This interface may be several
+functions, classes, or data structures, but the important issue is how they work
+together.
+
+In general, a module should be implemented by one or more ``.cpp`` files.  Each
+of these ``.cpp`` files should include the header that defines their interface
+first.  This ensures that all of the dependences of the module header have been
+properly added to the module header itself, and are not implicit.  System
+headers should be included after user headers for a translation unit.
+
+.. _minimal list of #includes:
+
+``#include`` as Little as Possible
+^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
+
+``#include`` hurts compile time performance.  Don't do it unless you have to,
+especially in header files.
+
+But wait! Sometimes you need to have the definition of a class to use it, or to
+inherit from it.  In these cases go ahead and ``#include`` that header file.  Be
+aware however that there are many cases where you don't need to have the full
+definition of a class.  If you are using a pointer or reference to a class, you
+don't need the header file.  If you are simply returning a class instance from a
+prototyped function or method, you don't need it.  In fact, for most cases, you
+simply don't need the definition of a class. And not ``#include``\ing speeds up
+compilation.
+
+It is easy to try to go too overboard on this recommendation, however.  You
+**must** include all of the header files that you are using --- you can include
+them either directly or indirectly through another header file.  To make sure
+that you don't accidentally forget to include a header file in your module
+header, make sure to include your module header **first** in the implementation
+file (as mentioned above).  This way there won't be any hidden dependencies that
+you'll find out about later.
+
+Keep "Internal" Headers Private
+^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
+
+Many modules have a complex implementation that causes them to use more than one
+implementation (``.cpp``) file.  It is often tempting to put the internal
+communication interface (helper classes, extra functions, etc) in the public
+module header file.  Don't do this!
+
+If you really need to do something like this, put a private header file in the
+same directory as the source files, and include it locally.  This ensures that
+your private interface remains private and undisturbed by outsiders.
+
+.. note::
+
+    It's okay to put extra implementation methods in a public class itself. Just
+    make them private (or protected) and all is well.
+
+.. _early exits:
+
+Use Early Exits and ``continue`` to Simplify Code
+^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
+
+When reading code, keep in mind how much state and how many previous decisions
+have to be remembered by the reader to understand a block of code.  Aim to
+reduce indentation where possible when it doesn't make it more difficult to
+understand the code.  One great way to do this is by making use of early exits
+and the ``continue`` keyword in long loops.  As an example of using an early
+exit from a function, consider this "bad" code:
+
+.. code-block:: c++
+
+  Value *doSomething(Instruction *I) {
+    if (!isa<TerminatorInst>(I) &&
+        I->hasOneUse() && doOtherThing(I)) {
+      ... some long code ....
+    }
+
+    return 0;
+  }
+
+This code has several problems if the body of the ``'if'`` is large.  When
+you're looking at the top of the function, it isn't immediately clear that this
+*only* does interesting things with non-terminator instructions, and only
+applies to things with the other predicates.  Second, it is relatively difficult
+to describe (in comments) why these predicates are important because the ``if``
+statement makes it difficult to lay out the comments.  Third, when you're deep
+within the body of the code, it is indented an extra level.  Finally, when
+reading the top of the function, it isn't clear what the result is if the
+predicate isn't true; you have to read to the end of the function to know that
+it returns null.
+
+It is much preferred to format the code like this:
+
+.. code-block:: c++
+
+  Value *doSomething(Instruction *I) {
+    // Terminators never need 'something' done to them because ... 
+    if (isa<TerminatorInst>(I))
+      return 0;
+
+    // We conservatively avoid transforming instructions with multiple uses
+    // because goats like cheese.
+    if (!I->hasOneUse())
+      return 0;
+
+    // This is really just here for example.
+    if (!doOtherThing(I))
+      return 0;
+    
+    ... some long code ....
+  }
+
+This fixes these problems.  A similar problem frequently happens in ``for``
+loops.  A silly example is something like this:
+
+.. code-block:: c++
+
+  for (BasicBlock::iterator II = BB->begin(), E = BB->end(); II != E; ++II) {
+    if (BinaryOperator *BO = dyn_cast<BinaryOperator>(II)) {
+      Value *LHS = BO->getOperand(0);
+      Value *RHS = BO->getOperand(1);
+      if (LHS != RHS) {
+        ...
+      }
+    }
+  }
+
+When you have very, very small loops, this sort of structure is fine. But if it
+exceeds more than 10-15 lines, it becomes difficult for people to read and
+understand at a glance. The problem with this sort of code is that it gets very
+nested very quickly. Meaning that the reader of the code has to keep a lot of
+context in their brain to remember what is going immediately on in the loop,
+because they don't know if/when the ``if`` conditions will have ``else``\s etc.
+It is strongly preferred to structure the loop like this:
+
+.. code-block:: c++
+
+  for (BasicBlock::iterator II = BB->begin(), E = BB->end(); II != E; ++II) {
+    BinaryOperator *BO = dyn_cast<BinaryOperator>(II);
+    if (!BO) continue;
+
+    Value *LHS = BO->getOperand(0);
+    Value *RHS = BO->getOperand(1);
+    if (LHS == RHS) continue;
+
+    ...
+  }
+
+This has all the benefits of using early exits for functions: it reduces nesting
+of the loop, it makes it easier to describe why the conditions are true, and it
+makes it obvious to the reader that there is no ``else`` coming up that they
+have to push context into their brain for.  If a loop is large, this can be a
+big understandability win.
+
+Don't use ``else`` after a ``return``
+^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
+
+For similar reasons above (reduction of indentation and easier reading), please
+do not use ``'else'`` or ``'else if'`` after something that interrupts control
+flow --- like ``return``, ``break``, ``continue``, ``goto``, etc. For
+example, this is *bad*:
+
+.. code-block:: c++
+
+  case 'J': {
+    if (Signed) {
+      Type = Context.getsigjmp_bufType();
+      if (Type.isNull()) {
+        Error = ASTContext::GE_Missing_sigjmp_buf;
+        return QualType();
+      } else {
+        break;
+      }
+    } else {
+      Type = Context.getjmp_bufType();
+      if (Type.isNull()) {
+        Error = ASTContext::GE_Missing_jmp_buf;
+        return QualType();
+      } else {
+        break;
+      }
+    }
+  }
+
+It is better to write it like this:
+
+.. code-block:: c++
+
+  case 'J':
+    if (Signed) {
+      Type = Context.getsigjmp_bufType();
+      if (Type.isNull()) {
+        Error = ASTContext::GE_Missing_sigjmp_buf;
+        return QualType();
+      }
+    } else {
+      Type = Context.getjmp_bufType();
+      if (Type.isNull()) {
+        Error = ASTContext::GE_Missing_jmp_buf;
+        return QualType();
+      }
+    }
+    break;
+
+Or better yet (in this case) as:
+
+.. code-block:: c++
+
+  case 'J':
+    if (Signed)
+      Type = Context.getsigjmp_bufType();
+    else
+      Type = Context.getjmp_bufType();
+    
+    if (Type.isNull()) {
+      Error = Signed ? ASTContext::GE_Missing_sigjmp_buf :
+                       ASTContext::GE_Missing_jmp_buf;
+      return QualType();
+    }
+    break;
+
+The idea is to reduce indentation and the amount of code you have to keep track
+of when reading the code.
+              
+Turn Predicate Loops into Predicate Functions
+^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
+
+It is very common to write small loops that just compute a boolean value.  There
+are a number of ways that people commonly write these, but an example of this
+sort of thing is:
+
+.. code-block:: c++
+
+  bool FoundFoo = false;
+  for (unsigned I = 0, E = BarList.size(); I != E; ++I)
+    if (BarList[I]->isFoo()) {
+      FoundFoo = true;
+      break;
+    }
+
+  if (FoundFoo) {
+    ...
+  }
+
+This sort of code is awkward to write, and is almost always a bad sign.  Instead
+of this sort of loop, we strongly prefer to use a predicate function (which may
+be `static`_) that uses `early exits`_ to compute the predicate.  We prefer the
+code to be structured like this:
+
+.. code-block:: c++
+
+  /// \returns true if the specified list has an element that is a foo.
+  static bool containsFoo(const std::vector<Bar*> &List) {
+    for (unsigned I = 0, E = List.size(); I != E; ++I)
+      if (List[I]->isFoo())
+        return true;
+    return false;
+  }
+  ...
+
+  if (containsFoo(BarList)) {
+    ...
+  }
+
+There are many reasons for doing this: it reduces indentation and factors out
+code which can often be shared by other code that checks for the same predicate.
+More importantly, it *forces you to pick a name* for the function, and forces
+you to write a comment for it.  In this silly example, this doesn't add much
+value.  However, if the condition is complex, this can make it a lot easier for
+the reader to understand the code that queries for this predicate.  Instead of
+being faced with the in-line details of how we check to see if the BarList
+contains a foo, we can trust the function name and continue reading with better
+locality.
+
+The Low-Level Issues
+--------------------
+
+Name Types, Functions, Variables, and Enumerators Properly
+^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
+
+Poorly-chosen names can mislead the reader and cause bugs. We cannot stress
+enough how important it is to use *descriptive* names.  Pick names that match
+the semantics and role of the underlying entities, within reason.  Avoid
+abbreviations unless they are well known.  After picking a good name, make sure
+to use consistent capitalization for the name, as inconsistency requires clients
+to either memorize the APIs or to look it up to find the exact spelling.
+
+In general, names should be in camel case (e.g. ``TextFileReader`` and
+``isLValue()``).  Different kinds of declarations have different rules:
+
+* **Type names** (including classes, structs, enums, typedefs, etc) should be
+  nouns and start with an upper-case letter (e.g. ``TextFileReader``).
+
+* **Variable names** should be nouns (as they represent state).  The name should
+  be camel case, and start with an upper case letter (e.g. ``Leader`` or
+  ``Boats``).
+  
+* **Function names** should be verb phrases (as they represent actions), and
+  command-like function should be imperative.  The name should be camel case,
+  and start with a lower case letter (e.g. ``openFile()`` or ``isFoo()``).
+
+* **Enum declarations** (e.g. ``enum Foo {...}``) are types, so they should
+  follow the naming conventions for types.  A common use for enums is as a
+  discriminator for a union, or an indicator of a subclass.  When an enum is
+  used for something like this, it should have a ``Kind`` suffix
+  (e.g. ``ValueKind``).
+  
+* **Enumerators** (e.g. ``enum { Foo, Bar }``) and **public member variables**
+  should start with an upper-case letter, just like types.  Unless the
+  enumerators are defined in their own small namespace or inside a class,
+  enumerators should have a prefix corresponding to the enum declaration name.
+  For example, ``enum ValueKind { ... };`` may contain enumerators like
+  ``VK_Argument``, ``VK_BasicBlock``, etc.  Enumerators that are just
+  convenience constants are exempt from the requirement for a prefix.  For
+  instance:
+
+  .. code-block:: c++
+
+      enum {
+        MaxSize = 42,
+        Density = 12
+      };
+  
+As an exception, classes that mimic STL classes can have member names in STL's
+style of lower-case words separated by underscores (e.g. ``begin()``,
+``push_back()``, and ``empty()``). Classes that provide multiple
+iterators should add a singular prefix to ``begin()`` and ``end()``
+(e.g. ``global_begin()`` and ``use_begin()``).
+
+Here are some examples of good and bad names:
+
+.. code-block:: c++
+
+  class VehicleMaker {
+    ...
+    Factory<Tire> F;            // Bad -- abbreviation and non-descriptive.
+    Factory<Tire> Factory;      // Better.
+    Factory<Tire> TireFactory;  // Even better -- if VehicleMaker has more than one
+                                // kind of factories.
+  };
+
+  Vehicle MakeVehicle(VehicleType Type) {
+    VehicleMaker M;                         // Might be OK if having a short life-span.
+    Tire Tmp1 = M.makeTire();               // Bad -- 'Tmp1' provides no information.
+    Light Headlight = M.makeLight("head");  // Good -- descriptive.
+    ...
+  }
+
+Assert Liberally
+^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
+
+Use the "``assert``" macro to its fullest.  Check all of your preconditions and
+assumptions, you never know when a bug (not necessarily even yours) might be
+caught early by an assertion, which reduces debugging time dramatically.  The
+"``<cassert>``" header file is probably already included by the header files you
+are using, so it doesn't cost anything to use it.
+
+To further assist with debugging, make sure to put some kind of error message in
+the assertion statement, which is printed if the assertion is tripped. This
+helps the poor debugger make sense of why an assertion is being made and
+enforced, and hopefully what to do about it.  Here is one complete example:
+
+.. code-block:: c++
+
+  inline Value *getOperand(unsigned I) {
+    assert(I < Operands.size() && "getOperand() out of range!");
+    return Operands[I];
+  }
+
+Here are more examples:
+
+.. code-block:: c++
+
+  assert(Ty->isPointerType() && "Can't allocate a non pointer type!");
+
+  assert((Opcode == Shl || Opcode == Shr) && "ShiftInst Opcode invalid!");
+
+  assert(idx < getNumSuccessors() && "Successor # out of range!");
+
+  assert(V1.getType() == V2.getType() && "Constant types must be identical!");
+
+  assert(isa<PHINode>(Succ->front()) && "Only works on PHId BBs!");
+
+You get the idea.
+
+In the past, asserts were used to indicate a piece of code that should not be
+reached.  These were typically of the form:
+
+.. code-block:: c++
+
+  assert(0 && "Invalid radix for integer literal");
+
+This has a few issues, the main one being that some compilers might not
+understand the assertion, or warn about a missing return in builds where
+assertions are compiled out.
+
+Today, we have something much better: ``llvm_unreachable``:
+
+.. code-block:: c++
+
+  llvm_unreachable("Invalid radix for integer literal");
+
+When assertions are enabled, this will print the message if it's ever reached
+and then exit the program. When assertions are disabled (i.e. in release
+builds), ``llvm_unreachable`` becomes a hint to compilers to skip generating
+code for this branch. If the compiler does not support this, it will fall back
+to the "abort" implementation.
+
+Another issue is that values used only by assertions will produce an "unused
+value" warning when assertions are disabled.  For example, this code will warn:
+
+.. code-block:: c++
+
+  unsigned Size = V.size();
+  assert(Size > 42 && "Vector smaller than it should be");
+
+  bool NewToSet = Myset.insert(Value);
+  assert(NewToSet && "The value shouldn't be in the set yet");
+
+These are two interesting different cases. In the first case, the call to
+``V.size()`` is only useful for the assert, and we don't want it executed when
+assertions are disabled.  Code like this should move the call into the assert
+itself.  In the second case, the side effects of the call must happen whether
+the assert is enabled or not.  In this case, the value should be cast to void to
+disable the warning.  To be specific, it is preferred to write the code like
+this:
+
+.. code-block:: c++
+
+  assert(V.size() > 42 && "Vector smaller than it should be");
+
+  bool NewToSet = Myset.insert(Value); (void)NewToSet;
+  assert(NewToSet && "The value shouldn't be in the set yet");
+
+Do Not Use ``using namespace std``
+^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
+
+In LLVM, we prefer to explicitly prefix all identifiers from the standard
+namespace with an "``std::``" prefix, rather than rely on "``using namespace
+std;``".
+
+In header files, adding a ``'using namespace XXX'`` directive pollutes the
+namespace of any source file that ``#include``\s the header.  This is clearly a
+bad thing.
+
+In implementation files (e.g. ``.cpp`` files), the rule is more of a stylistic
+rule, but is still important.  Basically, using explicit namespace prefixes
+makes the code **clearer**, because it is immediately obvious what facilities
+are being used and where they are coming from. And **more portable**, because
+namespace clashes cannot occur between LLVM code and other namespaces.  The
+portability rule is important because different standard library implementations
+expose different symbols (potentially ones they shouldn't), and future revisions
+to the C++ standard will add more symbols to the ``std`` namespace.  As such, we
+never use ``'using namespace std;'`` in LLVM.
+
+The exception to the general rule (i.e. it's not an exception for the ``std``
+namespace) is for implementation files.  For example, all of the code in the
+LLVM project implements code that lives in the 'llvm' namespace.  As such, it is
+ok, and actually clearer, for the ``.cpp`` files to have a ``'using namespace
+llvm;'`` directive at the top, after the ``#include``\s.  This reduces
+indentation in the body of the file for source editors that indent based on
+braces, and keeps the conceptual context cleaner.  The general form of this rule
+is that any ``.cpp`` file that implements code in any namespace may use that
+namespace (and its parents'), but should not use any others.
+
+Provide a Virtual Method Anchor for Classes in Headers
+^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
+
+If a class is defined in a header file and has a vtable (either it has virtual
+methods or it derives from classes with virtual methods), it must always have at
+least one out-of-line virtual method in the class.  Without this, the compiler
+will copy the vtable and RTTI into every ``.o`` file that ``#include``\s the
+header, bloating ``.o`` file sizes and increasing link times.
+
+Don't use default labels in fully covered switches over enumerations
+^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
+
+``-Wswitch`` warns if a switch, without a default label, over an enumeration
+does not cover every enumeration value. If you write a default label on a fully
+covered switch over an enumeration then the ``-Wswitch`` warning won't fire
+when new elements are added to that enumeration. To help avoid adding these
+kinds of defaults, Clang has the warning ``-Wcovered-switch-default`` which is
+off by default but turned on when building LLVM with a version of Clang that
+supports the warning.
+
+A knock-on effect of this stylistic requirement is that when building LLVM with
+GCC you may get warnings related to "control may reach end of non-void function"
+if you return from each case of a covered switch-over-enum because GCC assumes
+that the enum expression may take any representable value, not just those of
+individual enumerators. To suppress this warning, use ``llvm_unreachable`` after
+the switch.
+
+Use ``LLVM_DELETED_FUNCTION`` to mark uncallable methods
+^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
+
+Prior to C++11, a common pattern to make a class uncopyable was to declare an
+unimplemented copy constructor and copy assignment operator and make them
+private. This would give a compiler error for accessing a private method or a
+linker error because it wasn't implemented.
+
+With C++11, we can mark methods that won't be implemented with ``= delete``.
+This will trigger a much better error message and tell the compiler that the
+method will never be implemented. This enables other checks like
+``-Wunused-private-field`` to run correctly on classes that contain these
+methods.
+
+To maintain compatibility with C++03, ``LLVM_DELETED_FUNCTION`` should be used
+which will expand to ``= delete`` if the compiler supports it. These methods
+should still be declared private. Example of the uncopyable pattern:
+
+.. code-block:: c++
+
+  class DontCopy {
+  private:
+    DontCopy(const DontCopy&) LLVM_DELETED_FUNCTION;
+    DontCopy &operator =(const DontCopy&) LLVM_DELETED_FUNCTION;
+  public:
+    ...
+  };
+
+Don't evaluate ``end()`` every time through a loop
+^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
+
+Because C++ doesn't have a standard "``foreach``" loop (though it can be
+emulated with macros and may be coming in C++'0x) we end up writing a lot of
+loops that manually iterate from begin to end on a variety of containers or
+through other data structures.  One common mistake is to write a loop in this
+style:
+
+.. code-block:: c++
+
+  BasicBlock *BB = ...
+  for (BasicBlock::iterator I = BB->begin(); I != BB->end(); ++I)
+    ... use I ...
+
+The problem with this construct is that it evaluates "``BB->end()``" every time
+through the loop.  Instead of writing the loop like this, we strongly prefer
+loops to be written so that they evaluate it once before the loop starts.  A
+convenient way to do this is like so:
+
+.. code-block:: c++
+
+  BasicBlock *BB = ...
+  for (BasicBlock::iterator I = BB->begin(), E = BB->end(); I != E; ++I)
+    ... use I ...
+
+The observant may quickly point out that these two loops may have different
+semantics: if the container (a basic block in this case) is being mutated, then
+"``BB->end()``" may change its value every time through the loop and the second
+loop may not in fact be correct.  If you actually do depend on this behavior,
+please write the loop in the first form and add a comment indicating that you
+did it intentionally.
+
+Why do we prefer the second form (when correct)?  Writing the loop in the first
+form has two problems. First it may be less efficient than evaluating it at the
+start of the loop.  In this case, the cost is probably minor --- a few extra
+loads every time through the loop.  However, if the base expression is more
+complex, then the cost can rise quickly.  I've seen loops where the end
+expression was actually something like: "``SomeMap[X]->end()``" and map lookups
+really aren't cheap.  By writing it in the second form consistently, you
+eliminate the issue entirely and don't even have to think about it.
+
+The second (even bigger) issue is that writing the loop in the first form hints
+to the reader that the loop is mutating the container (a fact that a comment
+would handily confirm!).  If you write the loop in the second form, it is
+immediately obvious without even looking at the body of the loop that the
+container isn't being modified, which makes it easier to read the code and
+understand what it does.
+
+While the second form of the loop is a few extra keystrokes, we do strongly
+prefer it.
+
+``#include <iostream>`` is Forbidden
+^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
+
+The use of ``#include <iostream>`` in library files is hereby **forbidden**,
+because many common implementations transparently inject a `static constructor`_
+into every translation unit that includes it.
+  
+Note that using the other stream headers (``<sstream>`` for example) is not
+problematic in this regard --- just ``<iostream>``. However, ``raw_ostream``
+provides various APIs that are better performing for almost every use than
+``std::ostream`` style APIs.
+
+.. note::
+
+  New code should always use `raw_ostream`_ for writing, or the
+  ``llvm::MemoryBuffer`` API for reading files.
+
+.. _raw_ostream:
+
+Use ``raw_ostream``
+^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
+
+LLVM includes a lightweight, simple, and efficient stream implementation in
+``llvm/Support/raw_ostream.h``, which provides all of the common features of
+``std::ostream``.  All new code should use ``raw_ostream`` instead of
+``ostream``.
+
+Unlike ``std::ostream``, ``raw_ostream`` is not a template and can be forward
+declared as ``class raw_ostream``.  Public headers should generally not include
+the ``raw_ostream`` header, but use forward declarations and constant references
+to ``raw_ostream`` instances.
+
+Avoid ``std::endl``
+^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
+
+The ``std::endl`` modifier, when used with ``iostreams`` outputs a newline to
+the output stream specified.  In addition to doing this, however, it also
+flushes the output stream.  In other words, these are equivalent:
+
+.. code-block:: c++
+
+  std::cout << std::endl;
+  std::cout << '\n' << std::flush;
+
+Most of the time, you probably have no reason to flush the output stream, so
+it's better to use a literal ``'\n'``.
+
+Don't use ``inline`` when defining a function in a class definition
+^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
+
+A member function defined in a class definition is implicitly inline, so don't
+put the ``inline`` keyword in this case.
+
+Don't:
+
+.. code-block:: c++
+
+  class Foo {
+  public:
+    inline void bar() {
+      // ...
+    }
+  };
+
+Do:
+
+.. code-block:: c++
+
+  class Foo {
+  public:
+    void bar() {
+      // ...
+    }
+  };
+
+Microscopic Details
+-------------------
+
+This section describes preferred low-level formatting guidelines along with
+reasoning on why we prefer them.
+
+Spaces Before Parentheses
+^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
+
+We prefer to put a space before an open parenthesis only in control flow
+statements, but not in normal function call expressions and function-like
+macros.  For example, this is good:
+
+.. code-block:: c++
+
+  if (X) ...
+  for (I = 0; I != 100; ++I) ...
+  while (LLVMRocks) ...
+
+  somefunc(42);
+  assert(3 != 4 && "laws of math are failing me");
+  
+  A = foo(42, 92) + bar(X);
+
+and this is bad:
+
+.. code-block:: c++
+
+  if(X) ...
+  for(I = 0; I != 100; ++I) ...
+  while(LLVMRocks) ...
+
+  somefunc (42);
+  assert (3 != 4 && "laws of math are failing me");
+  
+  A = foo (42, 92) + bar (X);
+
+The reason for doing this is not completely arbitrary.  This style makes control
+flow operators stand out more, and makes expressions flow better. The function
+call operator binds very tightly as a postfix operator.  Putting a space after a
+function name (as in the last example) makes it appear that the code might bind
+the arguments of the left-hand-side of a binary operator with the argument list
+of a function and the name of the right side.  More specifically, it is easy to
+misread the "``A``" example as:
+
+.. code-block:: c++
+
+  A = foo ((42, 92) + bar) (X);
+
+when skimming through the code.  By avoiding a space in a function, we avoid
+this misinterpretation.
+
+Prefer Preincrement
+^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
+
+Hard fast rule: Preincrement (``++X``) may be no slower than postincrement
+(``X++``) and could very well be a lot faster than it.  Use preincrementation
+whenever possible.
+
+The semantics of postincrement include making a copy of the value being
+incremented, returning it, and then preincrementing the "work value".  For
+primitive types, this isn't a big deal. But for iterators, it can be a huge
+issue (for example, some iterators contains stack and set objects in them...
+copying an iterator could invoke the copy ctor's of these as well).  In general,
+get in the habit of always using preincrement, and you won't have a problem.
+
+
+Namespace Indentation
+^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
+
+In general, we strive to reduce indentation wherever possible.  This is useful
+because we want code to `fit into 80 columns`_ without wrapping horribly, but
+also because it makes it easier to understand the code.  Namespaces are a funny
+thing: they are often large, and we often desire to put lots of stuff into them
+(so they can be large).  Other times they are tiny, because they just hold an
+enum or something similar.  In order to balance this, we use different
+approaches for small versus large namespaces.
+
+If a namespace definition is small and *easily* fits on a screen (say, less than
+35 lines of code), then you should indent its body.  Here's an example:
+
+.. code-block:: c++
+
+  namespace llvm {
+    namespace X86 {
+      /// \brief An enum for the x86 relocation codes.  Note that
+      /// the terminology here doesn't follow x86 convention - word means
+      /// 32-bit and dword means 64-bit.
+      enum RelocationType {
+        /// \brief PC relative relocation, add the relocated value to
+        /// the value already in memory, after we adjust it for where the PC is.
+        reloc_pcrel_word = 0,
+
+        /// \brief PIC base relative relocation, add the relocated value to
+        /// the value already in memory, after we adjust it for where the
+        /// PIC base is.
+        reloc_picrel_word = 1,
+
+        /// \brief Absolute relocation, just add the relocated value to the
+        /// value already in memory.
+        reloc_absolute_word = 2,
+        reloc_absolute_dword = 3
+      };
+    }
+  }
+
+Since the body is small, indenting adds value because it makes it very clear
+where the namespace starts and ends, and it is easy to take the whole thing in
+in one "gulp" when reading the code.  If the blob of code in the namespace is
+larger (as it typically is in a header in the ``llvm`` or ``clang`` namespaces),
+do not indent the code, and add a comment indicating what namespace is being
+closed.  For example:
+
+.. code-block:: c++
+
+  namespace llvm {
+  namespace knowledge {
+
+  /// This class represents things that Smith can have an intimate
+  /// understanding of and contains the data associated with it.
+  class Grokable {
+  ...
+  public:
+    explicit Grokable() { ... }
+    virtual ~Grokable() = 0;
+  
+    ...
+
+  };
+
+  } // end namespace knowledge
+  } // end namespace llvm
+
+Because the class is large, we don't expect that the reader can easily
+understand the entire concept in a glance, and the end of the file (where the
+namespaces end) may be a long ways away from the place they open.  As such,
+indenting the contents of the namespace doesn't add any value, and detracts from
+the readability of the class.  In these cases it is best to *not* indent the
+contents of the namespace.
+
+.. _static:
+
+Anonymous Namespaces
+^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
+
+After talking about namespaces in general, you may be wondering about anonymous
+namespaces in particular.  Anonymous namespaces are a great language feature
+that tells the C++ compiler that the contents of the namespace are only visible
+within the current translation unit, allowing more aggressive optimization and
+eliminating the possibility of symbol name collisions.  Anonymous namespaces are
+to C++ as "static" is to C functions and global variables.  While "``static``"
+is available in C++, anonymous namespaces are more general: they can make entire
+classes private to a file.
+
+The problem with anonymous namespaces is that they naturally want to encourage
+indentation of their body, and they reduce locality of reference: if you see a
+random function definition in a C++ file, it is easy to see if it is marked
+static, but seeing if it is in an anonymous namespace requires scanning a big
+chunk of the file.
+
+Because of this, we have a simple guideline: make anonymous namespaces as small
+as possible, and only use them for class declarations.  For example, this is
+good:
+
+.. code-block:: c++
+
+  namespace {
+    class StringSort {
+    ...
+    public:
+      StringSort(...)
+      bool operator<(const char *RHS) const;
+    };
+  } // end anonymous namespace
+
+  static void runHelper() { 
+    ... 
+  }
+
+  bool StringSort::operator<(const char *RHS) const {
+    ...
+  }
+
+This is bad:
+
+.. code-block:: c++
+
+  namespace {
+  class StringSort {
+  ...
+  public:
+    StringSort(...)
+    bool operator<(const char *RHS) const;
+  };
+
+  void runHelper() { 
+    ... 
+  }
+
+  bool StringSort::operator<(const char *RHS) const {
+    ...
+  }
+
+  } // end anonymous namespace
+
+This is bad specifically because if you're looking at "``runHelper``" in the middle
+of a large C++ file, that you have no immediate way to tell if it is local to
+the file.  When it is marked static explicitly, this is immediately obvious.
+Also, there is no reason to enclose the definition of "``operator<``" in the
+namespace just because it was declared there.
+
+See Also
+========
+
+A lot of these comments and recommendations have been culled from other sources.
+Two particularly important books for our work are:
+
+#. `Effective C++
+   <http://www.amazon.com/Effective-Specific-Addison-Wesley-Professional-Computing/dp/0321334876>`_
+   by Scott Meyers.  Also interesting and useful are "More Effective C++" and
+   "Effective STL" by the same author.
+
+#. `Large-Scale C++ Software Design
+   <http://www.amazon.com/Large-Scale-Software-Design-John-Lakos/dp/0201633620/ref=sr_1_1>`_
+   by John Lakos
+
+If you get some free time, and you haven't read them: do so, you might learn
+something.

Added: www-releases/trunk/3.4.1/docs/_sources/CommandGuide/FileCheck.txt
URL: http://llvm.org/viewvc/llvm-project/www-releases/trunk/3.4.1/docs/_sources/CommandGuide/FileCheck.txt?rev=208244&view=auto
==============================================================================
--- www-releases/trunk/3.4.1/docs/_sources/CommandGuide/FileCheck.txt (added)
+++ www-releases/trunk/3.4.1/docs/_sources/CommandGuide/FileCheck.txt Wed May  7 15:09:32 2014
@@ -0,0 +1,410 @@
+FileCheck - Flexible pattern matching file verifier
+===================================================
+
+SYNOPSIS
+--------
+
+:program:`FileCheck` *match-filename* [*--check-prefix=XXX*] [*--strict-whitespace*]
+
+DESCRIPTION
+-----------
+
+:program:`FileCheck` reads two files (one from standard input, and one
+specified on the command line) and uses one to verify the other.  This
+behavior is particularly useful for the testsuite, which wants to verify that
+the output of some tool (e.g. :program:`llc`) contains the expected information
+(for example, a movsd from esp or whatever is interesting).  This is similar to
+using :program:`grep`, but it is optimized for matching multiple different
+inputs in one file in a specific order.
+
+The ``match-filename`` file specifies the file that contains the patterns to
+match.  The file to verify is read from standard input unless the
+:option:`--input-file` option is used.
+
+OPTIONS
+-------
+
+.. option:: -help
+
+ Print a summary of command line options.
+
+.. option:: --check-prefix prefix
+
+ FileCheck searches the contents of ``match-filename`` for patterns to
+ match.  By default, these patterns are prefixed with "``CHECK:``".
+ If you'd like to use a different prefix (e.g. because the same input
+ file is checking multiple different tool or options), the
+ :option:`--check-prefix` argument allows you to specify one or more
+ prefixes to match. Multiple prefixes are useful for tests which might
+ change for different run options, but most lines remain the same.
+
+.. option:: --input-file filename
+
+  File to check (defaults to stdin).
+
+.. option:: --strict-whitespace
+
+ By default, FileCheck canonicalizes input horizontal whitespace (spaces and
+ tabs) which causes it to ignore these differences (a space will match a tab).
+ The :option:`--strict-whitespace` argument disables this behavior. End-of-line
+ sequences are canonicalized to UNIX-style ``\n`` in all modes.
+
+.. option:: -version
+
+ Show the version number of this program.
+
+EXIT STATUS
+-----------
+
+If :program:`FileCheck` verifies that the file matches the expected contents,
+it exits with 0.  Otherwise, if not, or if an error occurs, it will exit with a
+non-zero value.
+
+TUTORIAL
+--------
+
+FileCheck is typically used from LLVM regression tests, being invoked on the RUN
+line of the test.  A simple example of using FileCheck from a RUN line looks
+like this:
+
+.. code-block:: llvm
+
+   ; RUN: llvm-as < %s | llc -march=x86-64 | FileCheck %s
+
+This syntax says to pipe the current file ("``%s``") into ``llvm-as``, pipe
+that into ``llc``, then pipe the output of ``llc`` into ``FileCheck``.  This
+means that FileCheck will be verifying its standard input (the llc output)
+against the filename argument specified (the original ``.ll`` file specified by
+"``%s``").  To see how this works, let's look at the rest of the ``.ll`` file
+(after the RUN line):
+
+.. code-block:: llvm
+
+   define void @sub1(i32* %p, i32 %v) {
+   entry:
+   ; CHECK: sub1:
+   ; CHECK: subl
+           %0 = tail call i32 @llvm.atomic.load.sub.i32.p0i32(i32* %p, i32 %v)
+           ret void
+   }
+
+   define void @inc4(i64* %p) {
+   entry:
+   ; CHECK: inc4:
+   ; CHECK: incq
+           %0 = tail call i64 @llvm.atomic.load.add.i64.p0i64(i64* %p, i64 1)
+           ret void
+   }
+
+Here you can see some "``CHECK:``" lines specified in comments.  Now you can
+see how the file is piped into ``llvm-as``, then ``llc``, and the machine code
+output is what we are verifying.  FileCheck checks the machine code output to
+verify that it matches what the "``CHECK:``" lines specify.
+
+The syntax of the "``CHECK:``" lines is very simple: they are fixed strings that
+must occur in order.  FileCheck defaults to ignoring horizontal whitespace
+differences (e.g. a space is allowed to match a tab) but otherwise, the contents
+of the "``CHECK:``" line is required to match some thing in the test file exactly.
+
+One nice thing about FileCheck (compared to grep) is that it allows merging
+test cases together into logical groups.  For example, because the test above
+is checking for the "``sub1:``" and "``inc4:``" labels, it will not match
+unless there is a "``subl``" in between those labels.  If it existed somewhere
+else in the file, that would not count: "``grep subl``" matches if "``subl``"
+exists anywhere in the file.
+
+The FileCheck -check-prefix option
+~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
+
+The FileCheck :option:`-check-prefix` option allows multiple test
+configurations to be driven from one `.ll` file.  This is useful in many
+circumstances, for example, testing different architectural variants with
+:program:`llc`.  Here's a simple example:
+
+.. code-block:: llvm
+
+   ; RUN: llvm-as < %s | llc -mtriple=i686-apple-darwin9 -mattr=sse41 \
+   ; RUN:              | FileCheck %s -check-prefix=X32
+   ; RUN: llvm-as < %s | llc -mtriple=x86_64-apple-darwin9 -mattr=sse41 \
+   ; RUN:              | FileCheck %s -check-prefix=X64
+
+   define <4 x i32> @pinsrd_1(i32 %s, <4 x i32> %tmp) nounwind {
+           %tmp1 = insertelement <4 x i32>; %tmp, i32 %s, i32 1
+           ret <4 x i32> %tmp1
+   ; X32: pinsrd_1:
+   ; X32:    pinsrd $1, 4(%esp), %xmm0
+
+   ; X64: pinsrd_1:
+   ; X64:    pinsrd $1, %edi, %xmm0
+   }
+
+In this case, we're testing that we get the expected code generation with
+both 32-bit and 64-bit code generation.
+
+The "CHECK-NEXT:" directive
+~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
+
+Sometimes you want to match lines and would like to verify that matches
+happen on exactly consecutive lines with no other lines in between them.  In
+this case, you can use "``CHECK:``" and "``CHECK-NEXT:``" directives to specify
+this.  If you specified a custom check prefix, just use "``<PREFIX>-NEXT:``".
+For example, something like this works as you'd expect:
+
+.. code-block:: llvm
+
+   define void @t2(<2 x double>* %r, <2 x double>* %A, double %B) {
+ 	%tmp3 = load <2 x double>* %A, align 16
+ 	%tmp7 = insertelement <2 x double> undef, double %B, i32 0
+ 	%tmp9 = shufflevector <2 x double> %tmp3,
+                               <2 x double> %tmp7,
+                               <2 x i32> < i32 0, i32 2 >
+ 	store <2 x double> %tmp9, <2 x double>* %r, align 16
+ 	ret void
+
+   ; CHECK:          t2:
+   ; CHECK: 	        movl	8(%esp), %eax
+   ; CHECK-NEXT: 	movapd	(%eax), %xmm0
+   ; CHECK-NEXT: 	movhpd	12(%esp), %xmm0
+   ; CHECK-NEXT: 	movl	4(%esp), %eax
+   ; CHECK-NEXT: 	movapd	%xmm0, (%eax)
+   ; CHECK-NEXT: 	ret
+   }
+
+"``CHECK-NEXT:``" directives reject the input unless there is exactly one
+newline between it and the previous directive.  A "``CHECK-NEXT:``" cannot be
+the first directive in a file.
+
+The "CHECK-NOT:" directive
+~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
+
+The "``CHECK-NOT:``" directive is used to verify that a string doesn't occur
+between two matches (or before the first match, or after the last match).  For
+example, to verify that a load is removed by a transformation, a test like this
+can be used:
+
+.. code-block:: llvm
+
+   define i8 @coerce_offset0(i32 %V, i32* %P) {
+     store i32 %V, i32* %P
+
+     %P2 = bitcast i32* %P to i8*
+     %P3 = getelementptr i8* %P2, i32 2
+
+     %A = load i8* %P3
+     ret i8 %A
+   ; CHECK: @coerce_offset0
+   ; CHECK-NOT: load
+   ; CHECK: ret i8
+   }
+
+The "CHECK-DAG:" directive
+~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
+
+If it's necessary to match strings that don't occur in a strictly sequential
+order, "``CHECK-DAG:``" could be used to verify them between two matches (or
+before the first match, or after the last match). For example, clang emits
+vtable globals in reverse order. Using ``CHECK-DAG:``, we can keep the checks
+in the natural order:
+
+.. code-block:: c++
+
+    // RUN: %clang_cc1 %s -emit-llvm -o - | FileCheck %s
+
+    struct Foo { virtual void method(); };
+    Foo f;  // emit vtable
+    // CHECK-DAG: @_ZTV3Foo =
+
+    struct Bar { virtual void method(); };
+    Bar b;
+    // CHECK-DAG: @_ZTV3Bar =
+
+``CHECK-NOT:`` directives could be mixed with ``CHECK-DAG:`` directives to
+exclude strings between the surrounding ``CHECK-DAG:`` directives. As a result,
+the surrounding ``CHECK-DAG:`` directives cannot be reordered, i.e. all
+occurrences matching ``CHECK-DAG:`` before ``CHECK-NOT:`` must not fall behind
+occurrences matching ``CHECK-DAG:`` after ``CHECK-NOT:``. For example,
+
+.. code-block:: llvm
+
+   ; CHECK-DAG: BEFORE
+   ; CHECK-NOT: NOT
+   ; CHECK-DAG: AFTER
+
+This case will reject input strings where ``BEFORE`` occurs after ``AFTER``.
+
+With captured variables, ``CHECK-DAG:`` is able to match valid topological
+orderings of a DAG with edges from the definition of a variable to its use.
+It's useful, e.g., when your test cases need to match different output
+sequences from the instruction scheduler. For example,
+
+.. code-block:: llvm
+
+   ; CHECK-DAG: add [[REG1:r[0-9]+]], r1, r2
+   ; CHECK-DAG: add [[REG2:r[0-9]+]], r3, r4
+   ; CHECK:     mul r5, [[REG1]], [[REG2]]
+
+In this case, any order of that two ``add`` instructions will be allowed.
+
+If you are defining `and` using variables in the same ``CHECK-DAG:`` block,
+be aware that the definition rule can match `after` its use.
+
+So, for instance, the code below will pass:
+
+.. code-block:: llvm
+
+  ; CHECK-DAG: vmov.32 [[REG2:d[0-9]+]][0]
+  ; CHECK-DAG: vmov.32 [[REG2]][1]
+  vmov.32 d0[1]
+  vmov.32 d0[0]
+
+While this other code, will not:
+
+.. code-block:: llvm
+
+  ; CHECK-DAG: vmov.32 [[REG2:d[0-9]+]][0]
+  ; CHECK-DAG: vmov.32 [[REG2]][1]
+  vmov.32 d1[1]
+  vmov.32 d0[0]
+
+While this can be very useful, it's also dangerous, because in the case of
+register sequence, you must have a strong order (read before write, copy before
+use, etc). If the definition your test is looking for doesn't match (because
+of a bug in the compiler), it may match further away from the use, and mask
+real bugs away.
+
+In those cases, to enforce the order, use a non-DAG directive between DAG-blocks.
+
+The "CHECK-LABEL:" directive
+~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
+
+Sometimes in a file containing multiple tests divided into logical blocks, one
+or more ``CHECK:`` directives may inadvertently succeed by matching lines in a
+later block. While an error will usually eventually be generated, the check
+flagged as causing the error may not actually bear any relationship to the
+actual source of the problem.
+
+In order to produce better error messages in these cases, the "``CHECK-LABEL:``"
+directive can be used. It is treated identically to a normal ``CHECK``
+directive except that FileCheck makes an additional assumption that a line
+matched by the directive cannot also be matched by any other check present in
+``match-filename``; this is intended to be used for lines containing labels or
+other unique identifiers. Conceptually, the presence of ``CHECK-LABEL`` divides
+the input stream into separate blocks, each of which is processed independently,
+preventing a ``CHECK:`` directive in one block matching a line in another block.
+For example,
+
+.. code-block:: llvm
+
+  define %struct.C* @C_ctor_base(%struct.C* %this, i32 %x) {
+  entry:
+  ; CHECK-LABEL: C_ctor_base:
+  ; CHECK: mov [[SAVETHIS:r[0-9]+]], r0
+  ; CHECK: bl A_ctor_base
+  ; CHECK: mov r0, [[SAVETHIS]]
+    %0 = bitcast %struct.C* %this to %struct.A*
+    %call = tail call %struct.A* @A_ctor_base(%struct.A* %0)
+    %1 = bitcast %struct.C* %this to %struct.B*
+    %call2 = tail call %struct.B* @B_ctor_base(%struct.B* %1, i32 %x)
+    ret %struct.C* %this
+  }
+
+  define %struct.D* @D_ctor_base(%struct.D* %this, i32 %x) {
+  entry:
+  ; CHECK-LABEL: D_ctor_base:
+
+The use of ``CHECK-LABEL:`` directives in this case ensures that the three
+``CHECK:`` directives only accept lines corresponding to the body of the
+``@C_ctor_base`` function, even if the patterns match lines found later in
+the file. Furthermore, if one of these three ``CHECK:`` directives fail,
+FileCheck will recover by continuing to the next block, allowing multiple test
+failures to be detected in a single invocation.
+
+There is no requirement that ``CHECK-LABEL:`` directives contain strings that
+correspond to actual syntactic labels in a source or output language: they must
+simply uniquely match a single line in the file being verified.
+
+``CHECK-LABEL:`` directives cannot contain variable definitions or uses.
+
+FileCheck Pattern Matching Syntax
+~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
+
+The "``CHECK:``" and "``CHECK-NOT:``" directives both take a pattern to match.
+For most uses of FileCheck, fixed string matching is perfectly sufficient.  For
+some things, a more flexible form of matching is desired.  To support this,
+FileCheck allows you to specify regular expressions in matching strings,
+surrounded by double braces: ``{{yourregex}}``.  Because we want to use fixed
+string matching for a majority of what we do, FileCheck has been designed to
+support mixing and matching fixed string matching with regular expressions.
+This allows you to write things like this:
+
+.. code-block:: llvm
+
+   ; CHECK: movhpd	{{[0-9]+}}(%esp), {{%xmm[0-7]}}
+
+In this case, any offset from the ESP register will be allowed, and any xmm
+register will be allowed.
+
+Because regular expressions are enclosed with double braces, they are
+visually distinct, and you don't need to use escape characters within the double
+braces like you would in C.  In the rare case that you want to match double
+braces explicitly from the input, you can use something ugly like
+``{{[{][{]}}`` as your pattern.
+
+FileCheck Variables
+~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
+
+It is often useful to match a pattern and then verify that it occurs again
+later in the file.  For codegen tests, this can be useful to allow any register,
+but verify that that register is used consistently later.  To do this,
+:program:`FileCheck` allows named variables to be defined and substituted into
+patterns.  Here is a simple example:
+
+.. code-block:: llvm
+
+   ; CHECK: test5:
+   ; CHECK:    notw	[[REGISTER:%[a-z]+]]
+   ; CHECK:    andw	{{.*}}[[REGISTER]]
+
+The first check line matches a regex ``%[a-z]+`` and captures it into the
+variable ``REGISTER``.  The second line verifies that whatever is in
+``REGISTER`` occurs later in the file after an "``andw``".  :program:`FileCheck`
+variable references are always contained in ``[[ ]]`` pairs, and their names can
+be formed with the regex ``[a-zA-Z][a-zA-Z0-9]*``.  If a colon follows the name,
+then it is a definition of the variable; otherwise, it is a use.
+
+:program:`FileCheck` variables can be defined multiple times, and uses always
+get the latest value.  Variables can also be used later on the same line they
+were defined on. For example:
+
+.. code-block:: llvm
+
+    ; CHECK: op [[REG:r[0-9]+]], [[REG]]
+
+Can be useful if you want the operands of ``op`` to be the same register,
+and don't care exactly which register it is.
+
+FileCheck Expressions
+~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
+
+Sometimes there's a need to verify output which refers line numbers of the
+match file, e.g. when testing compiler diagnostics.  This introduces a certain
+fragility of the match file structure, as "``CHECK:``" lines contain absolute
+line numbers in the same file, which have to be updated whenever line numbers
+change due to text addition or deletion.
+
+To support this case, FileCheck allows using ``[[@LINE]]``,
+``[[@LINE+<offset>]]``, ``[[@LINE-<offset>]]`` expressions in patterns. These
+expressions expand to a number of the line where a pattern is located (with an
+optional integer offset).
+
+This way match patterns can be put near the relevant test lines and include
+relative line number references, for example:
+
+.. code-block:: c++
+
+   // CHECK: test.cpp:[[@LINE+4]]:6: error: expected ';' after top level declarator
+   // CHECK-NEXT: {{^int a}}
+   // CHECK-NEXT: {{^     \^}}
+   // CHECK-NEXT: {{^     ;}}
+   int a
+

Added: www-releases/trunk/3.4.1/docs/_sources/CommandGuide/bugpoint.txt
URL: http://llvm.org/viewvc/llvm-project/www-releases/trunk/3.4.1/docs/_sources/CommandGuide/bugpoint.txt?rev=208244&view=auto
==============================================================================
--- www-releases/trunk/3.4.1/docs/_sources/CommandGuide/bugpoint.txt (added)
+++ www-releases/trunk/3.4.1/docs/_sources/CommandGuide/bugpoint.txt Wed May  7 15:09:32 2014
@@ -0,0 +1,187 @@
+bugpoint - automatic test case reduction tool
+=============================================
+
+SYNOPSIS
+--------
+
+**bugpoint** [*options*] [*input LLVM ll/bc files*] [*LLVM passes*] **--args**
+*program arguments*
+
+DESCRIPTION
+-----------
+
+**bugpoint** narrows down the source of problems in LLVM tools and passes.  It
+can be used to debug three types of failures: optimizer crashes, miscompilations
+by optimizers, or bad native code generation (including problems in the static
+and JIT compilers).  It aims to reduce large test cases to small, useful ones.
+For more information on the design and inner workings of **bugpoint**, as well as
+advice for using bugpoint, see *llvm/docs/Bugpoint.html* in the LLVM
+distribution.
+
+OPTIONS
+-------
+
+**--additional-so** *library*
+
+ Load the dynamic shared object *library* into the test program whenever it is
+ run.  This is useful if you are debugging programs which depend on non-LLVM
+ libraries (such as the X or curses libraries) to run.
+
+**--append-exit-code**\ =\ *{true,false}*
+
+ Append the test programs exit code to the output file so that a change in exit
+ code is considered a test failure. Defaults to false.
+
+**--args** *program args*
+
+ Pass all arguments specified after **--args** to the test program whenever it runs.
+ Note that if any of the *program args* start with a "``-``", you should use:
+
+ .. code-block:: bash
+
+      bugpoint [bugpoint args] --args -- [program args]
+
+ The "``--``" right after the **--args** option tells **bugpoint** to consider
+ any options starting with "``-``" to be part of the **--args** option, not as
+ options to **bugpoint** itself.
+
+**--tool-args** *tool args*
+
+ Pass all arguments specified after **--tool-args** to the LLVM tool under test
+ (**llc**, **lli**, etc.) whenever it runs.  You should use this option in the
+ following way:
+
+ .. code-block:: bash
+
+      bugpoint [bugpoint args] --tool-args -- [tool args]
+
+ The "``--``" right after the **--tool-args** option tells **bugpoint** to
+ consider any options starting with "``-``" to be part of the **--tool-args**
+ option, not as options to **bugpoint** itself. (See **--args**, above.)
+
+**--safe-tool-args** *tool args*
+
+ Pass all arguments specified after **--safe-tool-args** to the "safe" execution
+ tool.
+
+**--gcc-tool-args** *gcc tool args*
+
+ Pass all arguments specified after **--gcc-tool-args** to the invocation of
+ **gcc**.
+
+**--opt-args** *opt args*
+
+ Pass all arguments specified after **--opt-args** to the invocation of **opt**.
+
+**--disable-{dce,simplifycfg}**
+
+ Do not run the specified passes to clean up and reduce the size of the test
+ program. By default, **bugpoint** uses these passes internally when attempting to
+ reduce test programs.  If you're trying to find a bug in one of these passes,
+ **bugpoint** may crash.
+
+**--enable-valgrind**
+
+ Use valgrind to find faults in the optimization phase. This will allow
+ bugpoint to find otherwise asymptomatic problems caused by memory
+ mis-management.
+
+**-find-bugs**
+
+ Continually randomize the specified passes and run them on the test program
+ until a bug is found or the user kills **bugpoint**.
+
+**-help**
+
+ Print a summary of command line options.
+
+**--input** *filename*
+
+ Open *filename* and redirect the standard input of the test program, whenever
+ it runs, to come from that file.
+
+**--load** *plugin*
+
+ Load the dynamic object *plugin* into **bugpoint** itself.  This object should
+ register new optimization passes.  Once loaded, the object will add new command
+ line options to enable various optimizations.  To see the new complete list of
+ optimizations, use the **-help** and **--load** options together; for example:
+
+
+ .. code-block:: bash
+
+      bugpoint --load myNewPass.so -help
+
+**--mlimit** *megabytes*
+
+ Specifies an upper limit on memory usage of the optimization and codegen. Set
+ to zero to disable the limit.
+
+**--output** *filename*
+
+ Whenever the test program produces output on its standard output stream, it
+ should match the contents of *filename* (the "reference output"). If you
+ do not use this option, **bugpoint** will attempt to generate a reference output
+ by compiling the program with the "safe" backend and running it.
+
+**--profile-info-file** *filename*
+
+ Profile file loaded by **--profile-loader**.
+
+**--run-{int,jit,llc,custom}**
+
+ Whenever the test program is compiled, **bugpoint** should generate code for it
+ using the specified code generator.  These options allow you to choose the
+ interpreter, the JIT compiler, the static native code compiler, or a
+ custom command (see **--exec-command**) respectively.
+
+**--safe-{llc,custom}**
+
+ When debugging a code generator, **bugpoint** should use the specified code
+ generator as the "safe" code generator. This is a known-good code generator
+ used to generate the "reference output" if it has not been provided, and to
+ compile portions of the program that as they are excluded from the testcase.
+ These options allow you to choose the
+ static native code compiler, or a custom command, (see **--exec-command**)
+ respectively. The interpreter and the JIT backends cannot currently
+ be used as the "safe" backends.
+
+**--exec-command** *command*
+
+ This option defines the command to use with the **--run-custom** and
+ **--safe-custom** options to execute the bitcode testcase. This can
+ be useful for cross-compilation.
+
+**--compile-command** *command*
+
+ This option defines the command to use with the **--compile-custom**
+ option to compile the bitcode testcase. This can be useful for
+ testing compiler output without running any link or execute stages. To
+ generate a reduced unit test, you may add CHECK directives to the
+ testcase and pass the name of an executable compile-command script in this form:
+
+ .. code-block:: sh
+
+      #!/bin/sh
+      llc "$@"
+      not FileCheck [bugpoint input file].ll < bugpoint-test-program.s
+
+ This script will "fail" as long as FileCheck passes. So the result
+ will be the minimum bitcode that passes FileCheck.
+
+**--safe-path** *path*
+
+ This option defines the path to the command to execute with the
+ **--safe-{int,jit,llc,custom}**
+ option.
+
+EXIT STATUS
+-----------
+
+If **bugpoint** succeeds in finding a problem, it will exit with 0.  Otherwise,
+if an error occurs, it will exit with a non-zero value.
+
+SEE ALSO
+--------
+
+opt|opt

Added: www-releases/trunk/3.4.1/docs/_sources/CommandGuide/index.txt
URL: http://llvm.org/viewvc/llvm-project/www-releases/trunk/3.4.1/docs/_sources/CommandGuide/index.txt?rev=208244&view=auto
==============================================================================
--- www-releases/trunk/3.4.1/docs/_sources/CommandGuide/index.txt (added)
+++ www-releases/trunk/3.4.1/docs/_sources/CommandGuide/index.txt Wed May  7 15:09:32 2014
@@ -0,0 +1,52 @@
+LLVM Command Guide
+------------------
+
+The following documents are command descriptions for all of the LLVM tools.
+These pages describe how to use the LLVM commands and what their options are.
+Note that these pages do not describe all of the options available for all
+tools. To get a complete listing, pass the ``--help`` (general options) or
+``--help-hidden`` (general and debugging options) arguments to the tool you are
+interested in.
+
+Basic Commands
+~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
+
+.. toctree::
+   :maxdepth: 1
+
+   llvm-as
+   llvm-dis
+   opt
+   llc
+   lli
+   llvm-link
+   llvm-ar
+   llvm-nm
+   llvm-prof
+   llvm-config
+   llvm-diff
+   llvm-cov
+   llvm-stress
+   llvm-symbolizer
+
+Debugging Tools
+~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
+
+.. toctree::
+   :maxdepth: 1
+
+   bugpoint
+   llvm-extract
+   llvm-bcanalyzer
+
+Developer Tools
+~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
+
+.. toctree::
+   :maxdepth: 1
+
+   FileCheck
+   tblgen
+   lit
+   llvm-build
+   llvm-readobj

Added: www-releases/trunk/3.4.1/docs/_sources/CommandGuide/lit.txt
URL: http://llvm.org/viewvc/llvm-project/www-releases/trunk/3.4.1/docs/_sources/CommandGuide/lit.txt?rev=208244&view=auto
==============================================================================
--- www-releases/trunk/3.4.1/docs/_sources/CommandGuide/lit.txt (added)
+++ www-releases/trunk/3.4.1/docs/_sources/CommandGuide/lit.txt Wed May  7 15:09:32 2014
@@ -0,0 +1,414 @@
+lit - LLVM Integrated Tester
+============================
+
+SYNOPSIS
+--------
+
+:program:`lit` [*options*] [*tests*]
+
+DESCRIPTION
+-----------
+
+:program:`lit` is a portable tool for executing LLVM and Clang style test
+suites, summarizing their results, and providing indication of failures.
+:program:`lit` is designed to be a lightweight testing tool with as simple a
+user interface as possible.
+
+:program:`lit` should be run with one or more *tests* to run specified on the
+command line.  Tests can be either individual test files or directories to
+search for tests (see :ref:`test-discovery`).
+
+Each specified test will be executed (potentially in parallel) and once all
+tests have been run :program:`lit` will print summary information on the number
+of tests which passed or failed (see :ref:`test-status-results`).  The
+:program:`lit` program will execute with a non-zero exit code if any tests
+fail.
+
+By default :program:`lit` will use a succinct progress display and will only
+print summary information for test failures.  See :ref:`output-options` for
+options controlling the :program:`lit` progress display and output.
+
+:program:`lit` also includes a number of options for controlling how tests are
+executed (specific features may depend on the particular test format).  See
+:ref:`execution-options` for more information.
+
+Finally, :program:`lit` also supports additional options for only running a
+subset of the options specified on the command line, see
+:ref:`selection-options` for more information.
+
+Users interested in the :program:`lit` architecture or designing a
+:program:`lit` testing implementation should see :ref:`lit-infrastructure`.
+
+GENERAL OPTIONS
+---------------
+
+.. option:: -h, --help
+
+ Show the :program:`lit` help message.
+
+.. option:: -j N, --threads=N
+
+ Run ``N`` tests in parallel.  By default, this is automatically chosen to
+ match the number of detected available CPUs.
+
+.. option:: --config-prefix=NAME
+
+ Search for :file:`{NAME}.cfg` and :file:`{NAME}.site.cfg` when searching for
+ test suites, instead of :file:`lit.cfg` and :file:`lit.site.cfg`.
+
+.. option:: --param NAME, --param NAME=VALUE
+
+ Add a user defined parameter ``NAME`` with the given ``VALUE`` (or the empty
+ string if not given).  The meaning and use of these parameters is test suite
+ dependent.
+
+.. _output-options:
+
+OUTPUT OPTIONS
+--------------
+
+.. option:: -q, --quiet
+
+ Suppress any output except for test failures.
+
+.. option:: -s, --succinct
+
+ Show less output, for example don't show information on tests that pass.
+
+.. option:: -v, --verbose
+
+ Show more information on test failures, for example the entire test output
+ instead of just the test result.
+
+.. option:: --no-progress-bar
+
+ Do not use curses based progress bar.
+
+.. _execution-options:
+
+EXECUTION OPTIONS
+-----------------
+
+.. option:: --path=PATH
+
+ Specify an additional ``PATH`` to use when searching for executables in tests.
+
+.. option:: --vg
+
+ Run individual tests under valgrind (using the memcheck tool).  The
+ ``--error-exitcode`` argument for valgrind is used so that valgrind failures
+ will cause the program to exit with a non-zero status.
+
+ When this option is enabled, :program:`lit` will also automatically provide a
+ "``valgrind``" feature that can be used to conditionally disable (or expect
+ failure in) certain tests.
+
+.. option:: --vg-arg=ARG
+
+ When :option:`--vg` is used, specify an additional argument to pass to
+ :program:`valgrind` itself.
+
+.. option:: --vg-leak
+
+ When :option:`--vg` is used, enable memory leak checks.  When this option is
+ enabled, :program:`lit` will also automatically provide a "``vg_leak``"
+ feature that can be used to conditionally disable (or expect failure in)
+ certain tests.
+
+.. option:: --time-tests
+
+ Track the wall time individual tests take to execute and includes the results
+ in the summary output.  This is useful for determining which tests in a test
+ suite take the most time to execute.  Note that this option is most useful
+ with ``-j 1``.
+
+.. _selection-options:
+
+SELECTION OPTIONS
+-----------------
+
+.. option:: --max-tests=N
+
+ Run at most ``N`` tests and then terminate.
+
+.. option:: --max-time=N
+
+ Spend at most ``N`` seconds (approximately) running tests and then terminate.
+
+.. option:: --shuffle
+
+ Run the tests in a random order.
+
+ADDITIONAL OPTIONS
+------------------
+
+.. option:: --debug
+
+ Run :program:`lit` in debug mode, for debugging configuration issues and
+ :program:`lit` itself.
+
+.. option:: --show-suites
+
+ List the discovered test suites and exit.
+
+.. option:: --show-tests
+
+ List all of the the discovered tests and exit.
+
+EXIT STATUS
+-----------
+
+:program:`lit` will exit with an exit code of 1 if there are any FAIL or XPASS
+results.  Otherwise, it will exit with the status 0.  Other exit codes are used
+for non-test related failures (for example a user error or an internal program
+error).
+
+.. _test-discovery:
+
+TEST DISCOVERY
+--------------
+
+The inputs passed to :program:`lit` can be either individual tests, or entire
+directories or hierarchies of tests to run.  When :program:`lit` starts up, the
+first thing it does is convert the inputs into a complete list of tests to run
+as part of *test discovery*.
+
+In the :program:`lit` model, every test must exist inside some *test suite*.
+:program:`lit` resolves the inputs specified on the command line to test suites
+by searching upwards from the input path until it finds a :file:`lit.cfg` or
+:file:`lit.site.cfg` file.  These files serve as both a marker of test suites
+and as configuration files which :program:`lit` loads in order to understand
+how to find and run the tests inside the test suite.
+
+Once :program:`lit` has mapped the inputs into test suites it traverses the
+list of inputs adding tests for individual files and recursively searching for
+tests in directories.
+
+This behavior makes it easy to specify a subset of tests to run, while still
+allowing the test suite configuration to control exactly how tests are
+interpreted.  In addition, :program:`lit` always identifies tests by the test
+suite they are in, and their relative path inside the test suite.  For
+appropriately configured projects, this allows :program:`lit` to provide
+convenient and flexible support for out-of-tree builds.
+
+.. _test-status-results:
+
+TEST STATUS RESULTS
+-------------------
+
+Each test ultimately produces one of the following six results:
+
+**PASS**
+
+ The test succeeded.
+
+**XFAIL**
+
+ The test failed, but that is expected.  This is used for test formats which allow
+ specifying that a test does not currently work, but wish to leave it in the test
+ suite.
+
+**XPASS**
+
+ The test succeeded, but it was expected to fail.  This is used for tests which
+ were specified as expected to fail, but are now succeeding (generally because
+ the feature they test was broken and has been fixed).
+
+**FAIL**
+
+ The test failed.
+
+**UNRESOLVED**
+
+ The test result could not be determined.  For example, this occurs when the test
+ could not be run, the test itself is invalid, or the test was interrupted.
+
+**UNSUPPORTED**
+
+ The test is not supported in this environment.  This is used by test formats
+ which can report unsupported tests.
+
+Depending on the test format tests may produce additional information about
+their status (generally only for failures).  See the :ref:`output-options`
+section for more information.
+
+.. _lit-infrastructure:
+
+LIT INFRASTRUCTURE
+------------------
+
+This section describes the :program:`lit` testing architecture for users interested in
+creating a new :program:`lit` testing implementation, or extending an existing one.
+
+:program:`lit` proper is primarily an infrastructure for discovering and running
+arbitrary tests, and to expose a single convenient interface to these
+tests. :program:`lit` itself doesn't know how to run tests, rather this logic is
+defined by *test suites*.
+
+TEST SUITES
+~~~~~~~~~~~
+
+As described in :ref:`test-discovery`, tests are always located inside a *test
+suite*.  Test suites serve to define the format of the tests they contain, the
+logic for finding those tests, and any additional information to run the tests.
+
+:program:`lit` identifies test suites as directories containing ``lit.cfg`` or
+``lit.site.cfg`` files (see also :option:`--config-prefix`).  Test suites are
+initially discovered by recursively searching up the directory hierarchy for
+all the input files passed on the command line.  You can use
+:option:`--show-suites` to display the discovered test suites at startup.
+
+Once a test suite is discovered, its config file is loaded.  Config files
+themselves are Python modules which will be executed.  When the config file is
+executed, two important global variables are predefined:
+
+**lit**
+
+ The global **lit** configuration object (a *LitConfig* instance), which defines
+ the builtin test formats, global configuration parameters, and other helper
+ routines for implementing test configurations.
+
+**config**
+
+ This is the config object (a *TestingConfig* instance) for the test suite,
+ which the config file is expected to populate.  The following variables are also
+ available on the *config* object, some of which must be set by the config and
+ others are optional or predefined:
+
+ **name** *[required]* The name of the test suite, for use in reports and
+ diagnostics.
+
+ **test_format** *[required]* The test format object which will be used to
+ discover and run tests in the test suite.  Generally this will be a builtin test
+ format available from the *lit.formats* module.
+
+ **test_source_root** The filesystem path to the test suite root.  For out-of-dir
+ builds this is the directory that will be scanned for tests.
+
+ **test_exec_root** For out-of-dir builds, the path to the test suite root inside
+ the object directory.  This is where tests will be run and temporary output files
+ placed.
+
+ **environment** A dictionary representing the environment to use when executing
+ tests in the suite.
+
+ **suffixes** For **lit** test formats which scan directories for tests, this
+ variable is a list of suffixes to identify test files.  Used by: *ShTest*.
+
+ **substitutions** For **lit** test formats which substitute variables into a test
+ script, the list of substitutions to perform.  Used by: *ShTest*.
+
+ **unsupported** Mark an unsupported directory, all tests within it will be
+ reported as unsupported.  Used by: *ShTest*.
+
+ **parent** The parent configuration, this is the config object for the directory
+ containing the test suite, or None.
+
+ **root** The root configuration.  This is the top-most :program:`lit` configuration in
+ the project.
+
+ **on_clone** The config is actually cloned for every subdirectory inside a test
+ suite, to allow local configuration on a per-directory basis.  The *on_clone*
+ variable can be set to a Python function which will be called whenever a
+ configuration is cloned (for a subdirectory).  The function should takes three
+ arguments: (1) the parent configuration, (2) the new configuration (which the
+ *on_clone* function will generally modify), and (3) the test path to the new
+ directory being scanned.
+
+ **pipefail** Normally a test using a shell pipe fails if any of the commands
+ on the pipe fail. If this is not desired, setting this variable to false
+ makes the test fail only if the last command in the pipe fails.
+
+TEST DISCOVERY
+~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
+
+Once test suites are located, :program:`lit` recursively traverses the source
+directory (following *test_source_root*) looking for tests.  When :program:`lit`
+enters a sub-directory, it first checks to see if a nested test suite is
+defined in that directory.  If so, it loads that test suite recursively,
+otherwise it instantiates a local test config for the directory (see
+:ref:`local-configuration-files`).
+
+Tests are identified by the test suite they are contained within, and the
+relative path inside that suite.  Note that the relative path may not refer to
+an actual file on disk; some test formats (such as *GoogleTest*) define
+"virtual tests" which have a path that contains both the path to the actual
+test file and a subpath to identify the virtual test.
+
+.. _local-configuration-files:
+
+LOCAL CONFIGURATION FILES
+~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
+
+When :program:`lit` loads a subdirectory in a test suite, it instantiates a
+local test configuration by cloning the configuration for the parent direction
+--- the root of this configuration chain will always be a test suite.  Once the
+test configuration is cloned :program:`lit` checks for a *lit.local.cfg* file
+in the subdirectory.  If present, this file will be loaded and can be used to
+specialize the configuration for each individual directory.  This facility can
+be used to define subdirectories of optional tests, or to change other
+configuration parameters --- for example, to change the test format, or the
+suffixes which identify test files.
+
+TEST RUN OUTPUT FORMAT
+~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
+
+The :program:`lit` output for a test run conforms to the following schema, in
+both short and verbose modes (although in short mode no PASS lines will be
+shown).  This schema has been chosen to be relatively easy to reliably parse by
+a machine (for example in buildbot log scraping), and for other tools to
+generate.
+
+Each test result is expected to appear on a line that matches:
+
+.. code-block:: none
+
+  <result code>: <test name> (<progress info>)
+
+where ``<result-code>`` is a standard test result such as PASS, FAIL, XFAIL,
+XPASS, UNRESOLVED, or UNSUPPORTED.  The performance result codes of IMPROVED and
+REGRESSED are also allowed.
+
+The ``<test name>`` field can consist of an arbitrary string containing no
+newline.
+
+The ``<progress info>`` field can be used to report progress information such
+as (1/300) or can be empty, but even when empty the parentheses are required.
+
+Each test result may include additional (multiline) log information in the
+following format:
+
+.. code-block:: none
+
+  <log delineator> TEST '(<test name>)' <trailing delineator>
+  ... log message ...
+  <log delineator>
+
+where ``<test name>`` should be the name of a preceding reported test, ``<log
+delineator>`` is a string of "*" characters *at least* four characters long
+(the recommended length is 20), and ``<trailing delineator>`` is an arbitrary
+(unparsed) string.
+
+The following is an example of a test run output which consists of four tests A,
+B, C, and D, and a log message for the failing test C:
+
+.. code-block:: none
+
+  PASS: A (1 of 4)
+  PASS: B (2 of 4)
+  FAIL: C (3 of 4)
+  ******************** TEST 'C' FAILED ********************
+  Test 'C' failed as a result of exit code 1.
+  ********************
+  PASS: D (4 of 4)
+
+LIT EXAMPLE TESTS
+~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
+
+The :program:`lit` distribution contains several example implementations of
+test suites in the *ExampleTests* directory.
+
+SEE ALSO
+--------
+
+valgrind(1)

Added: www-releases/trunk/3.4.1/docs/_sources/CommandGuide/llc.txt
URL: http://llvm.org/viewvc/llvm-project/www-releases/trunk/3.4.1/docs/_sources/CommandGuide/llc.txt?rev=208244&view=auto
==============================================================================
--- www-releases/trunk/3.4.1/docs/_sources/CommandGuide/llc.txt (added)
+++ www-releases/trunk/3.4.1/docs/_sources/CommandGuide/llc.txt Wed May  7 15:09:32 2014
@@ -0,0 +1,195 @@
+llc - LLVM static compiler
+==========================
+
+SYNOPSIS
+--------
+
+:program:`llc` [*options*] [*filename*]
+
+DESCRIPTION
+-----------
+
+The :program:`llc` command compiles LLVM source inputs into assembly language
+for a specified architecture.  The assembly language output can then be passed
+through a native assembler and linker to generate a native executable.
+
+The choice of architecture for the output assembly code is automatically
+determined from the input file, unless the :option:`-march` option is used to
+override the default.
+
+OPTIONS
+-------
+
+If ``filename`` is "``-``" or omitted, :program:`llc` reads from standard input.
+Otherwise, it will from ``filename``.  Inputs can be in either the LLVM assembly
+language format (``.ll``) or the LLVM bitcode format (``.bc``).
+
+If the :option:`-o` option is omitted, then :program:`llc` will send its output
+to standard output if the input is from standard input.  If the :option:`-o`
+option specifies "``-``", then the output will also be sent to standard output.
+
+If no :option:`-o` option is specified and an input file other than "``-``" is
+specified, then :program:`llc` creates the output filename by taking the input
+filename, removing any existing ``.bc`` extension, and adding a ``.s`` suffix.
+
+Other :program:`llc` options are described below.
+
+End-user Options
+~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
+
+.. option:: -help
+
+ Print a summary of command line options.
+
+.. option:: -O=uint
+
+ Generate code at different optimization levels.  These correspond to the
+ ``-O0``, ``-O1``, ``-O2``, and ``-O3`` optimization levels used by
+ :program:`llvm-gcc` and :program:`clang`.
+
+.. option:: -mtriple=<target triple>
+
+ Override the target triple specified in the input file with the specified
+ string.
+
+.. option:: -march=<arch>
+
+ Specify the architecture for which to generate assembly, overriding the target
+ encoded in the input file.  See the output of ``llc -help`` for a list of
+ valid architectures.  By default this is inferred from the target triple or
+ autodetected to the current architecture.
+
+.. option:: -mcpu=<cpuname>
+
+ Specify a specific chip in the current architecture to generate code for.
+ By default this is inferred from the target triple and autodetected to
+ the current architecture.  For a list of available CPUs, use:
+
+ .. code-block:: none
+
+   llvm-as < /dev/null | llc -march=xyz -mcpu=help
+
+.. option:: -filetype=<output file type>
+
+ Specify what kind of output ``llc`` should generated.  Options are: ``asm``
+ for textual assembly ( ``'.s'``), ``obj`` for native object files (``'.o'``)
+ and ``null`` for not emitting anything (for performance testing).
+
+ Note that not all targets support all options.
+
+.. option:: -mattr=a1,+a2,-a3,...
+
+ Override or control specific attributes of the target, such as whether SIMD
+ operations are enabled or not.  The default set of attributes is set by the
+ current CPU.  For a list of available attributes, use:
+
+ .. code-block:: none
+
+   llvm-as < /dev/null | llc -march=xyz -mattr=help
+
+.. option:: --disable-fp-elim
+
+ Disable frame pointer elimination optimization.
+
+.. option:: --disable-excess-fp-precision
+
+ Disable optimizations that may produce excess precision for floating point.
+ Note that this option can dramatically slow down code on some systems
+ (e.g. X86).
+
+.. option:: --enable-no-infs-fp-math
+
+ Enable optimizations that assume no Inf values.
+
+.. option:: --enable-no-nans-fp-math
+
+ Enable optimizations that assume no NAN values.
+
+.. option:: --enable-unsafe-fp-math
+
+ Enable optimizations that make unsafe assumptions about IEEE math (e.g. that
+ addition is associative) or may not work for all input ranges.  These
+ optimizations allow the code generator to make use of some instructions which
+ would otherwise not be usable (such as ``fsin`` on X86).
+
+.. option:: --enable-correct-eh-support
+
+ Instruct the **lowerinvoke** pass to insert code for correct exception
+ handling support.  This is expensive and is by default omitted for efficiency.
+
+.. option:: --stats
+
+ Print statistics recorded by code-generation passes.
+
+.. option:: --time-passes
+
+ Record the amount of time needed for each pass and print a report to standard
+ error.
+
+.. option:: --load=<dso_path>
+
+ Dynamically load ``dso_path`` (a path to a dynamically shared object) that
+ implements an LLVM target.  This will permit the target name to be used with
+ the :option:`-march` option so that code can be generated for that target.
+
+Tuning/Configuration Options
+~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
+
+.. option:: --print-machineinstrs
+
+ Print generated machine code between compilation phases (useful for debugging).
+
+.. option:: --regalloc=<allocator>
+
+ Specify the register allocator to use.
+ Valid register allocators are:
+
+ *basic*
+
+  Basic register allocator.
+
+ *fast*
+
+  Fast register allocator. It is the default for unoptimized code.
+
+ *greedy*
+
+  Greedy register allocator. It is the default for optimized code.
+
+ *pbqp*
+
+  Register allocator based on 'Partitioned Boolean Quadratic Programming'.
+
+.. option:: --spiller=<spiller>
+
+ Specify the spiller to use for register allocators that support it.  Currently
+ this option is used only by the linear scan register allocator.  The default
+ ``spiller`` is *local*.  Valid spillers are:
+
+ *simple*
+
+  Simple spiller
+
+ *local*
+
+  Local spiller
+
+Intel IA-32-specific Options
+~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
+
+.. option:: --x86-asm-syntax=[att|intel]
+
+ Specify whether to emit assembly code in AT&T syntax (the default) or Intel
+ syntax.
+
+EXIT STATUS
+-----------
+
+If :program:`llc` succeeds, it will exit with 0.  Otherwise, if an error
+occurs, it will exit with a non-zero value.
+
+SEE ALSO
+--------
+
+lli
+

Added: www-releases/trunk/3.4.1/docs/_sources/CommandGuide/lli.txt
URL: http://llvm.org/viewvc/llvm-project/www-releases/trunk/3.4.1/docs/_sources/CommandGuide/lli.txt?rev=208244&view=auto
==============================================================================
--- www-releases/trunk/3.4.1/docs/_sources/CommandGuide/lli.txt (added)
+++ www-releases/trunk/3.4.1/docs/_sources/CommandGuide/lli.txt Wed May  7 15:09:32 2014
@@ -0,0 +1,300 @@
+lli - directly execute programs from LLVM bitcode
+=================================================
+
+
+SYNOPSIS
+--------
+
+
+**lli** [*options*] [*filename*] [*program args*]
+
+
+DESCRIPTION
+-----------
+
+
+**lli** directly executes programs in LLVM bitcode format.  It takes a program
+in LLVM bitcode format and executes it using a just-in-time compiler, if one is
+available for the current architecture, or an interpreter.  **lli** takes all of
+the same code generator options as llc|llc, but they are only effective when
+**lli** is using the just-in-time compiler.
+
+If *filename* is not specified, then **lli** reads the LLVM bitcode for the
+program from standard input.
+
+The optional *args* specified on the command line are passed to the program as
+arguments.
+
+
+GENERAL OPTIONS
+---------------
+
+
+
+**-fake-argv0**\ =\ *executable*
+
+ Override the ``argv[0]`` value passed into the executing program.
+
+
+
+**-force-interpreter**\ =\ *{false,true}*
+
+ If set to true, use the interpreter even if a just-in-time compiler is available
+ for this architecture. Defaults to false.
+
+
+
+**-help**
+
+ Print a summary of command line options.
+
+
+
+**-load**\ =\ *pluginfilename*
+
+ Causes **lli** to load the plugin (shared object) named *pluginfilename* and use
+ it for optimization.
+
+
+
+**-stats**
+
+ Print statistics from the code-generation passes. This is only meaningful for
+ the just-in-time compiler, at present.
+
+
+
+**-time-passes**
+
+ Record the amount of time needed for each code-generation pass and print it to
+ standard error.
+
+
+
+**-version**
+
+ Print out the version of **lli** and exit without doing anything else.
+
+
+
+
+TARGET OPTIONS
+--------------
+
+
+
+**-mtriple**\ =\ *target triple*
+
+ Override the target triple specified in the input bitcode file with the
+ specified string.  This may result in a crash if you pick an
+ architecture which is not compatible with the current system.
+
+
+
+**-march**\ =\ *arch*
+
+ Specify the architecture for which to generate assembly, overriding the target
+ encoded in the bitcode file.  See the output of **llc -help** for a list of
+ valid architectures.  By default this is inferred from the target triple or
+ autodetected to the current architecture.
+
+
+
+**-mcpu**\ =\ *cpuname*
+
+ Specify a specific chip in the current architecture to generate code for.
+ By default this is inferred from the target triple and autodetected to
+ the current architecture.  For a list of available CPUs, use:
+ **llvm-as < /dev/null | llc -march=xyz -mcpu=help**
+
+
+
+**-mattr**\ =\ *a1,+a2,-a3,...*
+
+ Override or control specific attributes of the target, such as whether SIMD
+ operations are enabled or not.  The default set of attributes is set by the
+ current CPU.  For a list of available attributes, use:
+ **llvm-as < /dev/null | llc -march=xyz -mattr=help**
+
+
+
+
+FLOATING POINT OPTIONS
+----------------------
+
+
+
+**-disable-excess-fp-precision**
+
+ Disable optimizations that may increase floating point precision.
+
+
+
+**-enable-no-infs-fp-math**
+
+ Enable optimizations that assume no Inf values.
+
+
+
+**-enable-no-nans-fp-math**
+
+ Enable optimizations that assume no NAN values.
+
+
+
+**-enable-unsafe-fp-math**
+
+ Causes **lli** to enable optimizations that may decrease floating point
+ precision.
+
+
+
+**-soft-float**
+
+ Causes **lli** to generate software floating point library calls instead of
+ equivalent hardware instructions.
+
+
+
+
+CODE GENERATION OPTIONS
+-----------------------
+
+
+
+**-code-model**\ =\ *model*
+
+ Choose the code model from:
+
+
+ .. code-block:: perl
+
+      default: Target default code model
+      small: Small code model
+      kernel: Kernel code model
+      medium: Medium code model
+      large: Large code model
+
+
+
+
+**-disable-post-RA-scheduler**
+
+ Disable scheduling after register allocation.
+
+
+
+**-disable-spill-fusing**
+
+ Disable fusing of spill code into instructions.
+
+
+
+**-enable-correct-eh-support**
+
+ Make the -lowerinvoke pass insert expensive, but correct, EH code.
+
+
+
+**-jit-enable-eh**
+
+ Exception handling should be enabled in the just-in-time compiler.
+
+
+
+**-join-liveintervals**
+
+ Coalesce copies (default=true).
+
+
+
+**-nozero-initialized-in-bss** Don't place zero-initialized symbols into the BSS section.
+
+
+
+**-pre-RA-sched**\ =\ *scheduler*
+
+ Instruction schedulers available (before register allocation):
+
+
+ .. code-block:: perl
+
+      =default: Best scheduler for the target
+      =none: No scheduling: breadth first sequencing
+      =simple: Simple two pass scheduling: minimize critical path and maximize processor utilization
+      =simple-noitin: Simple two pass scheduling: Same as simple except using generic latency
+      =list-burr: Bottom-up register reduction list scheduling
+      =list-tdrr: Top-down register reduction list scheduling
+      =list-td: Top-down list scheduler -print-machineinstrs - Print generated machine code
+
+
+
+
+**-regalloc**\ =\ *allocator*
+
+ Register allocator to use (default=linearscan)
+
+
+ .. code-block:: perl
+
+      =bigblock: Big-block register allocator
+      =linearscan: linear scan register allocator =local -   local register allocator
+      =simple: simple register allocator
+
+
+
+
+**-relocation-model**\ =\ *model*
+
+ Choose relocation model from:
+
+
+ .. code-block:: perl
+
+      =default: Target default relocation model
+      =static: Non-relocatable code =pic -   Fully relocatable, position independent code
+      =dynamic-no-pic: Relocatable external references, non-relocatable code
+
+
+
+
+**-spiller**
+
+ Spiller to use (default=local)
+
+
+ .. code-block:: perl
+
+      =simple: simple spiller
+      =local: local spiller
+
+
+
+
+**-x86-asm-syntax**\ =\ *syntax*
+
+ Choose style of code to emit from X86 backend:
+
+
+ .. code-block:: perl
+
+      =att: Emit AT&T-style assembly
+      =intel: Emit Intel-style assembly
+
+
+
+
+
+EXIT STATUS
+-----------
+
+
+If **lli** fails to load the program, it will exit with an exit code of 1.
+Otherwise, it will return the exit code of the program it executes.
+
+
+SEE ALSO
+--------
+
+
+llc|llc

Added: www-releases/trunk/3.4.1/docs/_sources/CommandGuide/llvm-ar.txt
URL: http://llvm.org/viewvc/llvm-project/www-releases/trunk/3.4.1/docs/_sources/CommandGuide/llvm-ar.txt?rev=208244&view=auto
==============================================================================
--- www-releases/trunk/3.4.1/docs/_sources/CommandGuide/llvm-ar.txt (added)
+++ www-releases/trunk/3.4.1/docs/_sources/CommandGuide/llvm-ar.txt Wed May  7 15:09:32 2014
@@ -0,0 +1,367 @@
+llvm-ar - LLVM archiver
+=======================
+
+
+SYNOPSIS
+--------
+
+
+**llvm-ar** [-]{dmpqrtx}[Rabfikou] [relpos] [count] <archive> [files...]
+
+
+DESCRIPTION
+-----------
+
+
+The **llvm-ar** command is similar to the common Unix utility, ``ar``. It
+archives several files together into a single file. The intent for this is
+to produce archive libraries by LLVM bitcode that can be linked into an
+LLVM program. However, the archive can contain any kind of file. By default,
+**llvm-ar** generates a symbol table that makes linking faster because
+only the symbol table needs to be consulted, not each individual file member
+of the archive.
+
+The **llvm-ar** command can be used to *read* SVR4, GNU and BSD style archive
+files. However, right now it can only write in the GNU format. If an
+SVR4 or BSD style archive is used with the ``r`` (replace) or ``q`` (quick
+update) operations, the archive will be reconstructed in GNU format.
+
+Here's where **llvm-ar** departs from previous ``ar`` implementations:
+
+
+*Symbol Table*
+
+ Since **llvm-ar** supports bitcode files. The symbol table it creates
+ is in GNU format and includes both native and bitcode files.
+
+
+*Long Paths*
+
+ Currently **llvm-ar** can read GNU and BSD long file names, but only writes
+ archives with the GNU format.
+
+
+
+OPTIONS
+-------
+
+
+The options to **llvm-ar** are compatible with other ``ar`` implementations.
+However, there are a few modifiers (*R*) that are not found in other ``ar``
+implementations. The options to **llvm-ar** specify a single basic operation to
+perform on the archive, a variety of modifiers for that operation, the name of
+the archive file, and an optional list of file names. These options are used to
+determine how **llvm-ar** should process the archive file.
+
+The Operations and Modifiers are explained in the sections below. The minimal
+set of options is at least one operator and the name of the archive. Typically
+archive files end with a ``.a`` suffix, but this is not required. Following
+the *archive-name* comes a list of *files* that indicate the specific members
+of the archive to operate on. If the *files* option is not specified, it
+generally means either "none" or "all" members, depending on the operation.
+
+Operations
+~~~~~~~~~~
+
+
+
+d
+
+ Delete files from the archive. No modifiers are applicable to this operation.
+ The *files* options specify which members should be removed from the
+ archive. It is not an error if a specified file does not appear in the archive.
+ If no *files* are specified, the archive is not modified.
+
+
+
+m[abi]
+
+ Move files from one location in the archive to another. The *a*, *b*, and
+ *i* modifiers apply to this operation. The *files* will all be moved
+ to the location given by the modifiers. If no modifiers are used, the files
+ will be moved to the end of the archive. If no *files* are specified, the
+ archive is not modified.
+
+
+
+p
+
+ Print files to the standard output. This operation simply prints the
+ *files* indicated to the standard output. If no *files* are
+ specified, the entire  archive is printed.  Printing bitcode files is
+ ill-advised as they might confuse your terminal settings. The *p*
+ operation never modifies the archive.
+
+
+
+q
+
+ Quickly append files to the end of the archive.  This operation quickly adds the
+ *files* to the archive without checking for duplicates that should be
+ removed first. If no *files* are specified, the archive is not modified.
+ Because of the way that **llvm-ar** constructs the archive file, its dubious
+ whether the *q* operation is any faster than the *r* operation.
+
+
+
+r[abu]
+
+ Replace or insert file members. The *a*, *b*,  and *u*
+ modifiers apply to this operation. This operation will replace existing
+ *files* or insert them at the end of the archive if they do not exist. If no
+ *files* are specified, the archive is not modified.
+
+
+
+t[v]
+
+ Print the table of contents. Without any modifiers, this operation just prints
+ the names of the members to the standard output. With the *v* modifier,
+ **llvm-ar** also prints out the file type (B=bitcode, S=symbol
+ table, blank=regular file), the permission mode, the owner and group, the
+ size, and the date. If any *files* are specified, the listing is only for
+ those files. If no *files* are specified, the table of contents for the
+ whole archive is printed.
+
+
+
+x[oP]
+
+ Extract archive members back to files. The *o* modifier applies to this
+ operation. This operation retrieves the indicated *files* from the archive
+ and writes them back to the operating system's file system. If no
+ *files* are specified, the entire archive is extract.
+
+
+
+
+Modifiers (operation specific)
+~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
+
+
+The modifiers below are specific to certain operations. See the Operations
+section (above) to determine which modifiers are applicable to which operations.
+
+
+[a]
+
+ When inserting or moving member files, this option specifies the destination of
+ the new files as being after the *relpos* member. If *relpos* is not found,
+ the files are placed at the end of the archive.
+
+
+
+[b]
+
+ When inserting or moving member files, this option specifies the destination of
+ the new files as being before the *relpos* member. If *relpos* is not
+ found, the files are placed at the end of the archive. This modifier is
+ identical to the *i* modifier.
+
+
+
+[i]
+
+ A synonym for the *b* option.
+
+
+
+[o]
+
+ When extracting files, this option will cause **llvm-ar** to preserve the
+ original modification times of the files it writes.
+
+
+
+[u]
+
+ When replacing existing files in the archive, only replace those files that have
+ a time stamp than the time stamp of the member in the archive.
+
+
+
+
+Modifiers (generic)
+~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
+
+
+The modifiers below may be applied to any operation.
+
+
+[c]
+
+ For all operations, **llvm-ar** will always create the archive if it doesn't
+ exist. Normally, **llvm-ar** will print a warning message indicating that the
+ archive is being created. Using this modifier turns off that warning.
+
+
+
+[s]
+
+ This modifier requests that an archive index (or symbol table) be added to the
+ archive. This is the default mode of operation. The symbol table will contain
+ all the externally visible functions and global variables defined by all the
+ bitcode files in the archive.
+
+
+
+[S]
+
+ This modifier is the opposite of the *s* modifier. It instructs **llvm-ar** to
+ not build the symbol table. If both *s* and *S* are used, the last modifier to
+ occur in the options will prevail.
+
+
+
+[v]
+
+ This modifier instructs **llvm-ar** to be verbose about what it is doing. Each
+ editing operation taken against the archive will produce a line of output saying
+ what is being done.
+
+
+
+
+
+STANDARDS
+---------
+
+
+The **llvm-ar** utility is intended to provide a superset of the IEEE Std 1003.2
+(POSIX.2) functionality for ``ar``. **llvm-ar** can read both SVR4 and BSD4.4 (or
+Mac OS X) archives. If the ``f`` modifier is given to the ``x`` or ``r`` operations
+then **llvm-ar** will write SVR4 compatible archives. Without this modifier,
+**llvm-ar** will write BSD4.4 compatible archives that have long names
+immediately after the header and indicated using the "#1/ddd" notation for the
+name in the header.
+
+
+FILE FORMAT
+-----------
+
+
+The file format for LLVM Archive files is similar to that of BSD 4.4 or Mac OSX
+archive files. In fact, except for the symbol table, the ``ar`` commands on those
+operating systems should be able to read LLVM archive files. The details of the
+file format follow.
+
+Each archive begins with the archive magic number which is the eight printable
+characters "!<arch>\n" where \n represents the newline character (0x0A).
+Following the magic number, the file is composed of even length members that
+begin with an archive header and end with a \n padding character if necessary
+(to make the length even). Each file member is composed of a header (defined
+below), an optional newline-terminated "long file name" and the contents of
+the file.
+
+The fields of the header are described in the items below. All fields of the
+header contain only ASCII characters, are left justified and are right padded
+with space characters.
+
+
+name - char[16]
+
+ This field of the header provides the name of the archive member. If the name is
+ longer than 15 characters or contains a slash (/) character, then this field
+ contains ``#1/nnn`` where ``nnn`` provides the length of the name and the ``#1/``
+ is literal.  In this case, the actual name of the file is provided in the ``nnn``
+ bytes immediately following the header. If the name is 15 characters or less, it
+ is contained directly in this field and terminated with a slash (/) character.
+
+
+
+date - char[12]
+
+ This field provides the date of modification of the file in the form of a
+ decimal encoded number that provides the number of seconds since the epoch
+ (since 00:00:00 Jan 1, 1970) per Posix specifications.
+
+
+
+uid - char[6]
+
+ This field provides the user id of the file encoded as a decimal ASCII string.
+ This field might not make much sense on non-Unix systems. On Unix, it is the
+ same value as the st_uid field of the stat structure returned by the stat(2)
+ operating system call.
+
+
+
+gid - char[6]
+
+ This field provides the group id of the file encoded as a decimal ASCII string.
+ This field might not make much sense on non-Unix systems. On Unix, it is the
+ same value as the st_gid field of the stat structure returned by the stat(2)
+ operating system call.
+
+
+
+mode - char[8]
+
+ This field provides the access mode of the file encoded as an octal ASCII
+ string. This field might not make much sense on non-Unix systems. On Unix, it
+ is the same value as the st_mode field of the stat structure returned by the
+ stat(2) operating system call.
+
+
+
+size - char[10]
+
+ This field provides the size of the file, in bytes, encoded as a decimal ASCII
+ string.
+
+
+
+fmag - char[2]
+
+ This field is the archive file member magic number. Its content is always the
+ two characters back tick (0x60) and newline (0x0A). This provides some measure
+ utility in identifying archive files that have been corrupted.
+
+
+offset - vbr encoded 32-bit integer
+
+ The offset item provides the offset into the archive file where the bitcode
+ member is stored that is associated with the symbol. The offset value is 0
+ based at the start of the first "normal" file member. To derive the actual
+ file offset of the member, you must add the number of bytes occupied by the file
+ signature (8 bytes) and the symbol tables. The value of this item is encoded
+ using variable bit rate encoding to reduce the size of the symbol table.
+ Variable bit rate encoding uses the high bit (0x80) of each byte to indicate
+ if there are more bytes to follow. The remaining 7 bits in each byte carry bits
+ from the value. The final byte does not have the high bit set.
+
+
+
+length - vbr encoded 32-bit integer
+
+ The length item provides the length of the symbol that follows. Like this
+ *offset* item, the length is variable bit rate encoded.
+
+
+
+symbol - character array
+
+ The symbol item provides the text of the symbol that is associated with the
+ *offset*. The symbol is not terminated by any character. Its length is provided
+ by the *length* field. Note that is allowed (but unwise) to use non-printing
+ characters (even 0x00) in the symbol. This allows for multiple encodings of
+ symbol names.
+
+
+
+
+EXIT STATUS
+-----------
+
+
+If **llvm-ar** succeeds, it will exit with 0.  A usage error, results
+in an exit code of 1. A hard (file system typically) error results in an
+exit code of 2. Miscellaneous or unknown errors result in an
+exit code of 3.
+
+
+SEE ALSO
+--------
+
+
+ar(1)

Added: www-releases/trunk/3.4.1/docs/_sources/CommandGuide/llvm-as.txt
URL: http://llvm.org/viewvc/llvm-project/www-releases/trunk/3.4.1/docs/_sources/CommandGuide/llvm-as.txt?rev=208244&view=auto
==============================================================================
--- www-releases/trunk/3.4.1/docs/_sources/CommandGuide/llvm-as.txt (added)
+++ www-releases/trunk/3.4.1/docs/_sources/CommandGuide/llvm-as.txt Wed May  7 15:09:32 2014
@@ -0,0 +1,56 @@
+llvm-as - LLVM assembler
+========================
+
+SYNOPSIS
+--------
+
+**llvm-as** [*options*] [*filename*]
+
+DESCRIPTION
+-----------
+
+**llvm-as** is the LLVM assembler.  It reads a file containing human-readable
+LLVM assembly language, translates it to LLVM bitcode, and writes the result
+into a file or to standard output.
+
+If *filename* is omitted or is ``-``, then **llvm-as** reads its input from
+standard input.
+
+If an output file is not specified with the **-o** option, then
+**llvm-as** sends its output to a file or standard output by following
+these rules:
+
+* If the input is standard input, then the output is standard output.
+
+* If the input is a file that ends with ``.ll``, then the output file is of the
+  same name, except that the suffix is changed to ``.bc``.
+
+* If the input is a file that does not end with the ``.ll`` suffix, then the
+  output file has the same name as the input file, except that the ``.bc``
+  suffix is appended.
+
+OPTIONS
+-------
+
+**-f**
+ Enable binary output on terminals.  Normally, **llvm-as** will refuse to
+ write raw bitcode output if the output stream is a terminal. With this option,
+ **llvm-as** will write raw bitcode regardless of the output device.
+
+**-help**
+ Print a summary of command line options.
+
+**-o** *filename*
+ Specify the output file name.  If *filename* is ``-``, then **llvm-as**
+ sends its output to standard output.
+
+EXIT STATUS
+-----------
+
+If **llvm-as** succeeds, it will exit with 0.  Otherwise, if an error occurs, it
+will exit with a non-zero value.
+
+SEE ALSO
+--------
+
+llvm-dis|llvm-dis, gccas|gccas

Added: www-releases/trunk/3.4.1/docs/_sources/CommandGuide/llvm-bcanalyzer.txt
URL: http://llvm.org/viewvc/llvm-project/www-releases/trunk/3.4.1/docs/_sources/CommandGuide/llvm-bcanalyzer.txt?rev=208244&view=auto
==============================================================================
--- www-releases/trunk/3.4.1/docs/_sources/CommandGuide/llvm-bcanalyzer.txt (added)
+++ www-releases/trunk/3.4.1/docs/_sources/CommandGuide/llvm-bcanalyzer.txt Wed May  7 15:09:32 2014
@@ -0,0 +1,305 @@
+llvm-bcanalyzer - LLVM bitcode analyzer
+=======================================
+
+SYNOPSIS
+--------
+
+:program:`llvm-bcanalyzer` [*options*] [*filename*]
+
+DESCRIPTION
+-----------
+
+The :program:`llvm-bcanalyzer` command is a small utility for analyzing bitcode
+files.  The tool reads a bitcode file (such as generated with the
+:program:`llvm-as` tool) and produces a statistical report on the contents of
+the bitcode file.  The tool can also dump a low level but human readable
+version of the bitcode file.  This tool is probably not of much interest or
+utility except for those working directly with the bitcode file format.  Most
+LLVM users can just ignore this tool.
+
+If *filename* is omitted or is ``-``, then :program:`llvm-bcanalyzer` reads its
+input from standard input.  This is useful for combining the tool into a
+pipeline.  Output is written to the standard output.
+
+OPTIONS
+-------
+
+.. program:: llvm-bcanalyzer
+
+.. option:: -nodetails
+
+ Causes :program:`llvm-bcanalyzer` to abbreviate its output by writing out only
+ a module level summary.  The details for individual functions are not
+ displayed.
+
+.. option:: -dump
+
+ Causes :program:`llvm-bcanalyzer` to dump the bitcode in a human readable
+ format.  This format is significantly different from LLVM assembly and
+ provides details about the encoding of the bitcode file.
+
+.. option:: -verify
+
+ Causes :program:`llvm-bcanalyzer` to verify the module produced by reading the
+ bitcode.  This ensures that the statistics generated are based on a consistent
+ module.
+
+.. option:: -help
+
+ Print a summary of command line options.
+
+EXIT STATUS
+-----------
+
+If :program:`llvm-bcanalyzer` succeeds, it will exit with 0.  Otherwise, if an
+error occurs, it will exit with a non-zero value, usually 1.
+
+SUMMARY OUTPUT DEFINITIONS
+--------------------------
+
+The following items are always printed by llvm-bcanalyzer.  They comprize the
+summary output.
+
+**Bitcode Analysis Of Module**
+
+ This just provides the name of the module for which bitcode analysis is being
+ generated.
+
+**Bitcode Version Number**
+
+ The bitcode version (not LLVM version) of the file read by the analyzer.
+
+**File Size**
+
+ The size, in bytes, of the entire bitcode file.
+
+**Module Bytes**
+
+ The size, in bytes, of the module block.  Percentage is relative to File Size.
+
+**Function Bytes**
+
+ The size, in bytes, of all the function blocks.  Percentage is relative to File
+ Size.
+
+**Global Types Bytes**
+
+ The size, in bytes, of the Global Types Pool.  Percentage is relative to File
+ Size.  This is the size of the definitions of all types in the bitcode file.
+
+**Constant Pool Bytes**
+
+ The size, in bytes, of the Constant Pool Blocks Percentage is relative to File
+ Size.
+
+**Module Globals Bytes**
+
+ Ths size, in bytes, of the Global Variable Definitions and their initializers.
+ Percentage is relative to File Size.
+
+**Instruction List Bytes**
+
+ The size, in bytes, of all the instruction lists in all the functions.
+ Percentage is relative to File Size.  Note that this value is also included in
+ the Function Bytes.
+
+**Compaction Table Bytes**
+
+ The size, in bytes, of all the compaction tables in all the functions.
+ Percentage is relative to File Size.  Note that this value is also included in
+ the Function Bytes.
+
+**Symbol Table Bytes**
+
+ The size, in bytes, of all the symbol tables in all the functions.  Percentage is
+ relative to File Size.  Note that this value is also included in the Function
+ Bytes.
+
+**Dependent Libraries Bytes**
+
+ The size, in bytes, of the list of dependent libraries in the module.  Percentage
+ is relative to File Size.  Note that this value is also included in the Module
+ Global Bytes.
+
+**Number Of Bitcode Blocks**
+
+ The total number of blocks of any kind in the bitcode file.
+
+**Number Of Functions**
+
+ The total number of function definitions in the bitcode file.
+
+**Number Of Types**
+
+ The total number of types defined in the Global Types Pool.
+
+**Number Of Constants**
+
+ The total number of constants (of any type) defined in the Constant Pool.
+
+**Number Of Basic Blocks**
+
+ The total number of basic blocks defined in all functions in the bitcode file.
+
+**Number Of Instructions**
+
+ The total number of instructions defined in all functions in the bitcode file.
+
+**Number Of Long Instructions**
+
+ The total number of long instructions defined in all functions in the bitcode
+ file.  Long instructions are those taking greater than 4 bytes.  Typically long
+ instructions are GetElementPtr with several indices, PHI nodes, and calls to
+ functions with large numbers of arguments.
+
+**Number Of Operands**
+
+ The total number of operands used in all instructions in the bitcode file.
+
+**Number Of Compaction Tables**
+
+ The total number of compaction tables in all functions in the bitcode file.
+
+**Number Of Symbol Tables**
+
+ The total number of symbol tables in all functions in the bitcode file.
+
+**Number Of Dependent Libs**
+
+ The total number of dependent libraries found in the bitcode file.
+
+**Total Instruction Size**
+
+ The total size of the instructions in all functions in the bitcode file.
+
+**Average Instruction Size**
+
+ The average number of bytes per instruction across all functions in the bitcode
+ file.  This value is computed by dividing Total Instruction Size by Number Of
+ Instructions.
+
+**Maximum Type Slot Number**
+
+ The maximum value used for a type's slot number.  Larger slot number values take
+ more bytes to encode.
+
+**Maximum Value Slot Number**
+
+ The maximum value used for a value's slot number.  Larger slot number values take
+ more bytes to encode.
+
+**Bytes Per Value**
+
+ The average size of a Value definition (of any type).  This is computed by
+ dividing File Size by the total number of values of any type.
+
+**Bytes Per Global**
+
+ The average size of a global definition (constants and global variables).
+
+**Bytes Per Function**
+
+ The average number of bytes per function definition.  This is computed by
+ dividing Function Bytes by Number Of Functions.
+
+**# of VBR 32-bit Integers**
+
+ The total number of 32-bit integers encoded using the Variable Bit Rate
+ encoding scheme.
+
+**# of VBR 64-bit Integers**
+
+ The total number of 64-bit integers encoded using the Variable Bit Rate encoding
+ scheme.
+
+**# of VBR Compressed Bytes**
+
+ The total number of bytes consumed by the 32-bit and 64-bit integers that use
+ the Variable Bit Rate encoding scheme.
+
+**# of VBR Expanded Bytes**
+
+ The total number of bytes that would have been consumed by the 32-bit and 64-bit
+ integers had they not been compressed with the Variable Bit Rage encoding
+ scheme.
+
+**Bytes Saved With VBR**
+
+ The total number of bytes saved by using the Variable Bit Rate encoding scheme.
+ The percentage is relative to # of VBR Expanded Bytes.
+
+DETAILED OUTPUT DEFINITIONS
+---------------------------
+
+The following definitions occur only if the -nodetails option was not given.
+The detailed output provides additional information on a per-function basis.
+
+**Type**
+
+ The type signature of the function.
+
+**Byte Size**
+
+ The total number of bytes in the function's block.
+
+**Basic Blocks**
+
+ The number of basic blocks defined by the function.
+
+**Instructions**
+
+ The number of instructions defined by the function.
+
+**Long Instructions**
+
+ The number of instructions using the long instruction format in the function.
+
+**Operands**
+
+ The number of operands used by all instructions in the function.
+
+**Instruction Size**
+
+ The number of bytes consumed by instructions in the function.
+
+**Average Instruction Size**
+
+ The average number of bytes consumed by the instructions in the function.
+ This value is computed by dividing Instruction Size by Instructions.
+
+**Bytes Per Instruction**
+
+ The average number of bytes used by the function per instruction.  This value
+ is computed by dividing Byte Size by Instructions.  Note that this is not the
+ same as Average Instruction Size.  It computes a number relative to the total
+ function size not just the size of the instruction list.
+
+**Number of VBR 32-bit Integers**
+
+ The total number of 32-bit integers found in this function (for any use).
+
+**Number of VBR 64-bit Integers**
+
+ The total number of 64-bit integers found in this function (for any use).
+
+**Number of VBR Compressed Bytes**
+
+ The total number of bytes in this function consumed by the 32-bit and 64-bit
+ integers that use the Variable Bit Rate encoding scheme.
+
+**Number of VBR Expanded Bytes**
+
+ The total number of bytes in this function that would have been consumed by
+ the 32-bit and 64-bit integers had they not been compressed with the Variable
+ Bit Rate encoding scheme.
+
+**Bytes Saved With VBR**
+
+ The total number of bytes saved in this function by using the Variable Bit
+ Rate encoding scheme.  The percentage is relative to # of VBR Expanded Bytes.
+
+SEE ALSO
+--------
+
+:doc:`/CommandGuide/llvm-dis`, :doc:`/BitCodeFormat`
+

Added: www-releases/trunk/3.4.1/docs/_sources/CommandGuide/llvm-build.txt
URL: http://llvm.org/viewvc/llvm-project/www-releases/trunk/3.4.1/docs/_sources/CommandGuide/llvm-build.txt?rev=208244&view=auto
==============================================================================
--- www-releases/trunk/3.4.1/docs/_sources/CommandGuide/llvm-build.txt (added)
+++ www-releases/trunk/3.4.1/docs/_sources/CommandGuide/llvm-build.txt Wed May  7 15:09:32 2014
@@ -0,0 +1,102 @@
+llvm-build - LLVM Project Build Utility
+=======================================
+
+
+SYNOPSIS
+--------
+
+
+**llvm-build** [*options*]
+
+
+DESCRIPTION
+-----------
+
+
+**llvm-build** is a tool for working with LLVM projects that use the LLVMBuild
+system for describing their components.
+
+At heart, **llvm-build** is responsible for loading, verifying, and manipulating
+the project's component data. The tool is primarily designed for use in
+implementing build systems and tools which need access to the project structure
+information.
+
+
+OPTIONS
+-------
+
+
+
+**-h**, **--help**
+
+ Print the builtin program help.
+
+
+
+**--source-root**\ =\ *PATH*
+
+ If given, load the project at the given source root path. If this option is not
+ given, the location of the project sources will be inferred from the location of
+ the **llvm-build** script itself.
+
+
+
+**--print-tree**
+
+ Print the component tree for the project.
+
+
+
+**--write-library-table**
+
+ Write out the C++ fragment which defines the components, library names, and
+ required libraries. This C++ fragment is built into llvm-config|llvm-config
+ in order to provide clients with the list of required libraries for arbitrary
+ component combinations.
+
+
+
+**--write-llvmbuild**
+
+ Write out new *LLVMBuild.txt* files based on the loaded components. This is
+ useful for auto-upgrading the schema of the files. **llvm-build** will try to a
+ limited extent to preserve the comments which were written in the original
+ source file, although at this time it only preserves block comments that precede
+ the section names in the *LLVMBuild* files.
+
+
+
+**--write-cmake-fragment**
+
+ Write out the LLVMBuild in the form of a CMake fragment, so it can easily be
+ consumed by the CMake based build system. The exact contents and format of this
+ file are closely tied to how LLVMBuild is integrated with CMake, see LLVM's
+ top-level CMakeLists.txt.
+
+
+
+**--write-make-fragment**
+
+ Write out the LLVMBuild in the form of a Makefile fragment, so it can easily be
+ consumed by a Make based build system. The exact contents and format of this
+ file are closely tied to how LLVMBuild is integrated with the Makefiles, see
+ LLVM's Makefile.rules.
+
+
+
+**--llvmbuild-source-root**\ =\ *PATH*
+
+ If given, expect the *LLVMBuild* files for the project to be rooted at the
+ given path, instead of inside the source tree itself. This option is primarily
+ designed for use in conjunction with **--write-llvmbuild** to test changes to
+ *LLVMBuild* schema.
+
+
+
+
+EXIT STATUS
+-----------
+
+
+**llvm-build** exits with 0 if operation was successful. Otherwise, it will exist
+with a non-zero value.

Added: www-releases/trunk/3.4.1/docs/_sources/CommandGuide/llvm-config.txt
URL: http://llvm.org/viewvc/llvm-project/www-releases/trunk/3.4.1/docs/_sources/CommandGuide/llvm-config.txt?rev=208244&view=auto
==============================================================================
--- www-releases/trunk/3.4.1/docs/_sources/CommandGuide/llvm-config.txt (added)
+++ www-releases/trunk/3.4.1/docs/_sources/CommandGuide/llvm-config.txt Wed May  7 15:09:32 2014
@@ -0,0 +1,176 @@
+llvm-config - Print LLVM compilation options
+============================================
+
+
+SYNOPSIS
+--------
+
+
+**llvm-config** *option* [*components*...]
+
+
+DESCRIPTION
+-----------
+
+
+**llvm-config** makes it easier to build applications that use LLVM.  It can
+print the compiler flags, linker flags and object libraries needed to link
+against LLVM.
+
+
+EXAMPLES
+--------
+
+
+To link against the JIT:
+
+
+.. code-block:: sh
+
+   g++ `llvm-config --cxxflags` -o HowToUseJIT.o -c HowToUseJIT.cpp
+   g++ `llvm-config --ldflags` -o HowToUseJIT HowToUseJIT.o \
+       `llvm-config --libs engine bcreader scalaropts`
+
+
+
+OPTIONS
+-------
+
+
+
+**--version**
+
+ Print the version number of LLVM.
+
+
+
+**-help**
+
+ Print a summary of **llvm-config** arguments.
+
+
+
+**--prefix**
+
+ Print the installation prefix for LLVM.
+
+
+
+**--src-root**
+
+ Print the source root from which LLVM was built.
+
+
+
+**--obj-root**
+
+ Print the object root used to build LLVM.
+
+
+
+**--bindir**
+
+ Print the installation directory for LLVM binaries.
+
+
+
+**--includedir**
+
+ Print the installation directory for LLVM headers.
+
+
+
+**--libdir**
+
+ Print the installation directory for LLVM libraries.
+
+
+
+**--cxxflags**
+
+ Print the C++ compiler flags needed to use LLVM headers.
+
+
+
+**--ldflags**
+
+ Print the flags needed to link against LLVM libraries.
+
+
+
+**--libs**
+
+ Print all the libraries needed to link against the specified LLVM
+ *components*, including any dependencies.
+
+
+
+**--libnames**
+
+ Similar to **--libs**, but prints the bare filenames of the libraries
+ without **-l** or pathnames.  Useful for linking against a not-yet-installed
+ copy of LLVM.
+
+
+
+**--libfiles**
+
+ Similar to **--libs**, but print the full path to each library file.  This is
+ useful when creating makefile dependencies, to ensure that a tool is relinked if
+ any library it uses changes.
+
+
+
+**--components**
+
+ Print all valid component names.
+
+
+
+**--targets-built**
+
+ Print the component names for all targets supported by this copy of LLVM.
+
+
+
+**--build-mode**
+
+ Print the build mode used when LLVM was built (e.g. Debug or Release)
+
+
+
+
+COMPONENTS
+----------
+
+
+To print a list of all available components, run **llvm-config
+--components**.  In most cases, components correspond directly to LLVM
+libraries.  Useful "virtual" components include:
+
+
+**all**
+
+ Includes all LLVM libaries.  The default if no components are specified.
+
+
+
+**backend**
+
+ Includes either a native backend or the C backend.
+
+
+
+**engine**
+
+ Includes either a native JIT or the bitcode interpreter.
+
+
+
+
+EXIT STATUS
+-----------
+
+
+If **llvm-config** succeeds, it will exit with 0.  Otherwise, if an error
+occurs, it will exit with a non-zero value.

Added: www-releases/trunk/3.4.1/docs/_sources/CommandGuide/llvm-cov.txt
URL: http://llvm.org/viewvc/llvm-project/www-releases/trunk/3.4.1/docs/_sources/CommandGuide/llvm-cov.txt?rev=208244&view=auto
==============================================================================
--- www-releases/trunk/3.4.1/docs/_sources/CommandGuide/llvm-cov.txt (added)
+++ www-releases/trunk/3.4.1/docs/_sources/CommandGuide/llvm-cov.txt Wed May  7 15:09:32 2014
@@ -0,0 +1,39 @@
+llvm-cov - emit coverage information
+====================================
+
+SYNOPSIS
+--------
+
+:program:`llvm-cov` [-gcno=filename] [-gcda=filename] [dump]
+
+DESCRIPTION
+-----------
+
+The experimental :program:`llvm-cov` tool reads in description file generated
+by compiler and coverage data file generated by instrumented program.  This
+program assumes that the description and data file uses same format as gcov
+files.
+
+OPTIONS
+-------
+
+.. option:: -gcno=filename
+
+ This option selects input description file generated by compiler while
+ instrumenting program.
+
+.. option:: -gcda=filename
+
+ This option selects coverage data file generated by instrumented compiler.
+
+.. option:: -dump
+
+ This options enables output dump that is suitable for a developer to help
+ debug :program:`llvm-cov` itself.
+
+EXIT STATUS
+-----------
+
+:program:`llvm-cov` returns 1 if it cannot read input files.  Otherwise, it
+exits with zero.
+

Added: www-releases/trunk/3.4.1/docs/_sources/CommandGuide/llvm-diff.txt
URL: http://llvm.org/viewvc/llvm-project/www-releases/trunk/3.4.1/docs/_sources/CommandGuide/llvm-diff.txt?rev=208244&view=auto
==============================================================================
--- www-releases/trunk/3.4.1/docs/_sources/CommandGuide/llvm-diff.txt (added)
+++ www-releases/trunk/3.4.1/docs/_sources/CommandGuide/llvm-diff.txt Wed May  7 15:09:32 2014
@@ -0,0 +1,56 @@
+llvm-diff - LLVM structural 'diff'
+==================================
+
+
+SYNOPSIS
+--------
+
+
+**llvm-diff** [*options*] *module 1* *module 2* [*global name ...*]
+
+
+DESCRIPTION
+-----------
+
+
+**llvm-diff** compares the structure of two LLVM modules, primarily
+focusing on differences in function definitions.  Insignificant
+differences, such as changes in the ordering of globals or in the
+names of local values, are ignored.
+
+An input module will be interpreted as an assembly file if its name
+ends in '.ll';  otherwise it will be read in as a bitcode file.
+
+If a list of global names is given, just the values with those names
+are compared; otherwise, all global values are compared, and
+diagnostics are produced for globals which only appear in one module
+or the other.
+
+**llvm-diff** compares two functions by comparing their basic blocks,
+beginning with the entry blocks.  If the terminators seem to match,
+then the corresponding successors are compared; otherwise they are
+ignored.  This algorithm is very sensitive to changes in control flow,
+which tend to stop any downstream changes from being detected.
+
+**llvm-diff** is intended as a debugging tool for writers of LLVM
+passes and frontends.  It does not have a stable output format.
+
+
+EXIT STATUS
+-----------
+
+
+If **llvm-diff** finds no differences between the modules, it will exit
+with 0 and produce no output.  Otherwise it will exit with a non-zero
+value.
+
+
+BUGS
+----
+
+
+Many important differences, like changes in linkage or function
+attributes, are not diagnosed.
+
+Changes in memory behavior (for example, coalescing loads) can cause
+massive detected differences in blocks.

Added: www-releases/trunk/3.4.1/docs/_sources/CommandGuide/llvm-dis.txt
URL: http://llvm.org/viewvc/llvm-project/www-releases/trunk/3.4.1/docs/_sources/CommandGuide/llvm-dis.txt?rev=208244&view=auto
==============================================================================
--- www-releases/trunk/3.4.1/docs/_sources/CommandGuide/llvm-dis.txt (added)
+++ www-releases/trunk/3.4.1/docs/_sources/CommandGuide/llvm-dis.txt Wed May  7 15:09:32 2014
@@ -0,0 +1,69 @@
+llvm-dis - LLVM disassembler
+============================
+
+
+SYNOPSIS
+--------
+
+
+**llvm-dis** [*options*] [*filename*]
+
+
+DESCRIPTION
+-----------
+
+
+The **llvm-dis** command is the LLVM disassembler.  It takes an LLVM
+bitcode file and converts it into human-readable LLVM assembly language.
+
+If filename is omitted or specified as ``-``, **llvm-dis** reads its
+input from standard input.
+
+If the input is being read from standard input, then **llvm-dis**
+will send its output to standard output by default.  Otherwise, the
+output will be written to a file named after the input file, with
+a ``.ll`` suffix added (any existing ``.bc`` suffix will first be
+removed).  You can override the choice of output file using the
+**-o** option.
+
+
+OPTIONS
+-------
+
+
+
+**-f**
+
+ Enable binary output on terminals.  Normally, **llvm-dis** will refuse to
+ write raw bitcode output if the output stream is a terminal. With this option,
+ **llvm-dis** will write raw bitcode regardless of the output device.
+
+
+
+**-help**
+
+ Print a summary of command line options.
+
+
+
+**-o** *filename*
+
+ Specify the output file name.  If *filename* is -, then the output is sent
+ to standard output.
+
+
+
+
+EXIT STATUS
+-----------
+
+
+If **llvm-dis** succeeds, it will exit with 0.  Otherwise, if an error
+occurs, it will exit with a non-zero value.
+
+
+SEE ALSO
+--------
+
+
+llvm-as|llvm-as

Added: www-releases/trunk/3.4.1/docs/_sources/CommandGuide/llvm-extract.txt
URL: http://llvm.org/viewvc/llvm-project/www-releases/trunk/3.4.1/docs/_sources/CommandGuide/llvm-extract.txt?rev=208244&view=auto
==============================================================================
--- www-releases/trunk/3.4.1/docs/_sources/CommandGuide/llvm-extract.txt (added)
+++ www-releases/trunk/3.4.1/docs/_sources/CommandGuide/llvm-extract.txt Wed May  7 15:09:32 2014
@@ -0,0 +1,79 @@
+llvm-extract - extract a function from an LLVM module
+=====================================================
+
+SYNOPSIS
+--------
+
+:program:`llvm-extract` [*options*] **--func** *function-name* [*filename*]
+
+DESCRIPTION
+-----------
+
+The :program:`llvm-extract` command takes the name of a function and extracts
+it from the specified LLVM bitcode file.  It is primarily used as a debugging
+tool to reduce test cases from larger programs that are triggering a bug.
+
+In addition to extracting the bitcode of the specified function,
+:program:`llvm-extract` will also remove unreachable global variables,
+prototypes, and unused types.
+
+The :program:`llvm-extract` command reads its input from standard input if
+filename is omitted or if filename is ``-``.  The output is always written to
+standard output, unless the **-o** option is specified (see below).
+
+OPTIONS
+-------
+
+**-f**
+
+ Enable binary output on terminals.  Normally, :program:`llvm-extract` will
+ refuse to write raw bitcode output if the output stream is a terminal.  With
+ this option, :program:`llvm-extract` will write raw bitcode regardless of the
+ output device.
+
+**--func** *function-name*
+
+ Extract the function named *function-name* from the LLVM bitcode.  May be
+ specified multiple times to extract multiple functions at once.
+
+**--rfunc** *function-regular-expr*
+
+ Extract the function(s) matching *function-regular-expr* from the LLVM bitcode.
+ All functions matching the regular expression will be extracted.  May be
+ specified multiple times.
+
+**--glob** *global-name*
+
+ Extract the global variable named *global-name* from the LLVM bitcode.  May be
+ specified multiple times to extract multiple global variables at once.
+
+**--rglob** *glob-regular-expr*
+
+ Extract the global variable(s) matching *global-regular-expr* from the LLVM
+ bitcode.  All global variables matching the regular expression will be
+ extracted.  May be specified multiple times.
+
+**-help**
+
+ Print a summary of command line options.
+
+**-o** *filename*
+
+ Specify the output filename.  If filename is "-" (the default), then
+ :program:`llvm-extract` sends its output to standard output.
+
+**-S**
+
+ Write output in LLVM intermediate language (instead of bitcode).
+
+EXIT STATUS
+-----------
+
+If :program:`llvm-extract` succeeds, it will exit with 0.  Otherwise, if an error
+occurs, it will exit with a non-zero value.
+
+SEE ALSO
+--------
+
+bugpoint
+

Added: www-releases/trunk/3.4.1/docs/_sources/CommandGuide/llvm-link.txt
URL: http://llvm.org/viewvc/llvm-project/www-releases/trunk/3.4.1/docs/_sources/CommandGuide/llvm-link.txt?rev=208244&view=auto
==============================================================================
--- www-releases/trunk/3.4.1/docs/_sources/CommandGuide/llvm-link.txt (added)
+++ www-releases/trunk/3.4.1/docs/_sources/CommandGuide/llvm-link.txt Wed May  7 15:09:32 2014
@@ -0,0 +1,56 @@
+llvm-link - LLVM bitcode linker
+===============================
+
+SYNOPSIS
+--------
+
+:program:`llvm-link` [*options*] *filename ...*
+
+DESCRIPTION
+-----------
+
+:program:`llvm-link` takes several LLVM bitcode files and links them together
+into a single LLVM bitcode file.  It writes the output file to standard output,
+unless the :option:`-o` option is used to specify a filename.
+
+OPTIONS
+-------
+
+.. option:: -f
+
+ Enable binary output on terminals.  Normally, :program:`llvm-link` will refuse
+ to write raw bitcode output if the output stream is a terminal. With this
+ option, :program:`llvm-link` will write raw bitcode regardless of the output
+ device.
+
+.. option:: -o filename
+
+ Specify the output file name.  If ``filename`` is "``-``", then
+ :program:`llvm-link` will write its output to standard output.
+
+.. option:: -S
+
+ Write output in LLVM intermediate language (instead of bitcode).
+
+.. option:: -d
+
+ If specified, :program:`llvm-link` prints a human-readable version of the
+ output bitcode file to standard error.
+
+.. option:: -help
+
+ Print a summary of command line options.
+
+.. option:: -v
+
+ Verbose mode.  Print information about what :program:`llvm-link` is doing.
+ This typically includes a message for each bitcode file linked in and for each
+ library found.
+
+EXIT STATUS
+-----------
+
+If :program:`llvm-link` succeeds, it will exit with 0.  Otherwise, if an error
+occurs, it will exit with a non-zero value.
+
+

Added: www-releases/trunk/3.4.1/docs/_sources/CommandGuide/llvm-nm.txt
URL: http://llvm.org/viewvc/llvm-project/www-releases/trunk/3.4.1/docs/_sources/CommandGuide/llvm-nm.txt?rev=208244&view=auto
==============================================================================
--- www-releases/trunk/3.4.1/docs/_sources/CommandGuide/llvm-nm.txt (added)
+++ www-releases/trunk/3.4.1/docs/_sources/CommandGuide/llvm-nm.txt Wed May  7 15:09:32 2014
@@ -0,0 +1,146 @@
+llvm-nm - list LLVM bitcode and object file's symbol table
+==========================================================
+
+SYNOPSIS
+--------
+
+:program:`llvm-nm` [*options*] [*filenames...*]
+
+DESCRIPTION
+-----------
+
+The :program:`llvm-nm` utility lists the names of symbols from the LLVM bitcode
+files, object files, or :program:`ar` archives containing them, named on the
+command line.  Each symbol is listed along with some simple information about
+its provenance.  If no file name is specified, or *-* is used as a file name,
+:program:`llvm-nm` will process a file on its standard input stream.
+
+:program:`llvm-nm`'s default output format is the traditional BSD :program:`nm`
+output format.  Each such output record consists of an (optional) 8-digit
+hexadecimal address, followed by a type code character, followed by a name, for
+each symbol.  One record is printed per line; fields are separated by spaces.
+When the address is omitted, it is replaced by 8 spaces.
+
+Type code characters currently supported, and their meanings, are as follows:
+
+U
+
+ Named object is referenced but undefined in this bitcode file
+
+C
+
+ Common (multiple definitions link together into one def)
+
+W
+
+ Weak reference (multiple definitions link together into zero or one definitions)
+
+t
+
+ Local function (text) object
+
+T
+
+ Global function (text) object
+
+d
+
+ Local data object
+
+D
+
+ Global data object
+
+?
+
+ Something unrecognizable
+
+Because LLVM bitcode files typically contain objects that are not considered to
+have addresses until they are linked into an executable image or dynamically
+compiled "just-in-time", :program:`llvm-nm` does not print an address for any
+symbol in an LLVM bitcode file, even symbols which are defined in the bitcode
+file.
+
+OPTIONS
+-------
+
+.. program:: llvm-nm
+
+.. option:: -B    (default)
+
+ Use BSD output format.  Alias for :option:`--format=bsd`.
+
+.. option:: -P
+
+ Use POSIX.2 output format.  Alias for :option:`--format=posix`.
+
+.. option:: --debug-syms, -a
+
+ Show all symbols, even debugger only.
+
+.. option:: --defined-only
+
+ Print only symbols defined in this file (as opposed to
+ symbols which may be referenced by objects in this file, but not
+ defined in this file.)
+
+.. option:: --dynamic, -D
+
+ Display dynamic symbols instead of normal symbols.
+
+.. option:: --extern-only, -g
+
+ Print only symbols whose definitions are external; that is, accessible
+ from other files.
+
+.. option:: --format=format, -f format
+
+ Select an output format; *format* may be *sysv*, *posix*, or *bsd*.  The default
+ is *bsd*.
+
+.. option:: -help
+
+ Print a summary of command-line options and their meanings.
+
+.. option:: --no-sort, -p
+
+ Shows symbols in order encountered.
+
+.. option:: --numeric-sort, -n, -v
+
+ Sort symbols by address.
+
+.. option:: --print-file-name, -A, -o
+
+ Precede each symbol with the file it came from.
+
+.. option:: --print-size, -S
+
+ Show symbol size instead of address.
+
+.. option:: --size-sort
+
+ Sort symbols by size.
+
+.. option:: --undefined-only, -u
+
+ Print only symbols referenced but not defined in this file.
+
+BUGS
+----
+
+ * :program:`llvm-nm` cannot demangle C++ mangled names, like GNU :program:`nm`
+   can.
+
+ * :program:`llvm-nm` does not support the full set of arguments that GNU
+   :program:`nm` does.
+
+EXIT STATUS
+-----------
+
+:program:`llvm-nm` exits with an exit code of zero.
+
+SEE ALSO
+--------
+
+llvm-dis, ar(1), nm(1)

Added: www-releases/trunk/3.4.1/docs/_sources/CommandGuide/llvm-prof.txt
URL: http://llvm.org/viewvc/llvm-project/www-releases/trunk/3.4.1/docs/_sources/CommandGuide/llvm-prof.txt?rev=208244&view=auto
==============================================================================
--- www-releases/trunk/3.4.1/docs/_sources/CommandGuide/llvm-prof.txt (added)
+++ www-releases/trunk/3.4.1/docs/_sources/CommandGuide/llvm-prof.txt Wed May  7 15:09:32 2014
@@ -0,0 +1,63 @@
+llvm-prof - print execution profile of LLVM program
+===================================================
+
+
+SYNOPSIS
+--------
+
+
+**llvm-prof** [*options*] [*bitcode file*] [*llvmprof.out*]
+
+
+DESCRIPTION
+-----------
+
+
+The **llvm-prof** tool reads in an *llvmprof.out* file (which can
+optionally use a specific file with the third program argument), a bitcode file
+for the program, and produces a human readable report, suitable for determining
+where the program hotspots are.
+
+This program is often used in conjunction with the *utils/profile.pl*
+script.  This script automatically instruments a program, runs it with the JIT,
+then runs **llvm-prof** to format a report.  To get more information about
+*utils/profile.pl*, execute it with the **-help** option.
+
+
+OPTIONS
+-------
+
+
+
+**--annotated-llvm** or **-A**
+
+ In addition to the normal report printed, print out the code for the
+ program, annotated with execution frequency information. This can be
+ particularly useful when trying to visualize how frequently basic blocks
+ are executed.  This is most useful with basic block profiling
+ information or better.
+
+
+
+**--print-all-code**
+
+ Using this option enables the **--annotated-llvm** option, but it
+ prints the entire module, instead of just the most commonly executed
+ functions.
+
+
+
+**--time-passes**
+
+ Record the amount of time needed for each pass and print it to standard
+ error.
+
+
+
+
+EXIT STATUS
+-----------
+
+
+**llvm-prof** returns 1 if it cannot load the bitcode file or the profile
+information. Otherwise, it exits with zero.

Added: www-releases/trunk/3.4.1/docs/_sources/CommandGuide/llvm-readobj.txt
URL: http://llvm.org/viewvc/llvm-project/www-releases/trunk/3.4.1/docs/_sources/CommandGuide/llvm-readobj.txt?rev=208244&view=auto
==============================================================================
--- www-releases/trunk/3.4.1/docs/_sources/CommandGuide/llvm-readobj.txt (added)
+++ www-releases/trunk/3.4.1/docs/_sources/CommandGuide/llvm-readobj.txt Wed May  7 15:09:32 2014
@@ -0,0 +1,86 @@
+llvm-readobj - LLVM Object Reader
+=================================
+
+SYNOPSIS
+--------
+
+:program:`llvm-readobj` [*options*] [*input...*]
+
+DESCRIPTION
+-----------
+
+The :program:`llvm-readobj` tool displays low-level format-specific information
+about one or more object files. The tool and its output is primarily designed
+for use in FileCheck-based tests.
+
+OPTIONS
+-------
+
+If ``input`` is "``-``" or omitted, :program:`llvm-readobj` reads from standard
+input. Otherwise, it will read from the specified ``filenames``.
+
+.. option:: -help
+
+ Print a summary of command line options.
+
+.. option:: -version
+
+ Display the version of this program
+
+.. option:: -file-headers, -h
+
+ Display file headers.
+
+.. option:: -sections, -s
+
+ Display all sections.
+
+.. option:: -section-data, -sd
+
+ When used with ``-sections``, display section data for each section shown.
+
+.. option:: -section-relocations, -sr
+
+ When used with ``-sections``, display relocations for each section shown.
+
+.. option:: -section-symbols, -st
+
+ When used with ``-sections``, display symbols for each section shown.
+
+.. option:: -relocations, -r
+
+ Display the relocation entries in the file.
+
+.. option:: -symbols, -t
+
+ Display the symbol table.
+
+.. option:: -dyn-symbols
+
+ Display the dynamic symbol table (only for ELF object files).
+
+.. option:: -unwind, -u
+
+ Display unwind information.
+
+.. option:: -expand-relocs
+
+ When used with ``-relocations``, display each relocation in an expanded
+ multi-line format.
+
+.. option:: -dynamic-table
+
+ Display the ELF .dynamic section table (only for ELF object files).
+
+.. option:: -needed-libs
+
+ Display the needed libraries (only for ELF object files).
+
+.. option:: -program-headers
+
+ Display the ELF program headers (only for ELF object files).
+
+EXIT STATUS
+-----------
+
+:program:`llvm-readobj` returns 0.

Added: www-releases/trunk/3.4.1/docs/_sources/CommandGuide/llvm-stress.txt
URL: http://llvm.org/viewvc/llvm-project/www-releases/trunk/3.4.1/docs/_sources/CommandGuide/llvm-stress.txt?rev=208244&view=auto
==============================================================================
--- www-releases/trunk/3.4.1/docs/_sources/CommandGuide/llvm-stress.txt (added)
+++ www-releases/trunk/3.4.1/docs/_sources/CommandGuide/llvm-stress.txt Wed May  7 15:09:32 2014
@@ -0,0 +1,34 @@
+llvm-stress - generate random .ll files
+=======================================
+
+SYNOPSIS
+--------
+
+:program:`llvm-stress` [-size=filesize] [-seed=initialseed] [-o=outfile]
+
+DESCRIPTION
+-----------
+
+The :program:`llvm-stress` tool is used to generate random ``.ll`` files that
+can be used to test different components of LLVM.
+
+OPTIONS
+-------
+
+.. option:: -o filename
+
+ Specify the output filename.
+
+.. option:: -size size
+
+ Specify the size of the generated ``.ll`` file.
+
+.. option:: -seed seed
+
+ Specify the seed to be used for the randomly generated instructions.
+
+EXIT STATUS
+-----------
+
+:program:`llvm-stress` returns 0.
+

Added: www-releases/trunk/3.4.1/docs/_sources/CommandGuide/llvm-symbolizer.txt
URL: http://llvm.org/viewvc/llvm-project/www-releases/trunk/3.4.1/docs/_sources/CommandGuide/llvm-symbolizer.txt?rev=208244&view=auto
==============================================================================
--- www-releases/trunk/3.4.1/docs/_sources/CommandGuide/llvm-symbolizer.txt (added)
+++ www-releases/trunk/3.4.1/docs/_sources/CommandGuide/llvm-symbolizer.txt Wed May  7 15:09:32 2014
@@ -0,0 +1,81 @@
+llvm-symbolizer - convert addresses into source code locations
+==============================================================
+
+SYNOPSIS
+--------
+
+:program:`llvm-symbolizer` [options]
+
+DESCRIPTION
+-----------
+
+:program:`llvm-symbolizer` reads object file names and addresses from standard
+input and prints corresponding source code locations to standard output. This
+program uses debug info sections and symbol table in the object files.
+
+EXAMPLE
+--------
+
+.. code-block:: console
+
+  $ cat addr.txt
+  a.out 0x4004f4
+  /tmp/b.out 0x400528
+  /tmp/c.so 0x710
+  /tmp/mach_universal_binary:i386 0x1f84
+  /tmp/mach_universal_binary:x86_64 0x100000f24
+  $ llvm-symbolizer < addr.txt
+  main
+  /tmp/a.cc:4
+  
+  f(int, int)
+  /tmp/b.cc:11
+
+  h_inlined_into_g
+  /tmp/header.h:2
+  g_inlined_into_f
+  /tmp/header.h:7
+  f_inlined_into_main
+  /tmp/source.cc:3
+  main
+  /tmp/source.cc:8
+
+  _main
+  /tmp/source_i386.cc:8
+
+  _main
+  /tmp/source_x86_64.cc:8
+
+OPTIONS
+-------
+
+.. option:: -functions
+
+  Print function names as well as source file/line locations. Defaults to true.
+
+.. option:: -use-symbol-table
+
+ Prefer function names stored in symbol table to function names
+ in debug info sections. Defaults to true.
+
+.. option:: -demangle
+
+ Print demangled function names. Defaults to true.
+
+.. option:: -inlining 
+
+ If a source code location is in an inlined function, prints all the
+ inlnied frames. Defaults to true.
+
+.. option:: -default-arch
+
+ If a binary contains object files for multiple architectures (e.g. it is a
+ Mach-O universal binary), symbolize the object file for a given architecture.
+ You can also specify architecture by writing ``binary_name:arch_name`` in the
+ input (see example above). If architecture is not specified in either way,
+ address will not be symbolized. Defaults to empty string.
+
+EXIT STATUS
+-----------
+
+:program:`llvm-symbolizer` returns 0. Other exit codes imply internal program error.

Added: www-releases/trunk/3.4.1/docs/_sources/CommandGuide/opt.txt
URL: http://llvm.org/viewvc/llvm-project/www-releases/trunk/3.4.1/docs/_sources/CommandGuide/opt.txt?rev=208244&view=auto
==============================================================================
--- www-releases/trunk/3.4.1/docs/_sources/CommandGuide/opt.txt (added)
+++ www-releases/trunk/3.4.1/docs/_sources/CommandGuide/opt.txt Wed May  7 15:09:32 2014
@@ -0,0 +1,143 @@
+opt - LLVM optimizer
+====================
+
+SYNOPSIS
+--------
+
+:program:`opt` [*options*] [*filename*]
+
+DESCRIPTION
+-----------
+
+The :program:`opt` command is the modular LLVM optimizer and analyzer.  It
+takes LLVM source files as input, runs the specified optimizations or analyses
+on it, and then outputs the optimized file or the analysis results.  The
+function of :program:`opt` depends on whether the :option:`-analyze` option is
+given.
+
+When :option:`-analyze` is specified, :program:`opt` performs various analyses
+of the input source.  It will usually print the results on standard output, but
+in a few cases, it will print output to standard error or generate a file with
+the analysis output, which is usually done when the output is meant for another
+program.
+
+While :option:`-analyze` is *not* given, :program:`opt` attempts to produce an
+optimized output file.  The optimizations available via :program:`opt` depend
+upon what libraries were linked into it as well as any additional libraries
+that have been loaded with the :option:`-load` option.  Use the :option:`-help`
+option to determine what optimizations you can use.
+
+If ``filename`` is omitted from the command line or is "``-``", :program:`opt`
+reads its input from standard input.  Inputs can be in either the LLVM assembly
+language format (``.ll``) or the LLVM bitcode format (``.bc``).
+
+If an output filename is not specified with the :option:`-o` option,
+:program:`opt` writes its output to the standard output.
+
+OPTIONS
+-------
+
+.. option:: -f
+
+ Enable binary output on terminals.  Normally, :program:`opt` will refuse to
+ write raw bitcode output if the output stream is a terminal.  With this option,
+ :program:`opt` will write raw bitcode regardless of the output device.
+
+.. option:: -help
+
+ Print a summary of command line options.
+
+.. option:: -o <filename>
+
+ Specify the output filename.
+
+.. option:: -S
+
+ Write output in LLVM intermediate language (instead of bitcode).
+
+.. option:: -{passname}
+
+ :program:`opt` provides the ability to run any of LLVM's optimization or
+ analysis passes in any order.  The :option:`-help` option lists all the passes
+ available.  The order in which the options occur on the command line are the
+ order in which they are executed (within pass constraints).
+
+.. option:: -std-compile-opts
+
+ This is short hand for a standard list of *compile time optimization* passes.
+ This is typically used to optimize the output from the llvm-gcc front end.  It
+ might be useful for other front end compilers as well.  To discover the full
+ set of options available, use the following command:
+
+ .. code-block:: sh
+
+     llvm-as < /dev/null | opt -std-compile-opts -disable-output -debug-pass=Arguments
+
+.. option:: -disable-inlining
+
+ This option is only meaningful when :option:`-std-compile-opts` is given.  It
+ simply removes the inlining pass from the standard list.
+
+.. option:: -disable-opt
+
+ This option is only meaningful when :option:`-std-compile-opts` is given.  It
+ disables most, but not all, of the :option:`-std-compile-opts`.  The ones that
+ remain are :option:`-verify`, :option:`-lower-setjmp`, and
+ :option:`-funcresolve`.
+
+.. option:: -strip-debug
+
+ This option causes opt to strip debug information from the module before
+ applying other optimizations.  It is essentially the same as :option:`-strip`
+ but it ensures that stripping of debug information is done first.
+
+.. option:: -verify-each
+
+ This option causes opt to add a verify pass after every pass otherwise
+ specified on the command line (including :option:`-verify`).  This is useful
+ for cases where it is suspected that a pass is creating an invalid module but
+ it is not clear which pass is doing it.  The combination of
+ :option:`-std-compile-opts` and :option:`-verify-each` can quickly track down
+ this kind of problem.
+
+.. option:: -profile-info-file <filename>
+
+ Specify the name of the file loaded by the ``-profile-loader`` option.
+
+.. option:: -stats
+
+ Print statistics.
+
+.. option:: -time-passes
+
+ Record the amount of time needed for each pass and print it to standard
+ error.
+
+.. option:: -debug
+
+ If this is a debug build, this option will enable debug printouts from passes
+ which use the ``DEBUG()`` macro.  See the `LLVM Programmer's Manual
+ <../ProgrammersManual.html>`_, section ``#DEBUG`` for more information.
+
+.. option:: -load=<plugin>
+
+ Load the dynamic object ``plugin``.  This object should register new
+ optimization or analysis passes.  Once loaded, the object will add new command
+ line options to enable various optimizations or analyses.  To see the new
+ complete list of optimizations, use the :option:`-help` and :option:`-load`
+ options together.  For example:
+
+ .. code-block:: sh
+
+     opt -load=plugin.so -help
+
+.. option:: -p
+
+ Print module after each transformation.
+
+EXIT STATUS
+-----------
+
+If :program:`opt` succeeds, it will exit with 0.  Otherwise, if an error
+occurs, it will exit with a non-zero value.
+

Added: www-releases/trunk/3.4.1/docs/_sources/CommandGuide/tblgen.txt
URL: http://llvm.org/viewvc/llvm-project/www-releases/trunk/3.4.1/docs/_sources/CommandGuide/tblgen.txt?rev=208244&view=auto
==============================================================================
--- www-releases/trunk/3.4.1/docs/_sources/CommandGuide/tblgen.txt (added)
+++ www-releases/trunk/3.4.1/docs/_sources/CommandGuide/tblgen.txt Wed May  7 15:09:32 2014
@@ -0,0 +1,131 @@
+tblgen - Target Description To C++ Code Generator
+=================================================
+
+SYNOPSIS
+--------
+
+:program:`tblgen` [*options*] [*filename*]
+
+DESCRIPTION
+-----------
+
+:program:`tblgen` translates from target description (``.td``) files into C++
+code that can be included in the definition of an LLVM target library.  Most
+users of LLVM will not need to use this program.  It is only for assisting with
+writing an LLVM target backend.
+
+The input and output of :program:`tblgen` is beyond the scope of this short
+introduction.  Please see :doc:`../TableGenFundamentals`.
+
+The *filename* argument specifies the name of a Target Description (``.td``)
+file to read as input.
+
+OPTIONS
+-------
+
+.. program:: tblgen
+
+.. option:: -help
+
+ Print a summary of command line options.
+
+.. option:: -o filename
+
+ Specify the output file name.  If ``filename`` is ``-``, then
+ :program:`tblgen` sends its output to standard output.
+
+.. option:: -I directory
+
+ Specify where to find other target description files for inclusion.  The
+ ``directory`` value should be a full or partial path to a directory that
+ contains target description files.
+
+.. option:: -asmparsernum N
+
+ Make -gen-asm-parser emit assembly writer number ``N``.
+
+.. option:: -asmwriternum N
+
+ Make -gen-asm-writer emit assembly writer number ``N``.
+
+.. option:: -class className
+
+ Print the enumeration list for this class.
+
+.. option:: -print-records
+
+ Print all records to standard output (default).
+
+.. option:: -print-enums
+
+ Print enumeration values for a class.
+
+.. option:: -print-sets
+
+ Print expanded sets for testing DAG exprs.
+
+.. option:: -gen-emitter
+
+ Generate machine code emitter.
+
+.. option:: -gen-register-info
+
+ Generate registers and register classes info.
+
+.. option:: -gen-instr-info
+
+ Generate instruction descriptions.
+
+.. option:: -gen-asm-writer
+
+ Generate the assembly writer.
+
+.. option:: -gen-disassembler
+
+ Generate disassembler.
+
+.. option:: -gen-pseudo-lowering
+
+ Generate pseudo instruction lowering.
+
+.. option:: -gen-dag-isel
+
+ Generate a DAG (Directed Acycle Graph) instruction selector.
+
+.. option:: -gen-asm-matcher
+
+ Generate assembly instruction matcher.
+
+.. option:: -gen-dfa-packetizer
+
+ Generate DFA Packetizer for VLIW targets.
+
+.. option:: -gen-fast-isel
+
+ Generate a "fast" instruction selector.
+
+.. option:: -gen-subtarget
+
+ Generate subtarget enumerations.
+
+.. option:: -gen-intrinsic
+
+ Generate intrinsic information.
+
+.. option:: -gen-tgt-intrinsic
+
+ Generate target intrinsic information.
+
+.. option:: -gen-enhanced-disassembly-info
+
+ Generate enhanced disassembly info.
+
+.. option:: -version
+
+ Show the version number of this program.
+
+EXIT STATUS
+-----------
+
+If :program:`tblgen` succeeds, it will exit with 0.  Otherwise, if an error
+occurs, it will exit with a non-zero value.

Added: www-releases/trunk/3.4.1/docs/_sources/CommandLine.txt
URL: http://llvm.org/viewvc/llvm-project/www-releases/trunk/3.4.1/docs/_sources/CommandLine.txt?rev=208244&view=auto
==============================================================================
--- www-releases/trunk/3.4.1/docs/_sources/CommandLine.txt (added)
+++ www-releases/trunk/3.4.1/docs/_sources/CommandLine.txt Wed May  7 15:09:32 2014
@@ -0,0 +1,1743 @@
+==============================
+CommandLine 2.0 Library Manual
+==============================
+
+.. contents::
+   :local:
+
+Introduction
+============
+
+This document describes the CommandLine argument processing library.  It will
+show you how to use it, and what it can do.  The CommandLine library uses a
+declarative approach to specifying the command line options that your program
+takes.  By default, these options declarations implicitly hold the value parsed
+for the option declared (of course this `can be changed`_).
+
+Although there are a **lot** of command line argument parsing libraries out
+there in many different languages, none of them fit well with what I needed.  By
+looking at the features and problems of other libraries, I designed the
+CommandLine library to have the following features:
+
+#. Speed: The CommandLine library is very quick and uses little resources.  The
+   parsing time of the library is directly proportional to the number of
+   arguments parsed, not the number of options recognized.  Additionally,
+   command line argument values are captured transparently into user defined
+   global variables, which can be accessed like any other variable (and with the
+   same performance).
+
+#. Type Safe: As a user of CommandLine, you don't have to worry about
+   remembering the type of arguments that you want (is it an int?  a string? a
+   bool? an enum?) and keep casting it around.  Not only does this help prevent
+   error prone constructs, it also leads to dramatically cleaner source code.
+
+#. No subclasses required: To use CommandLine, you instantiate variables that
+   correspond to the arguments that you would like to capture, you don't
+   subclass a parser.  This means that you don't have to write **any**
+   boilerplate code.
+
+#. Globally accessible: Libraries can specify command line arguments that are
+   automatically enabled in any tool that links to the library.  This is
+   possible because the application doesn't have to keep a list of arguments to
+   pass to the parser.  This also makes supporting `dynamically loaded options`_
+   trivial.
+
+#. Cleaner: CommandLine supports enum and other types directly, meaning that
+   there is less error and more security built into the library.  You don't have
+   to worry about whether your integral command line argument accidentally got
+   assigned a value that is not valid for your enum type.
+
+#. Powerful: The CommandLine library supports many different types of arguments,
+   from simple `boolean flags`_ to `scalars arguments`_ (`strings`_,
+   `integers`_, `enums`_, `doubles`_), to `lists of arguments`_.  This is
+   possible because CommandLine is...
+
+#. Extensible: It is very simple to add a new argument type to CommandLine.
+   Simply specify the parser that you want to use with the command line option
+   when you declare it. `Custom parsers`_ are no problem.
+
+#. Labor Saving: The CommandLine library cuts down on the amount of grunt work
+   that you, the user, have to do.  For example, it automatically provides a
+   ``-help`` option that shows the available command line options for your tool.
+   Additionally, it does most of the basic correctness checking for you.
+
+#. Capable: The CommandLine library can handle lots of different forms of
+   options often found in real programs.  For example, `positional`_ arguments,
+   ``ls`` style `grouping`_ options (to allow processing '``ls -lad``'
+   naturally), ``ld`` style `prefix`_ options (to parse '``-lmalloc
+   -L/usr/lib``'), and interpreter style options.
+
+This document will hopefully let you jump in and start using CommandLine in your
+utility quickly and painlessly.  Additionally it should be a simple reference
+manual to figure out how stuff works.
+
+Quick Start Guide
+=================
+
+This section of the manual runs through a simple CommandLine'ification of a
+basic compiler tool.  This is intended to show you how to jump into using the
+CommandLine library in your own program, and show you some of the cool things it
+can do.
+
+To start out, you need to include the CommandLine header file into your program:
+
+.. code-block:: c++
+
+  #include "llvm/Support/CommandLine.h"
+
+Additionally, you need to add this as the first line of your main program:
+
+.. code-block:: c++
+
+  int main(int argc, char **argv) {
+    cl::ParseCommandLineOptions(argc, argv);
+    ...
+  }
+
+... which actually parses the arguments and fills in the variable declarations.
+
+Now that you are ready to support command line arguments, we need to tell the
+system which ones we want, and what type of arguments they are.  The CommandLine
+library uses a declarative syntax to model command line arguments with the
+global variable declarations that capture the parsed values.  This means that
+for every command line option that you would like to support, there should be a
+global variable declaration to capture the result.  For example, in a compiler,
+we would like to support the Unix-standard '``-o <filename>``' option to specify
+where to put the output.  With the CommandLine library, this is represented like
+this:
+
+.. _scalars arguments:
+.. _here:
+
+.. code-block:: c++
+
+  cl::opt<string> OutputFilename("o", cl::desc("Specify output filename"), cl::value_desc("filename"));
+
+This declares a global variable "``OutputFilename``" that is used to capture the
+result of the "``o``" argument (first parameter).  We specify that this is a
+simple scalar option by using the "``cl::opt``" template (as opposed to the
+"``cl::list``" template), and tell the CommandLine library that the data
+type that we are parsing is a string.
+
+The second and third parameters (which are optional) are used to specify what to
+output for the "``-help``" option.  In this case, we get a line that looks like
+this:
+
+::
+
+  USAGE: compiler [options]
+
+  OPTIONS:
+    -help             - display available options (-help-hidden for more)
+    -o <filename>     - Specify output filename
+
+Because we specified that the command line option should parse using the
+``string`` data type, the variable declared is automatically usable as a real
+string in all contexts that a normal C++ string object may be used.  For
+example:
+
+.. code-block:: c++
+
+  ...
+  std::ofstream Output(OutputFilename.c_str());
+  if (Output.good()) ...
+  ...
+
+There are many different options that you can use to customize the command line
+option handling library, but the above example shows the general interface to
+these options.  The options can be specified in any order, and are specified
+with helper functions like `cl::desc(...)`_, so there are no positional
+dependencies to remember.  The available options are discussed in detail in the
+`Reference Guide`_.
+
+Continuing the example, we would like to have our compiler take an input
+filename as well as an output filename, but we do not want the input filename to
+be specified with a hyphen (ie, not ``-filename.c``).  To support this style of
+argument, the CommandLine library allows for `positional`_ arguments to be
+specified for the program.  These positional arguments are filled with command
+line parameters that are not in option form.  We use this feature like this:
+
+.. code-block:: c++
+
+
+  cl::opt<string> InputFilename(cl::Positional, cl::desc("<input file>"), cl::init("-"));
+
+This declaration indicates that the first positional argument should be treated
+as the input filename.  Here we use the `cl::init`_ option to specify an initial
+value for the command line option, which is used if the option is not specified
+(if you do not specify a `cl::init`_ modifier for an option, then the default
+constructor for the data type is used to initialize the value).  Command line
+options default to being optional, so if we would like to require that the user
+always specify an input filename, we would add the `cl::Required`_ flag, and we
+could eliminate the `cl::init`_ modifier, like this:
+
+.. code-block:: c++
+
+  cl::opt<string> InputFilename(cl::Positional, cl::desc("<input file>"), cl::Required);
+
+Again, the CommandLine library does not require the options to be specified in
+any particular order, so the above declaration is equivalent to:
+
+.. code-block:: c++
+
+  cl::opt<string> InputFilename(cl::Positional, cl::Required, cl::desc("<input file>"));
+
+By simply adding the `cl::Required`_ flag, the CommandLine library will
+automatically issue an error if the argument is not specified, which shifts all
+of the command line option verification code out of your application into the
+library.  This is just one example of how using flags can alter the default
+behaviour of the library, on a per-option basis.  By adding one of the
+declarations above, the ``-help`` option synopsis is now extended to:
+
+::
+
+  USAGE: compiler [options] <input file>
+
+  OPTIONS:
+    -help             - display available options (-help-hidden for more)
+    -o <filename>     - Specify output filename
+
+... indicating that an input filename is expected.
+
+Boolean Arguments
+-----------------
+
+In addition to input and output filenames, we would like the compiler example to
+support three boolean flags: "``-f``" to force writing binary output to a
+terminal, "``--quiet``" to enable quiet mode, and "``-q``" for backwards
+compatibility with some of our users.  We can support these by declaring options
+of boolean type like this:
+
+.. code-block:: c++
+
+  cl::opt<bool> Force ("f", cl::desc("Enable binary output on terminals"));
+  cl::opt<bool> Quiet ("quiet", cl::desc("Don't print informational messages"));
+  cl::opt<bool> Quiet2("q", cl::desc("Don't print informational messages"), cl::Hidden);
+
+This does what you would expect: it declares three boolean variables
+("``Force``", "``Quiet``", and "``Quiet2``") to recognize these options.  Note
+that the "``-q``" option is specified with the "`cl::Hidden`_" flag.  This
+modifier prevents it from being shown by the standard "``-help``" output (note
+that it is still shown in the "``-help-hidden``" output).
+
+The CommandLine library uses a `different parser`_ for different data types.
+For example, in the string case, the argument passed to the option is copied
+literally into the content of the string variable... we obviously cannot do that
+in the boolean case, however, so we must use a smarter parser.  In the case of
+the boolean parser, it allows no options (in which case it assigns the value of
+true to the variable), or it allows the values "``true``" or "``false``" to be
+specified, allowing any of the following inputs:
+
+::
+
+  compiler -f          # No value, 'Force' == true
+  compiler -f=true     # Value specified, 'Force' == true
+  compiler -f=TRUE     # Value specified, 'Force' == true
+  compiler -f=FALSE    # Value specified, 'Force' == false
+
+... you get the idea.  The `bool parser`_ just turns the string values into
+boolean values, and rejects things like '``compiler -f=foo``'.  Similarly, the
+`float`_, `double`_, and `int`_ parsers work like you would expect, using the
+'``strtol``' and '``strtod``' C library calls to parse the string value into the
+specified data type.
+
+With the declarations above, "``compiler -help``" emits this:
+
+::
+
+  USAGE: compiler [options] <input file>
+
+  OPTIONS:
+    -f     - Enable binary output on terminals
+    -o     - Override output filename
+    -quiet - Don't print informational messages
+    -help  - display available options (-help-hidden for more)
+
+and "``compiler -help-hidden``" prints this:
+
+::
+
+  USAGE: compiler [options] <input file>
+
+  OPTIONS:
+    -f     - Enable binary output on terminals
+    -o     - Override output filename
+    -q     - Don't print informational messages
+    -quiet - Don't print informational messages
+    -help  - display available options (-help-hidden for more)
+
+This brief example has shown you how to use the '`cl::opt`_' class to parse
+simple scalar command line arguments.  In addition to simple scalar arguments,
+the CommandLine library also provides primitives to support CommandLine option
+`aliases`_, and `lists`_ of options.
+
+.. _aliases:
+
+Argument Aliases
+----------------
+
+So far, the example works well, except for the fact that we need to check the
+quiet condition like this now:
+
+.. code-block:: c++
+
+  ...
+    if (!Quiet && !Quiet2) printInformationalMessage(...);
+  ...
+
+... which is a real pain!  Instead of defining two values for the same
+condition, we can use the "`cl::alias`_" class to make the "``-q``" option an
+**alias** for the "``-quiet``" option, instead of providing a value itself:
+
+.. code-block:: c++
+
+  cl::opt<bool> Force ("f", cl::desc("Overwrite output files"));
+  cl::opt<bool> Quiet ("quiet", cl::desc("Don't print informational messages"));
+  cl::alias     QuietA("q", cl::desc("Alias for -quiet"), cl::aliasopt(Quiet));
+
+The third line (which is the only one we modified from above) defines a "``-q``"
+alias that updates the "``Quiet``" variable (as specified by the `cl::aliasopt`_
+modifier) whenever it is specified.  Because aliases do not hold state, the only
+thing the program has to query is the ``Quiet`` variable now.  Another nice
+feature of aliases is that they automatically hide themselves from the ``-help``
+output (although, again, they are still visible in the ``-help-hidden output``).
+
+Now the application code can simply use:
+
+.. code-block:: c++
+
+  ...
+    if (!Quiet) printInformationalMessage(...);
+  ...
+
+... which is much nicer!  The "`cl::alias`_" can be used to specify an
+alternative name for any variable type, and has many uses.
+
+.. _unnamed alternatives using the generic parser:
+
+Selecting an alternative from a set of possibilities
+----------------------------------------------------
+
+So far we have seen how the CommandLine library handles builtin types like
+``std::string``, ``bool`` and ``int``, but how does it handle things it doesn't
+know about, like enums or '``int*``'s?
+
+The answer is that it uses a table-driven generic parser (unless you specify
+your own parser, as described in the `Extension Guide`_).  This parser maps
+literal strings to whatever type is required, and requires you to tell it what
+this mapping should be.
+
+Let's say that we would like to add four optimization levels to our optimizer,
+using the standard flags "``-g``", "``-O0``", "``-O1``", and "``-O2``".  We
+could easily implement this with boolean options like above, but there are
+several problems with this strategy:
+
+#. A user could specify more than one of the options at a time, for example,
+   "``compiler -O3 -O2``".  The CommandLine library would not be able to catch
+   this erroneous input for us.
+
+#. We would have to test 4 different variables to see which ones are set.
+
+#. This doesn't map to the numeric levels that we want... so we cannot easily
+   see if some level >= "``-O1``" is enabled.
+
+To cope with these problems, we can use an enum value, and have the CommandLine
+library fill it in with the appropriate level directly, which is used like this:
+
+.. code-block:: c++
+
+  enum OptLevel {
+    g, O1, O2, O3
+  };
+
+  cl::opt<OptLevel> OptimizationLevel(cl::desc("Choose optimization level:"),
+    cl::values(
+      clEnumVal(g , "No optimizations, enable debugging"),
+      clEnumVal(O1, "Enable trivial optimizations"),
+      clEnumVal(O2, "Enable default optimizations"),
+      clEnumVal(O3, "Enable expensive optimizations"),
+     clEnumValEnd));
+
+  ...
+    if (OptimizationLevel >= O2) doPartialRedundancyElimination(...);
+  ...
+
+This declaration defines a variable "``OptimizationLevel``" of the
+"``OptLevel``" enum type.  This variable can be assigned any of the values that
+are listed in the declaration (Note that the declaration list must be terminated
+with the "``clEnumValEnd``" argument!).  The CommandLine library enforces that
+the user can only specify one of the options, and it ensure that only valid enum
+values can be specified.  The "``clEnumVal``" macros ensure that the command
+line arguments matched the enum values.  With this option added, our help output
+now is:
+
+::
+
+  USAGE: compiler [options] <input file>
+
+  OPTIONS:
+    Choose optimization level:
+      -g          - No optimizations, enable debugging
+      -O1         - Enable trivial optimizations
+      -O2         - Enable default optimizations
+      -O3         - Enable expensive optimizations
+    -f            - Enable binary output on terminals
+    -help         - display available options (-help-hidden for more)
+    -o <filename> - Specify output filename
+    -quiet        - Don't print informational messages
+
+In this case, it is sort of awkward that flag names correspond directly to enum
+names, because we probably don't want a enum definition named "``g``" in our
+program.  Because of this, we can alternatively write this example like this:
+
+.. code-block:: c++
+
+  enum OptLevel {
+    Debug, O1, O2, O3
+  };
+
+  cl::opt<OptLevel> OptimizationLevel(cl::desc("Choose optimization level:"),
+    cl::values(
+     clEnumValN(Debug, "g", "No optimizations, enable debugging"),
+      clEnumVal(O1        , "Enable trivial optimizations"),
+      clEnumVal(O2        , "Enable default optimizations"),
+      clEnumVal(O3        , "Enable expensive optimizations"),
+     clEnumValEnd));
+
+  ...
+    if (OptimizationLevel == Debug) outputDebugInfo(...);
+  ...
+
+By using the "``clEnumValN``" macro instead of "``clEnumVal``", we can directly
+specify the name that the flag should get.  In general a direct mapping is nice,
+but sometimes you can't or don't want to preserve the mapping, which is when you
+would use it.
+
+Named Alternatives
+------------------
+
+Another useful argument form is a named alternative style.  We shall use this
+style in our compiler to specify different debug levels that can be used.
+Instead of each debug level being its own switch, we want to support the
+following options, of which only one can be specified at a time:
+"``--debug-level=none``", "``--debug-level=quick``",
+"``--debug-level=detailed``".  To do this, we use the exact same format as our
+optimization level flags, but we also specify an option name.  For this case,
+the code looks like this:
+
+.. code-block:: c++
+
+  enum DebugLev {
+    nodebuginfo, quick, detailed
+  };
+
+  // Enable Debug Options to be specified on the command line
+  cl::opt<DebugLev> DebugLevel("debug_level", cl::desc("Set the debugging level:"),
+    cl::values(
+      clEnumValN(nodebuginfo, "none", "disable debug information"),
+       clEnumVal(quick,               "enable quick debug information"),
+       clEnumVal(detailed,            "enable detailed debug information"),
+      clEnumValEnd));
+
+This definition defines an enumerated command line variable of type "``enum
+DebugLev``", which works exactly the same way as before.  The difference here is
+just the interface exposed to the user of your program and the help output by
+the "``-help``" option:
+
+::
+
+  USAGE: compiler [options] <input file>
+
+  OPTIONS:
+    Choose optimization level:
+      -g          - No optimizations, enable debugging
+      -O1         - Enable trivial optimizations
+      -O2         - Enable default optimizations
+      -O3         - Enable expensive optimizations
+    -debug_level  - Set the debugging level:
+      =none       - disable debug information
+      =quick      - enable quick debug information
+      =detailed   - enable detailed debug information
+    -f            - Enable binary output on terminals
+    -help         - display available options (-help-hidden for more)
+    -o <filename> - Specify output filename
+    -quiet        - Don't print informational messages
+
+Again, the only structural difference between the debug level declaration and
+the optimization level declaration is that the debug level declaration includes
+an option name (``"debug_level"``), which automatically changes how the library
+processes the argument.  The CommandLine library supports both forms so that you
+can choose the form most appropriate for your application.
+
+.. _lists:
+
+Parsing a list of options
+-------------------------
+
+Now that we have the standard run-of-the-mill argument types out of the way,
+lets get a little wild and crazy.  Lets say that we want our optimizer to accept
+a **list** of optimizations to perform, allowing duplicates.  For example, we
+might want to run: "``compiler -dce -constprop -inline -dce -strip``".  In this
+case, the order of the arguments and the number of appearances is very
+important.  This is what the "``cl::list``" template is for.  First, start by
+defining an enum of the optimizations that you would like to perform:
+
+.. code-block:: c++
+
+  enum Opts {
+    // 'inline' is a C++ keyword, so name it 'inlining'
+    dce, constprop, inlining, strip
+  };
+
+Then define your "``cl::list``" variable:
+
+.. code-block:: c++
+
+  cl::list<Opts> OptimizationList(cl::desc("Available Optimizations:"),
+    cl::values(
+      clEnumVal(dce               , "Dead Code Elimination"),
+      clEnumVal(constprop         , "Constant Propagation"),
+     clEnumValN(inlining, "inline", "Procedure Integration"),
+      clEnumVal(strip             , "Strip Symbols"),
+    clEnumValEnd));
+
+This defines a variable that is conceptually of the type
+"``std::vector<enum Opts>``".  Thus, you can access it with standard vector
+methods:
+
+.. code-block:: c++
+
+  for (unsigned i = 0; i != OptimizationList.size(); ++i)
+    switch (OptimizationList[i])
+       ...
+
+... to iterate through the list of options specified.
+
+Note that the "``cl::list``" template is completely general and may be used with
+any data types or other arguments that you can use with the "``cl::opt``"
+template.  One especially useful way to use a list is to capture all of the
+positional arguments together if there may be more than one specified.  In the
+case of a linker, for example, the linker takes several '``.o``' files, and
+needs to capture them into a list.  This is naturally specified as:
+
+.. code-block:: c++
+
+  ...
+  cl::list<std::string> InputFilenames(cl::Positional, cl::desc("<Input files>"), cl::OneOrMore);
+  ...
+
+This variable works just like a "``vector<string>``" object.  As such, accessing
+the list is simple, just like above.  In this example, we used the
+`cl::OneOrMore`_ modifier to inform the CommandLine library that it is an error
+if the user does not specify any ``.o`` files on our command line.  Again, this
+just reduces the amount of checking we have to do.
+
+Collecting options as a set of flags
+------------------------------------
+
+Instead of collecting sets of options in a list, it is also possible to gather
+information for enum values in a **bit vector**.  The representation used by the
+`cl::bits`_ class is an ``unsigned`` integer.  An enum value is represented by a
+0/1 in the enum's ordinal value bit position. 1 indicating that the enum was
+specified, 0 otherwise.  As each specified value is parsed, the resulting enum's
+bit is set in the option's bit vector:
+
+.. code-block:: c++
+
+  bits |= 1 << (unsigned)enum;
+
+Options that are specified multiple times are redundant.  Any instances after
+the first are discarded.
+
+Reworking the above list example, we could replace `cl::list`_ with `cl::bits`_:
+
+.. code-block:: c++
+
+  cl::bits<Opts> OptimizationBits(cl::desc("Available Optimizations:"),
+    cl::values(
+      clEnumVal(dce               , "Dead Code Elimination"),
+      clEnumVal(constprop         , "Constant Propagation"),
+     clEnumValN(inlining, "inline", "Procedure Integration"),
+      clEnumVal(strip             , "Strip Symbols"),
+    clEnumValEnd));
+
+To test to see if ``constprop`` was specified, we can use the ``cl:bits::isSet``
+function:
+
+.. code-block:: c++
+
+  if (OptimizationBits.isSet(constprop)) {
+    ...
+  }
+
+It's also possible to get the raw bit vector using the ``cl::bits::getBits``
+function:
+
+.. code-block:: c++
+
+  unsigned bits = OptimizationBits.getBits();
+
+Finally, if external storage is used, then the location specified must be of
+**type** ``unsigned``. In all other ways a `cl::bits`_ option is equivalent to a
+`cl::list`_ option.
+
+.. _additional extra text:
+
+Adding freeform text to help output
+-----------------------------------
+
+As our program grows and becomes more mature, we may decide to put summary
+information about what it does into the help output.  The help output is styled
+to look similar to a Unix ``man`` page, providing concise information about a
+program.  Unix ``man`` pages, however often have a description about what the
+program does.  To add this to your CommandLine program, simply pass a third
+argument to the `cl::ParseCommandLineOptions`_ call in main.  This additional
+argument is then printed as the overview information for your program, allowing
+you to include any additional information that you want.  For example:
+
+.. code-block:: c++
+
+  int main(int argc, char **argv) {
+    cl::ParseCommandLineOptions(argc, argv, " CommandLine compiler example\n\n"
+                                "  This program blah blah blah...\n");
+    ...
+  }
+
+would yield the help output:
+
+::
+
+  **OVERVIEW: CommandLine compiler example
+
+    This program blah blah blah...**
+
+  USAGE: compiler [options] <input file>
+
+  OPTIONS:
+    ...
+    -help             - display available options (-help-hidden for more)
+    -o <filename>     - Specify output filename
+
+.. _grouping options into categories:
+
+Grouping options into categories
+--------------------------------
+
+If our program has a large number of options it may become difficult for users
+of our tool to navigate the output of ``-help``. To alleviate this problem we
+can put our options into categories. This can be done by declaring option
+categories (`cl::OptionCategory`_ objects) and then placing our options into
+these categories using the `cl::cat`_ option attribute. For example:
+
+.. code-block:: c++
+
+  cl::OptionCategory StageSelectionCat("Stage Selection Options",
+                                       "These control which stages are run.");
+
+  cl::opt<bool> Preprocessor("E",cl::desc("Run preprocessor stage."),
+                             cl::cat(StageSelectionCat));
+
+  cl::opt<bool> NoLink("c",cl::desc("Run all stages except linking."),
+                       cl::cat(StageSelectionCat));
+
+The output of ``-help`` will become categorized if an option category is
+declared. The output looks something like ::
+
+  OVERVIEW: This is a small program to demo the LLVM CommandLine API
+  USAGE: Sample [options]
+
+  OPTIONS:
+
+    General options:
+
+      -help              - Display available options (-help-hidden for more)
+      -help-list         - Display list of available options (-help-list-hidden for more)
+
+
+    Stage Selection Options:
+    These control which stages are run.
+
+      -E                 - Run preprocessor stage.
+      -c                 - Run all stages except linking.
+
+In addition to the behaviour of ``-help`` changing when an option category is
+declared, the command line option ``-help-list`` becomes visible which will
+print the command line options as uncategorized list.
+
+Note that Options that are not explicitly categorized will be placed in the
+``cl::GeneralCategory`` category.
+
+.. _Reference Guide:
+
+Reference Guide
+===============
+
+Now that you know the basics of how to use the CommandLine library, this section
+will give you the detailed information you need to tune how command line options
+work, as well as information on more "advanced" command line option processing
+capabilities.
+
+.. _positional:
+.. _positional argument:
+.. _Positional Arguments:
+.. _Positional arguments section:
+.. _positional options:
+
+Positional Arguments
+--------------------
+
+Positional arguments are those arguments that are not named, and are not
+specified with a hyphen.  Positional arguments should be used when an option is
+specified by its position alone.  For example, the standard Unix ``grep`` tool
+takes a regular expression argument, and an optional filename to search through
+(which defaults to standard input if a filename is not specified).  Using the
+CommandLine library, this would be specified as:
+
+.. code-block:: c++
+
+  cl::opt<string> Regex   (cl::Positional, cl::desc("<regular expression>"), cl::Required);
+  cl::opt<string> Filename(cl::Positional, cl::desc("<input file>"), cl::init("-"));
+
+Given these two option declarations, the ``-help`` output for our grep
+replacement would look like this:
+
+::
+
+  USAGE: spiffygrep [options] <regular expression> <input file>
+
+  OPTIONS:
+    -help - display available options (-help-hidden for more)
+
+... and the resultant program could be used just like the standard ``grep``
+tool.
+
+Positional arguments are sorted by their order of construction.  This means that
+command line options will be ordered according to how they are listed in a .cpp
+file, but will not have an ordering defined if the positional arguments are
+defined in multiple .cpp files.  The fix for this problem is simply to define
+all of your positional arguments in one .cpp file.
+
+Specifying positional options with hyphens
+^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
+
+Sometimes you may want to specify a value to your positional argument that
+starts with a hyphen (for example, searching for '``-foo``' in a file).  At
+first, you will have trouble doing this, because it will try to find an argument
+named '``-foo``', and will fail (and single quotes will not save you).  Note
+that the system ``grep`` has the same problem:
+
+::
+
+  $ spiffygrep '-foo' test.txt
+  Unknown command line argument '-foo'.  Try: spiffygrep -help'
+
+  $ grep '-foo' test.txt
+  grep: illegal option -- f
+  grep: illegal option -- o
+  grep: illegal option -- o
+  Usage: grep -hblcnsviw pattern file . . .
+
+The solution for this problem is the same for both your tool and the system
+version: use the '``--``' marker.  When the user specifies '``--``' on the
+command line, it is telling the program that all options after the '``--``'
+should be treated as positional arguments, not options.  Thus, we can use it
+like this:
+
+::
+
+  $ spiffygrep -- -foo test.txt
+    ...output...
+
+Determining absolute position with getPosition()
+^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
+
+Sometimes an option can affect or modify the meaning of another option. For
+example, consider ``gcc``'s ``-x LANG`` option. This tells ``gcc`` to ignore the
+suffix of subsequent positional arguments and force the file to be interpreted
+as if it contained source code in language ``LANG``. In order to handle this
+properly, you need to know the absolute position of each argument, especially
+those in lists, so their interaction(s) can be applied correctly. This is also
+useful for options like ``-llibname`` which is actually a positional argument
+that starts with a dash.
+
+So, generally, the problem is that you have two ``cl::list`` variables that
+interact in some way. To ensure the correct interaction, you can use the
+``cl::list::getPosition(optnum)`` method. This method returns the absolute
+position (as found on the command line) of the ``optnum`` item in the
+``cl::list``.
+
+The idiom for usage is like this:
+
+.. code-block:: c++
+
+  static cl::list<std::string> Files(cl::Positional, cl::OneOrMore);
+  static cl::list<std::string> Libraries("l", cl::ZeroOrMore);
+
+  int main(int argc, char**argv) {
+    // ...
+    std::vector<std::string>::iterator fileIt = Files.begin();
+    std::vector<std::string>::iterator libIt  = Libraries.begin();
+    unsigned libPos = 0, filePos = 0;
+    while ( 1 ) {
+      if ( libIt != Libraries.end() )
+        libPos = Libraries.getPosition( libIt - Libraries.begin() );
+      else
+        libPos = 0;
+      if ( fileIt != Files.end() )
+        filePos = Files.getPosition( fileIt - Files.begin() );
+      else
+        filePos = 0;
+
+      if ( filePos != 0 && (libPos == 0 || filePos < libPos) ) {
+        // Source File Is next
+        ++fileIt;
+      }
+      else if ( libPos != 0 && (filePos == 0 || libPos < filePos) ) {
+        // Library is next
+        ++libIt;
+      }
+      else
+        break; // we're done with the list
+    }
+  }
+
+Note that, for compatibility reasons, the ``cl::opt`` also supports an
+``unsigned getPosition()`` option that will provide the absolute position of
+that option. You can apply the same approach as above with a ``cl::opt`` and a
+``cl::list`` option as you can with two lists.
+
+.. _interpreter style options:
+.. _cl::ConsumeAfter:
+.. _this section for more information:
+
+The ``cl::ConsumeAfter`` modifier
+^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
+
+The ``cl::ConsumeAfter`` `formatting option`_ is used to construct programs that
+use "interpreter style" option processing.  With this style of option
+processing, all arguments specified after the last positional argument are
+treated as special interpreter arguments that are not interpreted by the command
+line argument.
+
+As a concrete example, lets say we are developing a replacement for the standard
+Unix Bourne shell (``/bin/sh``).  To run ``/bin/sh``, first you specify options
+to the shell itself (like ``-x`` which turns on trace output), then you specify
+the name of the script to run, then you specify arguments to the script.  These
+arguments to the script are parsed by the Bourne shell command line option
+processor, but are not interpreted as options to the shell itself.  Using the
+CommandLine library, we would specify this as:
+
+.. code-block:: c++
+
+  cl::opt<string> Script(cl::Positional, cl::desc("<input script>"), cl::init("-"));
+  cl::list<string>  Argv(cl::ConsumeAfter, cl::desc("<program arguments>..."));
+  cl::opt<bool>    Trace("x", cl::desc("Enable trace output"));
+
+which automatically provides the help output:
+
+::
+
+  USAGE: spiffysh [options] <input script> <program arguments>...
+
+  OPTIONS:
+    -help - display available options (-help-hidden for more)
+    -x    - Enable trace output
+
+At runtime, if we run our new shell replacement as ```spiffysh -x test.sh -a -x
+-y bar``', the ``Trace`` variable will be set to true, the ``Script`` variable
+will be set to "``test.sh``", and the ``Argv`` list will contain ``["-a", "-x",
+"-y", "bar"]``, because they were specified after the last positional argument
+(which is the script name).
+
+There are several limitations to when ``cl::ConsumeAfter`` options can be
+specified.  For example, only one ``cl::ConsumeAfter`` can be specified per
+program, there must be at least one `positional argument`_ specified, there must
+not be any `cl::list`_ positional arguments, and the ``cl::ConsumeAfter`` option
+should be a `cl::list`_ option.
+
+.. _can be changed:
+.. _Internal vs External Storage:
+
+Internal vs External Storage
+----------------------------
+
+By default, all command line options automatically hold the value that they
+parse from the command line.  This is very convenient in the common case,
+especially when combined with the ability to define command line options in the
+files that use them.  This is called the internal storage model.
+
+Sometimes, however, it is nice to separate the command line option processing
+code from the storage of the value parsed.  For example, lets say that we have a
+'``-debug``' option that we would like to use to enable debug information across
+the entire body of our program.  In this case, the boolean value controlling the
+debug code should be globally accessible (in a header file, for example) yet the
+command line option processing code should not be exposed to all of these
+clients (requiring lots of .cpp files to ``#include CommandLine.h``).
+
+To do this, set up your .h file with your option, like this for example:
+
+.. code-block:: c++
+
+  // DebugFlag.h - Get access to the '-debug' command line option
+  //
+
+  // DebugFlag - This boolean is set to true if the '-debug' command line option
+  // is specified.  This should probably not be referenced directly, instead, use
+  // the DEBUG macro below.
+  //
+  extern bool DebugFlag;
+
+  // DEBUG macro - This macro should be used by code to emit debug information.
+  // In the '-debug' option is specified on the command line, and if this is a
+  // debug build, then the code specified as the option to the macro will be
+  // executed.  Otherwise it will not be.
+  #ifdef NDEBUG
+  #define DEBUG(X)
+  #else
+  #define DEBUG(X) do { if (DebugFlag) { X; } } while (0)
+  #endif
+
+This allows clients to blissfully use the ``DEBUG()`` macro, or the
+``DebugFlag`` explicitly if they want to.  Now we just need to be able to set
+the ``DebugFlag`` boolean when the option is set.  To do this, we pass an
+additional argument to our command line argument processor, and we specify where
+to fill in with the `cl::location`_ attribute:
+
+.. code-block:: c++
+
+  bool DebugFlag;                  // the actual value
+  static cl::opt<bool, true>       // The parser
+  Debug("debug", cl::desc("Enable debug output"), cl::Hidden, cl::location(DebugFlag));
+
+In the above example, we specify "``true``" as the second argument to the
+`cl::opt`_ template, indicating that the template should not maintain a copy of
+the value itself.  In addition to this, we specify the `cl::location`_
+attribute, so that ``DebugFlag`` is automatically set.
+
+Option Attributes
+-----------------
+
+This section describes the basic attributes that you can specify on options.
+
+* The option name attribute (which is required for all options, except
+  `positional options`_) specifies what the option name is.  This option is
+  specified in simple double quotes:
+
+  .. code-block:: c++
+
+    cl::opt<bool> Quiet("quiet");
+
+.. _cl::desc(...):
+
+* The **cl::desc** attribute specifies a description for the option to be
+  shown in the ``-help`` output for the program. This attribute supports
+  multi-line descriptions with lines separated by '\n'.
+
+.. _cl::value_desc:
+
+* The **cl::value_desc** attribute specifies a string that can be used to
+  fine tune the ``-help`` output for a command line option.  Look `here`_ for an
+  example.
+
+.. _cl::init:
+
+* The **cl::init** attribute specifies an initial value for a `scalar`_
+  option.  If this attribute is not specified then the command line option value
+  defaults to the value created by the default constructor for the
+  type.
+
+  .. warning::
+
+    If you specify both **cl::init** and **cl::location** for an option, you
+    must specify **cl::location** first, so that when the command-line parser
+    sees **cl::init**, it knows where to put the initial value. (You will get an
+    error at runtime if you don't put them in the right order.)
+
+.. _cl::location:
+
+* The **cl::location** attribute where to store the value for a parsed command
+  line option if using external storage.  See the section on `Internal vs
+  External Storage`_ for more information.
+
+.. _cl::aliasopt:
+
+* The **cl::aliasopt** attribute specifies which option a `cl::alias`_ option is
+  an alias for.
+
+.. _cl::values:
+
+* The **cl::values** attribute specifies the string-to-value mapping to be used
+  by the generic parser.  It takes a **clEnumValEnd terminated** list of
+  (option, value, description) triplets that specify the option name, the value
+  mapped to, and the description shown in the ``-help`` for the tool.  Because
+  the generic parser is used most frequently with enum values, two macros are
+  often useful:
+
+  #. The **clEnumVal** macro is used as a nice simple way to specify a triplet
+     for an enum.  This macro automatically makes the option name be the same as
+     the enum name.  The first option to the macro is the enum, the second is
+     the description for the command line option.
+
+  #. The **clEnumValN** macro is used to specify macro options where the option
+     name doesn't equal the enum name.  For this macro, the first argument is
+     the enum value, the second is the flag name, and the second is the
+     description.
+
+  You will get a compile time error if you try to use cl::values with a parser
+  that does not support it.
+
+.. _cl::multi_val:
+
+* The **cl::multi_val** attribute specifies that this option takes has multiple
+  values (example: ``-sectalign segname sectname sectvalue``). This attribute
+  takes one unsigned argument - the number of values for the option. This
+  attribute is valid only on ``cl::list`` options (and will fail with compile
+  error if you try to use it with other option types). It is allowed to use all
+  of the usual modifiers on multi-valued options (besides
+  ``cl::ValueDisallowed``, obviously).
+
+.. _cl::cat:
+
+* The **cl::cat** attribute specifies the option category that the option
+  belongs to. The category should be a `cl::OptionCategory`_ object.
+
+Option Modifiers
+----------------
+
+Option modifiers are the flags and expressions that you pass into the
+constructors for `cl::opt`_ and `cl::list`_.  These modifiers give you the
+ability to tweak how options are parsed and how ``-help`` output is generated to
+fit your application well.
+
+These options fall into five main categories:
+
+#. Hiding an option from ``-help`` output
+
+#. Controlling the number of occurrences required and allowed
+
+#. Controlling whether or not a value must be specified
+
+#. Controlling other formatting options
+
+#. Miscellaneous option modifiers
+
+It is not possible to specify two options from the same category (you'll get a
+runtime error) to a single option, except for options in the miscellaneous
+category.  The CommandLine library specifies defaults for all of these settings
+that are the most useful in practice and the most common, which mean that you
+usually shouldn't have to worry about these.
+
+Hiding an option from ``-help`` output
+^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
+
+The ``cl::NotHidden``, ``cl::Hidden``, and ``cl::ReallyHidden`` modifiers are
+used to control whether or not an option appears in the ``-help`` and
+``-help-hidden`` output for the compiled program:
+
+.. _cl::NotHidden:
+
+* The **cl::NotHidden** modifier (which is the default for `cl::opt`_ and
+  `cl::list`_ options) indicates the option is to appear in both help
+  listings.
+
+.. _cl::Hidden:
+
+* The **cl::Hidden** modifier (which is the default for `cl::alias`_ options)
+  indicates that the option should not appear in the ``-help`` output, but
+  should appear in the ``-help-hidden`` output.
+
+.. _cl::ReallyHidden:
+
+* The **cl::ReallyHidden** modifier indicates that the option should not appear
+  in any help output.
+
+Controlling the number of occurrences required and allowed
+^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
+
+This group of options is used to control how many time an option is allowed (or
+required) to be specified on the command line of your program.  Specifying a
+value for this setting allows the CommandLine library to do error checking for
+you.
+
+The allowed values for this option group are:
+
+.. _cl::Optional:
+
+* The **cl::Optional** modifier (which is the default for the `cl::opt`_ and
+  `cl::alias`_ classes) indicates that your program will allow either zero or
+  one occurrence of the option to be specified.
+
+.. _cl::ZeroOrMore:
+
+* The **cl::ZeroOrMore** modifier (which is the default for the `cl::list`_
+  class) indicates that your program will allow the option to be specified zero
+  or more times.
+
+.. _cl::Required:
+
+* The **cl::Required** modifier indicates that the specified option must be
+  specified exactly one time.
+
+.. _cl::OneOrMore:
+
+* The **cl::OneOrMore** modifier indicates that the option must be specified at
+  least one time.
+
+* The **cl::ConsumeAfter** modifier is described in the `Positional arguments
+  section`_.
+
+If an option is not specified, then the value of the option is equal to the
+value specified by the `cl::init`_ attribute.  If the ``cl::init`` attribute is
+not specified, the option value is initialized with the default constructor for
+the data type.
+
+If an option is specified multiple times for an option of the `cl::opt`_ class,
+only the last value will be retained.
+
+Controlling whether or not a value must be specified
+^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
+
+This group of options is used to control whether or not the option allows a
+value to be present.  In the case of the CommandLine library, a value is either
+specified with an equal sign (e.g. '``-index-depth=17``') or as a trailing
+string (e.g. '``-o a.out``').
+
+The allowed values for this option group are:
+
+.. _cl::ValueOptional:
+
+* The **cl::ValueOptional** modifier (which is the default for ``bool`` typed
+  options) specifies that it is acceptable to have a value, or not.  A boolean
+  argument can be enabled just by appearing on the command line, or it can have
+  an explicit '``-foo=true``'.  If an option is specified with this mode, it is
+  illegal for the value to be provided without the equal sign.  Therefore
+  '``-foo true``' is illegal.  To get this behavior, you must use
+  the `cl::ValueRequired`_ modifier.
+
+.. _cl::ValueRequired:
+
+* The **cl::ValueRequired** modifier (which is the default for all other types
+  except for `unnamed alternatives using the generic parser`_) specifies that a
+  value must be provided.  This mode informs the command line library that if an
+  option is not provides with an equal sign, that the next argument provided
+  must be the value.  This allows things like '``-o a.out``' to work.
+
+.. _cl::ValueDisallowed:
+
+* The **cl::ValueDisallowed** modifier (which is the default for `unnamed
+  alternatives using the generic parser`_) indicates that it is a runtime error
+  for the user to specify a value.  This can be provided to disallow users from
+  providing options to boolean options (like '``-foo=true``').
+
+In general, the default values for this option group work just like you would
+want them to.  As mentioned above, you can specify the `cl::ValueDisallowed`_
+modifier to a boolean argument to restrict your command line parser.  These
+options are mostly useful when `extending the library`_.
+
+.. _formatting option:
+
+Controlling other formatting options
+^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
+
+The formatting option group is used to specify that the command line option has
+special abilities and is otherwise different from other command line arguments.
+As usual, you can only specify one of these arguments at most.
+
+.. _cl::NormalFormatting:
+
+* The **cl::NormalFormatting** modifier (which is the default all options)
+  specifies that this option is "normal".
+
+.. _cl::Positional:
+
+* The **cl::Positional** modifier specifies that this is a positional argument
+  that does not have a command line option associated with it.  See the
+  `Positional Arguments`_ section for more information.
+
+* The **cl::ConsumeAfter** modifier specifies that this option is used to
+  capture "interpreter style" arguments.  See `this section for more
+  information`_.
+
+.. _prefix:
+.. _cl::Prefix:
+
+* The **cl::Prefix** modifier specifies that this option prefixes its value.
+  With 'Prefix' options, the equal sign does not separate the value from the
+  option name specified. Instead, the value is everything after the prefix,
+  including any equal sign if present. This is useful for processing odd
+  arguments like ``-lmalloc`` and ``-L/usr/lib`` in a linker tool or
+  ``-DNAME=value`` in a compiler tool.  Here, the '``l``', '``D``' and '``L``'
+  options are normal string (or list) options, that have the **cl::Prefix**
+  modifier added to allow the CommandLine library to recognize them.  Note that
+  **cl::Prefix** options must not have the **cl::ValueDisallowed** modifier
+  specified.
+
+.. _grouping:
+.. _cl::Grouping:
+
+* The **cl::Grouping** modifier is used to implement Unix-style tools (like
+  ``ls``) that have lots of single letter arguments, but only require a single
+  dash.  For example, the '``ls -labF``' command actually enables four different
+  options, all of which are single letters.  Note that **cl::Grouping** options
+  cannot have values.
+
+The CommandLine library does not restrict how you use the **cl::Prefix** or
+**cl::Grouping** modifiers, but it is possible to specify ambiguous argument
+settings.  Thus, it is possible to have multiple letter options that are prefix
+or grouping options, and they will still work as designed.
+
+To do this, the CommandLine library uses a greedy algorithm to parse the input
+option into (potentially multiple) prefix and grouping options.  The strategy
+basically looks like this:
+
+::
+
+  parse(string OrigInput) {
+
+  1. string input = OrigInput;
+  2. if (isOption(input)) return getOption(input).parse();  // Normal option
+  3. while (!isOption(input) && !input.empty()) input.pop_back();  // Remove the last letter
+  4. if (input.empty()) return error();  // No matching option
+  5. if (getOption(input).isPrefix())
+       return getOption(input).parse(input);
+  6. while (!input.empty()) {  // Must be grouping options
+       getOption(input).parse();
+       OrigInput.erase(OrigInput.begin(), OrigInput.begin()+input.length());
+       input = OrigInput;
+       while (!isOption(input) && !input.empty()) input.pop_back();
+     }
+  7. if (!OrigInput.empty()) error();
+
+  }
+
+Miscellaneous option modifiers
+^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
+
+The miscellaneous option modifiers are the only flags where you can specify more
+than one flag from the set: they are not mutually exclusive.  These flags
+specify boolean properties that modify the option.
+
+.. _cl::CommaSeparated:
+
+* The **cl::CommaSeparated** modifier indicates that any commas specified for an
+  option's value should be used to split the value up into multiple values for
+  the option.  For example, these two options are equivalent when
+  ``cl::CommaSeparated`` is specified: "``-foo=a -foo=b -foo=c``" and
+  "``-foo=a,b,c``".  This option only makes sense to be used in a case where the
+  option is allowed to accept one or more values (i.e. it is a `cl::list`_
+  option).
+
+.. _cl::PositionalEatsArgs:
+
+* The **cl::PositionalEatsArgs** modifier (which only applies to positional
+  arguments, and only makes sense for lists) indicates that positional argument
+  should consume any strings after it (including strings that start with a "-")
+  up until another recognized positional argument.  For example, if you have two
+  "eating" positional arguments, "``pos1``" and "``pos2``", the string "``-pos1
+  -foo -bar baz -pos2 -bork``" would cause the "``-foo -bar -baz``" strings to
+  be applied to the "``-pos1``" option and the "``-bork``" string to be applied
+  to the "``-pos2``" option.
+
+.. _cl::Sink:
+
+* The **cl::Sink** modifier is used to handle unknown options. If there is at
+  least one option with ``cl::Sink`` modifier specified, the parser passes
+  unrecognized option strings to it as values instead of signaling an error. As
+  with ``cl::CommaSeparated``, this modifier only makes sense with a `cl::list`_
+  option.
+
+So far, these are the only three miscellaneous option modifiers.
+
+.. _response files:
+
+Response files
+^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
+
+Some systems, such as certain variants of Microsoft Windows and some older
+Unices have a relatively low limit on command-line length. It is therefore
+customary to use the so-called 'response files' to circumvent this
+restriction. These files are mentioned on the command-line (using the "@file")
+syntax. The program reads these files and inserts the contents into argv,
+thereby working around the command-line length limits. Response files are
+enabled by an optional fourth argument to `cl::ParseEnvironmentOptions`_ and
+`cl::ParseCommandLineOptions`_.
+
+Top-Level Classes and Functions
+-------------------------------
+
+Despite all of the built-in flexibility, the CommandLine option library really
+only consists of one function `cl::ParseCommandLineOptions`_) and three main
+classes: `cl::opt`_, `cl::list`_, and `cl::alias`_.  This section describes
+these three classes in detail.
+
+.. _cl::getRegisteredOptions:
+
+The ``cl::getRegisteredOptions`` function
+^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
+
+The ``cl::getRegisteredOptions`` function is designed to give a programmer
+access to declared non positional command line options so that how they appear
+in ``-help`` can be modified prior to calling `cl::ParseCommandLineOptions`_.
+Note this method should not be called during any static initialisation because
+it cannot be guaranteed that all options will have been initialised. Hence it
+should be called from ``main``.
+
+This function can be used to gain access to options declared in libraries that
+the tool writter may not have direct access to.
+
+The function retrieves a :ref:`StringMap <dss_stringmap>` that maps the option
+string (e.g. ``-help``) to an ``Option*``.
+
+Here is an example of how the function could be used:
+
+.. code-block:: c++
+
+  using namespace llvm;
+  int main(int argc, char **argv) {
+    cl::OptionCategory AnotherCategory("Some options");
+
+    StringMap<cl::Option*> Map;
+    cl::getRegisteredOptions(Map);
+
+    //Unhide useful option and put it in a different category
+    assert(Map.count("print-all-options") > 0);
+    Map["print-all-options"]->setHiddenFlag(cl::NotHidden);
+    Map["print-all-options"]->setCategory(AnotherCategory);
+
+    //Hide an option we don't want to see
+    assert(Map.count("enable-no-infs-fp-math") > 0);
+    Map["enable-no-infs-fp-math"]->setHiddenFlag(cl::Hidden);
+
+    //Change --version to --show-version
+    assert(Map.count("version") > 0);
+    Map["version"]->setArgStr("show-version");
+
+    //Change --help description
+    assert(Map.count("help") > 0);
+    Map["help"]->setDescription("Shows help");
+
+    cl::ParseCommandLineOptions(argc, argv, "This is a small program to demo the LLVM CommandLine API");
+    ...
+  }
+
+
+.. _cl::ParseCommandLineOptions:
+
+The ``cl::ParseCommandLineOptions`` function
+^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
+
+The ``cl::ParseCommandLineOptions`` function is designed to be called directly
+from ``main``, and is used to fill in the values of all of the command line
+option variables once ``argc`` and ``argv`` are available.
+
+The ``cl::ParseCommandLineOptions`` function requires two parameters (``argc``
+and ``argv``), but may also take an optional third parameter which holds
+`additional extra text`_ to emit when the ``-help`` option is invoked, and a
+fourth boolean parameter that enables `response files`_.
+
+.. _cl::ParseEnvironmentOptions:
+
+The ``cl::ParseEnvironmentOptions`` function
+^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
+
+The ``cl::ParseEnvironmentOptions`` function has mostly the same effects as
+`cl::ParseCommandLineOptions`_, except that it is designed to take values for
+options from an environment variable, for those cases in which reading the
+command line is not convenient or desired. It fills in the values of all the
+command line option variables just like `cl::ParseCommandLineOptions`_ does.
+
+It takes four parameters: the name of the program (since ``argv`` may not be
+available, it can't just look in ``argv[0]``), the name of the environment
+variable to examine, the optional `additional extra text`_ to emit when the
+``-help`` option is invoked, and the boolean switch that controls whether
+`response files`_ should be read.
+
+``cl::ParseEnvironmentOptions`` will break the environment variable's value up
+into words and then process them using `cl::ParseCommandLineOptions`_.
+**Note:** Currently ``cl::ParseEnvironmentOptions`` does not support quoting, so
+an environment variable containing ``-option "foo bar"`` will be parsed as three
+words, ``-option``, ``"foo``, and ``bar"``, which is different from what you
+would get from the shell with the same input.
+
+The ``cl::SetVersionPrinter`` function
+^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
+
+The ``cl::SetVersionPrinter`` function is designed to be called directly from
+``main`` and *before* ``cl::ParseCommandLineOptions``. Its use is optional. It
+simply arranges for a function to be called in response to the ``--version``
+option instead of having the ``CommandLine`` library print out the usual version
+string for LLVM. This is useful for programs that are not part of LLVM but wish
+to use the ``CommandLine`` facilities. Such programs should just define a small
+function that takes no arguments and returns ``void`` and that prints out
+whatever version information is appropriate for the program. Pass the address of
+that function to ``cl::SetVersionPrinter`` to arrange for it to be called when